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1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Description Physical and Biological Environments Socio-Economic Environment Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Concerns Positive Impacts Environmental and Social Costs Compensation and Resettlement Environmental Management and Monitoring Conclusions INTRODUCTION Project Location Objectives of the Project Scope of Work Project Proponents Project Designers/Consultants Construction Contractor Environmental Consultants Project Justification Contact Persons Document Structure APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY Aims and Objectives of the Environmental Impact Assessment Scope of the Study Study Methodology 3.3.1 3.3.2 Inception Procedures Document Resources
3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12
Reporting Census Survey of Affected Persons Resettlement Issues Public Consultation Assessment of Environmental and Social Impacts Consultation with the Proponents Consultation with EPA Field Visits Study Team
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
4. 4.1 4.2 4.3
REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Constitutional Provision Policy Framework Laws and Regulations 4.3.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 4.3.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2000 4.3.3 National Environmental Quality Standards, 2000 4.3.4 Pakistan Penal Code, 1860 4.3.5 Sindh Local Government Ordinance, 2001 4.3.6 Land Acquisition Act, 1894 4.3.7 National Resettlement Policy 4.3.8 Project Implementation and Resettlement of Affected Persons Ordinance, 2001 4.3.9 Sindh Building Control Ordinance, 1979 4.3.10 Sindh Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972 4.3.11 Hazardous Substances Rules, 2003 4.3.12 Hospital Waste Management Rules, 2005 4.3.13 Forest Act, 1927 4.3.14 the Cutting of Trees (Prohibition) Act, 1975 4.3.15 Protection of Trees and Brushwood Act, 1949 4.3.16 Employment of Child Act, 1991 4.3.17 Antiquities Act, 1975 4.3.18 Related Laws 4.3.19 Labour Laws 4.3.20 Environmental Guidelines
4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5. 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6
International Law and Standards Equator Principles Obligations Under International Treaties Institutional Setup DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT Project Overview Alternate Sites Objectives of the Project Project Site Building Regulations Project Components and Activities 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 5.6.5 Land Acquisition Surveying and Site Investigations Design and Engineering Selection of Contractor Site Preparation 34
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
5.6.6 Construction 5.6.7 Finishing and Furnishing 5.6.8 Services 5.6.9 Operation of the Project 5.7 5.8 5.9 Size and Magnitude of the Operation Covered Area and Distribution Construction Phase of the Project 5.9.1 5.9.2 5.9.3 5.9.4 5.9.5 5.9.6 5.9.7 5.10 Contracting Arrangements Vehicles and Equipment Emissions and Discharges Construction Materials Other Supplies Waste Management Contractor Waste Streams
Operational Phase of the Project 5.10.1 Demands on Services 5.10.2 Water Usage 5.10.3 Wastewater Generation 5.10.4 Water Balance 5.10.5 Water Tank 5.10.6 Disposal of Sewerage 5.10.7 Vehicular Traffic 5.10.8 Solid Waste 5.10.9 Wastewater Treatment Plant 5.10.10 Waste Management Team 5.10.11 Waste Management Plan 5.10.12 Incinerator 5.10.13 Waste Management Contractor 5.10.14 Elevators 5.10.15 Generators 5.10.16 Air-conditioning Plant 5.10.17 Vibrations 5.10.18 Noise 5.10.19 Reflection, Heat and Insulation 5.10.20 Services 5.10.21 Access 5.10.22 Storm Water System
Seismic Provisions Safety of the Structure 5.12.1 Geotechnical and Soil Tests 5.12.2 Foundations 5.12.3 Piling 5.12.4 Bearing Capacity
4.3 Flora Fauna Threats to Flora and Fauna 6.2.4. 6.2.1 6.1 188.8.131.52 Socio-Economic Environment 6.4 6.5 6.9 184.108.40.206.4.14 6.13 6.3 Geology and Geomorphology Seismology Land Use Hydrology Water Table Soil Topography Climate Seasons Rainfall Humidity Monthly Mean Temperatures Wind Direction and Speed Visibility Surface and Groundwater Resources Surface and Groundwater Quality Soil Contamination Present State of the Habitat Ambient Air Quality 66 Ecological Resources 6.3.16 5.13 5.2.17 6.19 6.2 Soil Amplification Study Government Approvals.2.2.1 6.3 6.3.15 6.2. MOUs and Leases Ecologically Critical and Sensitive Areas Restoration and Rehabilitation Proposed Schedule for Implementation DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT Environmental Setting Physical Resources 6.2.5 220.127.116.11.11 6.2 6.2 6.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.12.7 Demography Education Public Health Power Sources and Transmission Infrastructure Road Network Transportation Bizcorp Consultants .3.10 6.4 6.2.1 6.2.5 Chemical Contents 5.16 6.17 6.7 6.3 18.104.22.168 5.8 6.15 5.18 6.6 6.2.6 Structural Stability 5. Sukkur 03/2011 22.214.171.124 6.12 6.2 6.4.2.
11 Acquisition of Land Selection of Contractor Environment Friendly Construction Drills Soil Contamination.1 Cultural Values 126.96.36.199.4.12 Irrigation and Drainage 6.1.1 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Impact Assessment Methodology 188.8.131.52 7. Erosion and Degradation Air Quality Deterioration Noise Pollution Surface Water and Groundwater Contamination Construction Labour Safety Hazards.4. Public Health and Nuisances Damage to Infrastructure Increase in Vehicular Traffic Bizcorp Consultants .3 7.5 7.4 Recreation and Archaeological/Historical Treasures 184.108.40.206 7.2 Socio-economic Values 6.1 Siting and Adjacent Land-uses 7.5 7.4 7.4.4 Availability of Existing Infrastructure 7.5 Depletion of Resources 7.1 7.8 Industries 6.3 Local Environment 7.5 7.9 Agriculture 6.2 7.4.2 7.1 220.127.116.11.4 Definition of the Criteria for Determining Significance Prediction of the Magnitude of Potential Impacts Identification of Mitigation Measures Evaluation of the Residual Impact Identification of Monitoring Requirements 90 Environmental Screening of the Proposed Project Environmental Impact Classification Environmental Problems Due To Project Location 7.5.2 7.4. Sukkur 03/2011 18.104.22.168.1. 7.4.7 22.214.171.124.1.6 Environmental Problems Related To Design Environmental Problems Associated with Construction 7.3 Aesthetic Values 6.14 Mineral Development 6.6 7.13 Land Use Planning 6.3 7.8 7.4.4 7.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.11 Forests 126.96.36.199.10 Livestock 6.9 7.4.2 Displacement of Other Site Users 7.6.5 Quality of Life Values 6.
Sukkur 03/2011 7.8.1 188.8.131.52 Energy Conservation Environment-friendly Equipment Solar or Wind Energy Quality Control Minimisation of Liquid and Solid Waste Inflow of Natural Light Circulation of Fresh Air Reduction of Obtrusive Light Plantations and Landscaping 8.12 7.13 7.15 7.8 184.108.40.206.17 7.3 220.127.116.11 7.4 18.104.22.168.4 Green Building 8.8.8 Dewatering and Drainage Erosion Control Temporary Excavations Rollers Blocked Access Gender Issues Site of Archaeological or Historical Significance Health and Occupational Safety Environmental Problems from Project Operations 22.214.171.124.2 8.8.5 8.8.9 7.13 Earthquake Hazard Visual Impact Noise Shadow Increase in Vehicular Traffic Water Consumption Water Conservation Wastewater and Sewerage Surface Drainage Contamination of Soil.5 7.8 7.6.11 7.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.2 126.96.36.199.3.18 7. Public Health and Nuisances Vibrations 117 8.2 8.1 8.14 188.8.131.52 8.3 Cool Roofs Green Roofs Sustainable Building 133 9.1 8.6. 8.16 7.6.1 184.108.40.206.8.6.4 7.10 7.7 7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Security Vehicle Parking Environmental Enhancement Measures 8.7 7.2 7.3 7.12 7.7 8.6. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN Bizcorp Consultants . Surface and Groundwater Obtrusive Light Safety Hazards.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
10. 10.1 10.2 11. 11.1 11.2
TRAFFIC IMPACT ANALYSIS Increases in Vehicular Traffic Traffic and Transportation Management Plan SECURITY AND EVACUATION PLAN Security Emergency and Fire-Fighting Protocols 11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.2.4 Fire-fighting Regimes Fire Drills Evacuation Plan Other Emergencies
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Environmental Testing 12.1.1 12.1.2 12.1.3 12.1.4 12.1.5 Soil Water Quality Traffic Congestion Noise Conclusions of Environmental Monitoring
12.2 12.3 13. 13.1
Environmental Monitoring During Project Execution Post-Project Monitoring SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Public Consultation 13.1.1 Identification of Stakeholders 13.1.2 Consultation Process 153
Social Impact Assessment and Survey 13.2.1 13.2.2 13.2.3 13.2.4 13.2.5 Social Survey Methodology Conclusions of the Social Survey Mitigating Factors Employment Generation Complaint Redressal Mechanism During Construction
13.3 14. 14.1 14.2
Measures for Surrounding Areas COMPENSATION AND RESETTLEMENT Compensation Resettlement Plan
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
Grievance Redressal Mechanism CONCLUSIONS 162 168 171
ENDNOTES REFERENCES APPENDICES (Volume II)
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
This Environmental Impact Assessment has been prepared after consultation and interviews with the proponents and designers of the project, reference to laws, rules and regulations, visits to the project site, consultation with all stakeholders, including neighbours, and samples collected at the project site and from nearby areas. Any error(s) found in the report is the sole responsibility of the consultants preparing this report, Bizcorp Consultants, and not the proponents of the proposed project.
Volume I of this report comprises a total of 169 numbered pages, excluding title pages, contents, disclaimer, sundry tables and chapter separators. Volume II contains twenty-two appendices.
2 PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS The project area is largely rural but being rapidly urbanised on account of proximity to Sukkur Airport and a wide inter-city road. rules and regulations.1. away from the river and irrigation canals. 2. including ground floor and basement.1 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The reviewed project involves construction of a modern surgical hospital at Sukkur on Sukkur Bypass. Groundwater is mostly free of infirmities and is fit for direct human consumption. shall be 248. a hot summer from mid-March to mid-October and sporadic rains in July and August during the monsoon. whereas the remaining cost shall comprise furnishing. equipment. Soil at the proposed site does not contain any physical or chemical hazards that can cause serious concerns for designing and construction of foundation structures.360 square feet. There are some small pockets of brackish water in the district. excluding building systems and external development works. 560.815 square feet. Sukkur District has arid climate with a short mild winter commencing from the middle of October. with completion period of approximately two years. especially for workers and their families. The project shall comply with national and international guidelines pertaining to environmental protection policies as well as applicable laws.7 billion. are constructing a two hundred bed surgical hospital on Sukkur Bypass.777 million. The present project is a part of WWF’s development schemes for the welfare of workers and shall provide stateof-the-art medical facilities. while total covered area of the eight-floor hospital building. The project site open and is available for developmental activities. Area allocated for the project is 217. 1. Brick and mortar component of the cost shall be about Rs. Sukkur. software and consultancy. proponents of the project being reviewed through this Environmental Impact Assessment. River Indus flows mainly to the south of the project site at a 1 Bizcorp Consultants . through a turnkey project. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Workers’ Welfare Fund (WWF). irrigation and construction. 1. Total cost of the project is estimated to be Rs.
most of the environmental concerns shall be limited to the implementation stage and not during operation. mainly apartment blocks. which shall be suitably addressed during project implementation. Due to the nature of the project.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Area immediately towards the east is under cultivation whereas pockets towards the west are being developed for housing. while Daddo Canal is immediately to the north across the road.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS There are several concerns related to the reviewed project. This report highlights environmental. will not only greatly facilitate teaching facilities at that institution but also provide medical facilities at a location on an inter-city highway that can be easily access from nearby towns and cities.4 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT An application along with this Environmental Impact Assessment is to be submitted by the proponents to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency to obtain Environmental Approval for the project in compliance of the relevant law.3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Construction of the hospital next to the future site of Ghulam Mohammad Mahr Medical College. which is hardly a few kilometres away. 1. considering that it has not yet been launched. These are as under: • Population Displacement: The previous site selected in the city would have resulted in displacement of twenty-four 2 Bizcorp Consultants . 1. Sukkur. as well as through air connection from Sukkur Airport. physical and other aspects of the project both during construction and operation and provides measures necessary to mitigate environmental impact on the local environment. Chapter Six of this report discusses physical and socio-economic environment of the project area. It also contains supplementary information deemed necessary under the guidelines prescribed by the government for preparing an environmental study to assist the Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating environmental impact of the project and whether it in any way impinges on the local environment. Sukkur 10/2011 distance of about two kilometres. 1. social.
and smoke emissions and exhausts from vehicles. Construction Impact: Construction impacts of the proposed project could include noise. Mitigation: Measures for wastewater disposal shall include conservation of water. Mitigation: An amount of Rs. Removal of Vegetation: As compared to the previous site. if any. possible soil contamination. sieving of liquid waste. Wastewater Generation and Disposal: A large measure of wastewater shall result from construction activities as also during operation of the project. there is no vegetation which would need to be cleared during site development. which shall provide for planting of two hundred and ten trees and shrubs and at least five hundred floral plants. whereas excess earth.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. solid and liquid waste from construction activities.000 cubic feet of earth during pitting.. which Bizcorp Consultants 3 . Earthworks: A basement is envisaged in the project design. Rejection of that site and relocation at the present site which is open and readily available has thus avoided a social impact of the project. which runs to the west of the project site. construction camp effluent. shall be carried away for disposal in an environmental-friendly manner.632 million have been set aside in the project cost estimates for horticulture at the project site. Sukkur 10/2011 • • • • households presently residing at that site in quarters that were to be demolished to clear the area for project implementation. minimisation of liquid waste.. dust emissions. Mitigation: Most of the excavated earth shall be reused at the site for backfilling. Mitigation: Most of the construction phase environmental impacts shall be mitigated by developing a sound construction management plan. Special attention shall be paid to prevention of dust dispersal through erection of windshields and continuous sprinkling of the ground so as to ensure that there is no dust dispersal. if any. machinery and equipment. building of ornamental mounds etc. aromatic flowers etc. and release into the nearest sewerage drain. 2. Mitigation: Selection of the alternate site has eliminated a negative social impact of the project in total. which shall involve removal of about 315. levelling of surrounding. An Environmental Management Plan for the construction phase is appended to the report and environmentfriendly construction techniques shall alleviate negative externalities of construction activities. vehicular traffic. A small wastewater treatment plant.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
shall become functional prior to project operation, is also embedded in the project design; Solid Waste: Solid waste shall be generated both during project implementation and operation. Construction waste will include removed vegetation, excess construction materials, construction waste and excavated material. Inappropriate disposal, apart from creating pollution of water and soil, also lowers general aesthetic values of the local environment. Disposal of medical waste during operation of the hospital shall be a primary concern. Mitigation: An incinerator shall be installed at the project site for disposal of medical waste. A waste management plan, following best possible environmental practices, has been developed for disposal of all forms of waste. This includes keeping records of solid waste generated at the site, segregation of waste, maximising recycling and reuse, storage and handling of hazardous materials, if any, in accordance with hazard characteristics, disposal at municipal garbage disposal site, and regular waste audits; Hazardous Waste: Hazardous and medical waste shall be a major cause for concern during project operation. Mitigation: All hazardous waste shall be disposed strictly in accordance with the Hazardous Substances Rules, 2003, and Hospital Waste management Rules, 2005. A solid waste management plan has been appended to this report which indicates the volume of construction and operational waste that shall be generated; Socio-economic Impact: Construction of the hospital shall in no way impact adversely on socio-economic conditions prevailing in the project area. Operation of the project shall not have any adverse impact but shall rather enhance availability of medical facilities in the project area. Mitigation: Construction activities shall result in direct generation of employment opportunities for at least two hundred skilled and unskilled workers, and business opportunities for suppliers of construction products. Similarly, operation of the project shall create as many as six hundred and five permanent positions for medical staff and skilled workers. Construction of the state-ofthe-art hospital shall enhance medical facilities for workers in and around the project area; Shadow: Shadows from structures, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas, can have an adverse impact on the local
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
environment, resulting in loss of sunshine and thereby impacting adversely on agricultural productivity and loss of light and energy for structures upon which the shadow falls, resulting in higher heating costs for affected households. Mitigation: Shadows cast by the hospital building shall fall entirely within the compound and there shall thus be no impact from shadows on adjoining properties, and • Visual Intrusion Physical presence of tall buildings can have some impact on aesthetics value of a project area by marring the skyline and can also sometimes obstruct a scenic view. Mitigation: There are no visual resources in the project area that can be lost or impacted upon as a result of construction of the eight-floor building. In any case, there are no private properties close to the project site. Most significantly, the elegant elevation of the proposed structure shall in fact enrich the aesthetics of the project area. Additional steps that shall be taken to prevent, correct or mitigate some of the adverse impacts described briefly heretofore are discussed in detail in subsequent chapters and sections of this report. 1.6 POSITIVE IMPACTS
Despite environmental concerns indicated in the preceding section of this Executive Summary, the project shall have some major positive impacts as described in latter parts of this report and can be summarised as follows: • A two hundred bed modern surgical hospital shall add to the existing pool of medical facilities in and around the area; • The proposed project shall cater especially for exclusive medical facilities for registered industrial and commercial workers and their families; • Equipment to be installed shall correspond to the latest international quality control standards, thereby providing the best medical attention in the project area; • The project cost of Rs. 2.7 billion during construction, and annual operating costs of Rs. 75.76 million on establishment and Rs. 160.35 million on operations and maintenance shall lead to economic opportunities for local businesses;
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Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
• The project under review will result in creation of at least two hundred temporary and six hundred and five permanent employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled workers, and • Almost the entire unskilled labour force, and some skilled workers, shall hail from the project area, thus benefitting the local population directly. 1.7 ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL COSTS
An assessment of the social impact is given in Chapter 13, which shows that there shall not be any environmental and social costs of the project. 1.8 COMPENSATION AND RESETTLEMENT
A Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan associated with a project provides the basis for mitigation of its socio-economic impacts. Legislation covering procedures for land acquisition and compensation thereof is contained in the Land Acquisition Act, 1894, and in the Project Implementation and Resettlement of Affected Persons Ordinance, 2001. There are no compensation and resettlement issues associated with the proposed project. 1.9 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING
While carrying out Environmental Screening of the proposed project, this study also suggests an Environmental Management Plan and an Environmental Monitoring Programme, both of which must be implemented by the proponents in order to ensure that project activities do not impact on the environment beyond reasonable and acceptable limits. Environmental monitoring costs for the proponents are expected to be Rs. 780,000. 1.10 CONCLUSIONS
Based on findings of this environmental study, it has been assessed that there will be insignificant environmental damage to the local land, water and biological resources and that residual impacts of the project shall be
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and not the proponents of the project. traffic congestion. Bizcorp.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. and mitigation measures are adopted as advised. Error(s) found in the report is the sole responsibility of the consultants preparing this report. 7 Bizcorp Consultants . and guidance from environmental agencies. visits to the project site. and noise. rules and regulations. Sukkur 10/2011 within acceptable limits provided it is undertaken as recommended in this study. discussions with all stakeholders including local residents. reference to laws. This study has been conducted after consultation and interviews with the proponents. environmental testing for water and noise. Residual impacts shall only be to the extent of medical waste.
1 PROJECT LOCATION The project is to be implemented within an open site on Sukkur Bypass that has been earmarked for Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College. After completion. 2. Emergency and OPD. Sixty-bed Gynaecology Unit. Government of Sindh. Twenty-bed Intensive Care Unit. which is funded entirely by the proponents. A map of the project area. Thirty-bed General Surgery Unit. Sixty-bed Orthopaedic Unit. Sukkur 10/2011 2. Ten-bed Urology Unit. Thirty-bed General Surgery Unit for female patients.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT There are an estimated two hundred thousand registered and unregistered industrial and commercial workers in and around the project area who face an acute shortage of healthcare facilities. along with a Trauma Centre.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. the project shall be taken over for operation by the Workers’ Welfare Board. while transparencies of the immediate project area are at Appendix “III”. Accordingly. Ten-bed ENT Unit. Appendix “II” are satellite images of the proposed site and project area. a subordinate autonomous wing of Labour Department. especially for workers and their families. Bizcorp Consultants . The proposed hospital shall have the following features: • • • • • • • • • • • • 8 Ten-bed burn unit. Ten-bed Eye Unit. Sukkur. Operation theatres. 2. INTRODUCTION WWF intends to construct a surgical hospital on Sukkur Bypass to provide modern medical facilities. the project aims to provide modern medical facilities for workers and their families. Ten-bed Neurosurgery Unit. is placed at Appendix “I”. Sindh. indicating the project site.
42 billion. Expenditures on furnishing. • Administration. • Patient transport services/ambulances.year period for completion of the project after commencement of construction. and pharmacy. equipment and software shall be about Rs. 1. and waste disposal. the hospital shall have the following main facilities: • Maintenance of complete and permanent medical records. and construction of approach paths. quality assurance. excluding consultancy costs of Rs. • Allied medical facilities. 1. and • Mortuary. pitting of the project site for piling and construction of the basement. regulations and guidelines. blood banks. • Information technology. and • Training and research and development. diagnostic services. laundry and linen. • Food services. Primary development works shall comprise land clearing and levelling. and procurement. • Housekeeping. to prepare and oversee projects for welfare of workers.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.265 million. 2. Sukkur 10/2011 • Biomedical/clinical engineering. 108.4 PROJECT PROPONENTS The proponents of the project are the Workers’ Welfare Fund (WWF). public relations and marketing security. The designers of the project anticipate a minimum two. 2. engineering and maintenance. with a construction component of Rs. On the administrative and support side. a regulatory authority established in 1970 under the Workers’ Welfare Ordinance. finance.70 billion. • Laboratories. human resources.05 billion. 1970. 2. support services for burn cases. Total cost of the reviewed project is an estimated Rs. 9 Bizcorp Consultants .3 SCOPE OF WORK Development works at the site will be undertaken by a construction firm to be selected after a process of prequalification and open competitive bidding in consonance with federal government procedures.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
WWF works under the direct supervision of the Human Resource and Development Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, and has a tripartite decision-making body comprising representatives of workers, employers and government. The sources of income of the WWF are undistributed profits of industrial units under the Companies Profit (Workers Participation) Act, 1968, and a sum equal to two percent of total income of industrial establishments that have minimum income of Rs. 0.5 million in a tax year. Workers’ Welfare Boards have been established in the four provinces, and for specific purposes, which implement various projects approved and funded by the WWF. 2.5 PROJECT DESIGNERS/CONSULTANTS
The project has been designed by Langdon Wilson International (LWI), a multi-discipline international consultancy firm with headquarters in Los Angeles, United States of America. The project designers/consultants were appointed after floating of international tenders and a prequalification process. LWI operates at three locations within the United States of America with international offices in Kuwait, Qatar and the People’s Republic of China. LWI’s Healthcare Planning & Design Division includes specialists in site and land-use planning, facility planning, space programming, architectural design, interior design, medical equipment planning, economics, life-cycle cost analysis, operational analysis, code and life safety analysis, computerised construction cost management and cost-estimation. LWI has completed over one hundred medical projects, involving both new construction and renovation of existing facilities. LWI has since the 1960s rendered consultancy services to healthcare practitioners and designed major hospitals for the largest healthcare organisations in the United States as well as across the world. Major projects undertaken by LWI include King/Drew Medical Centre, Trauma Care and Diagnostic Treatment Centre, Cedars-Sinai North Critical Care Tower, Los Angeles (238 ICU beds), Jaber Al Ahmed Hospital, Kuwait (1,200 bed medical city), New Ahmadi Hospital, Kuwait (200 bed hospital), Cardiac Centre, Kuwait (addition of 150 beds), Al Maidan Maternity Hospital, Kuwait (180 bed hospital), Princess Haya Hospital, Jordan (300 bed acute care hospital), H.H. Khalifa Hospital, High Desert Hospital, Lancaster, Olive View Medical Centre/Emergency Expansion, Sylmar, Medical Planning for Department of Health, Los Angeles County, and planning study for Los Angeles Country harbour/UCLA
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Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
Medical Centre. Additional responsibilities of LWI in connection with the proposed project include preparation of tender documents, advice to the proponents on prequalification of construction contractors, evaluation of bids, providing top supervision during project implementation, procurement of equipment, and engagement of other consultants, if necessary. Further details about the project designers/consultants are available at their website.1 2.6 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTOR
The proponents shall appoint an experienced construction company to implement the project to be selected after a prequalification and tendering process under the supervision of the project consultants. It shall be ensured that the contract is appointed to an entity with established credentials. The contractor shall be bound by the proponents to ensure that the project is executed in an environment-friendly manner and that all environmental and occupational health and safety health laws are observed. 2.7 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSULTANTS
The services of Bizcorp have been engaged by the project consultants to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment of the proposed project. This study has been conducted in line with the regulatory framework and guidelines prescribed by the federal government for conducting environmental studies. The consultants render management and technical services to varied clients in government and industry. This study has been completed using a common template for construction projects, through a qualified team drawn from various disciplines so as to cover all aspects of the assignment. 2.8 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION
A large number of workers have reported at the Civil Hospital, Sukkur, during the last three years for medical attention, and a significant number of these patients required burn treatment and trauma counselling. Mortality rate for such cases was on the high side. Considering the severity of this condition and to prevent loss of life, there is a need to provide modern health facilities in the city and to cater for medical needs
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Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
especially of workers of the project area. Further, in view of the high risk of loss of life, it is imperative to apply international standards of provision of healthcare facilities and consequently reduce the rates of mortality, deformity, disability and post-traumatic stress disorders associated with such cases. 2.9 CONTACT PERSONS
As required under the Guidelines for Preparation and Review of Environmental Report, November 1997, contact persons for the proponents and consultants carrying out this Environmental Impact Assessment are indicated in the following table:
TABLE 1: CONTACT PERSONS Proponents Mr. Afzal Hameed, Director, Workers’ Welfare Fund, F-6 Markaz, Islamabad Telephone: 051-920 4374 Facsimile: 051-922 1323 Website: www.molm.gov.pk Consultant Mr. Anjum-ud-din Ahmed, Bizcorp, House No. 94, Street No. 66, F11/4, Islamabad Telephone: 051-221 2829, Facsimile: 051282 1109 E-mail: email@example.com
2.10 DOCUMENT STRUCTURE
Chapter 1 is an Executive Summary of the report. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the project and justification for the project. Chapter 3 describes the approach and methodology of the environmental study. Chapter 4 discusses legislative and regulatory framework and the institutional setup in the country relevant to environment and environmental assessment. Chapter 5 provides a detailed description of the project and its components. Baseline environmental conditions are presented in Chapter 6, whereas Chapter 7 presents an environmental impact assessment. Chapter 8 discusses environmental management whereas the Solid Waste Management Programme is presented in Chapter 9. Chapter 10 is a Traffic Impact Analysis, Chapter 11 contains the Security and Evacuation Plan and Chapter 12 deals with environmental monitoring. Chapter 13 contains the Social Impact Assessment, Chapter 14 describes issues relating to compensation and resettlement and the conclusions are contained in Chapter 15, followed by twenty-two appendices to the study.
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1997 requires the proponents of every development project in the country to conduct either an Initial Environmental Examination or an Environmental Impact Assessment where the proposed initiative is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect. • Pinpoint and assess all possible impacts of project operation on the natural. and public perceptions. physical. it shall serve as a ready-reckoner for the proponents to manage the project during operation in an environment-friendly manner and abide especially by recommendations of the Environmental Management Plan and implement an Environmental Monitoring Programme. APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY Section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. whether major or minor. reversal or compensation of such probable impacts. wherever possible. construction and project operation in order to formulate an effective Environmental Management Plan and Environmental Monitoring Programme.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Sukkur 10/2011 3. • Suggest measures required to mitigate adverse environmental impact through minimisation. elimination. that might be caused during site development. 3.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT This report serves two purposes. biological and socio-economic environment of the area and evaluate these both qualitatively and quantitatively. 13 Bizcorp Consultants . This Environmental Impact Assessment will be submitted to obtain Environmental Approval for the proposed project. and determine their significance in light of the technical and regulatory concerns. The main aims and objectives of this environmental study are summarised as follows. Secondly. and • Prepare an environmental report presenting recommendations for effective implementation of the project in a manner that it does not compromise the environment existing at the project site. Firstly. it provides necessary information to the Sindh Environmental Protection Agency to determine whether the project poses any environmental threat. • Identification and assessment of all environmental impacts or social sensitivity.
Sukkur 10/2011 In order to achieve the aforesaid objectives. During this environmental study. guidelines for preparation of environmental studies and review of existing regulatory and administrative framework in the country with reference to development projects of similar nature. Assessment of severity takes into account the nature. environmental testing for 14 Bizcorp Consultants . ecological and socio-economic aspects of the project site and surrounding areas. Primary data was collected through field visits and included a description of the present environment in the project area. Mitigation measures are thereafter evolved for impacts that have minor or moderate adverse fallout. expert opinion. Significance of impacts is then juxtaposed with likely effects on the natural eco-system. secondary data. levels of public concern and conformity with legislative or statutory obligations. • Identification of mitigation measures required to minimise negative externalities of the project. timing and duration. extent and location. Impact evaluation prioritises each potential impact and filters out those insignificant or of no consequence. • Collection and scrutiny of data related to physical. and findings of other similar studies.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 1997. • Identification and evaluation of salient environmental impacts from activities to be carried out during construction. Identification of an adverse impact is the cornerstone of the assessment matrix and its efficacy depends largely on professional expertise of the team of specialists carrying out the environmental examination in line with national and international guidelines. The environmental study is a tool to delineate all possible adverse environmental impacts that might result from a project and to measure their severity and the risks associated. and • Preparation of an Environmental Management Plan and proposing a mechanism for environmental monitoring during operation of the project. magnitude. all impacts were identified and examined on the basis of field data. the study has been mainly divided into the following sub-tasks: • Identification of various legal and statuary requirements as set forth by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Characterisation of significant impacts provides the basis to formulate measures for mitigation and monitoring. The significance of all adverse impacts is thereafter evaluated in terms of severity and possibility of occurring. and reversibility of potential impacts.
traffic counts. and • Relevant federal and provincial laws. technologies or activities that avert. • Guidelines for sensitive and critical areas. Finally. physical and other aspects of the project. This environmental study assesses environmental. reverse or compensate for such impacts. social. rules and regulations relating to the project. if any.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY Laws. 15 Bizcorp Consultants . • Guidelines for environmental assessment of construction projects. • Hospital Waste Management Rules. Sukkur 10/2011 noise and water. • Guidelines for preparation and review of environmental reports. the Environmental Management Plan provides for effective implementation of mitigation measures.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. transparencies of the project site. review and approval of environmental studies by the concerned Environmental Protection Agency of the federal or provincial government. and information collected from the project proponents. The Environmental Management Plan features controls to minimise identified impacts. and suggests a monitoring regime in the form of the Environmental Monitoring Programme to study residual impacts. which include practices. It prescribes procedures to be followed and identifies roles and responsibilities during operation. social survey. during operation of the project. 3. regulations and guidelines issued by the federal government and local laws and policies considered while formulating this report include: • Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. 2000. 1997 • Policy and procedures for the filing. and identifies measures necessary to be adopted to mitigate any environmental impact on any segment of the surrounding environment. 2005. • Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. rules. reduce. Impact identification and classification of impacts is a precursor to framing appropriate mitigation measures. including post-project reporting. • Guidelines for public participation. both during construction and operation.
A management framework was also developed in the form of an Environmental Management Plan for implementation of identified mitigation measures. Subsequently. Environmental screening and impact assessment process. Consultation with the project proponents and other stakeholders. to the extent possible. and potential project impacts and mitigation measures. discussed in Chapter Seven. regulations. Documentation was the last step of the study. such as local residents and persons that might be affected by the project as also various government departments. determined potential impacts of the proposed project through examination and testing of environmental. a description of baseline environmental and socio-economic conditions in the project area.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. and related instructions covering environmental reports. The screening process comprised compilation and review of information on the project. Mitigation measures were identified where required to minimise environmental impacts. environmental screening and impact assessment.3 of the “Guidelines for the Preparation and Review of Environmental Report” circulated in November 1997. an overview of environmental legislation relevant to the project. Sukkur 10/2011 This study has specifically followed. this report includes a brief description of the project.1 3. format laid down under Serial 2. was carried out at the same time essentially to establish public concerns about the project and pinpoint any aspect that may have been overlooked during preparatory work. guidelines and standards. and project information gathered by the study team. data collection and compilation. Most of this information was obtained from the project proponents and added to data on relevant legislation. Data gathering centred on collection and compilation of environmental data to develop an environmental baseline of the project area. A scoping matrix of the project under review is placed overleaf. Scoping involved a review of collected information and identification of potential environmental issues. 16 Bizcorp Consultants . which comprised collation of data and preparation of the report along with requisite appendices in proof of the study and its findings.3 STUDY METHODOLOGY Key steps followed while conducting the environmental study were screening. potential impacts were characterised in order to analyse their significance. documentation and consultation. Review of secondary sources as well as primary and field data was also carried out. scoping. Accordingly. socio-economic.
In order to complete the study within the time-span desired by the proponents. human and economic development and heritage aspects.3. each of whom were armed with the resources. • Biological Resources: Flora and fauna.3. The study had to be redone when the initial project site within the premises of Civil Hospital. protected areas or other areas of significant environmental importance. surface and groundwater resources and climate. geology. The reliability of an environmental study depends heavily on authenticity and depth of baseline information. was abandoned and a new site was selected on Sukkur Bypass. infrastructure and land use. Environmental conditions and trends relating to the project area were examined with the help of published secondary data on aspects relating to physical conditions. socioeconomic conditions. particularly in respect of rare or endangered species. These are described briefly as follows: • Physical Conditions: Topography. 3. soils. Sukkur. The study team then collated information on 17 Bizcorp Consultants .2 Document Resources The purpose of discussions with the proponents included collection of documentation and compile background information on the project.1 Inception Procedures The environmental study commenced on February 1. 2011. archaeological or historical significance. a qualified team was assembled to undertake the study and specific assignments were entrusted to each member of the team. tasks. • Human and Economic Development: Settlements. Discussions were also carried out with residents of the project area and in particular people that may be affected by the project to draw information about the area and views and concerns of local inhabitants and businesses about impending project activities. Sukkur 10/2011 3. biological resources. and • Heritage Aspects: Site of cultural.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. which has to be used to assess possible impacts of a project on existing environment. instructions and checklists to carry out nominated tasks within the specified time-period. Findings of the social survey are given in a subsequent section. after notice to proceed was received to commence work.
Thus. laws. Accordingly. whereas much of the contents of an environmental study may be routine for the agency assessing the project. rules and regulations was prepared for inclusion in the report. to plan. they act at the same time as a guidebook for a proponent that might not be aware of any segment of the environmental gamut. 3. design and implement the project proposal in a manner that eliminates or minimises any negative impact on the biophysical and socio-economic environments and maximises the benefits to all parties in the most costeffective manner. An environmental study is meant not only to assist the Environmental Protection Agency in considering award of environmental approval for a particular project but also supposed to make a proponent aware of all environmental aspects of the project and the environmental framework within which the project is examined through an Environmental Impact Assessment. Sukkur 10/2011 official policies. whether positively or adversely. A list of relevant policies. • The Environmental Protection Agency. and • The general public. rules and regulations covering all aspects of the proposed project to ensure that the document is prepared within the regulatory framework.4 REPORTING Environmental reports prepared to assess environmental impact of a project are designed to assist: • The proponents. legislation.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. to decide whether a project proposal should be approved and if so. to understand the project proposal and learn how it can impact on the local community and the environment. The study has been conducted using prescribed methodology and covers the following essential aspects relating to the project under review: • Introduction. including the methodology for preparing the environmental report. 18 Bizcorp Consultants . copies of an Environmental Impact Assessment are placed at prominent places by the concerned Environmental Protection Agency for unrestricted and easy public access. what terms and conditions should be attached to such approval.
Data was collected to cover all such features. Environmental management after the project has been completed and comes into operation is a part of the reporting process and has been appropriately addressed within the Environmental Management Plan added in Chapter 8. since merely grant of approval for a project does not absolve the proponents of future responsibilities. Environmental Monitoring Programme and institutional requirements. • Evaluation of the significance of environmental impacts. • Environmental Management Plan. Sukkur 10/2011 • Legal and administrative framework governing environmental impact of projects. • Description of the project and background environmental conditions in the area. An essential part of the reporting process is enforcement of the Environmental Management Plan and post-project monitoring. The proponents shall take appropriate measures in this behalf after environmental approval is issued by Sindh Environmental Protection Agency. • Screening of potential environmental impacts. and • Conclusions. • Social Impact Assessment and compensation issues. 3. indicating positive and possible adverse impacts of the project. proponents have to abide by restrictions and instructions contained in the environmental approval and keep the environmental agency concerned informed of all measures taken in the context of environmental monitoring.5 CENSUS SURVEY OF AFFECTED PERSONS The project can affect certain existing natural and man-made features within the project area. A proposal for environmental monitoring during project operation has been included as a recommendation for the proponents so that the monitoring mechanism can be activated to comply with mandatory provisions of the law and pre-conditions of environmental approval. The first step towards assessment of the social and financial impact of a project is to identify and list all stakeholders that can be directly or 19 Bizcorp Consultants . During project operation. The proponents shall frame an environmental monitoring system with a charter of duties as also with resources necessary to carry out environmental monitoring and implementation of the proposed Environmental Management Plan. • Recommended mitigation measures.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
6 RESETTLEMENT ISSUES Public consultation provides the basis for an examination of resettlement issues. and the project coordinator. replacement costs of such assets. 3. finally. 3. education and literacy. thirdly. There are no such affected persons in respect of the project under review. magnitude or degree of the impact.7 PUBLIC CONSULTATION The object of identification of stakeholders and the affected persons was basically to pave the ground for public consultation in order to enlist views of all concerned about the project. probability of occurrence of the impact and. nature of businesses and vocations. and social vulnerabilities.8 ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACTS A socio-economic survey was carried out to gather data about the demographic characteristics of the project area. construction and operational stages of the proposed project. planning. secondly. the factors considered included firstly. 3. time. housing patterns. type and value of assets. value of assets. 20 Bizcorp Consultants . While assessing the environmental and social impacts of the project.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. the extent of impact on development work. which are not relevant in respect of the selected site. A census is thereafter carried out to identify the number of such persons or institutions. nature of their interests. importance or the sensitivity of impact. the nature. duration and frequency of the impact. fourthly. Sukkur 10/2011 indirectly affected by the project.9 CONSULTATION WITH THE PROPONENTS Members of the study team. income and expenditure patterns. availability of civic amenities and possible impact of the project under review on all such parameters. 3. met the project consultants and concerned officers of the WWF dealing with the proposed project and held discussions to gather information about WWF and the background.
3 2011 February 14-28 and August 214 24. 2011 7 8 9 August 21. August 21-24.) Researchers (Env.) Researchers (Env. 2011 Bizcorp Consultants Purpose: Interviews with the project consultants at Lahore Interviews with the project proponents at Islamabad Site inspections Collection of primary data and public consultation Meetings with various government departments Photography of the project site Environmental testing for noise Traffic surveys Collection of water sample Visited by: Project Coordinator Environmentalist Study Team/ Researchers (Env. Sukkur 10/2011 3.10 CONSULTATION WITH EPA One of the basic requirements in preparation of an environmental report is that it should be up-to-date and it must keep abreast of all developments.) Researchers (Env.) Researchers Researchers (Env. This is achieved by remaining current on all environmental issues and by maintaining constant contact with the concerned regulatory authorities. TABLE 3: FIELD VISITS Sr. 2011 August 21. including site visits and consultation carried out earlier in the context of the previous site of the project within the premises of Civil Hospital that remain relevant. 2011 February 7-9. 2011 6 August 21. 3. Date(s): February 1-22 and August 191 20. 2011 February 18-26 and August 185 20.) Researchers (Env.) 10 21 Social survey Researchers . 2 2011 August 21-24. No. Accordingly. 2011 September 9 February 24-28. the environmental consultants continue to liaise with environmental agencies so as to ensure that the study incorporates all innovations and developments.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The following table shows dates of field visits to project site.11 FIELD VISITS Field visits are an integral part of an environmental study and must be undertaken to prepare a precise perspective of the project.
This Environmental Impact Assessment has been prepared by the following core team: TABLE 4: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY TEAM Mrs. Talat Fayyaz Mansoor Ms. Ambareen Tariq Khan M/s Mycon Mr. and preparation of the report in consultation with the specialists. comprising students from educational institutions. Ayesha Basharat Mr. Zafar Mirza Mr. collaborated during a comprehensive survey of project site. Mazhar Shamim Ms. along with researchers recruited locally. transportation aspects. social surveys) Mechanical Engineer Researcher (Environmentalist) Researcher (Environmentalist) Land Revenue and Land Acquisition Expert Management Specialist/Report Writer Project Coordinator * Not involved with the environmental study of the new site The team indicated above was complemented by researchers recruited locally. who carried out social surveys and traffic counts and interacted with the local population. Sukkur 10/2011 3. Ameer Ali Burq Mr. conducting surveys and spot analyses. The study team. customs and traditions of the project area. discussions with the proponents and stakeholders. Abdul Qayyum Mr.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 22 Bizcorp Consultants . these researchers had the benefit of knowledge of all social values. Khurram Shehzad Mr. collection and analysis of data.12 STUDY TEAM A team of experience professionals drawn from various disciplines and having relevant experience of conducting environmental and social assessments participates in the preparation of an environmental report. Being locals. Aslam Janjua Mr. Anjum-ud-din Ahmed EIA Specialist /Team Leader Environmentalist* Civil Engineers Electrical Engineer (Power Generation) Economist (traffic. Services of other experts were also availed on need basis and a researcher compiled secondary physical and socio-economic data of the project area.
natural disasters and climate change.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Sukkur 10/2011 4. which states that “No person shall be deprived of life or liberty.1 4. 23 Bizcorp Consultants . the Supreme Court of Pakistan has declared that the right to a clean environment is a fundamental constitutional right to life. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK This chapter discusses the legislative and regulatory framework and institutional set-up existing currently in the country. 4. loss of biodiversity. “Environmental pollution and ecology” is an exclusively provincial subject subsequent to the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution.2 POLICY FRAMEWORK The National Environment Policy of 2005 provides an overarching framework to address environmental issues framed by the country. conserve and restore Pakistan’s environment so as to improve quality of life through sustainable development and its objectives are: • Conservation. • Integration of environmental considerations in policy formulation and planning processes. air pollution. • Capacity building of public-sector agencies and other stakeholders to manage environment more efficiently. restoration and efficient management of environmental resources. relevant to environment and environmental assessment. along with environmental guidelines issued by the federal government. save in accordance with law”. lack of proper waste management. especially fresh water bodies and coastal waters.2 The policy also sets directives to resolve cross-sectoral problems too as well as underlying causes of environmental degradation and meeting international obligations. The policy aims to protect.1 CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION The Constitution of Pakistan vests legislative powers with the National Assembly and the Senate at the federal level and with provincial assemblies in the provinces. deforestation. In conjunction with Article 9 of the Constitution. desertification.
tourism. environmental experts.1 of the National Environment Policy stipulates that the provisions of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. livestock management. Policies relating only to the last two sectors are related to the project under review and that too only marginally. such as WWF. including government organisations. • Sustainable development. These three objectives are to be achieved through greater public participation in development and environmental management. The Strategy was approved at the level of the Federal Cabinet in 1992 as the principal policy document for the country’s environmental management. mineral resources. forest management. water resources. and • Improved efficiency in the use and management of resources. secondary and tertiary sectors. marine and coastal resource management. The three overriding objectives of the National Conservation Strategy are: • Conservation of natural resources. human settlement. 1997. Sukkur 10/2011 • Meeting international obligations effectively in line with national aspirations. rangeland rehabilitation. The policies for these sectors centre on the following: 24 Bizcorp Consultants . relating to environmental impact assessment must be diligently enforced in respect of public sector development projects.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. pollution control and energy. have thus been specifically directed to take suitable measures for preservation of the environment during execution of public sector development projects. industrial development. The underlying goal of this document is that all economic and statutory development in the country should be such that it does not conflict with the interests of conservation of nature. interested individuals.1 The Strategy was put together following a nine-year consultative process with all stakeholders. which are agriculture. fisheries. The Strategy proposes policies in fourteen primary. and • Creating a demand for environment through mass awareness and mobilisation of the community. non-governmental organisations and multilateral and bilateral agencies. development of an environment-economic development nexus and lasting improvements in quality of life. The National Conservation Strategy was the primary policy pledging to balance Pakistan’s economic development with conservation of natural resources. Public sector organisations. communities. Paragraph 5. wildlife.
Pakistan is a signatory to the Convention on Biological Diversity. 1997 is the basic legislative tool empowering the government to frame regulations to protect environment. After an extensive consultative exercise. nutrients and organic matter. and is thereby obligated to develop a national strategy for conservation of biodiversity.2 One of the basic objectives of this legislation is to prevent any activity that can have adverse environmental impact. Accordingly. recovery and reuse of water. a draft Action Plan has been developed. the federal government has constituted a Biodiversity Working Group under the auspices of the Ministry of Environment to develop a Biodiversity Action Plan. pollution and any 25 Bizcorp Consultants . detailed rules. which is designed to complement the National Conservation Strategy and the provincial conservation strategies. rules. prevention and control of pollution. and promotion of sustainable development. and • Energy: Usage of energy resources efficiently and propagation of energy conservation.3 LAWS AND REGULATIONS The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. While a basic policy and legislative framework for protection of the environment and overall biodiversity is now in place.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The draft Action Plan identifies causes of biodiversity loss and suggests a series of proposals to conserve biodiversity in the country. conservation. rehabilitation and improvement of the environment. Sukkur 10/2011 • Pollution Control: Promotion of solid waste disposal and wastewater treatment technologies that provide for solid waste recycling. 4.1 Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Section 2 (1) of the said Act defines adverse environmental impact as impairment of or damage to the environment and includes impairment of or damage to human health and safety or to biodiversity or property. 1997 The Government of Pakistan promulgated the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.1 4. regulations and guidelines required for implementation of policies and enforcement of legislation are still in various stages of formulation and discussion. regulations and standards directly relevant to the proposed project are described hereafter. Laws. 1997 on December 6. 1997.3. to provide for protection.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.3.3. Sukkur 10/2011 adverse environmental effect as may be specified in regulations framed under the Act. 1860 The Pakistan Penal Code. 1860. 4. 2000.2 Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations.4 Pakistan Penal Code. and approval is received from the federal or relevant provincial agency. specify parameters for preservation of the environment. In order to protect proponents and ensure that the review of an environmental study is undertaken within a reasonable time-frame. water bodies and land. 1997. criteria and procedures for preparation of environmental studies for all projects likely to impinge on the environment. Provisions under this 26 Bizcorp Consultants . 4. Requirement for environmental assessment is laid out in Section 12 (1) of the Act. Section 12(4) places a restraint on the concerned Environmental Protection Agency with regard to limitation period for review of environmental reports and states that environmental approval shall deemed to have been accorded one hundred and twenty days after filing of the environmental study. prescribes penalties for violations concerning pollution of air. Wastewater generated at the project site both during the construction and operational phases of the project and emissions and discharges of vehicles and machinery to be used during the construction phase must conform to parameters specified under the NEQS. prescribed by the federal government and adopted by the provincial governments.3. which states that no project involving construction activities or any change in the physical environment can be undertaken unless an Initial Environmental Examination or an Environmental Impact Assessment is conducted. provide the basis.3 National Environmental Quality Standards.1 4. 2000 The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. 2000 The National Environmental Quality Standards2 (NEQS) promulgated under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.
monitor the environment and may also initiate schemes for improving the environment either on their own or through the polluters. All land planning.3.3.5 Sindh Local Government Ordinance The Sindh Local Government Ordinance contains several provisions covering the environment and environmental pollution. building control and construction activities relating to the project vest in the town municipal administration. compensation is provided under specific government policy in the form of alternate land.3. structures and damages to cropped area. The environmental law. Sukkur 10/2011 Act relating to environment are no longer being enforced after promulgation of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. Town/Taluka Municipal Administrations are also authorised under the Ordinance to restrict projects causing pollution to air. 4. provide for rehabilitation and resettlement of displaced population and restoration of livelihoods. 1997.1 The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency thereafter circulated the National Resettlement Policy Implementation Guidelines in October 2002. including orchards and trees. water or land. pollution offences can still be tried under the Pakistan Penal Code. The Act lays down a framework for initiation of proceedings of acquisition of land for public purposes along with a cash compensation mechanism for acquired land. In some cases where large-scale acquisition is involved and a substantial number of households have to be removed from the project area.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 4. 27 Bizcorp Consultants .7 National Resettlement Policy The government issued the National Resettlement Policy for resettlement of population displaced by a development project in 2002. However. requires full restoration of livelihoods of affected population. 1860. lays down the legal basis for any property affected by a project and for compensating affected landowners. as was the case with population affected by the Tarbela and Mangla dams. land use. 1894.6 Land Acquisition Act. 1894 The Land Acquisition Act. The said Act does not. however. on the other hand. 4.
4. 4.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 4.3.9 Sindh Building Control Ordinance. as it no longer involves temporary dislocation of present residents.10 Sindh Wildlife Protection Ordinance. Sukkur 10/2011 4.3. 28 Bizcorp Consultants . and Rules 16-22 of the said Rules.3 Rule 3 states that every hospital shall make arrangements for proper management of waste generated at the premises in accordance with procedures specified in the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 4. 1979 The Sindh Building Control Ordinance. 2003 These Rules were notified in 2003 to streamline procedures for issue of licences to industries that generate hazardous waste and grant of licences to businesses for removal of hazardous waste in an environment-friendly manner.1 The project under review is not affected by the provisions of this law. 1972 This law was enacted in 1972 for regulation of activities relating to protection. 1996. empowers development authorities in the province to frame rules. 1979. 2001 This Ordinance was promulgated in 2001 by the federal government to provide relief to persons or households affected by any project in terms of loss of land or displacement.3. The Rules also identify two hundred and forty-two hazardous substances and synthetic chemicals. Enabling rules were also notified to enforce the Ordinance.8 Project Implementation and Resettlement of Affected Persons Ordinance. 2005 Rules to regulate management of hospital waste were notified in 2005 by the federal government.11 Hazardous Substances Rules.3.3. conservation and management of wildlife in the province.2 The Rules specify procedures to be adopted for disposal of hazardous waste.12 Hospital Waste Management Rules. regulations and bylaws pertaining to approval of town planning schemes and building plans.
The Employment of Child Act. 1927 The Act establishes the powers of the government to designate areas for reserved forests. The said Act defines ‘antiquities’ as ancient products of human activity. 1949 prohibits cutting or chopping of trees and brushwood without prior permission of the relevant department in the provincial government.3. 1975.14 The Cutting of Trees (Prohibition) Act.17 Antiquities Act. and to acquire such areas for prohibiting or restricting public use of the resources or other activities. The said Act was formulated to protect such antiquities from destruction. The said Act restrains activity within sixtyone meters or two hundred feet of a protected antiquity. It prohibits new construction in proximity of a protected antiquity and excavation in any area that may contain articles of archaeological significance. 1991. 1991 Article 11(3) of the Constitution prohibits employment of children below the age of fourteen years in factories.3.3. national monuments etc. 4. unlawful excavation. 4.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. was accordingly enacted to comply with the Constitutional provision as also abide by international conventions and treaties in order to prohibit child labour. mines or any other hazardous employment.16 Employment of Child Act.13 Forest Act. 1975 The Act was enforced in 1975 to place restrictions on cutting of trees in order to restrain unchecked trend of tree felling without replacement. village forests and protected forests.3. trade and export.3. historical site.15 Protection of Trees and Brushwood Act. theft. Sukkur 10/2011 4. 29 Bizcorp Consultants . protects the country’s national and cultural heritage. or site of anthropological or cultural interest. 4. negligence. 1975 The Antiquities Act. 1949 The Protection of Trees and Brushwood Act. 4.
18 Related Laws Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency has advised that a number of laws must be studied while preparing an environmental report in order to ensure that all environmental impacts of a project are appropriately addressed.19 Labour Laws Construction and operational activities during project implementation can affect occupational health of workers. 2000. in accordance with the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Guidelines for conducting environmental assessments.1 Some of these are project-specific. World Bank. Employers are required to abide by labour laws in respect of their own employees and also to ensure that contractors too follow the relevant labour laws and rules relating to safety of the workforce and creating a healthy working environment.3.2 Guidelines for Public Consultation.3. Sukkur 10/2011 4. 30 Bizcorp Consultants . the Asian Development Bank and other credible national and international sources. stipulate that the Initial Environmental Examination or Environmental Impact Assessment must be prepared.3. 4. to the extent practicable. The proponents shall ensure that workers engaged at project site are not exposed to any danger by monitoring the contractor’s work frequently either directly or through the project managers and the project consultants.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. the provincial environmental agencies have also formulated guidelines not covered by the federal government. some are purely provincial laws and others apply only to projects undertaken in the province of origin. the prevalent practise is to follow non-binding guidelines framed by the United Nations Environment Programme.5 In addition.3 Guidelines for Sensitive and Critical Areas. Wherever environmental guidelines are silent on a specific aspect of environmental protection.4 and Sectoral Guidelines for the Construction Sector.20 Environmental Guidelines The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. These include Guidelines for Preparation and Review of Environmental Reports. 4.
which applies a set of performance standards to manage social and environmental impacts of the project that it finances.4 INTERNATIONAL LAW AND STANDARDS The Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment adopted at Stockholm on June 16. • Social and Environmental Assessment and Management System. 1972 is the first formal international recognition of the need for protection of the environment between persons of the same generation and between persons of present and future generations. • Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Natural Resource Management. Safety and Security. In essence.” 4. The Stockholm Declaration formulates 26 principles and the first provides substance for the remaining: “Man has the fundamental right to freedom.5 EQUATOR PRINCIPLES Leading banks and other financial institutions involved globally in project finance abide by the “Equator Principles” as a common framework to assess and manage the environmental and social risks in project financing. The Declaration states that development should be conditioned with due regard to the environment and the international interest. in an environment of equality that permits a life of dignity and well-being. and • Indigenous Peoples and Cultural Heritage. equality and adequate conditions of life. the financing institutions adhering to the Equator Principles have agreed to use the same environmental standards as that of the World Bank Group’s International Finance Corporation (IFC). Sukkur 10/2011 4. • Community Health. and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. • Pollution Prevention and Abatement.1 These performance standards are: • Labour and Working Conditions. The Performance Standard relating to Social and Environmental Assessment and Management System establishes the importance of 31 Bizcorp Consultants . • Land Acquisition and Involuntary Resettlement.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.6 OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL TREATIES Pakistan is a partner to various international treaties and conventions on the conservation of environment and protection of wildlife. The powers of these agencies have been strengthened under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act.1 4. Other bodies include the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. mitigate or compensate for impacts on people and the environment. Sukkur 10/2011 firstly. and an Environmental Tribunal in each province. 1997. risks. While all relevant social and environmental risks and potential impacts should be considered as part of the assessment. has been empowered to receive and review environmental assessment reports of projects. 1997. and to improve conditions where appropriate. the proponents’s management of social and environmental performance throughout the project life-cycle. The federal and provincial agencies were originally established under the defunct Environmental Protection Ordinance. reduce. presided over by the Prime Minister of Pakistan. A copy of major treaties signed by Pakistan is annexed to the Pakistan Environmental protection Act. Where social or environmental impacts are anticipated. integrated assessment to identify the social and environmental impacts. and accord or with-hold environmental approval in respect of 32 Bizcorp Consultants . The remaining Performance Standards establish requirements to avoid. Pakistan is co-signatory to a number of international treaties and conventions and its environmental laws and policies thus must conform to such protocols. 1983. The Environmental Protection Agency. the client is required to manage them through its Social and Environmental Management System consistent with the first Performance Standard. The country is obliged to adhere to commitments specified in these treaties. Government of Pakistan. effective community engagement through disclosure of project-related information and consultation with local communities on matters that directly affect them. 4. these Performance Standards describe potential social and environmental impacts that require particular attention in emerging markets. and thirdly. secondly. and opportunities of projects. an Environmental Protection Agency in each province.7 INSTITUTIONAL SETUP The apex environmental body in the country is the Pakistan Environmental Protection Council.
and a minimum of ninety days in respect of an Environmental Impact Assessment. states that the federal (or provincial) agency shall make every effort to carry out its review of the Initial Environmental Examination within forty-five days of issue of confirmation of completeness of the Initial Environmental Examination report under Regulation 9. Regulation 11 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Initial Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. The federal government has also devised procedures for review of environmental reports.1 33 Bizcorp Consultants . Sukkur 10/2011 the Islamabad Capital Territory or for projects with trans-provincial or national impact.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 2000.
have also been examined as a response to possible environmental concerns. 5. materials. such as location. wastes. fuel. Detailed description of the project is given in subsequent sections of this chapter. the present site is environmentally sound to the extent that location of the project in a fully-developed area of the city would have been inconvenient for people desirous of availing medical facilities for reasons of congestion. thus allowing quick and free access.2 ALTERNATE SITES The proponents considered a number of sites in Sukkur to construct the proposed hospital but had to reject alternatives due to various reasons such as high cost of land. Sukkur 10/2011 5. and eight floors. and shall have a basement floor for vehicle parking and services. electricity. 5. The new site has the following advantages: • It is located on a wide road away from congested parts of the city. congestion. Sukkur. emissions. regulations and bylaws of District Government Sukkur and takes into account the project area’s seismic character.. lack of physical infrastructure. Considering the needs of the proponents. The present site has been made available to the proponents free of cost by the Government of Sindh and is located outside the city on a bypass road to an intercity route. and disposals etc.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The previous site within Civil Hospital. it would have involved temporary displacement and rehabilitation of existing occupants at the former site. components and various phases. 34 Bizcorp Consultants .1 PROJECT OVERVIEW The proposed project is to be implemented close to the proposed site of Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College on Sukkur Bypass. was not entirely suitable even though it had the advantage of quick access for city residents. including ground floor. such as water. Inputs and discharges relevant to different phases of the project. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT This section of the study renders a detailed account of the project and its salient features. Moreover. The hospital building has been designed according to building rules. Sukkur. and non-suitability of the site.
the selected site suffers from the following few disadvantages: • Being outside the city. it will not be easily accessible for residents of the city. 35 Bizcorp Consultants . • The location is such that it will be easy for patients to reach from within the city and will especially be convenient for patients from outlying areas and nearby towns and cities. 5. and • There are no allied medical facilities in the project area that can complement the proposed hospital.000 patients per day. On the other hand. Sukkur 10/2011 • Land for the proposed project has been provided free of cost to the project proponents by the Government of Sindh. • It provides medical coverage in an area where such facilities are currently deficient. • It is close Sukkur Airport and the National Highway.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Provision of international level diagnostic service to about 1. Advantages of the selected site nonetheless far outweigh disadvantages and considering the objectives of the proponents. the new site is closer to the industrial areas. and thus there is quick access for patients to the proposed hospital.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT Main objectives of the proposed project are: • Provision of international standard secondary level healthcare services for especially industrial workers. • Since the proposed project is meant essentially for workers. and • It can serve as an additional teaching hospital for Ghulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College when it is ultimately relocated from the city centre. there was no call for the proponents to look further for alternate site. which has resulted in savings that have been utilised to build additional facilities into the project design. • It is at a distance from the General Bus Stand and Railways Station and thus there is limited quick access for patients to the proposed hospital.
The project site is about a kilometre from the Railway Station. Daddo Canal is to the north of the project site across Sukkur Bypass.5. 9 kilometres from General Bus Stand.1 Land Acquisition The first activity undertaken for the proposed project was procurement of land. • Provision of indoor emergency healthcare services conforming to international standards and international best practices required for acute burn cases of up to twenty patients. 36 Bizcorp Consultants . power etc.815 square feet in the form of a compact rectangular block. 5.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Land towards the west however is being rapidly brought under land development. The proposed site is bounded on all sides except the north by agricultural areas under cultivation. Sukkur 10/2011 • Provision of outdoor emergency healthcare services of consultant-level conforming to international standards and international best practices to at least 500 persons per day. and • Provision of support services conforming to international standards and international best practices in emergencies. 5. HVAC. 5. • Provision of indoor emergency healthcare services conforming to international standards and international best practices to around 200 patients per day. • Provision of indoor emergency healthcare services conforming to international standards and international best practices required for acute cases other than burns of up to twenty patients. including burn in respect of CSSD. River Indus is less than a kilometre south of the project site. 8 kilometres from Sukkur Airport and 6 kilometres from National Highway.5 PROJECT COMPONENTS AND ACTIVITIES Key project components and activities are shown in Table 5 overleaf and described hereafter. which has been provided free of cost by the Government of Sindh.4 PROJECT SITE The project site is to the south-west of the city. Total size of the plot is 217.
There are thus no major social issues arising from dislocation of and compensation for former landowners or displacement of any unauthorised occupant.5. sprinkler system.1 The soil is suitable for construction of the proposed eight floor building and has the requisite bearing capacity. other fire-fighting arrangements.5. airconditioning.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.5. the hospital was designed on the basis of information collected during surveying and site investigations discussed above.815 square feet has thus been made available for implementation of the project. 5. Water samples were taken from the project site to determine its quality. 5. 5. natural gas. oxygen lines. The plot is available for occupation and free of encumbrances. and guidelines delivered to the project designers by the proponents. The proposed project has been planned according to contemporary principles of planning and design criteria of the District Government’s building regulations and by-laws and international best practices. The project area was also tested for noise and a survey was carried out to determine traffic on Sukkur Bypass in order to work out possible impact of project-related traffic on the local environment during operation. elevators. water supply and sewerage. transportation of construction machinery and equipment to the project 37 Bizcorp Consultants . Sukkur 10/2011 An area measuring 217.2 Surveying and Site Investigations A topographical survey was conducted to measure and demarcate the area and gauge ground elevation (Appendix “IV”). type and location of various services such as electricity.3 Design and Engineering During this component of the project. telecommunications.4 Selection of Contractor This component of a project involves selection of the contractor. The design included overall layout of the hospital. The project designers have strictly followed the seismic code to protect the structure against seismic activity. Building plans of the proposed structure are shown at Appendix “V”. Soil investigations collected samples from six boreholes and performing laboratory analyses to determine physical and chemical characteristics of the soil and its bearing capacity.
water supply and sewerage. Finishing and furnishing of the hospital shall be according to international standards.5. air-conditioning plant etc. wastewater treatment plant and incinerator. natural gas. sprinkler system. with major focus on installing hospital equipment and allied facilities.8 Services Services planned for the building include water supply and drainage. Facilities for construction include site office. grading operations and pitting the land. concrete work.5 Site Preparation Site preparation is a major component of a project and involves earthmoving machinery and equipment to make the site suitable for subsequent works. A contractor shall be selected after a pre-qualification and bidding process. and establishment of Project Office. all of which will be established at the site. Typical activities to be conducted during construction in addition to site preparation and excavation for basement shall include installing of pilings. boilers.5. 5. including time spent on land clearing. 5. oxygen lines. 5. and installation of service systems (such as power generators. It is expected that construction shall take approximately twenty-four months. The site will be dug up to a maximum depth of twelve feet to remove earth for the basement and foundations.). masonry work. elevators. The site is plain and has no vegetation cover and thus there will not be any green losses. excavation and piling. Sukkur 10/2011 site. 38 Bizcorp Consultants .5.7 Finishing and Furnishing Finishing and furnishing process shall commence after completion of the structure.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. excavators and dumpers will be used for levelling. graders. telecommunications.6 Construction Construction has not started at the project site. equipment yard.5. Bulldozers. 5. electrification. asphalt work. material yard and allied services.
There shall be RCC retaining walls and contiguous piles all around the constructed area of the basement to provide complete protection to the structure. Government of Sindh. such as mechanical/electrical room. the hospital shall be handed over for operation to the Workers’ Welfare Board. medical gases. has been earmarked as open space to be utilised as passages. Annual recurring cost shall be about Rs. Sukkur 10/2011 5.35 million on operational expenses. and a large kitchen. waiting areas.11 million.815 square feet. 5. The basement. consultation and services. Estimated cost of the proposed project is tentatively estimated at Rs. an area of 134. setback and vehicle parking. 5. or about sixty-two percent of the plot size. shall have covered area of 36. offices. The building shall have admirable elevation with curtain windows and aluminium composite panels on all sides. with roof height of sixteen feet. including the ground floor.360 square feet. There shall be a total of eighty parking bays for cars and three hundred 39 Bizcorp Consultants . Setback in front of the building shall be available for temporary parking and incoming ambulances. 160.9 Operation of the Project Upon completion. 75. Some of the open area would be used as green belt with trees. which is a subordinate organisation of Labour Department.800 square feet.5. In compliance of building regulations.6 SIZE AND MAGNITUDE OF THE OPERATION The proponents are planning construction of an eight floor state-of-the-art hospital.76 on establishment charges and Rs. 236. The building shall rise an approximate one hundred and twenty-eight feet from the present ground level.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The building shall be erected with additional concrete for structural support and one hundred and fortyfour RCC columns rising to the uppermost levels.600 square feet within the basement shall be available for parking of vehicles of hospital staff. which includes Rs. with total covered area of 248. storage. on a plot measuring 217.7 billion. granite and aluminium cladding that will enrich aesthetic values of the area.7 COVERED AREA AND DISTRIBUTION Distribution of space on each floor is indicated in Table 6 overleaf. plants and flowerbeds. About 12. 2. staff lockers.291 square feet and shall be used for vehicle parking. The hospital shall provide medical facilities especially for workers and their families.
The rooftop shall be used for cooling towers and mechanical purposes. The basement shall be well lit with fluorescent markings on the floor demarcating direction of traffic and exits. ranging from contracting arrangements to environmental issues. Masonry works. 40 Bizcorp Consultants . including installing of medical equipment. Exhaust from the parking floor would be effectively expunged through mechanical ventilators to facilitate proper circulation of fresh air. Installation of service systems. The basement shall have a ramp providing easy access to the ground level. Site preparation. Excavation for basement. The basement shall also have appropriate drains (12” x 12” deep rain water drain with steel grating) to carry water in case of flooding and pumps to drain out water if there is excessive flooding. sufficient room for positioning and reversing of vehicles. Concrete works. The basement shall have double driveways with a width of just under twenty feet. wastewater treatment plant.. along with road blocker and scanner. and rubber padding along the walls for fender protection. elevators. and minimum clearance shall be ten feet. Asphalt works. all of which will be clearly identifiable. Entrance into the basement shall be from rear side of the floor. The width of the ramp will be twelve feet with a gradient of 1:8 to 1:10. Installation of pilings. The parking floor will be equipped with fire hydrants and fire hose reels. 5. Main activities during construction phase shall be: • • • • • • • • • Selection of a construction contractor. smoke alarms. incinerator etc.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. such as air-conditioning plant. and • Finishing. Sukkur 10/2011 and twenty spaces for motor-cycles. fire alarms and emergency telephones. Excavations for pilings.8 CONSTRUCTION PHASE OF THE PROJECT This section of the study describes different aspects of the construction phase. The front gate on Sukkur Bypass shall be twenty-four feet wide and shall have a guardroom. There shall be clearly marked bays. There shall be a pole barrier at the main gate.
overseers. Mitigation: The contractor will be directed to employ maximum number of casual labour from the project area to generate employment opportunities for local labour and provide them with training and experience.8. The exact number of vehicles and equipment in use at the site at any given time will vary according to work schedules and work momentum. All efforts will be made to ensure that the selected contractor has an established track record and would be able to complete the project within the stipulated time-frame of twenty-four months and has sufficient experience to ensure that there is no adverse impact on the environment.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. A maximum of two hundred workers would be required at the site at peak of construction. electricians.8. curtain wall glass fixers. carpenters.2 Vehicles and Equipment The contractor will be directed by the proponents to take all possible measures to see that construction does not impinge on the environment. steel fitters. 5. Arrival timing of such equipment and construction materials will not be concurrent and shall take place when there is minimal disturbance for local population. Skilled workers shall include engineers. Since workers to be engaged shall be mostly local. During early phase of piling works. machinery and equipment to maintain emissions and noise at lowest possible levels. 41 Bizcorp Consultants . scaffolders. masons. Unskilled workers shall comprise helpers of the skilled workers. two or three truckloads of different types of construction material shall be delivered to project site per day.1 Contracting Arrangements The construction contractor will be appointed by the proponents on recommendation of the project consultants after a pre-qualification and bidding process. aluminium doors and windows fixers. Mitigation: Construction vehicles and equipment at the project site during excavation and piling works and the main construction phase are indicated at Table 7 overleaf. aluminium cladding fixers. The contractor will be advised to use new vehicles. Sukkur 10/2011 5. plumbers. a construction camp will not be necessary at the project site. All equipment will be transported to the site from main roads and shall not pass through the city or heavily built-up residential areas. increasing to about five to eight at the height of construction activity. HVAC personnel and supervisors.
asphalt. if available in the market. meeting technical requirements and quality. cladding. The geotechnical investigation has recommended that fine aggregate for concrete work may be obtained from local sources meeting ASTM gradation requirements. CO. Accordingly. will be procured from the nearest quarry licensed by the government.8.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.3 Emissions and Discharges Construction equipment and vehicles can discharge exhaust emissions containing CO 2 .8. which shall be transported to the project site in bulk quantities on need-basis. piping materials.4 Construction Materials Construction materials will include cement. All construction materials to be procured for the project shall be subject to testing and prior approval by the Project Consultants in order to maintain quality standards. which shall mean less transportation costs as well as lesser emissions from trucks carrying such materials. Materials such as cement. if available in the market and if cost-effective. and dust from construction activities and movement of vehicles. emissions shall be within tolerable limits. particulate matter and generate dust from earthwork. SO 2 . quarry materials. The proponents shall monitor pollution levels regularly and instruct the contractor to cover the perimeter with windshields and cordons to minimise dust pollution and sprinkle the grounds frequently to prevent dispersal of dust. or imported. Cost consideration shall not be a major factor in selecting raw materials. Mitigation: The proponents are aware of Green Building so as to use environment-friendly construction materials. bricks. Sukkur 10/2011 5. 42 Bizcorp Consultants . crush. glass and finishing materials. as per instructions to the construction contractor from the proponents. paint and aluminium cladding shall be purchased either directly from the factories or from local markets. Noise absorbent materials. shall also be considered for use. electrical materials. and fire-resistant materials to the extent possible. 5. paints. sand. steel bars. The primary source of emissions to air during construction activities will be diesel engine-driven generator exhaust. Other emission sources include construction machinery and project vehicles. Mitigation: Since vehicles and equipment to be used shall be in good working condition and under due maintenance. NO x .
6 Waste Management Contractor Construction projects involving high-rises create a great deal of liquid as well as solid waste that can impair local environment. Requirement of water shall vary according to the quantum of construction activity and human consumption during the construction phase. In fact. Peak consumption will be about 1. accidental leakage or spillage from vehicles. 5. the water table is on the high side in any case.5 Other Supplies Main supplies required during the construction phase of the project shall include water. Mitigation: There is sufficient groundwater in the region and consequently depletion of groundwater is unlikely. 5. wastewater from construction activities and domestic sewerage from the project office. Mitigation: A waste management contractor is to be appointed by the construction contractor to carry away all forms of waste from the project site for disposal in an environment-friendly manner. Temporary electricity connection will be obtained from Hyderabad Electricity Supply Company. power and routine construction accessories.7 Waste Streams Waste generated at a site can be liquid as well as solid waste. Peak consumption could reach 5.8. comprising mainly diesel and petroleum. excess or used or rejected construction materials. 43 Bizcorp Consultants . due to proximity to the canal and River Indus. equipment or storage. Fuels for construction equipment and vehicles. Solid waste requiring disposal will consist of excavated earth. Steps thus need to be taken to ensure appropriate collection and disposal of all forms of waste.8. scrap. are available at nearby locations. Construction foremen shall ensure that all supplies either for construction or for personal consumption of construction crew are procured regularly and on timely basis so that there are no delays and that workers are not inconvenienced.000 litres per day. which will augment diesel generators. fuels. Liquid waste consists of oils and oily water from maintenance of equipment and vehicles. Sukkur 10/2011 5.000 gallons per hour.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.8.
The contractor will issue instructions to foremen and workers that any leaks from machines and equipment during use must be scooped up immediately and placed in dedicated bins. excluding the basement. It is estimated that there shall be a 44 Bizcorp Consultants . will not be of character injurious for the environment.1 Demands on Services Demands on services in relation to a particular project can be worked out on the basis of covered area and the nature of activity. Alternatively. 5. All solid waste will be collected at the site at designated spots from where it shall be removed to municipal skips on a regular basis by the waste management contractor. Architectural drawings as a rule of thumb cater for 80 square feet per person. workshop waste and domestic solid waste from the project office.069 square feet. grey water will be sprinkled on unpaved sections within the construction site.9. No vehicles and equipment shall be repaired at the project site. the building shall be sufficient for an absolute maximum of two thousand six hundred and fifty-one people. Sukkur 10/2011 warehouse waste. Recycling or reuse of waste material shall be the preferred option but when not possible. Sieved substances. Sewage will be treated in a closed system and effluent will be drained into municipal facilities after sieving. It will be ensured that liquid and solid waste is minimised and that all form of waste is carried away from the project site and disposed in a manner whereby it does not impact adversely on the local environment. Excavated earth may not be required at the project site and will be sold for reuse. No excavated earth will be dumped either on adjoining plots or on nearby properties. which will be dumped at municipal waste disposal site. Based on covered space of 212. solid waste will be treated and disposed of appropriately.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Mitigation: Table 8 overleaf provides a description of different types of wastes that are expected to be generated during the construction phase and planned disposal option. 5. thus eliminating spillage of oils or oily water that can damage sub-soil.9 OPERATIONAL PHASE OF THE PROJECT Different aspects with bearing on environmental issues during the operation of the proposed project are discussed in the following sections.
According to WAPDA energy requirement criterion of fourteen watts per square feet of covered area.2 Water Usage Water shall be used for the following main purposes at the proposed hospital: 45 Bizcorp Consultants . and a thousand outdoor patients. natural gas. such as electricity. Telephone connections will be obtained from local telephone companies. the hospital shall need 42. wastewater generation and storm water disposal. using various management techniques in addition to covered area.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. However.9. Approximate natural gas utilisation shall depend on the type of air-conditioning plant and whether it would use natural gas as source of fuel. telephone. which will ensure that there are minimum maintenance costs. water and wastewater lines. which can be purchased from Hyderabad Electric Supply Company. shall be sufficient to meet water requirements of the proposed project.000 gallons per hour. The quality of materials used and standard of construction shall be high. The building shall also have an inter-com system operated through internal telephone exchange and switchboard. according to generally accepted yardstick of natural gas usage of 15-20 cubic feet per hour for every 100 square feet of area covered. which have the necessary network in place in the project area. Sukkur 10/2011 maximum footprint of about twenty-two hundred people through a day. which shall not require heating.1 electricity need shall be about 1. based on six hundred and five employees. Table 9 overleaf provides an indication of demands on various resources.414 cubic feet of natural gas per hour during winter months. Maximum average presence at any given time outside of visiting hours will be about five hundred and fifty persons. This calculation is based on total covered area excluding the basement. The proponents shall make applications for all connections at the appropriate time towards the completion stage of the project so that the hospital can become operational immediately upon completion. whether cables or drains. water usage. shall be subterranean. two hundred patients. 5.515 KW. The project area has good coverage of both electricity and natural gas and alternate sources of fuels or energy would not be required. four hundred patients’ visitors. Mitigation: All electricity. Two tube-wells with combined capacity of 4 cusecs that can draw 90. natural gas. Natural gas supply shall be obtained from Sui Southern Gas Company and will be provided through a low pressure dedicated pipeline.
• Medical needs and personal consumption of indoor patients.44 gallons. Sukkur 10/2011 • Personal consumption of hospital employees. and • Irrigation. The maximum number of people present in the hospital daily will be about twenty-two hundred. There are no reliable figures for water usage at a hospital and details of 46 Bizcorp Consultants . Per capita per day consumption of water for the country as a whole. TABLE 10: WATER USERS Maximum no. Use of water of people at (percentage premises of per capita per hour average) 202 200 42 17 ------461 25 50 6.205 Average no. is lower at 84. • Medical equipment and laboratories. The following table provides an indication of water needs of the proposed project based on the management consultant’s estimates.000 400 ------2. Demand of water in a hospital is vastly different in comparison to that of a housing society or a pure apartment complex. • Kitchen. of people per day 605 200 1.125 Need-based Need-based Need-based --- Category Hospital employees (doctors and staff) Indoor patients Outdoor patients Patients’ visitors Kitchen Janitorial Irrigation TOTAL: Estimated duration of stay 8 hours 24 hours 1 hour 1 hour --------- Maximum per capita consumption of water in larger urban centres in Pakistan is a hundred gallons per day. • Medical needs and personal consumption of outdoor patients. water could be required for as many people.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Considering that the building has been designed for a maximum of two thousand six hundred and fifty-one people based on covered area of 80 square feet per person. excluding cooking and including dry baths. • Operation of air-conditioning plant (depending on type). excluding showers and cooking. • Personal consumption of patients’ visitors (short-time only). however.25 3. • Janitorial.
44 see Table 10) 605 hospital employees 84.000 outdoor patients 84.125 10.0625 400 patients’ visitors 84.444 5. which is the present average for the country as a whole.000 40.190 12.44 gpd) Total Water Demand (gpd) 220. as well as 84.550 5.500 1.205 (Absolute number --84.44/0. Table 11 illustrates possible water requirements of the hospital based on estimated commercial use of water corresponding to per capita use of 100 gallons per day.50 1.625 5.500 1.500 15.050 3. such as hospital.138 Total Water Demand (gpd) 186.44/0. Sukkur 10/2011 water consumption collected from different hospitals have yielded erratic results.000 outdoor patients 100/0.25 200 indoor patients 84.000 1.500 gallons per day based on maximum per capita consumption of a hundred gallons per 47 Bizcorp Consultants .278 1.50 1.250 32.555 Peak water demand of the hospital for all uses would be could 44.000 35.505 38. TABLE 11: AVERAGE DAILY WATER REQUIREMENTS Total Number of People Average Per Capita Using the Premises: Water Demand (gpd) 2.205 (Absolute number --see Table 11) 100 605 hospital employees 100/0.000 1. typical of urban centres.44/0. mainly because of a common single connection and multiple users.250 1.000 6.44 gallons per day.44/0.772 8.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. residential quarters using water from the same source.0625 400 patients’ visitors 100/0.25 200 indoor patients 100/0. and commercial and irrigation needs.125 4.03125 Average Daily Demand (persons) Average Daily Demand for green areas/plantations Average Daily Demand for kitchen Average Daily Demand for cleaning Total Average Daily Demand Add 10 Percent Cushion Total Average Daily Water Requirement (100 gpd) Total Number of People Average Per Capita Using the Premises: Water Demand (gpd) 2.03125 Average Daily Demand (persons) Average Daily Demand for green areas/plantations Average Daily Demand for kitchen Average Daily Demand for cleaning Total Average Daily Demand Add 10 Percent Cushion Total Average Daily Water Requirement (84.138 gallons per day subject to an absolute maximum of 220.013 44.056 27.
842 186. It is anticipated that since water to be consumed at the premises shall more or less be domestic in nature.44 gallons.44gpd) Total Wastewater Generation (85 percent) Note: The above calculations of water needs do not include water used for irrigation Mitigation: Liquid waste effluents at the project will primarily consist of commercial sewerage of more or less domestic nature.500 187. the volume of sewerage will be about 187. subject to an absolute maximum of 186. eighty-five percent of water used is converted into sewerage. as calculated in the following table. TABLE 12: AVERAGE DAILY WASTEWATER GENERATION Total Water Demand ( 100 gpd) 220.262 gallons per day.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.44 gallons would work out at daily requirement of 38.262 33.425 gallons per day Wastewater generation based on per capita water usage of 84.190 158. Treated sewerage from the hospital will be used for irrigation purposes and the surplus shall be discharged into municipal sewers.425 38. or estimated wastewater generation.9. 5.097 gallons per day on the basis of per capita water use of 100 and 84. 48 Bizcorp Consultants . As per standard yardstick adopted by environmental engineers.1 Assuming that an absolute maximum of 220. Sukkur 10/2011 day typical of residents in larger urban centres. Actual.500 gallons per day will be used at the proposed hospital as per calculations explained in the preceding section of this chapter.055 28.097 Total Number of People Using the Premises: Absolute Maximum Daily Water Requirement (100gpd) Total Wastewater Generation (85 percent) Estimated Daily Water Requirement (100gpd) Total Wastewater Generation (85 percent) Absolute Maximum Daily Water Requirement (84. shall be 32.190 gallons per day.44gpd) Total Wastewater Generation (85 percent) Estimated Daily Water Requirement (84. Per capita per day consumption of water at 84. respectively.638 32.44 gallons per day will be 158.3 Wastewater Generation The volume of sanitary sewage depends on the number of persons using the premises every day.842 gallons per day or 28.555 gallons. Mitigation: Two tube-wells with capacity of 4 cusecs at the project site will meet water needs of the proposed hospital. Water conservation measures discussed in subsequent sections of this report shall ensure that water resources are not wasted.
Moreover. a wastewater treatment plant is envisaged in the project so as to ensure that treated water is within the National Environmental Quality Standards limits.1 The proposed project shall draw water from two 2 cusec tubewells at the site. or industries relying heavily on water as an industrial input. There is no need to assess water balance in the project area through a hydrological study. Operation of the hospital shall not lead to any exclusive depletion of groundwater or municipal water resources. and can be safely discharged into the sewerage network without clogging the system or further aggravating chemical properties of sewage. It is thus often necessary to assess the water balance for such projects. thereby causing serious environmental concerns. shall be constructed at roof level. An overhead water tank. Mitigation: The main source of water shall be tube-wells.9. water balance in the area remains at high levels due to proximity of River Indus that runs to the east and south of the city and the Daddo Canal to the north of the project site. No measures are necessary to address the water balance within the project area due to reasons explained above. there are no municipal regulations or environmental laws requiring calculation of water balance at the project site. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). such as new townships.4 Water Balance Completion of projects that require a large amount of water during project implementation or for operation can deplete water resources in the project area.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 5. Even though wastewater will be more or less domestic. oil and grease etc. Quantification and estimation of water balance is usually necessary for large-scale housing projects.000 cubic feet. Despite extensive urban as well as agricultural use.. Sukkur 10/2011 wastewater will have not have any pollution load in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). Mitigation: A study conducted by the World Bank in 2006 estimated that the groundwater potential of the project area is about 750 million litres per day. measuring 8. 5.9. 49 Bizcorp Consultants .5 Water Tank Sufficient storage capacity of water must be maintained at all times to meet water needs of the building and for fire-fighting.
. Sewerage drains within the compound shall be of a size compatible with wastewater generation capacity of the proposed hospital. and can be safely discharged into sewers without clogging the system or further aggravating chemical properties of sewage. to eliminate leakages. 5.6 Disposal of Sewerage It is anticipated that since water to be consumed in the hospital will more or less be for domestic needs not involving any chemical processes. oil and grease etc. Accordingly. wastewater will have not have any pollution load in terms of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). floor. Mitigation: Sewerage drains shall be twelve inch thick U-PVC pipe. excluding basement. sufficient to carry the quantum of wastewater generated at the premises. Sufficient water storage capacity will thus be available to meet all needs. precipitation and escape of moisture. Most if not all the wastewater is likely to be reused at the site after treatment and only surplus treated water shall be released into the municipal sewerage network. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). this restriction does not apply to hospitals and government buildings that are in any case exempt from building regulations in the Sindh Province. top and foundations.069 square feet. including ten clearly designated spaces for disabled parking.600 square earmarked for parking of up to 80 cars and 320 motor-cycles of hospital employees. The water tank shall be regularly chlorinated and chemically treated to maintain healthy consumption standards. Mitigation: The basement floor has an area of 12. the minimum car parking space must cater for at least two hundred and twelve cars. Sukkur 10/2011 Water shall be pumped into the overhead water tank regularly from the tube-wells to keep water level above the minimum hourly need. excluding basement.9.9.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The tank shall be cleaned at regular intervals. based on total covered space of 212. However. 5. The overhead water tank shall have appropriate waterproofing with thick concrete walls.7 Vehicular Traffic The building bye-laws lay down that not less than one car parking space shall be provided for every one thousand square feet of floor area of a commercial building. Parts of the 50 Bizcorp Consultants .
COD/BOD load shall be well within environmental parameters Mitigation: Solid waste shall be carried away regularly from the hospital and dumped at the nearest municipal skip. However. Assuming total presence of an average of about twenty-two hundred people per day generating solid waste. Grey water consists of wastewater generated from all of the house’s sanitation equipment except for septic tank (water from toilets is black water. solid waste generation at the hospital will be in the range 0. is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as dish washing.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.5 kg per capita and about three hundred and sixtyone kgs per day at per capita waste generation rate of 0.9. There will be negligible vehicular pollution added to the local environment when the hospital enters operational phase. as discussed in Chapters 7 and 9. the quantity of solid waste generated shall be a maximum of two hundred and thirty-one kgs per day at the daily rate of 0. laundry and bathing. measuring about 17. According to this definition. following the yardstick for solid waste generation in urban centres. Grey water comprises 50-80 percent of residential wastewater. since the solid waste shall not be industrial in nature. Grey water is distinct from black water in the amount and composition of its chemical and biological contaminants (from faeces or toxic chemicals).5 kg to 0. Sukkur 10/2011 open area around the hospital. A number of measures shall be adopted for reduction of solid waste. also known as sullage. 5. All medical waste shall be incinerated at the facility to be established at the site. 5.8 kg per capita per day.9. It is not possible at this stage to calculate the BOD/COD load of solid waste that shall be generated when the hospital comes into operation. shall be available for vehicle parking of patients and visitors.8 Solid Waste Considering the purpose for which the building is to be employed.8 kg. Chapter 10 relating to the Traffic Impact Analysis discusses vehicular traffic arrangements in greater detail. wastewater containing significant food residues or high 51 Bizcorp Consultants .200 square feet.9 Wastewater Treatment Plant Grey water. or sewage). nor heavily polluted (black water). Grey water gets its name from its cloudy appearance and from its status as being neither fresh (white water from groundwater or potable water).
The proponents are in negotiations to procure the Clear Water SBR sewage treatment plant manufactured in the Netherlands.842 gallons per day.638 gallons of water are used at the hospital per day. grey water is often reused for irrigation. In drought zones or areas hit by hose-pipe bans (irrigation restrictions). The advantages of this system of sewerage treatment are: • • • • • • • High purification performance. Wastewater flows into the equalisation tank and is stored there. Sukkur 10/2011 concentrations of toxic chemicals from household cleaners etc. However. The proponents have tentatively selected the CW 10000-S model. eighty-five percent of water used is converted into sewerage. In the third world.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. reuse of grey water is often unregulated and is common. Safe operation. 52 Bizcorp Consultants . may be considered “dark grey” or black water. the volume of wastewater generation will be an estimated 32. both domestically and for use in commercial irrigation. Excess treated water. Good resilience to load fluctuations. Robust engineering. As wastewater will be non-industrial in nature. Mitigation: Liquid waste effluents will consist of sewerage of more or less domestic nature. and Remote monitoring. which consists of spiral sieve. which will be well within limits set down by the National Environmental Quality Standards. Particles larger than 3 mm are captured by the spiral sieve making the use of the clear sludge possible. As per standard yardstick adopted by environmental engineers. equalisation tank and reactor. no prior treatment is required. Concerns over dwindling reserves of groundwater and overloaded or costly sewage treatment plants in recent years has generated much interest in reuse or recycling of grey water. grey water can be harvested informally by manual bucketing. but a wastewater treatment plant is nonetheless embedded in the project design. will thereafter be released into municipal drains. Details of the proposed plant are placed at Appendix “VI”. Assuming that a maximum of 38. concerns over potential health and environmental risks means that many jurisdictions demand such intensive treatment systems for legal reuse of grey water that the commercial cost is higher than for fresh water. Electronic fault reporting. Automatic operational accounting. Most of the treated water shall however be used at the project to irrigate green belts and plantations. Despite these obstacles.
a team must be appointed by the hospital administrator to disposal of medical waste in an environment-friendly manner. Since sludge settles completely on the tank floor. and shall discharge duties as specified under the said Rules. and • Excess Sludge Removal: Since new activated sludge is formed during every aeration process. • Clarified Water Removal/Extraction: Clarified water is pumped out during this phase by employing clarified water pump. creating activated sludge comprising microorganisms and bacteria. after prior approval of the concerned municipal authority. so that the reactor always contains the optimum amount of sludge. Sludge created at the wastewater treatment plant shall be carried away from the site by the waste management contractor for dumping at the municipal rubbish disposal. 5.9. 2005. excess sludge is pumped into the sludge storage tank during the final phase. 53 Bizcorp Consultants . • Reaction/Aeration: A diaphragm pipe aerator blows oxygen into the water. upper part of clarified water is of extremely good quality. The plant has a flexible design that can be modified for large or small volumes of wastewater. where it is biologically purified with micro-organisms. Activated sludge settles on the tank floor due to cessation of turbulence. Mitigation: The proponents shall ensure that a Waste Management Team is constituted at the same time as the proposed hospital comes into operation. Sukkur 10/2011 It is thereafter pumped into the reactor.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. It is expected that the wastewater treatment plant shall be functional by the time the project comes into operation. Impurities in wastewater are decomposed biologically during this phase. The wastewater treatment plant shall have excess capacity that could be employed for treatment of wastewater generated at nearby housing schemes that are presently under development. • Sedimentation/Settling: Wastewater is no longer aerated during settling phase. Treatment is carried out in following five phases: • Filling: The reactor is filled with wastewater from buffer tank.10 Waste Management Team In compliance of Rule 4 of the Hospital Waste Management Rules.
11 Waste Management Plan Rule 15 of the Hospital Waste Management Rules. which has capacity of 25-1. Mitigation: A waste management contractor shall be appointed prior to commencement of project operations to remove all forms of solid waste.9. provides for preparation of a Waste Management Plan by the waste Management Officer nominated as a member of the Waste Management Team. especially used syringes.13 Waste Management Contractor Special arrangements must be made where there is likely to be substantial liquid and solid waste and where there is no collection of waste by municipality. used X-rays. transportation. 5. The Plan shall cater for waste segregation. collection. 5. Mitigation: The proponents shall ensure that the Waste Management Officer appointed under Rule 4 formulates a Waste Management Plan that is approved by the Waste Management Team and that it is implemented. soiled bandages. Such plan must be approved by the Waste Management Team. storage and disposal. Details of a possible option are at Appendix “VII”. expired medicines etc.000 kgs per hour. Mitigation: Although the proponents intend to engage a waste management contractor for collection of waste from the hospital. The Waste Management Plan shall include. 54 Bizcorp Consultants .12 Incinerator Incinerators must be installed at a hospital since some hospital waste. but will not be limited to. Sukkur 10/2011 5. and devise procedures for immediate measures for control and rectification in cases of accidental spills and leakages of hazardous materials and hazardous waste. 2005. an incinerator shall be installed for disposal of medical waste such as used syringes.9. guidelines prescribed in the said Rules and shall correspond to best international practices and would be subject to periodical review.9. as also for waste minimisation and reuse. can be a serious environmental hazard.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
5. noise and vibrations and mitigation measures would thus be required to ensure that it only performs well for comfort of patients but at the same time is not an environmental hazard. The proponents shall ensure that the location of generators is such that it does not create any disturbance. Finally.15 Generators Generators can cause noise pollution. Mitigation: The proponents must make arrangements for standby generators in order to ensure that supply of medical services at the hospital is not interrupted. 5. 55 Bizcorp Consultants . the stack shall be connected to a funnel that shall convey emissions directly to the outside. These generators shall be installed within the mechanical area of the basement. which can be a source of environmental impairment as well as annoyance for users of the premises and neighbours.9. There shall also be regular inspections to check the equipment for safety. Mitigation: The elevators shall be sufficient to carry a minimum of one hundred persons and shall be large enough to accommodate gurneys. for disposal in an environment-friendly manner.9. Sukkur 10/2011 including sludge from the wastewater treatment plant. 5. The set of elevators on the middle of each floor shall be able to open on both sides. it shall be ensured that heat dispersion of the equipment does not impact unfavourably on the immediate environment.14 Elevators There shall be three locations for elevators with a maximum of seven cars. Suitable arrangements shall be made to clamp down the equipment to eliminate possibility of vibrations and to place the generators under a canopy to reduce noise. While installing generators. emissions and vibrations.16 Air-conditioning Plant The air-conditioning plant can disturb the environment within the building through emissions.9. from the basement to the upper floors.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The proponents shall ensure that elevators remain under due maintenance so that there is no noise and vibrations from the equipment.
motor pumps and tube-wells shall be kept under due maintenance. tube-well or pumps may cause vibrations that could be a nuisance for patients as well as neighbours. The plant shall be properly clamped down and heavily insulated to eliminate possibilities of vibrations and noise.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The walls shall be padded. 5. Since equipment to be installed in the building will be of the highest quality. pumps.17 Vibrations Machinery installed in the building. which shall reduce noise from the operation of the air-conditioning plant. externals walls have cavities filled with thermopore sheets to provide insulation against heat. The air-conditioning plant shall use either electricity or natural gas as the power source. Mitigation: Following standard construction practices. elevators. tube-wells and generators shall be kept within acceptable limits by using high quality equipment and ensuring due maintenance. Noise from elevators. there should not ordinarily be concerns about possible vibrations from their operation. 5.9. 5. Mitigation: Generators. causing annoyance and discomfort for users and neighbours. there shall be minimal noise.19 Reflection.18 Noise Undue noise can likewise be generated by the above-said machinery and equipment.9. Heat and Insulation The design of large structures must contain safety valves to prevent reflections and provide for measures for heat and insulation as a part of the environmental aspects of the project. such as the air-conditioning plant. External walls shall be of hollow block masonry or RCC with 2” 56 Bizcorp Consultants . It shall be ensured that the air-conditioning plant to be procured is CFC-free. Sukkur 10/2011 Mitigation: The air-conditioning plant shall be placed within the mechanical area in the basement. Mitigation: Since the HVAC Plant is to be installed within a wellinsulated mechanical area in the basement.9. elevators.
ATMs and public telephones. 2” thick rigid insulation and 1” thick terracotta tiles. shall be available on each floor. The roof has been designed to cater for heat absorption and insulation.20 Services Patients and employees at a high-rise hospital must have access to sufficient services to ensure their safety and comfort. The roof top built-up shall be screed in slope with waterproofing. along with disabled toilets. 5. The proponents shall develop a foolproof mechanism for frequent inspections and service of elevators to guarantee safety of use.9. Finally. fire escapes. 5. Mitigation: There are a minimum of six exits at the ground level. garbage chutes for effective and swift waste disposal. The proponents shall develop a standard operating procedure to ensure that washrooms are cleaned frequently and that a log is maintained regularly. parking spaces.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. particularly summer heat. a colour scheme shall be used within the building and exteriors in such a way that heat is absorbed during summer months. with sufficient number of stalls and urinals. access through elevators and staircases. Reflections from the large glass windows shall be restricted through use of tinted glass and drapes or blinds. washrooms. Sukkur 10/2011 thick rigid insulation installed between finished surface and peripheral walls. The washrooms will be maintained by a team of sanitary workers to keep the premises clean and hygienic at all times. 57 Bizcorp Consultants .9. wide passages. Male and female washrooms. These include common areas. All washrooms will be equipped with sensor-fitted urinals and faucets in the washbasins to ensure maximum economy of water. having standard equipment for facility of users. so as that the building is suitably protected against the elements. including a logbook of inspections by certified technicians. Mitigation: Various services that may have an indirect or direct impact on the environmental are embedded in the project design. Four to five elevators serve the building from the basement to the Seventh Floor. The elevators would be manned around-the-clock with attendants for public convenience and safety.21 Access Ample access must be provided in a high-rise not only for ease in movement but also for evacuation in the event of an emergency.
11 SAFETY OF THE STRUCTURE A geotechnical investigation has been conducted at the project site.3 g according to the latest provisions of the Pakistan Building Code.10 SEISMIC PROVISIONS A seismic map of the country is placed at Appendix “VIII”. even during the monsoon. there shall be drains around the compound to collect rainwater for swift disposal into the municipal storm water system through gravity. Fire-escapes shall remain unobstructed at all times. Mitigation: The building design has been structured to withstand possible seismic activity of the level expected in an area typical of Zone 2A. 5.22 Storm Water System Since rains in monsoon and water can cause flooding. Sukkur 10/2011 The staircases shall have fireproof doors. The building design exceeds this requirement.1 District Government Sukkur abides by the Pakistan Building Code Seismic Provisions 2007.9. The cost of a foundation seldom exceeds one-tenth of the total cost of a structure whereas the security of the superstructure hinges 58 Bizcorp Consultants . 5. appropriate measures must be put in place to regulate storm water so that it does not also at the same time impede activities at the hospital.2 Most failures of structures are probably caused by the failure of foundations. 5. which are still frequent despite rapid advancements in construction technologies. The geotechnical investigation advised that due to the sensitivity of the project. which shows that the project area falls in Seismic Zone 2A. Further details about seismic nature of the project area are given in the next chapter. Vehicles shall enter and leave the basement through a dedicated ramp. However.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. which have been compiled under order of the federal government by the Ministry of Housing and Works. Mitigation: The project area does not receive heavy rain throughout the year. it should be designed to withstand Peak Horizontal Acceleration of 0.
• Deviations from the design communicated to the geotechnical investigators. • An erroneous interpretation of the results of such an investigation. • Deficient workmanship in the construction of the foundations. which is rather rare.. Further. scour. which is a material of uncertain and non-uniform nature. • Lack or absence of coordination between the geotechnical consultants. Generally. work methods and different effects of climatic conditions and groundwater effects on the soil may bear different reactions. Foundation designing is not an exact science and the same parameters cannot be applied to all problems that may arise because of different nature of soils at different sites. loads acting on this uncertain material cannot be calculated exactly and their magnitude and behaviour often depends on the work methods and weather conditions when the work has been completed. • Provision of deficient information about the proposed structure to the geotechnical investigators. designing. Defects in foundations rarely appear immediately and most become obvious when a building is in actual use and when remedial action is either too expensive or too difficult for a variety of reasons. changes in the level of groundwater. top-supervision consultants and construction contractors. • Removal of subsoil water through pumping without resort to effects on the surrounding environment. Attempts to cut costs on foundations either during preliminary investigations. Sukkur 10/2011 directly on the integrity of the foundations. • Behaviour of soil contrary to projections of the geotechnical investigators.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. these may be due to: • The absence of proper investigation of the soil. This could nonetheless be caused by vibrations. or in the use of materials or workmanship can compromise on the quality of the structure however well it may be raised. The failure of a foundation may be of such a nature that it would be impossible to remedy it an economical cost. 59 Bizcorp Consultants . erection of other structures in close vicinity etc. • Faulty design of the foundations. Even at the same site. project designers. in which the loss may exceed the total cost of the foundation and the structure raised upon it. A foundation differs from other parts of the structure insofar as it is supported by soil. There are a number of factors that affect the ability of foundations that it is not easy to classify them into groups.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.11. rainfall and flow of water at a rate greater than anticipated. and it was found that specific gravity ranged between 2.62 to 2. Six boreholes were drilled using rotary/wash boring method at the site to a depth ranging from sixty-five to a hundred feet below natural surface level. • Specific Gravity Test: This examination is conducted to calculate void ratio. The project designer must be armed with complete information about soil at a building and whether it has the capability to carry loads from an engineering structure without causing shear failure and whether resulting settlement remains within tolerable limits for the structure proposed to be raised. Soil samples were subjected to following types of laboratory tests: • Grain Size Analysis: Grain-size analyses were carried out for coarse-grained as also fine-grained soil to group particles into separate range of sizes so as to determine relative proportions by dry weight of each size range.7 gm/cc to 1.93 gm/cc. thermal and biological conditions. and • Insufficient provisions in the designs for exceptional natural phenomena such as earthquakes.74.5 percent and dry density varies from 1. 5. as was evident in Islamabad during the earthquake of 2003. • Density and Moisture Tests: Samples were tested for moisture content and density which show that natural moisture ranges between 4. • Direct Shear Tests: The soils were tested to ascertain relative bearing capacity. Soil has thus been classified according to the Unified Soil Classification System. Geotechnical analysis of a project site provides vital information to design foundations. Borehole locations are placed at Appendix “IX”. Sukkur 10/2011 • Use of inferior materials. 60 Bizcorp Consultants .1 Geotechnical and Soil Tests Soil testing work was carried out from May 28. A high-rise building designed without credible soil analyses is the worst environmental hazard. 2011 to evaluate safe bearing capacity and other geotechnical parameters to design the foundation. 2011 to June 14. Four test pits were dug manually to a depth of six feet each at different locations of the proposed road works within the project site.8 percent to 6.
• Chemical Tests: Soil samples were tested for quality and presence of chemicals for use of appropriate materials. Sukkur 10/2011 • Unconfined Compression Tests: Samples were tested to establish soil compression. plastic and shrinkage limits.4 Bearing Capacity Safe bearing capacity for double storey structures at three to nine feet depth below the existing ground level has been proposed at 0. 5.40 percent.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The values were found to be between 1. • Sensitivity Test: This test is carried out to arrive at the ratio between unconfined strength of undisturbed and remoulded samples.3 Piling Bored and driven piles capacity has been determined for different lengths and diameters. 5. soils samples were tested.940 micro mohs/cm.6 tsf for isolated footings. • Electrical Conductivity Tests: Samples were tested in this behalf and the measured range is between 1. Spacing of piles from centre to centre should not be less than twice the diameter of the piles. • Organic Matter Test: In order to identify organic matter within the soil. The safe bearing capacity of raft 61 Bizcorp Consultants . 5. and • Un-drained Tri-axial Tests: Samples were tested to confirm their fundamental material parameters about angle of internal friction.11.11. apparent cohesion and dilatancy angle to predict behaviour in a large-scale engineering application.2 Foundations Raft foundations have been proposed at least three to three and a half feet below the floor level of the basement to provide sufficient embedment.05 to 220.127.116.11 percent to 1.5 tsf for strip and 0. which established range between 0. • Atterberg Limits: Samples were examined to determine consistency in terms of liquid.490 to 1. • Consolidation Test: Undisturbed samples were tested to establish consolidation characteristics of soil.
the Pakistan Building Code Seismic Provisions.11. special construction materials must be used.5.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Such studies are usually taken for large structures. Results of chemical tests on soil and water samples carried out during the geotechnical study suggest that Sulphate Resisting Cement should be used for all concrete works in combination with sweet water. Most significantly. liquefaction of a particular layer in a thick layer may in fact act as an isolator.11. 5. with bored/driven piles. a soil amplification study was not considered necessary for the purposes of structural planning. For example. In case there are infirmities in the soil.5 Chemical Contents Results of chemical tests are carried out on soil and water samples to bring forth results in order to suggest usage of appropriate cement and other vital building materials.8 tsf. 2007. such as skyscrapers and large urban development projects particularly in areas highly susceptible to seismic activity. 5. Sukkur 10/2011 footing at or below fifteen feet of depth for the high rise building of up to nine floors has been proposed at 1. 5.6 Structural Stability From the analyses given in Sections 5. Studies of a number of earthquakes show that a thick layer of soil can amplify the ground shaking significantly. it is evident that the proponents have taken more than sufficient measures to ensure that structural designing and subsequent construction meet all structural safety standards.1 to 5.11.12 SOIL AMPLIFICATION STUDY A soil amplification study describes whether a soil site is advantageous in amplifying or in damping earthquake shaking transmitted from bedrock levels. especially since the foundations have been designed on the basis of soil characteristics and the building design is in conformity with the seismic code. Considering the size and nature of the project. Some studies have indicated that soft soil does provide a kind of cushioning and absorbs seismic waves before these are transmitted to the surface. have been framed keeping in view soil characteristics and rock formations all 62 Bizcorp Consultants .11.
Moreover. Sui Southern Gas Limited. Since activities at the proposed building would be strictly medical in nature.000 gallons. MOUs AND LEASES Approval of all relevant government departments must be obtained well in time for various activities so that a project’s implementation or operation is not stalled at any stage. respectively. District Government Sukkur shall be approached for sanction of water supply and sewer connections. with the concerned agencies. Sukkur 10/2011 over the country. pipes and external wiring. being the competent urban development authority has accorded approval of building plans. it is premature for the proponents to conclude any agreements. Moreover. Since there are no trees at the project site that required felling to facilitate construction. water storage has to be maintained for firefighting purposes and the capacity of the overhead water tank is around 40. if necessary at all. shall be concluded by the proponents at the appropriate stage of the project towards its completion. non-compliance of legal and regulatory provisions is in itself a cause for environmental imbalance as it can create social tensions. Moreover. However. Hyderabad Electric Supply Company and Sui Southern Gas Limited shall be approached for approval and sanction of electricity and gas connections. Hyderabad Electric Supply Company. Such agreements or Memoranda of Understanding. electricity and natural gas. for provision of connections and other services at the site. All approvals shall be obtained well in time so that construction remains unimpeded and so that the building can be colonised and is available for operation as soon as the project is finalised. the proponents are being advised through this environmental study to make all necessary arrangements well in advance. Similarly. 5. Mitigation: Since construction has not commenced. if at all required. District Government Sukkur. which shall be constantly topped up by two existing tubewells. such as District Government Sukkur. especially when illegal construction takes place and is opposed by the local population. The building plans cater for all utility connections in such a way that there is no adverse environmental impact showing open drains.13 GOVERNMENT APPROVALS. water requirement would be on the low side. a soil amplification study is not required under the relevant building regulations and by-laws.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. there shall not be any need to approach 63 Bizcorp Consultants . Telephone lines would be provided by local telephone companies. such as solid waste disposal/water and sewerage.
environmental approval shall be obtained from Sindh Environmental Protection Agency in compliance of legal requirements. However. 5. at the end of the life of the building. 64 Bizcorp Consultants . There are no trees within the project site. Debris generated from demolishing the building will be disposed in environmentally sustainable fashion. There are no graveyards or mosques or any shrines at the project site or nearby that can be affected by project implementation or operation. 5. In order to ensure comfort of patients and visitors. The project site is plain without vegetation cover. The proponents anticipate that the building would be used for a minimum of eighty to ninety years and has been designed suitably to stand the test of the set time. While dismantling the building. either with wrecking balls or controlled explosion. stream.14 ECOLOGICALLY CRITICAL AND SENSITIVE AREAS The proposed project shall be situated within a rural area that is being brought under urban development. The project site is also not situated in an area that is ecologically critical or sensitive in nature.15 RESTORATION AND REHABILITATION The building is designed as a hospital with substantial public dealing. or nullah. the building will be maintained according to the best health. However. Finally. and structural maintenance standards. It is not possible of course at this point of time to predict or anticipate the shape and form of the surrounding areas when the building has lived its life and needs to be torn down. repairs and upgrading of the structure would continue during operation of the hospital according to a carefully prepared work schedule and would be adhered to religiously. sanitation. Sukkur 10/2011 the concerned agency within the district administration to seek prior permission for removal of trees. all building rules and regulations as applicable to such an activity shall be observed strictly.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. despite proximity to River Indus. Mitigation: Constant maintenance. Material capable of recycling or reuse will be either sold or shall be reused in the next plan. it will be dismantled as per municipal procedures with special precautions to minimise if not totally avoid pollution and at the same time taking every safety precaution to protect life and property around the building. the project area is not a catchment area of any river.
65 Bizcorp Consultants . ventilation and air-conditioning). and shall select an experienced construction firm to execute the project. HVAC (heating. Pitted ground will be adequately levelled. interiors. if any.16 PROPOSED SCHEDULE FOR IMPLEMENTATION The project shall come into operation after twenty-four months of commencement of construction. Any minor spill over of such material will be cleared adequately. tender advice on structures. mechanical and electric components. 5. all construction material. landscaping. according to secured. On the whole. safe and effective norms of demolition. gas building. would be due purely to unavoidable circumstances beyond human control. the project site and the area in its near vicinity will be made neat and clean for further use by the proponents or successors-in-interest thereof. Dust generated during demolition will be minimised by constant sprinkling of water. will be adopted to avoid harm to persons engaged in the demolition. The proponents have engaged consultant services to design the project. subject to further use of the land. debris and garbage will be removed from the site immediately and disposed as per procedures approved by municipal regulations. roads. power building. and private or public property. After demolition. Sukkur 10/2011 It will be ensured that no damage is done to public infrastructure like sewer system. Complete safety measures.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. public property around the building or the environment in the project area. The project shall be self-financing and the proponents have access to finances necessary to complete the project within the targeted time schedules and there is thus no question of construction being left abandoned during the tenure of the project and thereby creating an environmental malaise at the site. Delays. project management.
Ghotki is located on the north-eastern side while Khairpur is to the south and south-west.2. 6. 66 Bizcorp Consultants . A map of the district is at Appendix “X”. the North-western Hills and Balochistan. having terrestrial coordinates 68°52’ east and 27°42’ north. surface and ground water and geology of the project areas to assess whether the project can impact on any of these parameters. The city of Sukkur is located at an altitude of 220 feet (67 metres) from sea level. soil. Sukkur 10/2011 6. Sukkur district shares its northern border with Shikarpur and Jacoabad. Geographically.2 PHYSICAL RESOURCES This section of the study examines physical resources. Indian Rajasthan is towards the east of the district. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT This portion of the study describes environment of the project area. climate. While it discusses the physical environment in detail.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. the Sub-mountain Indus Region.1 ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING Sukkur has been an important strategic centre and trading route from times immemorial. it spans from 27°05’ to 28°02’ north latitudes and from 68°47’ to 69°43’ east longitudes. socio-economic development. The city of Sukkur lies on the right bank of River Indus as an enclave that juts out west with borders on Shikarpur and Khairpur districts.165 square kilometres. topography. quality of life values and cultural heritage.1 Geology and Geomorphology Pakistan can be divided into five broad regions on the basis of physical environment and geology. so as to view the gamut of environmental parameters that can be affected by any project. Sukkur District covers an area of 5. It is also the narrowest point of the course of lower Indus River. 6. it also touches upon other important aspects of the local environment such as biological resources. 6. which are the Northern Mountainous Region. A greater part of the district is on the left bank and east of the river as it flows south into Khairpur.
2 Seismology According to the seismic map of Pakistan at Appendix “VIII” and the Pakistan Building Code Seismic Provisions 2007 (Appendix “XI”). It is an unrelieved featureless plain of fertile alluvium extending for 650 to 700 miles from the rim of the Potohar Plateau southward to the Arabian Sea.1 Distant earthquakes with fundamental periods greater than 1. Tochi and other smaller rivers on the west bank. Sukkur 10/2011 the Indus Plain.000 square miles and is the country’s most prolific and prosperous agricultural domain. Chenab.3 Land Use Prior to construction of Guddu Barrage. A moderate to high intensity earthquake at the site can adversely impact on the development. being mostly saline and unfit for agricultural use in the south. Kurram. frequently swinging from east to west and vice versa. thereby giving rise to various landforms. 6. 6. a large part of the district and adjoining areas was under natural scrub forests. Extensive areas in both the northern and southern zones of the Indus Plain have been affected by water-logging and salinity. east of Ravi River. minor damage zone corresponding to Intensity V and VI of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. The quality of groundwater in the Indus Plain varies. and is made up of silt brought by the Indus and its numerous tributaries.2. As the Indus Delta continued to advance south and the gradient of the plain diminished gradually. Initially submerged under the sea. such as Jhelum. District Sukkur lies in Northern Sindh within the southern part of the vast Indus Plain. the depression was gradually filled up with detritus flowing down Indus River and its tributaries. ultimately turning into a flat alluvial plain. Foundations have been designed specifically to withstand any threat of earthquakes that can be anticipated in the area considering its seismology. This plain was a result of filling of the extensive geosynclines formed as a fore-deep due to upheaval of Himalayan Mountains during the Tertiary Period. i. the river shifted its course. The project area is located within this region. Ravi and Sutlej on the east bank.0 second may cause damage to structures in this zone.2.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The Indus Plain essentially forms the western extension of Indo-Gangetic Plain. the project areas fall in Seismic Zone 2A. The Indus Plain covers an area of about 200. with cultivation confined 67 Bizcorp Consultants . and the Potohar Plateau and Salt Range.e. and Kabul.
According to a study of the Soil Survey of Pakistan. the river used to sweep through almost the entire district during high floods in the monsoon. Land capability to the east is mainly good with some very good and moderate irrigated land.804. and level plains. and restricted cropping with seasonal canal irriation and little grazing.000 acres. Finally. Groundwater table has been rising steadily due to seepage from canals in irrigated 68 Bizcorp Consultants . whereas the remaining 714. or about 165.4 Hydrology River Indus is the main factor controlling hydrology of the area. comprises land with a moderate economic potential. causing great havoc at times. predominantly moderate flood-watered land. restricted cropping with seasonal flooding. or about 437.2. Sukkur District comprises 1. Appendices “XII”. landforms and land capability of areas to the east of the city whereas Appendices “XV” and “XVI” show land-use and land capability of areas to the west of the city in the Jacobabad area. Land capability here is very good with some good irrigated land. and forests along the river. Sukkur 10/2011 to low-lying areas that received irrigation water from the river through inundation canals flowing only when river water rose to high levels.000 acres. Landforms east of the river are active floodplains comprising meander bars and levees. consist of land with a high economic potential under irrigation. Around one-fifth of the area. entering the district near Kashmore at Guddu Barrage and runs along the entire north-western boundary of the district. Floodwater flowed through the old river channels and low-lying areas. the water would converge in the south and escape through a wide stream that is now the course of Nara Canal. One-fourth of the district. has a very high economic potential under irrigation. landforms are recent and sub-recent floodplains. Away from the river. or 363. Land-use in areas immediately close to the city have limited general cropping with perennial canal irrigation. “XIII” and “XIV” show land-use. and mainly poor with some moderate flood-watered land. out of which around one-eleventh of the area.000 acres. Prior to construction of barrages and flood-protection embankments.000 acres. 6.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Land with poor economic potential under flood-watering measures approximately 125. and good with some very good irrigated land. Shikarpur and Khairpur districts lie to the west and south-west of Sukkur City.000 acres. Agricultural areas across the river to the east of the city have restricted cropping with perennial canal irrigation.000 acres consist of agriculturally unproductive land.
off-white to yellowish in colour. The project site is located within an area where the soil is mainly Sodhra Series comprising mixed river alluvium. Pacca-Dungi Association and Sultanpur Association.200 ppm. moderately weathered. Soil from twelve to thirty metres consists of nodular limestone. Water tables rise especially during the summer when canals are at full discharge. thinly bedded with very close fracture spacing. Miani. Pacca. Geotechnical investigation of the project site shows that the soil is nodular limestone to a depth of seven metres. slightly weathered. mainly Sodhra Association and Shahdara Association. Recent floodplains comprise soils with characteristics of Sodhra Association.6 Soil Soil along the river to the south and west of the city are typical of active floodplains. Shahdara Association and Shahdara-Miani Association. very fine grained texture.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. slightly rough and filled.2. the soil is limestone off-white to yellowish in colour.1 6.5 Water Table Boreholes made at the project site for collection of soil samples encountered water table at a depth of six feet. very hard. Sukkur 10/2011 areas. typical of active. 6.500 ppm and as high as 4. smooth and stained. recent floodplains and uncovered bars in sub-recent floodplains. moderately weathered. 8 to 15 feet in Nara Canal command. Subrecent floodplains with meander bars and levees are Jhakkar Association. very fine grained texture.2.500 ppm in other places. fluctuating between 5 and 10 feet in Ghotki Feeder command. Satghara and Jhakkar associations. Soils in the level plains are Pacca Association. very hard. Between seven to twelve metres. and 2 to 6 feet in Khairpur Feeder East command areas. thickly bedded with very close fracture spacing. Good quality deep water is found in only about 40 percent of the north-western part of the district while it is very poor in other parts. very hard. Shallow groundwater in almost the whole of irrigated area is of good quality and has salt content of less than 1. Kasur Association and Sodhra Complex. Soils immediately to the west of the city in Shikarpur and Khairpur districts are mainly Shikarpur. very 69 Bizcorp Consultants . Characteristics of this soil are shown at Appendix “XVII”. with salt content of more than 2. off-white to yellowish in colour.
Peshawar. 6. Topography of the entire project area as a whole is uniform and generally common to most of the local floodplain. The first type is tropical semi-arid with dry winter.53” east longitude. Finally. A topographical illustration of the project site is placed at Appendix “IV”. Quetta and northern half of the former Kalat Division. great fluctuations in temperature and occasional windstorms are salient features of the local climate. but also on general circulation of atmosphere in South Asia.1 Soils of Sukkur and Jacobabad districts are shown at Appendices “XVIII” and “XIX”. 70 Bizcorp Consultants . As per widely-used climate classification system developed by Wladimir Köppen.7 Topography The proposed project site is a part of a fast-developing rural area to the north-west of the city of Sukkur at 27º42’10. high evaporation. The Cold Semi-arid with Dry Summer climate type prevails over Central Kashmir. which prevails in the former Karachi. Hyderabad and southern Khairpur divisions. slightly rough an filled. Extreme Cold climate is experienced in eastern and northern parts of Kashmir.2. Sukkur 10/2011 fine grained texture. Low rainfall. with elevation of fifty-eight metres above sea level.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.2. Pakistan has five types of climate. Snow Forest Climate covers the northern mountainous areas and parts of Kashmir. subtropical continental climate zone. Dera Ismail Khan. Chitral and Northern Areas. thickly bedded with very close fracture spacing. The cold season (December to March) is influenced by frequent passing of western disturbances originating over the Mediterranean and Western Europe. Tropical arid climate characterised by dry winters is experienced in southern Kalat and the whole of the Indus Plain.8 Climate Pakistan’s latitudinal and longitudinal extents and its northern rim of lofty mountains are the two factors having great bearing not only on temperature and rainfall patterns.2. The project areas fall in the arid.9 Seasons There are four well-marked seasons in the country. 6.72” north latitude and 68º50’06. 6. low relative humidity.
and ranges from 0. Southern Punjab receives less than 125 mm of rainfall and as such mostly falls in an arid zone. October and November are by far the driest months on account of anti-cyclonic conditions. It reaches the Punjab by early or mid-July. Afghanistan and then to Pakistan. and varies from about 10°C in the north of the plains to about 18°C in south. The monsoon spreads northwards.11 Humidity Relative humidity in Sukkur at 0800 hours is below 54 percent during April and 77 percent in the monsoon season. with a short monsoon. as the south-west monsoons.e. i. Annual average for the last ten years is shown in Table 32.4°C in mountainous areas. Sukkur 10/2011 These cyclones advance eastward over Saudi Arabia. generally in a series of pulses. This period experiences periods of heavy rains and storms. The monsoon season (July to September) is caused by low pressure over the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent in May and June. True humid conditions appear after the rainfall increases to 750 mm in plains and 625 mm in the highlands.2. 6. and light and variable winds all over the plains of Pakistan. and begin to recede at the end of August. The major part of the province of Punjab receives less than 250 mm of rainfall in a year. Mean monthly temperature is below 4. i. 6. The former takes place from July to September while the latter occurs between December and March. and are characterised by clear skies. The monsoon currents remain steady in July.10 Rainfall There are two sources of rainfall in Pakistan. 71 Bizcorp Consultants . the Monsoon and the Western Depression. Day temperature begins to rise and peaks in June from 40°C to 46°C. winter. Rainfall during this period increases northwards and westwards. The project area experiences four seasons. which start blowing over the land about middle of June.62 mm per month. Average rainfall of the district is 88 mm. The hot season (April to June) sees high temperatures and aridity.2. autumn and spring. The post-monsoon season (October and November) is basically transitory. Iran.59 mm to 25. summer. attracting winds from the Indian Ocean.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. while temperatures of 50°C and above are not uncommon. Average monthly relative humidity values are shown in Table 33 following this chapter. Changes in the structure of the upper air during this season allow further invasion of moist air from the Bay of Bengal in July.e. mostly constant to the middle of August.
passes through Sindh. when patches of fog can be disruptive for traffic. This is more than thirty times the water contained in all fresh water lakes and more than 3. 72 Bizcorp Consultants . which is the line of the greatest mean heat of the globe.2.2 knots during the winter. Light northerly winds predominate during the winter.000 times the average volume of water flowing through rivers and streams. which is a weak extension of the south-west wind arising from the sea coast.918 mm.1 Pakistan has extensive groundwater resources built up over the millennia through direct recharge from natural precipitation. 6.15 Surface and Groundwater Resources Groundwater is found in a very large area under the crust of the earth and the total estimated amount is about 500.14 Visibility Visibility remains good throughout the year except for December and January. Wind speeds can reach a maximum of 2. The mean winter (December to February) temperature is about 62.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.000 million acre feet. Light and hot wind. June is the hottest month with a mean maximum temperature of about 109º F. Variations in temperature.2 knots during the summer and be as low as 0.12 Monthly Mean Temperatures The thermal equator. Sukkur 10/2011 6. Monthly mean minimum and maximum temperatures (°C) during 2001-2010 are shown in Tables 34 and 35 at the end of this chapter.13 Wind Direction and Speed The dominant wind direction in the area is south and south-east in summer. The mean annual temperature is about 80º F. both diurnal and seasonal.2. while January is the coldest month with a mean minimum temperature of about 45º F.1º F. out of which one-fifth lies within a depth of 2.500 feet from the surface.2.2. Tables 36 and 37 show wind direction and speed for the project area over 2001-2010. blows for a part of the year during the summer. There is mild urban smog that is visible at dawn while industrial smog is minimal. Mean annual evaporation is 1. 6. are great. while the mean summer (May to July) temperature being 94º F. 6.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. which is by and large fit for human consumption.200 ppm near the river to highly saline with salinity exceeding 4.16 Surface and Groundwater Quality The quality of groundwater is area specific and generally ranges from fresh with Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) less than 1.2. watercourses and application losses in irrigated lands. and • Coastal belt. A large volume of underground water is available throughout the project area. Sukkur District generally falls in the sweet groundwater classification. There are no streams running through the project area that can be affected by project activities. • Eastern desert belt. A paper released by Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency states that groundwater quality in urban centres is affected the most by wastewater.2 Groundwater in the project area is normally available at a depth ranging between 20 to 50 metres below natural surface level. Out of the total groundwater potential of fifty-five million acre feet. 6. where water is easily accessible for human consumption. basically because areas covered by sewerage networks is extremely low. where spring water is largely abundant. There is also no wetland in the near vicinity of the project site.500 ppm. where canal or river water is available. • Brackish groundwater areas. two million tons of human excreta was produced in 2004. which are as follows: • Sweet groundwater areas. distributaries. Sukkur 10/2011 river flows. Municipal water supply is quite extensive but tube-wells have been sunk on need basis to meet additional water needs. Out of twelve sources of drinking water collected from the city by the Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources. • Mountainous and hilly areas in the north. only one was found safe for 73 Bizcorp Consultants . and in recent times from continuous seepage from conveyance systems of canals. out of which at least fifty percent ended up in water. about 49 million acre feet will be exploited presently.1 Pakistan can be divided into five major zones for drinking water sources. where saline water is generally available. Readings of water quality at various locations in Sukkur are at Appendix “XX”. According to an estimate some years ago. where groundwater may be available only at greater depth.
Sukkur 10/2011 direct human consumption.18 Present State of the Habitat The project site and immediate environs are primarily semi-urban to rural in nature and there are no breeding or nesting grounds. These standards shall apply both to rural as well as urban water supply schemes and were officially released in June 2008. 6. 65 billion per year. 6. However.3 As stated in the previous section. Laboratory tests have ascertained that groundwater at the project site is fit for direct human consumption (Appendix “XXI”). It has been ascertained through interviews with geologists that concentrations of sulphates in the project area are well within permissible limits. there is ample sub-surface water available throughout the project area.2.19 Ambient Air Quality Pakistan’s Strategic Country Environmental Assessment concludes that environmental degradation is estimated at 6 percent of the Gross National Product and the cost to the economy in terms of air pollution has been calculated at Rs.17 Soil Contamination No visible signs of soil contamination were observed during site visits. 6. urbanisation. Mitigation: Groundwater samples were collected from a borehole at the project site and analyses were carried out at the Central Research Laboratory of the Public Health Engineering Department. due mainly to high growth rate of the economy.4 According to a position paper of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency. air pollution is an emerging environmental issue in the larger cities. or a wetland or an ecologically critical area in the near vicinity that can be affected adversely by project implementation or operation of the medical facility. growth of infrastructure and an increase of 74 Bizcorp Consultants .2.1 The National Drinking Water Policy2 of the federal government envisages implementation of drinking water quality standards after these are developed by the Government in line with World Health Organisation Guidelines and approved by the Federal Cabinet.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. sulphate resistant cement has been advised for all construction activities due to the high water table.2. The results are presented in Table 38.
596 5.813 6. which remains the most authentic ambient air quality survey for urban areas. Vehicular emissions are.505 This huge increase of almost three hundred percent during the last seventeen years or so has resulted in deterioration of ambient air quality. No studies have been conducted regarding ambient air quality in Sukkur District.701. Carbon Monoxide in the air occurs due to incomplete combustion of fuel. TABLE 13: REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES (PAKISTAN) Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 (Consultants’estimate) Source: Pakistan Economic Survey 2010-11 No. however.109. Major sources of Suspended Particulate Matter. fine particles of soil are raised in the form of dust cloud by driven vehicles and by strong wind.022 9.559. The second air pollutants are nitrogen and nitrogen oxide. not especially in the project area. especially in fast-growing urban centres and along major highways elsewhere.374. burning of solid waste. of Registered Vehicles 2.907. brick kilns and natural dust. The origin of Suspended Particulate Matter is mainly from unpaved roads and areas not covered with grass or plantation.1 Experts consider that vehicles account for sixty to seventy percent of degradation of air quality in urban areas.3 Suspended Particulate Matter (both TSP and PM 10 ) concentrations in all major cities are extremely high.669.948 4. particularly boilers and furnaces in industry.4 The city does not suffer from high SO 2 and SO 3 emissions. A study funded by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency in 2000.837 3. not the main source of adverse impact on ambient air quality.2 Table 13 below indicates increase in registered motor vehicles during the period 1990 to 2010. the major source 75 Bizcorp Consultants .853. Sukkur 10/2011 almost four hundred percent in the number of vehicles. and to a lesser extent by industry and brick kilns. However.429 5.364 7. reveals that particulate matter is the main problem surrounding ambient air quality. The presence of some SO 2 emissions has been attributed to diesel-powered engines in vehicles. which are prevalent in urban areas largely due to use of coal and heavy oil in industry as well as dwellings. are vehicles. industry.712. ambient air in the project area is affected by emissions from motor vehicles. occurring mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels. Accordingly.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
Acacia Arabica (kikar) and Zizyphus jujuba (berry). Salvadora Oleoides (wan). Desert areas to the east of the district. apples and fig are also grown in some areas. wild boar and snakes along the river. forests. Perganum harmala (harmal) and Calotropis Procera (ak). especially within protected orchards. particularly wild boar and rabbits and various species of migratory birds. which are protected under the relevant laws relating to preservation of wildlife.1 Flora Not much of original vegetation has survived in the district after construction of Guddu Barrage and increase in the canal command areas.3 ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES As the project site fall in the urban area. 6. but there are still traces of wolves. aquatic biology. lime. Dalbergia sissoo (shisham). Albezia labek (siris) and Acacia Arabica (kikar) are the planted trees along canals. Clover is grown in small quantities during winter. Tamarix diocca (lai) is the typical natural vegetation of strongly saline gypsiferous soils. Sukkur 10/2011 being motor emissions. In the riverine belt. urbanisation and steady erosion of rakhs along the river. factors such as ecological resources. has almost totally eliminated wildlife from the environs. plantains. roads and around habitations in canal-irrigated areas. whereas the main grasses are Cynodon dactylon (khabbal). Azadiracchta indica (neem). fisheries.2 Fauna Much of the district’s fauna has been reduced due to cultivation and human activity. have an 76 Bizcorp Consultants . Alhagi camelorum (jawan). Carbon Monoxide emissions in Sukkur are much lower as compared to major cities. but pomegranates. wildlife. 6. Similarly.3. the main tress are Prosopis spicigera (jandi). Capparis aphylla (karir).Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Desmostachya bipinnata (dab) and Saccharum munja (sarkanda). Tamarix articulata (farrash). rare or endangered species are not applicable and the proposed project will have no impact on any of these resources.3. which once teemed with wildlife. The main shrubs are Tamarix diocca (lai). 6. basically due to lesser number of vehicles. Main fruit trees include mango and dates.
and vice versa. dress. including changes in social structures. social relationships and accompanying cultural and value systems (language. as well as changes in the values. such as changes in population numbers. play. 6. institutions. • Cultural resource impacts. Social impacts can broadly be classified as: • Demographic impacts. and environmental changes are often linked to social change. It is expected that land development in the suburbs shall have additional impact on fauna. age structure. population characteristics (gender ratio. beliefs and norms that characterize their “group” and guide individual and collective action. with urban population comprising about 50. and • Socio-cultural impacts. such as individual changes in archaeological. People and their social groups are a component part of their environment.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Sukkur 10/2011 abundance of deer and migratory birds. In basic terms. religious beliefs and rituals). work.3.3 Threats to Flora and Fauna No flora or fauna shall be under threat from project activities.88 77 Bizcorp Consultants . Both flora and fauna stand reduced in the project area due to urban development. relate to one another and organize to meet their needs.1 Demography The population of Sukkur District is an estimated 1. they are alterations in the way people live. Social impacts include changes that effect individuals.4 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT The close relationship between social and environmental systems makes it imperative that social impacts are identified. 6. social organizations. historical and cultural artefacts and structures and environmental features with religious or ritual significance. 6.4. demand for social services). communities and larger social systems as well as the interactions between them.277 million as of end of December 2010. predicted and evaluated in conjunction with bio-physical impacts during environmental assessment.
Growth of population in the province and Sukkur are shown below. lowered socioeconomic status leading to increased morbidity and mortality).93 1.4 Power Sources and Transmission Hyderabad Electric Supply Company is the agency responsible for supply of power to the project areas and upgrades its facilities frequently so as to 78 Bizcorp Consultants .91 2005 36. Due to urban nature of the project area. there is a good coverage of government hospitals. High growth of population in Sukkur is typical of urban centres of the country and is due mainly to rural-urban migration and industrial and commercial growth over the last ten years or so.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. along with technical education institutions within the district as compared to the province as a whole. As stated earlier. 6. TABLE 14: POPULATION (‘000 persons) 1998 30.4. Medical facilities in the district as compared to the province as a whole are shown in Tables 18 and 19 overleaf. There are both private and public sector schools.40 1. 6.2 Education Educational facilities in Sukkur at primary to degree levels of education indicating enrolment of girls and boys and strength of teaching staff is shown in Tables 15 to 17 overleaf.3 Public Health Health impacts can result directly from changes to the bio-physical environment (such as exposure to toxic pollution) or indirectly as the result of other changes caused by the project (for example.88 Sindh Sukkur Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 6.108 2010 42. the nature of the project does not have any relevance to health facilities within the district either but these will be addressed in compliance of the prescribed guidelines. Sukkur 10/2011 percent of the total.4.80 2.44 0.4. colleges and universities in the city. as shown at Appendix “XXII”.28 Growth rate 2. Residents of the project areas generally depend on private hospitals and dispensaries for their health and medicinal needs.
The project area has an adequate service of Internet Cafés. provided by Hyderabad Electric Supply Company and Sui Southern Gas Company. Connections are readily available for domestic and commercial consumers. Commercial and industrial establishments using natural gas for various purposes have ready access to supply of gas from the country-wide gas network maintained by Sui Southern. Other forms of power such as cylinder gas. Table 20 indicates roads in the project area. which is continuously upgraded to cater for increasing traffic.947 Sukkur 267 63 .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. respectively.6 Road Network Sukkur city has a good network of roads.609 2.4. Sukkur 10/2011 readily meet the rising demand for power connections. Apart from outlying areas of the city. 6. Areas not covered by telephone network can apply for wireless connections that are offered extensively. Water supply and drainage services are provided by the Town Municipal Administration. The entire city is well-connected through electricity and natural gas. TABLE 20: ROADS TYPE OF ROADS (in kilometres) High Type (2007-08) Low Type (2005-06) Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 79 Bizcorp Consultants Sindh 10. propane. Areas not connected with the natural gas network use cylindered liquefied petroleum gas. timber and coal are similarly easily available in and around the project area. 6.4.5 Infrastructure Being the major northern city of the province. coverage of water supply and sanitation is more than adequate. Sukkur has substantial coverage of civic infrastructure. Telephone companies have a vast network of telephone lines and connections are easily available. Construction of the proposed hospital shall not impact on the existing infrastructure. which is available throughout the district. which does not include all types of roads within the urban area of Sukkur city. The entire city is well-covered in terms of mobile telephone facility and as many as five major cellular companies compete for consumer patronage.
712. Small-scale cottage industries comprise hosiery. of On-Road Vehicles (Sukkur) --------46. hand pumps.757.417 5. Among important industries are cotton textiles.286.267 6. employing a sizable number of workers.4.232. The project area is in the heart of the administrative centre of the city and there is ample public transportation in the form of buses. TABLE 22: FACTORIES AND WORKERS (2005-06) Factories (number) 1. Sukkur District is a hub of many small and large-scale industries.825 121 Bizcorp Consultants Sindh Sukkur 80 Workers (number) 290.435.4. boat making.315 Source: Pakistan Economic Survey 2009-10. fishing accessories. paint and varnish.987.669. taxis and rickshaws. wagons. fertiliser and sugar. thread ball spooling. ricehusking. leather.267 ------No. Major industrial units are located in Dharki and Mirpur Mothello. of Registered Vehicles (Sindh) ------1. of Registered Vehicles (Pakistan) 2. tobacco. and an airport handling domestic traffic.465 2.215 ------- Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 2008 2009 2010 No.8 Industries Although there are no large industrial units within the city or immediately across the river.376 11. agriculture implements.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.729 6.7 Transportation The city can claim to enjoy availability of the main rail links and highways connecting with the rest of the country.538 6. The following table indicates transportation levels in the district. lock making. trunk making.786 . cutlery and ceramics.837 3. cement. The following table provides an illustration of factories and workers in the district.479. Sukkur 10/2011 6. brass-wares. Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 6.948 4.992. TABLE 21: REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES No.701. pharmaceuticals.596 5.
467 Sukkur 3.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. These tropical forests are found within the protective embankments on 81 Bizcorp Consultants .975 795 2. TABLE 23: LIVESTOCK (number in thousands in 2000) Sindh 5. employment and boats. serving meat and dairy needs of the public.002 2.060 2.9 Livestock The district has a large population of livestock.10 Forests Sukkur also has a large riverine forest along the course of the Indus.790 19. TABLE 25: FISHERIES (2007) TYPE: Fish production (metric tons) Part-time fishermen Full-time fishermen Total number of fishermen Sailboats Rowing boats Total number of boats Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 Sindh 94.258 31. Major livestock in the project area are indicated in Table 23 whereas Table 24 shows availability of veterinary facilities in the district.710 9.4.464 5.767 51.855 89 80 169 6.025 1.4.861 Sukkur 209 171 56 272 418 Cattle Buffaloes Sheep Goats Poultry Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 TABLE 24: VETERINARY FACILITIES (2006-07) Sindh 119 60 608 787 Sukkur 9 7 30 46 Hospitals Dispensaries Veterinary Centres TOTAL: Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 Table 25 gives an illustration of fish production.615 3.465 3.734 11. Sukkur 10/2011 6.
571 2.12 Irrigation and Drainage Sukkur and adjoining districts have one of the most extensive irrigation networks in the country.219. Sukkur is famous the world over for its delicious dates.000 cubic feet (1.946 Sukkur 34. Agricultural productivity has declined over the years. 6.431 6. barley. Construction of the bridge was started in 1923 and completed in January 1932.000 square kilometres) of farmland through its seven large canals. Most of the linear plantation is along the irrigation channels and does not include massive linear plantation taken up by the provincial government and municipal authorities during the recent past along roads and highways.442 177.383 165. when Indus River was more as free-flowing as today. on account of continuous shortages of water and non-application of modern irrigation techniques.386.001 feet (1. cotton.11 Agriculture Sukkur District had a large fertile and cultivable land area until a few decades ago. Some of the canals are larger than the Suez Canal. The 5. total area under forests was 510 square kilometres. the Government of Pakistan initiated a rehabilitation project to revitalise its water storage capacity and 82 Bizcorp Consultants .4. yielding 55. has sixty-six gates and controls one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. bajra. formally called Lloyd Barrage.037.4.239 1.600 m3) of timber and 27. During 1997-98.000 cubic feet (760 m3) of firewood besides other products. built during colonial times on Indus River. grams and melons. TABLE 26: FORESTS (2006-07) TYPE: Area under forests (in hectares) Timber production (quantity) Firewood production (quantity) Source: Development Statistics of Sindh 2008 Sindh 1. Sukkur 10/2011 either side of the Indus.524 metres) long barrage is made of yellow stone and steel and can water nearly 10 million acres (40. Sukkur Barrage. and has not achieved a reasonable yield per unit area over time. In November 2004. whereas the main crops during rabi are wheat. rice.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. tomatoes and peas are cultivated widely. Tables 27 to 31 overleaf are an agricultural profile of the project areas. Despite the lack of water during kharif.
1 Cultural Values Original residents of the project area belong to the rural lower to middle class. The joint family system is still common and there is respect for the destitute. They follow a blend of old and modern cultural values.13 Land Use Planning The project site is situated close to an urban centre. the younger generation is inclined to be somewhat modern and influenced by western culture.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.5 QUALITY OF LIFE VALUES Guidelines prescribed by the federal government for preparation of an environmental report stipulate that an environmental study must also address issues relating to socio-economic.4. cultural and aesthetic values of the community in project areas. 6. the elderly and women. However.14 Mineral Development There is no mineral development of note anywhere in Sukkur or close to the project area except for sand quarrying on River Indus riverbed. Despite living close to an urban 83 Bizcorp Consultants . 6.4.5. The project was completed in July 2005. which is overseen by the Town Municipal Administration for purposes of land-use planning. 6. There is sufficient awareness about education and most families send their children to educational institutions. Sukkur 10/2011 distribution efficiency. 6. 6. building regulations and municipal services.2 Socio-economic Values A majority of residents of the area belong to the lower to middle income rural class. Experts believe that rehabilitation of the barrage has enhanced its efficiency for another 60 to 70 years. with some landed aristocracy. Social values of residents are not too far removed from the majority of the country’s population.5.
6. Ex-Governor of Bukkur.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. cats and rats are often found scavenging around the solid waste for sources of food. Manzilgah Mosque at Bundar Road. they share common social and economic values of life. War Mubarak Mohammad in Rohri City.5. Sukkur 10/2011 environment. providing exquisite rural scenery. Sadh Belo Temple on River Indus.5. is perhaps the only mechanism whereby the public can be made fully cognisant of the value of cleanliness of public places. However. People expect others to maintain cleanliness of the surroundings. therefore. Resultantly.4 Recreation and Archaeological/Historical Treasures There are virtually no recreational facilities in the project area. Throwing away solid wastes indiscriminately in open areas and along the roads and paths is common. people come into intimate and direct contact with each other and.3 Aesthetic Values Being close to a large urban centre. except for a few open fields that are used by youngsters for cricket. Even dogs. waste-ridden areas remain dirty and vectors of diseases like mosquitoes and flies breed on solid waste lying almost unattended. the city and outlying areas are rich in sightseeing venues such as Indus River. especially in the educational institutions. the entire project area cannot claim aesthetic values except in the form of open spaces under cultivation.Sateen Jo Aastan (resting place for the Seven Female Friends). football and volleyball. These vectors further spread a host of diseases among the people. There is general harmony towards collective interests amongst the local people. Shrine of Syed Sadar-Ur-Din-Shah. Kot Mir Yakoob Ali Shah Rohri. while shrugging their personal as well as collective social responsibility and obligation in this respect. Sense of personal responsibility as good citizens to keep the environment clean is seriously deficient and public awareness campaigns launched by the government and municipal authorities have largely failed to motivate the public to adopt the best civic practices and recognise civic responsibilities. Generally speaking. 6. 84 Bizcorp Consultants . Aror (ruins of historical city). Tomb of Abdul Baqi Purani. A wellcoordinated public awareness campaign backed by the civil society and environmental education. cleanliness and proper sanitation standards are typical of rural areas. Tomb of the Seven Maidens --. The poor generally rely on the affluent for support and to some extent to the social safety nets of the government. Tomb of Shah Khairuddin Jillani.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Ladies and Children Hill Park. and the Tomb of Syed Mukhdoom Shah Badshah. Minaret of Masum Shah. Hyderi Masjid. Sukkur Barrage. Sukkur 10/2011 Bukkur Island. Old Sukkur. 85 Bizcorp Consultants . Lansdowne Bridge. Old Sukkur. Tomb of Syed Hakim Ali. Jinaat (Genies’) Building.
0 0.0 0.0 0.0 71.0 67.0 0.0 0. (%) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 83.0 81.0 0.0 2003 2.0 0.0 63.0 66.0 86.00 P.0 65.0 77.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.0 0.0 81.0 84.0 75.0 0.0 82.0 9.0 0.0 80.0 6.6 0.0 -1 0.5 0.0 71.0 2009 10.0 55.0 2002 0.0 73.6 2010 1.0 75.0 81.0 65.0 68.0 92.0 -1 0.0 7.0 0.0 17.0 80.0 0.0 59.0 74.0 83.0 81.1 0.4 0.0 73.0 78.0 0.0 79.0 85.0 0.0 84.0 73.6 6.7 0.0 77.0 0.1 2004 0.0 53.0 56.0 83.0 6.0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.0 70.0 84.0 73.0 2008 3.0 79.0 6.0 0.0 7. Sukkur 10/2011 TABLE 32: RAINFALL (MM) [-1=TRACE] -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 0.2 1.0 82.5 0.8 0.0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.0 12.0 0.0 3.0 72.0 68.0 82.0 72.0 84.0 0.0 2007 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 79.0 82.0 68.0 0.0 51.0 85.0 114.0 44.0 84.0 0.0 59.7 11.0 84.0 1.0 84.0 81.0 0.M.0 84.0 2.0 80.0 68.0 86.0 84.7 1.0 10.0 84.0 61.0 8.0 0.0 0.0 85.0 5.0 82.0 86. Islamabad 86 Bizcorp Consultants .0 67.0 56.0 79.0 69.0 0.0 71.8 15.0 -1.0 4.0 0.0 84.0 78.0 57.0 16.0 85.0 74.5 0.0 86.0 67.0 0.0 69.0 86.0 76.0 47.0 82.0 55.6 -1 0.0 0.0 59.0 17.0 61.0 13.0 84.0 0.0 87.0 -1 0.0 31.0 13.0 89.0 87.0 73.0 19.0 83.0 10.0 65.0 0.5 0.0 -1 -1 -1 30.0 81.0 87.0 85.0 87.0 0.0 74.0 130.0 79.0 77.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 117.0 67.0 77.0 -1 0.0 -1 -1 19.7 2005 -1 2006 0.0 75.0 84.0 87.0 -1 -1 0.0 74.0 84. Islamabad TABLE 33: HUMIDITY AT 5.0 86.0 82.6 3.0 2.0 70.0 -1.0 74.0 79.0 0.0 84.0 72.4 0.0 0.0 91.0 82.0 47.2 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 82.0 83.0 65.0 83.
0 45.6 43.9 --28.9 42.3 43.9 26.1 37.6 6.8 31.7 --17.0 25.4 16.1 12.1 36.8 2.3 30.7 27.4 38.5 38.4 44.7 40.5 13.1 44.2 9.9 35.2 29.0 15.3 28.7 38.2 42.1 24.5 38.3 ---30.5 38.3 30.0 35.1 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.5 28.3 28.8 --23.5 21.4 35.5 29.8 6.5 9.5 35.4 21.7 41.1 28.5 29.0 28.6 26.8 42.0 40.8 9.3 23.7 24.3 26.9 26.6 39.3 10.3 26.5 40.6 29.3 39.6 31.0 37.8 19.8 23.5 44.0 39.5 41.0 29.9 29.1 26.8 42.9 38.1 24.8 23.6 16.1 31.6 42.7 22.6 29.5 24.5 29.2 27.5 27.8 27.7 41.9 28.9 9.6 16.0 26.2 36.2 27.6 41.3 32.0 37.7 --28.7 27.7 35.4 28.1 28.0 20.4 17.0 42. Sukkur 10/2011 TABLE 34: MONTHLY MEAN MINIMUM TEMPERATURES (° C) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 5.6 7.5 35.1 36.7 14.6 31.4 30.1 40.9 20.2 20.5 36.6 33.8 29.0 38.2 40.0 10.0 27.1 25.4 37.4 36.2 41.5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.7 27.9 5.3 25.4 --7.5 25.6 7.9 27.3 40.3 23.7 28.9 44.8 42.4 12.6 --28.1 45.1 26.2 35.2 27.7 16.7 8.7 29.9 --22.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.7 29.0 19.4 26.1 --15.7 24.6 26.3 16.0 33.6 26.9 25.0 23.9 39.2 19.8 10.0 28.0 14.0 37.1 --7.1 14.5 33.4 13.7 21.8 18.3 6.7 21.5 42.1 ---25.1 32.7 22.7 26.8 25.7 42.6 --24.6 29.1 38.9 8.2 27.3 26.8 40.8 25.9 37.2 44.8 38.8 36.1 24.6 23.7 40.4 6.9 10.6 22.4 6. Islamabad TABLE 35: MONTHLY MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES (° C) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 24. Islamabad 87 Bizcorp Consultants .6 45.0 9.5 37.6 13.2 30.5 26.5 --10.0 38.0 39.5 20.0 16.3 37.3 21.3 42.8 40.8 15.7 22.7 22.8 30.1 14.8 43.5 39.2 9.1 --10.1 16.
9 3.0 1.9 2.4 4.7 4.1 1.0 3.5 0.2 3.3 4.M.0 5.9 0.3 1. Sukkur 10/2011 TABLE 36: WIND DIRECTION AT 0500 A.3 0.3 1.4 3.1 0.0 0.7 2.6 4.0 0.1 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.6 0. Islamabad 88 Bizcorp Consultants .5 0.2 0.4 2.1 1.8 1.9 4.6 3.6 1.4 1.3 2.2 6.2 2.5 3.6 3.9 3.2 0.4 4.2 3.3 0.5 6.1 3.1 2.7 1.2 1.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.8 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.1 4.6 2.5 5.5 2.7 0.2 1.6 4.0 4.9 0.0 1.0 3.7 3.1 1.1 0.3 4.8 4.1 3.6 2.3 1.0 1.5 0.4 5.1 5.2 1.4 6.4 1. (KNOTS) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 1.2 2.6 9.9 1.0 0.2 1.3 0.6 0.6 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.0 1.5 2.7 3.2 3.7 3.1 3.6 2.9 6.0 6.6 0.2 0.0 3.0 2.0 2.7 0.3 0.0 1.6 1.3 3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 N68E N40E N72E N38E E N63E N63E N40E N19E N40E N56E N73E N66E N72E N51E N63E N72E N34E N34E N73E N36E S84E N18E S80E N75E S82E N86E E N59E S84E N84E S27E S49E N42E S86E S63E S56E N39E N63E S27E S19W S45E S40E N27E S31E S15E S20E S59E S67E S45E S28E S11E S08E S13E S1E S25E S34E S8E E S11E S24E S16E S45E S06E S12E S24E S16E S30E S69E S16E S21E S07E S8E S16E S7E S72E S22E S18E S24E S07E S27E S35E S25E S23E S63E S56E S45E S76E S27E S35E S82E S69E N88E N77E S41E S72E N S56E E S69E N76E N32E N63E S86E N83E N72E S82E N67E S45E N32E N59E N72E N72E N34E N45E N18E N19E N27E N34E N72E ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Source: Pakistan Meteorological Department.3 0.M.6 3.3 1.2 1.5 8.6 2.3 1. Islamabad TABLE 37: WIND SPEED AT 0500 A.5 2.9 5.2 1.2 4.7 2.
1 Unobjectionable Colourless Unobjectionable 1.5 6.5-9.1 Total Dissolved Solids Calcium (Units) Magnesium 1. Lahore. on September 13.500 75 200 50 150 100 500 1.2 Unobjectionable 5 50 Unobjectionable 5 25 500 Sample 32°C 7. 2011 at 1345 hours from project site 89 Bizcorp Consultants .477 24 13 Total hardness mg/l as CaCo 3 Total Alkalinity mg/l as CaCo 3 Sulphate Chloride Conductivity um/cm or us/cm 110 --200 400 200 600 --340 284 255 2. Government of the Punjab. Sukkur 10/2011 TABLE 38: GROUNDWATER QUALITY Parameters Temperature pH Odour Colour (units) Taste Turbidity ppm Silica (units) WHO Desirable levels WHO Maximum levels --7-8.110 Source: Tests at the Central Research Laboratory.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 2011 Samples taken on September 09. PHED Department.
increased air emissions). • Timing: Impacts from all stages of the life of the project has to be considered (during construction. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Environmental impact of a project is worked out using various factors. • Duration: Some impacts may be short-term. which can be described as the change in an environmental parameter over a specified period and within a defined area.1 Aspects of impacts which should be considered while conducting an environmental impact are shown overleaf. relocation of households. and resulting reduction in environmental flows). pesticides in the breast milk of mothers due to the use of agricultural pesticides. Environmental impacts described in Table 39. as some impacts occur immediately whereas other may be delayed. Indirect impacts are usually less obvious. Sukkur 10/2011 7. which apply to more or less all cases of project implementation across the board. at times for many years (silting of a dam). spread of malaria as a result of removal of trees or accumulation of stagnant waste water in ponds. small impacts can sometimes be equally important (very small quantities of some toxic substances can cause largescale health problems for all forms of living things). • Magnitude: While the sheer size of an impact contributes to its significance. • Extent and Location: An indication of the location. operation and decommissioning). such as noise arising from equipment during construction. can be classified as follows: • Nature: The most obvious impacts are those that directly relate to the proposal (for instance loss of wetlands. Paul Wathern describes an impact as having both spatial and temporal impacts. environmental degradation of a river mouth resulting from construction of a high dam within the catchment area. resulting from a particular activity compared with the situation which would have occurred had the activity not been initiated.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. so that an environmental management plan can be evolved to take mitigation measures. such as inundation of land after a dam is 90 Bizcorp Consultants . whether direct or indirect. distribution and size of the area(s) likely to be affected must be considered for each impact. occurring at a later stage or at a place other than where the original impacts occurred (for example. while others may be long-term.
it may be that the pre-existing environmental condition can be more or less restored to its original state. However. Sukkur 10/2011 completed. or plans.1. accidents of tankers carrying chemicals). scientific or technical knowledge. restoration is then much easier. or judgment of recognised resource persons and established experts. If impacts are reversible. therefore. especially the stakeholders directly affected by the proposed project. important that impact assessment considers the effects of events that are low risk but high impact (such as oil spills. more or less definitely.1 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY After identification of potential issues. • Public recognition representing social or cultural values or opinion of a segment of the public.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. such as: • Institutional recognition consisting of laws. Some can be predicted to occur. In all cases.1 Definition of the Criteria for Determining Significance Consequences of the proposed project activities are evaluated by comparing these against established criteria. some estimate has to be made of the uncertainty or ‘margin of error’ involved in the prediction. impact assessment of each potential issue takes the form as described hereafter in the following subsections. • Reversibility: Once the cause of an environmental impact has been removed. government policies. • IFC performance standards such as the Equator Principles.release for example of a toxic gas from a chemical plant). while others are less certain (but still capable of probabilistic estimation --. some impacts by the nature of a project are irreversible. standards. Impacts such as quarry blasting may be intermittent. • Technical recognition comprising guidelines.1 and 91 Bizcorp Consultants . either naturally or with human intervention. while others such as severance caused by a motorway may be more or less permanent and/or continuous. 7. It is. 7. and • Likelihood (Risk): Not all impacts share the same likelihood of occurrence.
sprinkling etc. as the case may be. for example. quantitatively (where possible) or qualitatively. 7. erecting windshields. or any part of such activity. which shall be managed through careful environmental monitoring. Mitigation: Quantum of research involved in the environmental assessment has assured that the magnitude of potential impacts has been calculated accurately.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. minimising dust emission by decreasing vehicle speed. There is a range of mitigation measures that can be applied to reduce impacts. depending on nature of the project and project location.. Accordingly.2 Prediction of the Magnitude of Potential Impacts This relates to description. • Reducing impacts by limiting the degree or magnitude of the activity. Sukkur 10/2011 • Professional interpretation of the evaluator. Broadly. 7. these measures can be classified as under: • Avoiding the possible environmental impact completely by not launching a certain proposed activity. proposed activities. This may be achieved through use of models or comparison with other similar activities. The predicted level of impact magnitude may be due to uncertainties in baseline conditions. Mitigation: The environmental consultants have used a mix of the abovementioned criteria to carry out the environmental impact assessment of the proposed project and are thus confident that all possible impacts and outcomes of the proposed project have been adequately covered.3 Identification of Mitigation Measures If it is determined that predicted impact is significant when compared with established criteria.1. of anticipated impacts of the proposed project.1. or the prediction model. or combinations of one or more. 92 Bizcorp Consultants . such as using CFC-free equipment to avoid impact on the ozone layer. external developments. suitable mitigation measures are identified. the environmental consultants have been able to predict that potential impact of the proposed project shall only remain during implementation of the project and that there shall only be limited impact of the project after completion.
1. 7. Mitigation: The quality of the environmental impact assessment shall ensure that all possible mitigation measures shall be identified for enforcement through institutional arrangements during implementation of the project. The scope and frequency of monitoring depends on severity. A wastewater treatment plant and incinerator are embedded in the project design while a waste management plan. 7. 2005.5 Identification of Monitoring Requirements The last step in the assessment process is identification of minimum monitoring requirements. and • Compensating for the impact by replacing or providing substitute resources or environments. 2005. shall be developed and implemented through a pre-designated team for appropriate disposal of remaining solid waste. nature and magnitude of residual impacts. a mandatory provision under the Hospital Waste Management Rules. Sukkur 10/2011 • Rectifying the impact by repairing. No visual resources shall be lost after construction of the eight floor structure and thus there will be negligible visual impact of the project.4 Evaluation of the Residual Impact Incorporation of suggested mitigation measures minimises if not decreases adverse impact of a project and brings it within acceptable limit. This mechanism shall also serve as a guideline during implementation of the project. or restoring the affected environment. Mitigation: The environmental impact assessment has proposed a monitoring mechanism that shall be adopted after the project has been completed to comply with stipulations under the Hospital Waste Management Rules. rehabilitating.1. Identification of the remaining impacts after mitigation measures have been applied is referred to as a residual impact.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Monitoring assures that residual impacts remain within predicted limits and provides timely information when an unacceptable impact occurs. 93 Bizcorp Consultants . Mitigation: The only residual impact shall that be of visual disturbance by the tall building and disposal of liquid and solid waste.
Timing (project phase). Potential impacts could be high negative (adverse) impact. Mitigation: Appropriate mitigation measures have been indicated after the process of classification to reduce if not completely eliminate adverse impacts associated with project activities. high positive (beneficial) impact. Sukkur 10/2011 7. insignificant impact.2 ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING OF THE PROPOSED PROJECT An environmental screening matrix has been designed for the proposed project highlighting obvious. Occurrence and severity of potentially adverse impacts indicated in the Environmental Screening Matrix can be suitably redressed by adoption of mitigation measures during and after project implementation. low positive impact. unlikely or rare). Duration of impact (short term. The matrix examines interaction of project activities with the environment. biological and social.3 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CLASSIFICATION Potential impacts as brought out in the Environmental Screening Matrix as a part of the impact assessment analysis are: • • • • • • • • Nature (direct or indirect). Geographical extent (local or regional).Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Impact consequence severity (severe. moderate or mild). It is pertinent to point out that impacts vary according to the nature of a project itself. Negative impacts determined are essentially “unmitigated” and appropriate mitigation measures have been suggested as remedies. possible and probable environmental impacts of the project during construction and operation. low negative impact. Negative impacts screened through this process are discussed hereafter. 7. likely. and no impact. Impact classification is discussed in the following sections. Each of these broad categories is thereafter broken up into various scenarios. The matrix developed for the project under review is placed overleaf. medium term or long term). medium or low). Reversibility of impact (reversible or irreversible). Impacts are broadly classified as physical. 94 Bizcorp Consultants . Likelihood of the impact (certain. and Significance of impact (high.
1 Siting and Adjacent Land-uses Use of a site for project implementation can often lead to a less than optimal use of the site. The present site is in close proximity to urban areas and is well-connected due to location on an inter-city route that is free of traffic congestion. even in exchange for appropriate compensation. congestion. noise. and vice versa. traffic. acquisition of agricultural land. The setting in a rural area on a major road would be convenient for patients pressed for time. Mitigation: The project site is lying vacant. For example.4. There has not been any dislocation of legal or illegal occupants from the site on account of proposed project activities. while specific location of a project relates to permanence of the project in an alien environment.2 Displacement of Other Site Users Use of a site for project implementation can similarly result in displacement of previous users. In case a site is not sound from an environmental point of view. Sukkur 10/2011 7.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. alternate site must not only be considered but preferred. acquisition of grazing land for a large factory can lead to less grazing opportunities for livestock. Mitigation: Alternate sites were considered but not found suitable. For instance. Moreover. there are no other structures or activities within or close to the project site that can impinge negatively on construction or project operation. Secondly.4. 7. There were reportedly gypsy families squatting at the site who were removed when the site was set aside for the tGhulam Muhammad Mahar Medical College. for development of 95 Bizcorp Consultants .4 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DUE TO PROJECT LOCATION An impact resulting from specific location of the project site differs from those associated with construction and operational phases because construction and operational impacts are directly linked to activities ranging from clearing of the land to waste disposal. 7. arrival of workers and pollution from such a factory would be a constant source of inconvenience for people living close by.
7. Enforcement of the Environmental Monitoring Programme. 7. there has not been any displacement of legal or illegal occupants of the site as a result of the proposed project.5 meters from the source is 85dB (A).4. the proponents must establish infrastructure. particularly when such infrastructure. such as squatters. various construction activities related to the project will cause a measure of noise pollution. and 96 Bizcorp Consultants . As the construction contractor would be directed to use good machinery and equipment. such as roads. gaseous emissions are expected to be within acceptable levels. vehicular traffic and operation of construction machinery etc. Mitigation: As stated in the previous sub-section. the maximum permissible noise level for vehicles at a distance of 7. water supply for example. In such cases. Mitigation: During the construction and operational phases of the proposed project. Similarly. shall ensure that there is no discomfort caused to the local inhabitants and that the environment is not impacted beyond acceptable and tolerable limits.4. Even unauthorised users of the site. both during construction as well as operation of the project.4 Availability of Existing Infrastructure Project implementation can place undue strains on local infrastructure.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.3 Local Environment An assessment must be carried out as to how the proposed project can impact on the local environment and whether it creates any imbalance in terms of physical resources or through impacts on the local population. Similarly.. such as roads. there shall not be any impact on local environment. Sukkur 10/2011 a housing scheme would mean that landowners would lose all or a part of their means of livelihood. leading to social tensions. As per National Environmental Quality Standards. transportation network. deficient infrastructure or total absence thereof can cause problems in implementation. to facilitate construction. which shall not be exceeded. During the operational phase. traffic and disposal of liquid and solid waste. may be displaced. except in the form of visual intrusion. is barely sufficient. electricity. Mitigation: The project area has good to excellent coverage of infrastructure. could be a source of air pollution.
Project implementation will thus not be hampered by inadequate infrastructure.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. equipment and materials.5 Depletion of Resources Depletion of resources can often take place when there are major projects under implementation. Mitigation: The hospital has been conceptualised by experienced consultants and has a state-of-the-art design and shall offer modern facilities that are deficient in the project area. such as construction of a dam.6 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONSTRUCTION The impact of a project is felt more severely during construction phase. Sukkur 10/2011 natural gas. mainly because the immediate project area can become particularly vulnerable to environmental disturbance. 7. Temporary passages and paths may have to be constructed to facilitate movement of machinery. A faulty or sub-standard design that does not take the local environment and aesthetics into account can be a source of considerable annoyance for residents and may even lower property prices. 7. There shall nonetheless be limited impacts from the project in the form of shadow. The main factors that should be borne in mind in relation to construction activities are: 97 Bizcorp Consultants .5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO DESIGN All issues relating to a site. highways or a new town development. 7. which are discussed in subsequent sections of this report along with mitigation measures that shall be adopted for possible mitigation if necessary. project area and environment are usually catered for at the design site of a project. Mitigation: Due to the nature of the project. visual intrusion and earthquake hazard. construction shall not result in depletion of any resources whatsoever and thus the local inhabitants shall not be inconvenienced over the short or the long term on a temporary or a permanent basis.4.
congestion and blocking of access to adjoining activities. quarrying. 7. hazardous materials.6. Further. environmental problems mostly arise within the construction phase. • Local flooding from watering of excavations. Mitigation: No land acquisition proceedings are necessary for the project since an under-utilised parcel of land shall be used for the project. and • Disruption of local traffic patterns. the contractor shall be advised by the proponents to engage casual labour from amongst local workforce and offer business opportunities to local businesses.1 Acquisition of Land Land acquisition and payment of compensation is a tedious process fraught with a horde of issues in a construction project.6. 7.3 Environment Friendly Construction Drills During the execution of any project. 7. 98 Bizcorp Consultants . Soil characteristics show that the site is suitable for construction.6. • Loss or degradation of vegetation from unnecessary removal or mechanical damage.2 Selection of Contractor Poor selection of a contractor invariably results in delays in project implementation and can at the same time have a devastating impact on the environment.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Mitigation: The contractor shall be appointed after due process in line with standing government procedures and guidelines. • Danger to workers from accidents. thereby leading to excessive soil erosion. Construction shall not impact significantly on the immediate environment. thereby creating a positive socio-economic impact. communicable diseases and emissions. Sukkur 10/2011 • Run-off erosion during rains from unprotected excavated areas. flushing of pipes.
• Project site will be sprinkled as frequently as possible to minimise dust pollution.. • Construction equipment will be stored within the project site so that it does not hinder neighbours. equipment and vehicles. • The proponents shall post signs at the site to inform the general public about construction activities and duration of works. it shall be carried away from the site in closed containers on an emergent and continuous basis through a sub-contractor. there will nevertheless be adverse environmental impacts. crush. paper. which will be addressed appropriately. which will minimise noise and gaseous emissions. Professionalism of the construction contractor will reduce the possibility of environmental degradation during project implementation. and without any delay. • The construction contractor shall use good quality machinery. iron and steel as scrap. but the construction contractor will be advised to control obtrusive light to the maximum extent. ropes etc. rags. • A sub-contractor will be engaged for removal of all forms of waste from the project site and disposal of such waste in such a manner that it does not impinge on the environment anywhere.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The proponents will hold regular meetings with the project consultants and the selected contractor to stress importance of protecting the environment and measures that would be taken in this behalf. plastic. Sukkur 10/2011 Mitigation: The proponents shall take sufficient measures to ensure that development works do not in any way impinge on the environment on a temporary or permanent basis. • Wherever the excavated earth cannot be disposed locally and compacted thereafter. • Debris with its main constituents as construction waste. including clay. wood pieces. by the proponents and the construction contractor. • Floodlights could be used whenever construction activities take place during dark. sand. wires. shall be disposed 99 Bizcorp Consultants . • Construction may take place around the clock on specific days but will be mainly restricted to daylight hours. The following practices will be adopted by the contractor under strict supervision of the proponents to protect the environment: • While all efforts shall be made by the contractor and the proponents to ensure that negative externalities of the project during the course of the construction process are minimal. stones.
7. glass. Erosion and Degradation Spills during refuelling. broken or used parts.6.. cardboard. metal. cloth. discharges from vehicle and equipment maintenance. will be carried away by the sub-contractor for sale to licensed recycling industries. Inert recyclable waste from the site comprising mainly cardboard. Sukkur 10/2011 • • • • • • • • • • • • • of expeditiously and appropriately by the contractor through special arrangement with a sub-contractor. shall be segregated and disposed in line with rules framed by the government for disposal of hazardous waste. Bins will be placed at the site for construction waste. traffic accidents and leakages from equipment and vehicles 100 Bizcorp Consultants .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. if any. drums. Separate garbage drums will be placed for different types of materials (plastics. Construction site will be off-limits for the public to prevent damage or accidents by innocent interference. which will be either reused or disposed through the sub-contractor. Hazardous waste. Workers will be insured against accidents as per law of the land during project activities.4 Soil Contamination. Noisy works will not be undertaken at night. paper. Building materials will be ordered on need basis only and be used up quickly so that these do not pile up at the project site. The contractor will employ latest construction techniques to ensure that no harm comes either to workers or people approaching or entering the project site. wood and muck). Workers employed by the contractor will not be exposed to any danger and shall wear hard hats throughout the duration of construction. and The contractor shall ensure that the existing infrastructure is not damaged. A materials yards will be set up within the site to store construction materials strictly on need basis. etc. The construction contractor will ensure that first aid equipment is present at all times and that emergency medical services are available on an immediate basis in the event of any unfortunate accident.
Particulate matter is generally 101 Bizcorp Consultants .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. due to leakages from equipment and containers.5 Air Quality Deterioration Emissions of dust or particulate matter are of serious concern should a project site be close to a residential area.6. lubricants. A significant impact on soil will be interpreted if visible amount of hydrocarbon is observed in soil. chemicals and fuels into adjoining grounds. tarpaulin or other impermeable material will be laid on the ground to eliminate soil contamination. 7. and • Concrete shall be used wherever it is considered expedient to prevent soil erosion. During a typical construction project. during maintenance of equipment and vehicles. • The ground will be levelled to the extent possible to avoid slopes. and chemicals takes place during transfer from one container to another or during refuelling. • Foremen will be nominated to monitor checking of vehicles. • No activity will be undertaken site which can cause leakage and spillage of oils. Sukkur 10/2011 often result in contamination of soil at a construction site. spill of fuel. • Quantities of excavation and fill material will be calculated and construction shall be planned in such a way that excavated material is disposed in a manner that it does not adversely affect environment elsewhere. Similarly discharge of effluents to the environment not meeting the NEQS and other guideline values will also be considered as an adverse effect. • Construction material will be compacted to the extent possible. Mitigation: Preventive safeguards to be put in place at the construction site shall be: • Levelling and grading of land will not result in soil erosion of adjoining areas. • In case on-site maintenance of construction vehicles and equipment is unavoidable. • Vehicles. machinery and equipment and make recommendations for tuning and repairs. machinery and equipment will not be repaired on site. and as a result of traffic accidents.
particularly when wind is blowing away from the project site towards settlements. erecting windshields around storage stockpiles and covering stockpiles with tarpaulin or thick plastic sheets. • There can be exhausts from construction machinery and vehicles. 7.6. machinery and equipment to ensure that these are not emitting excessive exhaust. PM 10 or particles smaller than ten microns are considered hazardous for health as they can be inhaled into the human body. Mitigation: Measures that will be taken to control dust and exhaust emissions from the project site shall comprise the following: • The primary sources of emissions will be exhausts from dieselengine generators. Sukkur 10/2011 defined as any airborne finely divided solid or liquid material up to the size of about a hundred microns. which will similarly be kept in good working condition to reduce possible emission levels to within acceptable limits. such noise cause general annoyance and can interfere with sleep at night. During the day.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Dust can add to the pollution of the air. human sound perception is such that a change in sound level of 3 dB is just noticeable. 102 Bizcorp Consultants . and a change of 10 dB is perceived as a doubling or halving of sound levels. where required and whenever appropriate. Larger particles also tend to settle rapidly and often do not reach receptors but in cases where they do so. Fugitive dust emissions will be curtailed by spraying water on soil. and • Dust emissions from soil piles will be reduced by keeping materials moist by sprinkling water. receptors may typically be exposed to intermittent and variable noise levels. Since the project site is urban in nature. the dust becomes a nuisance when it soils property and affects visibility. a change of 5 dB is clearly noticeable.6 Noise Pollution Depending on construction equipment and distance. These shall be properly tuned and maintained to reduce exhausts • Foremen will be nominated specifically to undertake inspections of vehicles. In general. preventive steps shall be necessary to maintain reasonable ambient air standards as dust and emissions from a project site can travel some distance in the event of strong prevailing winds.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital, Sukkur
There are various terms used to express noise levels but the main terminology used is as under: • Sound: A vibratory disturbance created by a vibrating object is capable of being detected by a receiving mechanism, such as the human ear or a microphone, when transmitted by pressure waves; • Noise: Sound that is loud, unpleasant, unexpected, or otherwise undesirable; • Decibel (dB): A unit-less measure of sound on a logarithmic scale, which indicates the squared ratio of sound pressure amplitude to a reference sound pressure amplitude. The reference pressure is 20 micro-pascals; • A-Weighted Decibel (DBA): An overall frequency weighted sound level in decibels, which approximates the frequency response of the human ear. The typical human ear is not equally sensitive to all frequencies of the audible sound spectrum. Consequently, when assessing potential noise impacts on people, an electronic filter is used to deemphasise certain frequencies in a manner corresponding to the human ear’s decreased sensitivity to low and extremely high frequencies. All noise levels quoted in this report are A-Weighted; • Equivalent Sound Level (L eq ): The equivalent steady state sound or vibration level in a stated period of time, usually one hour, which would contain the same acoustical or vibration energy, and • Maximum Sound Level (L max ): The greatest A-Weighted sound level with a stated time level. When noise contains a small number of discrete events, L max is a better indicator of disturbance to sleep and other activities. A construction project can create a lot of noise and noise abatement measures would be necessary for convenience of adjoining areas. Present levels of noise around the project site show that it is within permissible limits. Existing sources of noise in the project area include only road traffic and some commercial activity. Maximum noise level is important when there are distinct events to the noise. Noise levels at the receptor due to construction activities will depend on equipment used, period of exposure and distance from the source. In extreme cases, structures located within 50 metre of project site may be exposed to noise levels exceeding 70 dB(A) during the day. Tables 41 and 42 overleaf are an
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indication of typical noise levels generated by the type of machinery and vehicles that shall be deployed at the project site. The following illustration provides an idea of sound levels so that noise levels recorded in the project area and reported at Table 44 can be better understood.
TABLE 43: SOUND LEVELS
Sound Types Threshold of hearing Quiet rural night-time Soft whisper Quiet urban night-time Dishwasher in next room Conversational speech
Vacuum cleaner Very noisy restaurant Food blender Live rock music
Sound Levels 6 dBA 20 dBA 30 dBA 40 dBA 50 dBA (perceived as acceptable) 60 dBA (rarely perceived as unacceptable) 70 dBA (occasionally perceived as unacceptable; telephone conversation becomes difficult) 80 dBA (generally perceived as unacceptable) 90 dBA (hearing damage possible, exposed for eight hours) 130 dBA (threshold of pain)
Mitigation: Keeping anticipated impact in view, the proponents shall adopt following preventive and mitigating measures: • Noise Survey: Noise survey of all construction equipment will be conducted prior to deployment, and at appropriate intervals thereafter; • Reduce Noise from Equipment at Source: Based on the suggested survey, equipment emitting excessive noise in comparison with other similar equipment will not be employed. Equipment under use will be regularly maintained, tuned, and provided with mufflers to minimise noise levels. Equipment in poor state of maintenance, particularly without effective noise control, will be checked to determine if it can be improved, and replaced with less noisy equipment as soon as practicable; • Community Relations: Close interaction and liaison with local residents and regular monitoring of noise levels in the community are keys to successful implementation of suggested mitigation measures. In this regard, nearest residents will be given sufficient notice about construction activities.
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• • • • •
Consultation shall continue with the local community through informal and formal meetings. A complaint registering, tracking and redressal mechanism will be followed. Finally, noise levels will be monitored regularly in nearby communities to take timely corrective measures; Workers will be directed to keep noise levels within acceptable limits at the construction camp in case any such camp is set up; Workers will be under strict instructions to refrain from using radios etc., at loud volume during off-work hours; Workers shall keep noise levels low; Construction equipment and vehicles will be equipped with mufflers to effectively curtail generation of noise, and Drivers of construction vehicles shall be under strict instructions to desist from blowing horn at the project site and on the roads.
Noise tests carried out on August 23, 2011 indicate that noise levels at the project site are well within the normal levels despite location of the project on an inter-city road. 7.6.7 Surface Water and Groundwater Contamination
Construction projects can lead to contamination of surface and groundwater resources if precautions are not taken. Mitigation: Corrective measures recommended earlier to forestall soil contamination will also prevent contamination of groundwater. There is no surface water close to the project site that can come under threat due to project implementation. 7.6.8 Construction Labour
Construction shall create employment for a total of two hundred workers. Arrival of a workforce can lead to inconvenience and result in friction with local residents in case suitable protocols are not devised. Mitigation: A construction camp shall be established only on need basis. Such camps are usually not necessary in urban areas where workers can easily travel to work site from their places of ordinary residence and there
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9 Safety Hazards. Public Health and Nuisances A construction project can lead to situations where there are hazards to safety. 7. • Noise reduction protocols in the preceding section will prevent public nuisances resulting from noise pollution. Mitigation: Following measures will be adopted to reduce if not eliminate possible threats from project implementation to local community: • Drivers using construction-related vehicles will be instructed to drive vehicles safely. both on surface 106 Bizcorp Consultants .6.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. 7. • The foremen on duty at the construction site will have complete access to layout of public infrastructure. Sukkur 10/2011 shall thus in all probability not be any construction camp at the project site. • The speed of project vehicles close to built-up areas will be kept low to avoid accidents and dust emissions. and • Mitigation measures discussed earlier for air quality impairment and soil and water contamination shall also address concerns about public health.10 Damage to Infrastructure Construction projects often cause damage to infrastructure if appropriate precautions are not adopted. Mitigation: The construction contractor shall adopt the following steps to prevent any possible damage to local infrastructure: • Vehicles carrying construction materials will not be overloaded and cargo shall correspond to maximum load allowable under the law so that undue stress is not placed on roads. Workers shall be under strict instructions to avoid intrusion into privacy of local neighbourhoods and shall not wander into residential areas without sufficient cause or loiter unnecessarily. • No activity will be undertaken at the site which can pose threat to public health.6. public health is threatened and nuisances are created. if any.
if any. and will thus be fully aware how to conduct construction works and avoid unwitting interference. • Utmost care will be taken to ensure that existing infrastructure is not damaged. the site will be dewatered for the following reasons: • To stabilise the banks of excavation and avoid hazards posed by slopes and sloughing. or through negligence or by design or on account of inevitable or unavoidable circumstances. 107 Bizcorp Consultants . • Prior permission shall be sought from public sector agencies and municipal authorities for unavoidable works that involve excavations into or around or above public infrastructure at the construction site. Sukkur 10/2011 and subterranean. Accordingly. permeability of soil below the water level and the size of the area to be dewatered. The amount of water to be removed from a site could be nominal to a large volume. • To prevent disturbance of soil at the bottom of excavation caused by boils or piping and such disturbances reduce soil bearing capacity of soil. depending on the height of the water head.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Impact of the project on local traffic is discussed in Chapter 10. 7. and • To provide suitable working surface at the foot of excavation.12 Dewatering and Drainage Absence of dewatering and drainage can have the same effects as explained in the previous section.6.11 Increase in Vehicular Traffic There shall be a marginal increase in traffic during project implementation and when the project is in operation. especially below the water table. and • The proponents shall take immediate measures to restore if not improve infrastructure damaged unintentionally.6. Mitigation: Water table at the site exists below a depth of six feet where tower footing will be seated for construction of basement and efficient dewatering will be required during deep excavation. 7.
Where the excavation bottom is locally wet. Sukkur 10/2011 Proper dewatering prior to construction shall ensure that the structure remains stable during the operational phase. slopes of 2:1(horizontal:vertical) could be necessary. It should. slopes of 1:1 and steeper may be possible. if carried out without thoughtful planning for possible consequences. Mitigation: Conventional earth-moving equipment shall be adequate to excavate the soil at the site. Maintenance works shall be carried out if necessary and as soon as practical so as to repair such areas and prevent their enlargement. These issues can be addressed through protection of critical areas with erosion control materials such as lined interceptor ditches or diversion dikes above fill and cut slopes. the bottom shall be stabilised prior to placing fill. particularly after heavy.13 Erosion Control Erosion of soil even after a structure has been completed can have devastating effects. to identify erosion areas at an early stage. can endanger a project during or after completion. however. Accordingly.5:1 (horizontal:vertical). The site engineer shall maintain safe cut slopes based on actual field conditions and safety requirements. Below six feet depth. soft and yielding. 7.8. 7.14 Temporary Excavations Temporary excavations. site grading will be inspected.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. depending on moisture and density conditions during grading. be expected that even with carefully planned construction and designed erosion control measures. However. Methods such as the use of pit-run gravels and cobbles on the excavated bottom covered with a geo-textile fabric or membrane such as Mirafi 600X or placement of a Class-II base material over a similar fabric 108 Bizcorp Consultants . Temporary excavations in the site of silty or sandy clayey soils to a depth of six feet shall be sloped at an incline of 1. prolonged rainfall. some erosion will occur during the first few wet seasons after the project is completed.8. considering especially that site soil is susceptible to erosion. Mitigation: Erosion may be possible due to ground undulation. Specific recommendations to mitigate the potential for erosion can be provided during grading. and construction of slope drains to safely direct concentrations of surface water runoff to a more suitable location down-slope.
thereby causing disturbance and inconvenience for local residents. traditions and values and will accordingly be expected to abide by highest moral and ethical standards. where adjacent features may influence establishment of appropriate slopes. Mitigation: The following practices will be observed to eliminate possibility of gender-related incident and to protect privacy of residents: • Local workers will be employed who would be fully aware of local customs.6. Where temporary trench slopes are inclined as described in the preceding lines. Mitigation: A sheep foot roller without vibrations shall be used for clayey ground while vibratory smooth drum roller will be employed on sandy soil ground.16 Blocked Access Development activities can block existing routes or disturb the right of way. Personnel shall not under any circumstances enter trenches with vertical sidewalls greater than five feet depth without proper shoring. Construction vehicles shall enter or leave the site in an orderly manner without obstructing local traffic. Mitigation: Construction at the project site shall not impede any existing routes or violate the right of way.6. However. 7. Sukkur 10/2011 shall be employed on need basis.17 Gender Issues Presence of a sizable workforce at the project site can result in gender issues. the site engineer shall select shoring. and 109 Bizcorp Consultants .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. shoring might not be required. • Workers will be discouraged from entering built-up areas.6.15 Rollers The choice of rollers to be deployed for compaction must be based on soil characteristics. especially when site development or construction forces local residents to adopt longer routes or when short cuts are no longer available. 7. and be a source of discomfort especially for female pedestrians. 7.
• No deductions will be made from wages unless prior arrangement in writing has been made with workers regarding provision of services and benefits. • In case there are women workers. However. historical and religious significance.7 HEALTH AND OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY Inconvenience and discomfort for workers and accidents resulting from careless construction practices can result in disruption of project implementation.6. • Women workers. No such monument shall be under direct threat from project implementation. in compliance of the Antiquities Act. Government of Pakistan. 1975. at least equal to minimum wage. shall be paid standard market wages. the proponents will issue explicit instructions for observance of occupational safety and to abide by labour and safety standards. and shall also issue a strict code of conduct regarding interaction. • Wages shall not be below minimum wage fixed by the government. an artefact of significance discovered during the phase of construction would be delivered to the Archaeology Department. Sukkur 10/2011 • Under strict supervision of foremen. archaeological or historical findings during excavation works are unlikely.18 Site of Archaeological or Historical Significance The project area is rich in terms of monuments of archaeological. Since the project area is urban and there have been continuous development works over the years. the contractor shall make suitable arrangements for their camp. 7. if required. 7. Mitigation: Following measures shall be taken by the contractor under supervision and inspection of the proponents: • All labour and occupational safety laws and regulations will be fully observed. 110 Bizcorp Consultants .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. if any. Although it shall be the responsibility of the construction contractor to ensure occupational safety for workers at project site. as also socio-economic issues. the construction crew shall be bound to a strict code of moral conduct.
Working hours shall be according to the law of the land. and Fire extinguishers and other emergency equipment shall be available at the construction site. they will be paid overtime according to the law of the land.8.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Sukkur 10/2011 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • There shall not be any bonded or child labour. particulate matter or noise during operation of the project. which shall be open for inspection by the proponents. Hard hats will be worn by all workers and foremen.1 Earthquake Hazard While an earthquake can cause damage to a particular structure. Workers shall be insured against accidents. 7. masons and other employees are made to work beyond normal hours. Environmental issues associated with operation of the proposed project are discussed in the following sub-sections. Masks will be available for workers to avoid dust inhalation. Maximum number of employment opportunities will be provided to local workers so as to impart training and skills to local workforce. No worker will be exposed to dangerous work. In case labourers. The contractor will maintain a register of wages.8 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FROM PROJECT OPERATIONS There will not be any environmental problems relating to gaseous emissions. it becomes an environmental hazard should there be possibility of such 111 Bizcorp Consultants . A medical team will be engaged by the contractor to attend to health needs of workers and shall be available at short notice in case of an accident. 7. Adequate first-aid arrangements will be made at project site as immediate relief in case of an accident. Wages will be disbursed on time. Workers shall be briefed about health hazards and all precautions that must be taken during construction. The contractor will prepare an emergency plan so as to be fully prepared for an emergency situation.
it relates to the visual impact that a structure creates when it is completed.3 Noise Noise is a serious environmental concern and results mainly from vehicles. Mitigation: As explained in the preceding sub-section. industry and commercial units.2 Visual Impact There can be visual impact of any type of project and it can ordinarily take three forms: firstly. for example. and thirdly. The region is placed in Seismic Zone 2A and is thus susceptible to seismic activity. The building shall nevertheless interfere with the skyline but not be an eyesore. Control over environmental pollution from noise is hindered by insufficient knowledge of its effects on humans and lack of defined criteria. Noise pollution is aggravated progressively due to poor planning in urban centres. Construction of the building can thus pose hazards if there are nearby properties. to what extent it affects visual impact of surrounding areas.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. how a proposed structure affects the view of neighbours. Mitigation: Foundations of the building have been designed and shall be constructed to respond to seismic activity typical of the region and there shall thus be no threat to the safety of any people immediately close to it. A Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency study has observed that urban centres are becoming noisier due to high traffic intensity and acute deficiencies in traffic management. the building is to be constructed in a rural area and thus the visual impact shall be of limited consequence as there are usually very few visual resources in such locales. Sukkur 10/2011 damage from seismic activity directly impacting on the local environment. It assumes even more serious proportions when accompanied by vibrations. include debris falling on adjoining properties. road construction. there will 112 Bizcorp Consultants . a property owner would be wary of a high-rise being constructed close by. This could. there is no structure close to the project site that shall be exposed to any such danger. secondly.1 The immediate project area is commercial-cum-administrative in nature and as stated earlier. In any case.8. Accordingly.8. increase in number of vehicles and development of utilities infrastructure. 7. 7.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The proponents shall however ensure that all vehicles with origins in the hospital abide by minimum noise protocols when in operation and that machinery and equipment that can add to noise levels.8. which indicate that noise levels presently are within acceptable limits.8. air-conditioning plant.5 Increase in Vehicular Traffic Operation of a hospital can increase traffic levels in the project area and special measures. tube-well and generators. such as construction of on-ramp and exit-ramp. 113 Bizcorp Consultants . Traffic on the road facing the project site is currently low to medium. and it has the capacity to bear additional traffic load. Samples of noise levels taken at the project site are shown in Table 44 overleaf. Eighty parking spaces for cars and four hundred and three hundred and twenty for motor-cycles have been provided in the project design through dedicated basement parking. There shall not be generation of excessive noise beyond the maximum noise standard of 85 dBA. motor pumps. Sukkur 10/2011 not be any significant increase in volume of traffic when the hospital is operational. may be necessary to ensure that the flow of local traffic is not altered beyond reasonable limits or disturbed and that sufficient parking spaces are provided within the compound. Mitigation: Noise levels are not expected to increase as a result of operation of the project but there might be a slight rise from additional traffic generated by the project. Mitigation: The building shall cast only nominal shadows that shall be within the compound and thus not impact on any adjoining properties.4 Shadow Effects of the shadow of a high-rise can cause an environmental impact in terms of slight loss of light and energy for properties upon which the shadow falls. within the hospital shall not be audible in areas close by. 7. are kept under due maintenance so that noise levels do not exceed upper noise limits set down by the National Environmental Quality Standards. if any. Much of the noise. such as elevators. 7. Mitigation: There shall be marginal increase in vehicular activity on completion of the proposed project.
8. which indicates that there shall not be any adverse impact due to water usage or excessive wastewater. 7. Sukkur 10/2011 Details of traffic impact are covered in Chapter 10 covering the Traffic Impact Analysis. • Treated water from the wastewater treatment plant shall be used to irrigate green areas and plantations.138 gallons. Mitigation: Despite having independent source of water through tubewells. • Patients and visitors shall be given politely-worded memos to conserve water in bathrooms.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.8. • Systems could be put in place to design the drainage system so that wash-basin and shower grey water can be recycled to use for irrigation of green areas and plantations. Water conservation measures are given in the following section. • Proponents shall procure water-saving equipment. A detailed write-up on water usage is available in a previous section of this report. for example by shutting off water while brushing teeth and shaving. the proponents shall endeavour to avoid wastage of water.7 Water Conservation A large hospital uses up large volumes of water and measures must be taken to conserve water resources.6 Water Consumption The hospital shall draw water for its needs from tube-wells. 114 Bizcorp Consultants . 7. Operation of the project will at the same time result in reduction of as much traffic from other hospitals.6 US gallons per flush) instead of traditional four gallons. • An effective employee training programme shall be instituted to create awareness about water conservation. Daily requirement shall be an absolute maximum of 44. Mitigation: The proponents shall take the following measures for conservation of water: • The proponents shall install low-flush water closed toilets (1. followed by details of wastewater generation when the project comes into operation. • Regular checking of taps to ensure that these do not drip.
• Messages shall be placed in bathrooms to conserve water and to minimise use of hospital towels and linen. 7. bowls or containers. Sukkur 10/2011 • Use of sensor-fitted taps that turn off automatically. A write-up on the proposed wastewater treatment plant is given in Chapter Five. and • Due maintenance of water pipes to prevent leakages. circulating pumps shall be regularly inspected for faults and leakages to avoid drips.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Minimum amount of detergent shall be used in the laundry to reduce suds that need to be washed off with large volumes of water. 115 Bizcorp Consultants .8 Wastewater and Sewerage About 32. The following mitigation measures shall be adopted in the kitchen and while serving food to patients: • Food products shall be washed in buckets. Sufficient capacity is available with the municipality to receive and dispose of remaining treated wastewater. prior treatment of the wastewater will be necessary before it is discharged into the sewerage network. • Dishwashers with sufficient loads shall be installed. Janitorial and cleaning staff shall be trained and instructed to follow the following protocols: • Taps shall not be kept running while cleaning the bathrooms and maximum use shall be made of buckets.8.842 gallons of wastewater shall be generated when the project comes into operation. • Use of sensor-fitted urinals taps that cut water supply when not in use. The project design includes installation of a wastewater treatment plant. water pipes. and • Infrared activated faucets shall be fitted wherever practicable. Mitigation: As wastewater will not be industrial or commercial in nature but may have contaminants due to use of medicines and chemicals in laboratories. and • Any leaking faucet or pipe shall be reported immediately. • All faucets. Most of the treated water shall be reused at the premises to irrigate plantations and green areas.
As there is no surface water close to the project site. Mitigation: Runoff shall be conveyed in pipes or in lined channels for discharge through municipal drains and shall not be released into any area.9 Surface Drainage Concentrated surface water runoff within or immediately adjacent to structures can have destabilising impact thereon. Obtrusive light can be classified as follows: • Glare: Uncomfortable brightness of a light source when viewed against a dark background. These aspects are dealt with in detail in the next chapter covering the Environmental Management Plan.8. 116 Bizcorp Consultants . Accordingly. obtrusive light can cause serious physiological and ecological problems.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Water from roof downspouts will similarly be conveyed in pipes that shall discharge rainwater safely away from the structure. whether level or not. Surface gradients shall be planned to prevent ponding and ensure drainage of away from building foundations. whether it keeps a person awake through an open window or impedes view of the night sky. Mitigation: Solid waste generated at the building will be disposed of in accordance with the law by incineration or through a waste management contractor. there can be no threat to surface water from project activities. where it can cause erosion. wastes money and electricity and results in unnecessary emissions of greenhouse gasses.8. is a form of pollution and must be substantially reduced without detriment to the need for lighting. depending on the nature of a project.11 Obtrusive Light Light pollution is as much a nuisance as dust. Surface and Groundwater Project operations can cause contamination of soil and groundwater as well as surface water. 7. 7. Sukkur 10/2011 7. Obtrusive light.8. vehicle emissions and industrial fumes. Obtrusive light causes nuisance to others. pavement edges and sidewalks.10 Contamination of Soil. noise. maintaining a minimum of two percent gradient. treatment plant components.
air-conditioning plant. water pumps. Mitigation: Measures discussed earlier for air quality impairment and soil and water contamination will also address concerns about public health. and • Light Trespass: Spilling of light beyond boundaries of the property or area being lit. 117 Bizcorp Consultants .12 Safety Hazards. Public Health and Nuisances Operation of the hospital may cause some concerns for safety. The proponents shall undertake pest extermination exercises on a regular basis in order to maintain appropriate health and sanitation levels within the hospital and its compound. The proponents shall ensure that no activity takes place at the premises that can create vibrations. 7. Equipment installed at the project that can cause a measure of vibration shall include elevators. Mitigation: The premises shall be employed strictly for medical purposes and thus there shall be no vibrations originating from the hospital when it comes into operation. Sukkur 10/2011 • Sky Glow: Brightening of the night sky above built-up areas.8.8. tube-wells and generators.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.13 Vibrations Equipment can cause vibrations that can be source of constant discomfort for neighbouring properties. public health and nuisances within the project area. Mitigation: Necessary measures to be taken for elimination of obtrusive light are covered in detail in the Environmental Management Plan in the next chapter. 7.
The contractor shall also be subject to certain liabilities under the environmental laws of the country. Sukkur 10/2011 8. sole responsibility for compliance with the Environmental Management Plan shall be with the proponents of the project through the project designers and the contractor. and under contract with the project proponents. While mitigation measures have been given in respect of all such environmental impacts. as it renders a delivery mechanism to reduce adverse environmental impacts of a project during execution. An elaborate environmental management plan and monitoring surveillance programme. and delineate responsibilities of the project proponents.1 SECURITY Security of the hospital will not be a major issue but must be borne in mind nonetheless. The basic aims of the Environmental Management Plan in Table 45 placed at the start of this chapter are to facilitate implementation of mitigation measures indicated in various sections of this study. The consultants will monitor the contractor and ensure implementation of the Environmental Management Plan. a comprehensive environmental plan is nonetheless necessary.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. enhance project benefits. Mitigation: The construction contractor shall carry out field activities as part of project execution and will be responsible to implement various mitigation actions prescribed in the Environmental Management Plan relevant to the contract. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT This part of the study discusses the Environmental Management Plan and describes institutional arrangements required for its effective implementation and follows from possible environmental impacts identified in the previous chapter. including periodic progress reports. consultants and contractor to counteract nominal environmental impacts. 118 Bizcorp Consultants . During the construction phase of the proposed project. 8. has to be devised to guarantee that the project does not create any adverse environmental impact during the construction phase as also upon operation. Measures to be adopted by the proponents are described in the following paragraphs. Environmental management shall assume a different facet during operation. and introduce standards of good practices to be adopted for all project works.
2 VEHICLE PARKING Traffic from a relatively large building such as the proposed project adds to local traffic and appropriate measures must be taken to alleviate traffic issue. Sukkur 10/2011 Mitigation: Security guards shall be posted at the main gates to maintain safety at the premises and also to ensure that unauthorised people do not enter the compound. Parking on the immediate front of the hospital shall not be permitted except for ambulances and patients alighting from vehicles. All such vehicles shall be parked within the large compound where they do not impede normal traffic. Space reserved for vehicles in the basement will not be put to any other use. 8.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Mitigation: The following steps shall be taken by the proponents to enhance the local environment: • Adequate drains will be fixed at all levels of the building for disposal of rainwater.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ENHANCEMENT MEASURES Possible environmental impacts resulting from operation of a large hospital requires certain measures for environmental protection and enhancement. • Use of glass for windows will be kept to reasonable limits to reduce solar reflections that may inconvenience neighbours. • Treated sewage will be discharged into the sewer system. 8. Mitigation: The proponents shall ensure through security guards that no vehicles are parked on the road in front of the hospital for a protracted time period. 119 Bizcorp Consultants . without compromising aesthetic value of plain glass. • Attempts would be made to use as much frosted or patterned glass as possible. • The visual impact of the building on its surroundings has also been taken into consideration. the hospital has been designed keeping in mind aesthetic values and its façade will be most presentable. Accordingly.
Improving lighting system efficiencies by up to 50 percent can thus significantly improve peak demand conditions while reducing HVAC requirements by 10 percent in commercial buildings. which is quite plausible. with prior permission from the relevant government authority..1 Energy Conservation Commercial buildings such as offices. hotels or hospitals similar to the project under review etc. • Sufficient open space has been provided around the hospital for plantation. Finally. institutional facilities. can result in saving up to 0. subject to need. usually around midday. Improving lighting system efficiencies by up to 50 percent.5 percent or so of the nation’s electricity consumption. not be any threat to privacy of adjoining properties.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. by its very nature. economic productivity is directly related to the workers’ abilities to effectively and efficiently perform their work in commercial buildings. thereby placing increased burden on heating/ ventilating/air-conditioning (HVAC) system and resulting in yet more power consumption. lighting constitutes 30 percent of electricity consumption. which is about 650 megawatts of energy per year.3. the space between the road and the proposed hospital will be paved with tiles or developed as a green belt. it is generally administrative and there will. • All windows facing neighbours will be strictly of the specified size and placed at a height prescribed under building regulations. 120 Bizcorp Consultants . Lighting in commercial buildings is typically used during daytime peak demand periods. Consequently. green area and passages. Additionally. consume about five 5 percent of electricity generated in Pakistan. • As far as land use of the immediate environment is concerned. commercial lighting loads contribute to significant energy shortfalls during such times.75 percent of electricity use. It is estimated that within commercial buildings. Lighting probably adds to at least 20 percent of cooling load. commercial lighting accounts for about 1. electric lighting. retail facilities. Accordingly. and • No vendors will be allowed to carry out business in front or inside the hospital. • In order to keep the environment neat and clean. 8. Sukkur 10/2011 • Space for electric sub-station and/or transformer installation will be provided at the premises. contributes to cooling load of commercial buildings. therefore.
proper ballast replacement. which does not include the important factor of improvements in worker productivity. Lighting efficiency is not only dependent on quality of design and products. colour rendering improvement and significant reduction in noise and flicker effects). Mitigation: In conjunction with measures described in the preceding paragraphs. luminaires and wiring methods.g.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Providing an efficient lighting infrastructure in a built environment does not assure continued efficiency over the life of the infrastructure. Further. needs to be understood. 121 Bizcorp Consultants .25 to 0.5 percent. • Protocols can be devised so that users are encouraged to switch off access to air-conditioning beyond a certain temperature threshold. indicated that lighting energy consumption can be reduced by 69 percent while increasing lighting quantity at the same time by 53 percent and quality (e. while using outdated inefficient electric lighting equipment.1 Electric lighting efficiency improvements are so dramatic that even when considering more costly tariff-burdened state-of-the-art lamps/ballasts/ luminaires. Sukkur 10/2011 Improved lighting quality can contribute to productivity gains. 9 in Karachi. it would still be significant in the larger context of commercial-sector contribution to overall economic growth. ballasts. for example. but is also quite dependent on quality of installation. • Thermostats in private rooms in any case shall enable adjustment of temperature to avoid over-cooling and overheating. new techniques such as “tandem wiring” ballasts in order to reduce quantity of ballasts as well as increase operating efficiency by as much 10 percent to 20 percent. the significance of new energy-efficient lamps. repainting with light finishes rather than dark finishes). cost recovery is just over five years. for instance only 0. Additionally. Pakistan’s commercial building owners are paying the going market rates for electricity. thereby lessening the load on energy consumption. proper luminaire cleaning programme and proper room surface finish maintenance (e . the proponents and users of the hospital could consider the following steps for conservation of energy when the project enters the operational stage: • Lights shall be switched off when not required. hardcopy task contrast improvements. A comprehensive review of the State Life Insurance Company Building No. need to be adopted. Even if these gains are relatively small. Lighting efficiency over time is influenced by a host of issues. not the least of which are proper lamp replacement.g. Lighting quantity and quality can be dramatically improved and more can be achieved with less electricity.
• The proponents shall use heat-absorbent colours within the building and on the exterior of the building so as to reduce cooling load. 122 Bizcorp Consultants . • All equipment shall be under due maintenance. reduce electricity losses and eliminate short-circuiting.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Hospital administration would be encouraged to purchase energy-efficient lights and appliances. • The proponents shall carry out lighting audits at regular intervals to work out lighting and cooling costs through use of energy-conservation regimes and replacement of lamps and appliances with lower energy consumption. Sukkur 10/2011 • The air-conditioning plant shall be operated to maintain desirable temperatures within the building and both overcooling and overheating shall be avoided. 8.2 Environment-friendly Equipment Equipment using obsolete technology can create pollution and even health hazards. • Lighting-efficiency measures in the preceding paragraphs shall be adopted to the extent possible and feasible. and • Electricity mains and wiring shall be inspected at suitable intervals to prevent risks to life. Mitigation: The proponents shall ensure that the air-conditioning plant to be installed at the hospital and all refrigerators for storage of medicine and other purposes are CFC-free. • The air-conditioning system shall be designed and installed in such a way that portions of the hospital not requiring airconditioning can be disconnected from the main supply so that the air-conditioning plant can operate at lower capacity.3. • Dimmers shall be used for lighting and fans. • Maximum use of natural light and fresh air shall reduce energy costs in terms of lighting and cooling. • The proponents shall also consider using Green Roof and Cool Roof criteria to reduce cooling costs. • Energy-efficient lights and appliances as suggested in the preceding paragraphs would be installed in an energy-efficient manner adopting latest techniques recommended by professional organisations.
3 Solar or Wind Energy Use of solar panels or harnessing wind energy for power generation has not been considered by the proponents as the technology is too expensive and not feasible considering the size of the proposed project. to the maximum extent possible. • All hydrants and taps in the compound shall be similarly tested frequently to ensure that there is no leakage.4 Quality Control Establishments providing public service must ensure that best international practices are adopted so as to ensure quality control and complete safety at the premises. Moreover. taps that turn off automatically.3. there is no wind corridor within the project area that can be availed for the purpose of power generation even to meet requirements partially. • Rubbish bins and baskets shall be placed in all corridors and work areas and shall carry a message to reduce solid waste.3. 8. Mitigation: The proponents shall apply for ISO-certification as soon as the hospital comes into operation so that t can offer the best possible services to the public.3. and 123 Bizcorp Consultants .5 Minimisation of Liquid and Solid Waste Minimisation of liquid and solid waste during the operation of the hospital is as important from the environmental point of view as is ultimate disposal. 8. • All dripping taps shall be fixed immediately to reduce wastage. Mitigation: Liquid and solid waste shall be minimised using the following methods: • Taps and urinals in the washrooms shall be fitted with sensors to conserve water. • Hospital administration shall also install. Sukkur 10/2011 8. • The management shall test sensors and all taps and water outlets periodically for leakage.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
Mitigation: Although it is quite unlikely that the hospital shall be highly lit up. if any: • Only those lights shall be switched on at night. Mitigation: Natural light shall be captured through windows and will be circulated within the building through wide corridors and there shall be sufficient windows in the rooms to capture natural light.8 Reduction of Obtrusive Light An important environmental enhancement measure is reduction of obtrusive light from the proposed project that can cause inconvenience to neighbours. 8. Mitigation: Even though the building shall be air-conditioned. • Proponents shall use specifically designed lighting equipment that minimises upward spread of light near to and above the horizontal.7 Circulation of Fresh Air Fresh air is essential for sound health since closed spaces can lead to staleness and also claustrophobia.6 Inflow of Natural Light Natural light is a precious resource often ignored or under-estimated by public. following measures could be taken by the proponents when the project comes into operation in order to reduce obtrusive light.3. employees and patients shall be encouraged to open windows frequently to ensure inflow of fresh air. 124 Bizcorp Consultants .Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Sukkur 10/2011 • Separate bins and baskets will be earmarked for solid waste that can be recycled. so as to facilitate ultimate disposal. 8. Maximum use of natural light can lead not only to conservation of energy but it also acts as an antiseptic.3. as are absolutely necessary for the sake of safety and security.3. 8. and those too at dimmed levels.
which assist in lowering glare. Some of the open area shall be available for greening and exact area can be calculated only when the hospital has been completed and landscaping is undertaken.. An amount of Rs. which shall provide for planting of two hundred and ten trees and shrubs and at least five hundred floral plants. and a few more in the space between the building line and the road. Mitigation: Proper landscaping shall be carried out through a qualified consultant to be selected as the construction phase nears completion. 125 Bizcorp Consultants .9 Plantations and Landscaping Land development often results in alterations in the local environment. Large size of the plot does shall facilitate a sizable plantation campaign within the premises. after prior permission is obtained from government authorities. which must be compensated through restoration of green areas or through fresh plantation. • Proponents shall keep glare low by ensuring that the main beam angle of all lights directed towards any potential observer is not more then 70°.3. • The proponents shall use light dimmers instead of switches. which is a major cause of obtrusive light and is a waste of money and energy. • Employees would be instructed to dim or switch lights off when tasks are finished. 8. • Proponents would take care not to “over” light. • Appropriate measures will minimise upward reflected light.632 million have been set aside in the project cost estimates for horticulture at the project site. dense tree plantation shall be duly considered after the project has been completed. However. and • Higher mounting heights shall be employed as these allow lower main beam angles. in consultation with a horticultural specialist. aromatic flowers etc.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The proponents shall consider indoor plantations after the hospital is in operation. 2. Sukkur 10/2011 • Proponents shall take care to select “luminaires” to ensure that appropriate units are chosen and that their location will reduce spill light and glare to the minimum. There is no municipal stipulation requiring the proponents to pre-define exact area to be brought under plantation. It shall however be ensured that selected varieties are environment-friendly and indigenous and that the chosen varieties have less demand for water.
however. and removal. • The architectural plans cater for maximum use of natural light. actual operation. However. These shall include measures relating to cool roofs and green roofs. and materials. which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. and reducing impacts on human health and the environment. Sukkur 10/2011 8. under the building regulations or byelaws to adhere to features of Green Building. design. water. maintenance. or the complete building life cycle. • Improved public and occupant health due to improved indoor air quality. 126 Bizcorp Consultants . and • Reduced environmental impacts by. Other commonly used terms include sustainable design and green architecture. which shall reduce not only transportations costs but also cut down on resultant emissions from vehicles carrying such materials. while good design is essential to green building. • The building design is environmentally sound particularly to the extent that it is not wasteful. Mitigation: There is no compulsion. and ultimate disposal or deconstruction of the building also have very significant effects on buildings’ overall environmental impact. A similar concept is natural building. Although a number of features of the Green Building Programme have been built into the design of the project under review. operation. for example. The following measures have however so far been taken by the proponents and project designers to abide by the Green Building concept: • The project site has been chosen with the express intention of locating it an area that is not congested. through better siting. the project designers and project consultants shall endeavour to incorporate other features too as the phase of construction progresses. Effective green building can lead to: • Reduced operating costs by increasing productivity and using less energy and water. • All construction materials are to be procured through nearest sources. construction.4 GREEN BUILDING Green building is the practice of increasing efficiency of buildings and their use of energy. maintenance.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. lessening storm water runoff and the heat island effect.
if any. thereby reducing energy usage. • Colour schemes both at the exterior of the building and inside shall be used that absorb heat and give a cooling effect so that energy consumption is lowered correspondingly. • Trees within the plot are to be preserved and integrated into the project design. • Boulders and stones recovered from excavation during site development. • Hollow bricks will be used wherever advised by the project designers. and • The best technical expertise shall be deployed to select and install electrical wiring and equipment that is not only safe but also consumes less energy.4. which will be filled with thermopore to provide insulation against summer heat. 8. doors.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • The roof shall have a number of features relating to “cool roof” concept. Sukkur 10/2011 • Shrubs within the plot that will be removed only if necessary shall be reused for construction of the project office. • Well-insulated windows. shall be reused in construction. • The proponents shall advise employees and patients about measures that can be adopted for conservation of energy and water.1 Cool Roofs Over 90 percent of roofs in the United States are dark-coloured so as to absorb heat due to climatic conditions. 127 Bizcorp Consultants . Rooftops and walls in Pakistan are often tarred to provide insulation against rain and damp. Low-reflectance surfaces from dark rooftops reach temperatures of 66°C to 88°C and contribute to: • Increased cooling energy use and higher utility bills. • The architectural design caters for maximum inflow of fresh air and circulation. and walls shall help reduce energy loss. • Removal of shrubs and other minor vegetation cover that may be removed during land clearing shall be suitably compensated for through a plantation plan and developing grassy plots and green belts to create a green effect. which shall absorb heat. including mud layers and polythene sheets. • The outer walls shall have cavities.
• Roof Insulation: Cool roofs save more energy when installed on buildings with low roof insulation. planting trees and vegetation. cool roofs can improve comfort by reducing topfloor temperatures. which can all save energy by lowering temperatures and decreasing air conditioning demand. An estimate of cool roof energy savings can be determined by considering the following main characteristics: • Air-conditioning: Cool roofs can reduce summertime energy use in air conditioned buildings. Sukkur 10/2011 • Higher peak electricity demand. • Increased air pollution due to the intensification of the “heat island effect”. raised electricity production costs. and shall also include adoption of “Heat Island” reduction measures such as. or 128 Bizcorp Consultants . In contrast. In buildings without air conditioning. 8. cool roof systems with high reflectance and emittance stay up to 39°C cooler than traditional materials during peak summer weather. increased roof maintenance costs. • Reduced indoor comfort. • Attic Ventilation: Buildings with low attic ventilation see greater benefit from a reflective roof. and a potentially overburdened power grid. • Attic Radiant Barrier: These structures reduce energy saving potential of cool roofs. Mitigation: The project design incorporates various features of cool roof as discussed above.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. cool roofs do more than save money and reduce demand for electric power and resulting air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. and • Local Climate: Cooling energy savings are typically greatest in areas with long. hot summers. and high levels of roofing waste sent to landfills. Benefits of cool roofs include reduced building heat-gain and saving on summertime air conditioning expenditures.1 By minimising energy use.4. sunny. and • Accelerated deterioration of roofing materials. among others.2 Green Roofs Another alternative to traditional roofing materials is a rooftop garden. and using cool paving.
• Absorb air pollution.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. the release of water from plants to the surrounding air. A green roof consists of vegetation and soil. • Protect underlying roof material by eliminating exposure to sun’s ultraviolet radiation and extreme daily temperature fluctuations. On hot summer days. • Offer an attractive alternative to traditional roofs. planted over a waterproofing membrane. 8.4. collect airborne particulates. Mitigation: Although the Green Roof concept can be adapted only to a limited extent for a hospital building. Green roofs are an attractive roofing option that can reduce urban heat islands by providing shade and through “evapotranspiration”. and other commercial property. whereas surface of a traditional rooftop can be up to 50°C warmer. the surface temperature of a vegetated rooftop can be cooler than air temperature. such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems may also be included. They also: • Reduce sewage system loads by assimilating large amounts of rainwater. or a growing medium.3 Sustainable Building Sustainable buildings are now a buzzword in the field of architecture. Green roofs can be used in many applications. The concept of Sustainable Building is rather akin to Green Building and rests on three principles: firstly. economising resources by curbing use of non-renewable ones. residences. and store carbon. Sukkur 10/2011 “green roof”. Additional layers. including industrial facilities. • Serve as living environments that provide habitats for birds and other small animals. mainly by keeping building interiors cool in summer. features have been incorporated into the project design to benefit from this concept. • Reduce noise transfer from outdoors. which has to place equipment on rooftops. and • Insulate a building from extreme temperatures. secondly. it underscores difference between the life cycle of a sustainable 129 Bizcorp Consultants . offices. which is the driving force behind built environment and building designs that either help the environment or harm it. addressing growing concerns about urban quality of life.
with a common constant of environmental impact caused. operation and disposal and relate to: • Pre-building: Environmental consequences of the structure’s design itself should be open to review. Either recycling or transport to a landfill is necessary for disposal of such waste. power plants. Obviously each building does not have its own power source. This approach to the life cycle of the building can be developed into strategies that help minimise environmental impact as a result of its design. but rarely ever is. a major problem. and as such they are all eventually an output. which revolves around procurement of resources needed to construct the project. For example. nuclear or hydro-electric. harvesting of wood could result in 130 Bizcorp Consultants . thereby leading to severe repercussions in local ecosystems. “Human Designs” tap into the individual or collective requirements to determine how ‘liveable’ a sustainable design space can be. and • Materials: There is always influx of building materials into a project site. are needed to provide needed energy. as should its orientation and landscape impact. Sukkur 10/2011 building and that of a conventional one. especially evident in Pakistan. • Water: Daily human activities require large quantities of water for the purposes of drinking. cooking and cleaning etc. whereas hydro energy requires dams and reservoirs to be built. The basic precept is that of materials salvage from buildings that have outlived their usefulness for reuse in prospective projects. Accordingly. While provision of water consumes energy. and their final destination when the building is demolished. however. Waste generated after initiation of the construction process is significant. and thirdly. The following issues arise: • Energy: Buildings require constant flow of energy for continued operation. Consumer goods which are vital for normal human activities also pass through the building. The truth is. whether coal. construction. washing. Every type of energy source has drawbacks. The manner in which materials are procured is easily disregarded as unnecessary. that this factor has the most serious potential repercussions. is discharge of sewage water that must be treated.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The degree of impact may be different: coal and oil power stations cause much pollution in the atmosphere. Sustainable design requires consequences of the life cycle of architectural resources to be taken into account.
long-term health effects on the building’s occupants remains to be considered. as well as between buildings and their occupants: • Preservation of Natural Conditions: Existing topography. and • Post-building: Eventual demolition of the building after it has passed its operational life span leads to the question of disposal of construction waste left behind. productivity and psychological wellbeing. mining of natural ores and minerals disturbs the natural status quo and even their transport adds to pollution. Cooperative planning can reduce energy and water demands so as to benefit neighbourhoods. As has been explained in various sections of the report. and • Human Comfort: An essential role of architecture is to provide built environments that sustain occupants’ safety. • Building: After construction. plants and wildlife. physiological comfort. health. Building a metropolis in the heart of the African Serengeti without disturbing the ecosystem will perhaps never be possible. Sustainable design need not preclude essentials of human comfort. While economy of resources and life-cycle design are concerned with conservation and efficiency. An architect should seek to minimise the building’s impact on the ecosystem. Mitigation: Modern architectural planning relies heavily on the newlydeveloped concept of sustainable building. • Urban Design and Site Planning: Modern day hubs of human habitat emanate large amounts of pollution.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. various aspects of sustainable building 131 Bizcorp Consultants . but there are great strides that can be taken by endeavouring to preserve natural conditions in and around buildings. The construction process itself should be efficient and environmental impact as a result of the resource consumption should be limited wherever possible. The following three strategies derived from the principle of humane design focus on creating compatibility of buildings and the greater environment. Sukkur 10/2011 deforestation. plants and wildlife are all subject to negative influences of a building. humane design is based on the liveability of virtually all constituents in global ecosystem. for instance. Ideally. waste is recycled to become construction material for newer projects. cities and indeed entire regions. Many of these materials require energy for manufacture.
and a design that is based on anticipated life-cycle of the planned structure.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. use of maximum possible reclaimed or recycled materials. 132 Bizcorp Consultants . on-site reuse of water. Sukkur 10/2011 have been built into the project design and cover energy conservation. appropriate disposal of liquid and solid waste. economy in water consumption. sizing of the building and various accompanying systems properly. energy-conscious site planning. insulation.
Solid waste in Pakistan generally comprises plastic and rubber.1 Solid waste generated at the hospital shall be substantial. metal. and both project development and operation will lead to large quantities of waste. 133 Bizcorp Consultants . Environmental impact of poor waste management not only at a site or a project in operation or within or outside an urban centre can be categorised into two groups. Sukkur has no landfill facilities and garbage is invariably dumped in open spaces by the public and outside the city by municipal authorities in improvised garbage dumps where there are no arrangements for segregation of waste. straws and fodder. Besides being an eyesore. namely impact due to poor waste disposal practices. leaves. are basic necessities from the perspective of sound public health. indiscriminate dumping of solid waste within the limits of populated areas can cause severe health hazards and at the same time impact on aesthetics. excreta and fines to various extents. animal waste.000 tons of solid waste is generated each day in urban areas of Pakistan and only about sixty percent is collected by municipal authorities. Sukkur 10/2011 9. treatment. Impacts caused by poor waste disposal practices include: • Exposure of waste collectors and municipal administration to potentially hazardous stockpiles if hazardous waste is mixed with municipal waste. Generation of per capita solid waste is on the rise on account of social. The amounts of solid waste generated by a community depend upon its socioeconomic characteristics. Findings of a study conducted by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the Japanese International Cooperation Agency in October 2004 state that about 55. food waste. textile waste. Waste collectors and municipal employees handle hazardous waste without proper personal protection clothing or equipment. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN Domestic and commercial solid wastes include all non-gaseous. paper and cardboard. economic and technological changes.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. stones. Effective solution to problems of solid waste collection. grass. conversion. nonliquid wastes resulting from the wide range of community and commercial activities. compaction or run-off control. solid waste can also pose serious health hazards if disposal is either absent or is improper. bones. Otherwise. wood. reuse and disposal. and stress on natural resources due to excessive waste generation.
Pressures on these resources can be minimised if production of unnecessary goods is avoided. Excessive waste generation results in stress on natural resources. electricity. Any production process requires fuel. This can also be achieved by maximising recycling and reuse of materials. nature of such waste. mosquitoes and rats and rodents. this land is later reclaimed and green-topped when the landfill is exhausted. office waste. Sukkur 10/2011 • Pollution of water resources. promoting products and practices involving less use of natural resources. chemicals and other mineral or agricultural inputs. packaging crates etc.). land. and • Blockage and consequent overflow of drains and sewers due to indiscriminate dumping of solid waste.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. for instance by using substitutes that are environmentally sound. are required for landfills. which itself is a vital natural resource. will be the main tool to avoid any significant adverse impact from solid waste. • Effects on aesthetic qualities of an area due to scattered. especially non-renewable resources. when developed and implemented in earnest. Proper and environment-friendly disposal of solid waste requires development of scientifically-designed landfill sites with by-product features. 134 Bizcorp Consultants . As it is desirable to prevent any significant impact. and generation of hazardous fumes from uncontrolled and inappropriate disposal of hazardous waste. flies. brush. planer waste and scrap. contamination of soil. • Masonry and ceramics. • Health issues due to provision of breeding ground for disease vectors. trees etc. a waste management plan must be developed for all phases of a project. arrangements for disposal and receptors in the surrounding areas. Even though large parcels of land. cement bags etc. • Cardboard and paper (packaging. minimisation of solid waste at the same creates less demand for such landfills. Potential source of waste from construction activities include but are not necessarily limited to: • Vegetation (grass. and airborne trash.).) removed to clear the land. Impact of solid waste from the proposed project will depend on the quantity of waste generated. water. However. • Nuisances such as odours. scaffolding waste. Such a plan. shrubs. • Wood (lumber.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.). Medical waste. leftovers etc. containers. rags. bottles.). and Obsolete office appliances (printers. Disposable paper plates and cups. Laboratory wastes.). tins. • Organic waste (kitchen waste).). and • Clinic and medical waste. solid waste generation will be in the range 0. including 135 Bizcorp Consultants . Wood packaging. bags. magazines. Floor sweepings.5 kg to 0. Considering the purpose for which the proposed building is to be employed. • Batteries (lead batteries. and paper. rags etc. • Contaminated soil. Various other forms of packaging. bottles. galvanised iron wires. typewriter ribbons etc. • Chemicals and paints. bottles. window pane waste etc. sheeting etc. monitors and computer accessories). bricks etc. packaging. • Electric cables. • Insulation materials. workshop waste. including expired medicines.). following the yardstick for solid waste generation in urban centres. It is anticipated that this solid waste during operation would consist of mainly the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Organic waste (kitchen waste. • Glass (electric lights. Cardboard and thick paper cartons. wiring. roofing etc. Assuming total presence of an average of about twenty-two hundred and five people per day generating solid waste. Used office supplies (toners.8 kg per capita per day. cleaning cloths.). • Excess soil and sand. Sukkur 10/2011 • Excess construction materials (aggregate. Newspapers. • Waste oil and grease.). • Plastics (containers. computers. Cotton and textiles. steel bars etc. • Styrofoam (containers. • Cotton and textiles (oily rags. dry and rechargeable cells etc.). • Metal (scrap.). facsimile machines. cans.
both during transit and at the time of final disposal.5 kg. minimum quantity of solid waste generated is indicated in the following table.6 kgs 160 kgs 33. 0.205 Total Solid Waste Per Day 101 kgs 100 kgs 21 kgs 8.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.5 kg. patients and visitors shall be encouraged to use the garbage chutes for waste disposal to ensure speed in disposal and so that there is no littering around the hospital.5 kgs.8 kg 0. Sukkur 10/2011 patients. 0.8 kg Persons Using the Premises Hospital employees (doctors and staff) Indoor patients Outdoor patients Patients’ visitors TOTAL: Hospital employees (doctors and staff) Indoor patients Outdoor patients Patients’ visitors TOTAL: Number 605 200 1. 136 Bizcorp Consultants . TABLE 46: SOLID WASTE GENERATION Number Reduced for Time Spent at the Premises 202 200 42 17 461 202 200 42 17 461 Minimum Solid Waste Generated Per Capita Per Day 0.6 kgs 13. 0.5 kgs 161. • Wherever possible. packaging shall be returned to manufacturers for reuse. the size and nature of packaging shall also be taken into consideration.5 kgs 230.8 kg 0. employees and visitors. • The appointed waste management contractors shall be bound contractually to dispose of solid waste carried from the premises in an environment-friendly manner.8 kgs The above table indicates that the maximum amount of solid waste that can be generated per day at the rate of 0.205 605 200 1.5 kg per capita per day is 230.5 kg.000 400 2.8 kgs.5 kg. • In procurement of supplies for the project.8 kg 0.8 kg 0.8 kg is to be used. waste generation will be 360. Mitigation: Following measures shall be adopted for minimisation of solid waste and appropriate disposal: • The proponents shall engage a waste management contractor for disposal of solid waste during all phases of the project.000 400 2. If per capita per day waste generation rate of 0.5 kg. 0.6 kgs 360. • Employees. 0.
A Waste Management Plan indicating liquid and solid waste disposal methods is placed overleaf in tabular form. 137 Bizcorp Consultants . Sukkur 10/2011 • Solid waste received through the garbage chutes shall be kept temporarily in the basement before it is removed for further disposal. Despite rather large volume of solid waste that is likely to result from project operations. and • Special attention would be paid to solid waste that can be recycled.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • All solid waste will be segregated appropriately for safe disposal. • The proponents shall encourage all people present at the hospital to reuse paper to the extent possible. • Bins shall be placed around the compound and within common areas to collect solid waste and all patrons shall be advised through smart notices to place waste in dedicated bins and not through it indiscriminately. All recyclable solid waste shall be kept separate for disposal through special arrangement with recycling industries and contractors that collect such solid waste for onward sale to industries engaged in recycling and production of environment friendly products. • All solid waste shall be stored in large bins on a temporary basis at the north-eastern rear side of the plot from where it shall be removed on regular basis through the appointed waste management contractor. the proponents do not need to develop their own landfill. • Signs shall be posted in washrooms and kitchen advising minimisation of solid waste.
The basement has been earmarked for car and motor-cycle parking and there shall be eighty bays for cars and three hundred and twenty spaces for motor-cycles. bulldozers. utility rooms etc.1 INCREASES IN VEHICULAR TRAFFIC There shall be increase in vehicular traffic in the project area and around the project site as construction commences. staircases. air plenums and full-height louvers. sufficient room for positioning and reversing of vehicles. drilling vehicles.7 to 4 metres with 2. The basement shall have double driveways with a minimum width of 19’6” feet. scraper. excluding basements. dumpers and loaders. one car parking space must be provided for every one thousand square feet of covered area. There is no such stipulation in respect of hospitals. These vehicles could possibly include mobile cranes. TRAFFIC IMPACT ANALYSIS Based on yardsticks adopted by most building control and development authorities. rollers. elevators. tractors. The basement shall have fire cabinets.000 Spaces for Motor-cycles 320 1.. graders.1 meter clearance and gradient of 1:8 to 1:10. there shall be plenty of spaces shall be available at the building front and sides for temporary parking. excavators. Sukkur 10/2011 10. wheel loaders.700 The basement shall be used purely for vehicle parking. The parking floor shall be well lit with fluorescent markings on the floors demarcating direction of traffic and exits. and rubber padding along the walls for fender protection. and facilities for drivers. 10. trenchers. in a commercial building.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. heavy duty vehicles. forklifts. water tankers and jeeps 138 Bizcorp Consultants . tower crane. There shall be clearly marked bays. The width of the ramp shall be between 3. In addition. Availability of parking spaces in the basement floor and ground level is shown in the following table. security desk. disabled parking. and for designated purposes as described in the approved building plans. The front of the hospital shall be used purely for temporary parking of visiting patients and ambulances. TABLE 48: PARKING ARRANGEMENTS Parking Area Basement Open areas Source: Submission Drawings Spaces for Cars 80 1.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Measures to reduce disturbances shall include: • Construction vehicles will not be parked on private properties or where they can cause impediments to local traffic. which would mean that the impact of project-related vehicular activity on local traffic shall be extremely 139 Bizcorp Consultants . 1.163 1400-1500 hrs. • All vehicles carrying construction materials and supplies shall reach the site from main roads and these vehicles will not thus affect local traffic or pass through populated areas unless unavoidable . 2011 Mitigation: Traffic counts shown above exhibit low to medium volumes of traffic at the proposed project. TABLE 49: TRAFFIC COUNTS AT PROJECT SITE (No. The exact number of such vehicles shall vary according to the pace of construction. there will be negligible increase in vehicular traffic on account of construction-related vehicles when construction commences. 1. which are indicative of low to medium traffic activity typical of a small urban centre. • Drivers shall follow traffic protocols and road courtesies. However.023 1100-1200 hrs. 1.241 1830-1930 hrs. The proponents will instruct the construction contractor to ensure that least possible disturbance is created at the site from operation of construction vehicles. and • It will be ensured that all such vehicles are properly tuned and in good working conditions and have quality mufflers installed in order to reduce vehicular noise. 982 Location: Sukkur Bypass (in front of the project site) Source: Traffic Count Conducted by Environmental Consultants on August 21. Considering traffic volumes at the project site. Traffic counts at the project site are shown in the following table. • Drivers of these vehicles will be barred from blowing horn at the project site or on the roads. there shall be a maximum of five to ten vehicles visiting the site per day at the peak of construction. of vehicles during a one hour period) 0700-0800 hrs. The exact number of such vehicles shall vary day to day. using the rule of thumb for projects of such size. Table 50 is an indication of anticipated traffic during the project cycle. Sukkur 10/2011 and cars for project supervisors and engineers. • Construction vehicles will not park or queue up on any road close to the project site.
An accurate traffic count can only be taken when the project is in operation and only an estimate based on various assumptions can be attempted at this stage of the project. twice or many times 140 Bizcorp Consultants . there is no scientific yardstick to determine how many times the vehicles of regular employees shall enter.454 per day. the exact number of patients’ visitors depends on the profile of the patient.. which is a major factor of mitigation from the viewpoint of vehicular activity resulting from the project. which thus has sufficient capacity to absorb the impact of additional traffic expected from project implementation and operation. vans. the average number of vehicles plying on this road on a working day comes to about 1. The project site faces the forty feet wide Sukkur Bypass. It is impossible at this stage to assess how many vehicles shall frequent the hospital during a day and how long they shall remain at the premises.2 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT PLAN There shall be sufficient parking within the basement and at the ground level for the quantum of traffic expected at the proposed hospital. 10. It will be ensured that such movement takes place during off-peak hours or on holidays and never at night. Traffic Police will be approached to obtain counsel for movement of vehicles carrying equipment and construction materials to the project site. The proponents shall instruct the contractor to the effect that least possible disturbance is created at the site from operation of construction vehicles. it cannot be stated whether these spaces will actually be used in full when the project comes into operation. Secondly. rickshaws and motor-cycles etc. leave and re-enter the premises. The starting point to calculate additional traffic load as a result of the operation of the hospital is the number of parking spaces in the building.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Based on traffic count for Sukkur Bypass. and did not include bicycles or other forms of non-mechanical traffic. trucks. Sukkur 10/2011 negligible. and two thousand and twenty parking spaces for motorcycles within the basement and in the open areas.102 per hour or 26. buses. The design for the building caters for one thousand and eighty parking spaces for cars. Thirdly. which can be assumed as the least number of vehicles that shall enter or leave the compound at least once during a day. At this stage of the proposed project. Traffic count in Table 49 included all mechanical vehicles. such as cars. These vehicles cannot be expected to occupy parking spaces throughout the day and it can be presumed that some vehicles shall leave the compound and re-enter once.
This would. shall be about four hundred. As for employees. • Doctors and senior staff shall frequent the compound using transport at the rate of 1.5 visits to the hospital per day. Then the question arises as to how many visitors there shall be at the hospital during a normal day.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Hospital employees usually work in shifts and shall use transport to reach or leave the hospital only once. is to take a traffic count at existing projects of similar nature. using at an average three hundred and thirty-three vehicles. he shall use locally available means of transportation. the management consultant has worked out possible vehicular activity during a normal working day at the proposed hospital in Table 51 after consultation with doctors. There is no way to predict the number of visitors per day at this stage of a project and an accurate count can be made only when the project comes into operation. which states that every employee leaves a work place to return at least once a day. • Even if an employee does not have a vehicle. and • There shall be at an average of roughly ten service vehicles per day.25 times per day. 141 Bizcorp Consultants . there are no workers’ hospitals anywhere in the province in a city of a similar size that can be tested for traffic counts and a comparison with social security hospitals in Karachi. would not render accurate results due to differences in patients’ profiles. excluding delivery services. • The total number of visitors per day. whether it is a hospital or an apartment complex. The best way to estimate the number of visitors at a building compound. • Each employee shall have a vehicle in some form. one could rely on the rule of the thumb. hospital employees and parking contractors. and the demand for such transportation will increase correspondingly. However. for example. and the number of times that employees leave and come back. offsetting people who don’t step outside as also employees that come and go. give us an arbitrary number based on assumption alone. however. as some visitors may come again and again. To this we must add a ten percent cushion to account for errors. and based further on the following broad assumptions: • There shall be about six hundred and five permanent employees at the proposed project. Accordingly. • Visitors shall make an average of 1. Sukkur 10/2011 over during a single day.
or about 40.5 1 --- 450 10 967 19 0.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.400 120 114 485 1.4 vehicles per hour. The following measures shall be taken by the proponents to manage additional traffic from operation of the proposed project: • Security guards shall make sure that vehicles leaving the compound join traffic on Sukkur Bypass in an orderly manner and do not obstruct oncoming traffic.4 Hourly traffic average on Sukkur Bypass is presently 1. • Employees arriving on public transport shall not insist on being dropped in front of the hospital and shall alight at designated bus stops. Sukkur 10/2011 TABLE 51: ESTIMATED VEHICULAR ACTIVITY Frequency of Visits to the Hospital ----- Number Number of parking spaces Number of senior staff Estimated number of senior staff vehicles Number of hospital employees Estimated number of hospital employees’ vehicles (including public transport) Estimated number of visitors per day Estimated number of visitors’ vehicles (including public transport) Service vehicles TOTAL: Source: Consultants’ Estimates Number of Vehicles at the Premises ----- Number of Vehicles Per Hour ----- 2.25 --- 143 --- 6 --- 364 400 1 --- 364 --- 15 --- 300 10 --- 1. which would be an increase of about four percent only. total traffic impacting on Sukkur Bypass shall be nineteen hundred and thirty-four per day or eighty-one per hour and percentage impact would be about seven and a half percent. 142 Bizcorp Consultants .102 vehicles. The above estimates indicate that hospital activities shall add about nine hundred and sixty-seven vehicles to the traffic count of Sukkur Bypass.4 40. After accounting for round trips.
security guards shall regulate incoming traffic in such a way that vehicles intending to enter the compound do not create any traffic congestion on Sukkur Bypass. • Employees shall also be encouraged to pool vehicles in order to curtail number of vehicles that frequent the hospital on a permanent basis.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. and • In order to facilitate the above. 143 Bizcorp Consultants . • Employees shall be encouraged. Sukkur 10/2011 • Employees shall be under strict instructions not to blow horn indiscriminately. through circulars and notices. • Similarly. to keep their vehicles tuned so that these vehicles do not generate unwanted emissions in and around the premises. • Taxis shall not be permitted to linger or loiter outside or close to the hospital entrance. vehicles belonging to employees shall be provided with stickers so that stickered vehicles are flagged through into the compound or into the basement without any delay. • Visitors shall be encouraged to park their vehicles within the compound so that there is no car parking on Sukkur Bypass.
11. and • Access to basements would be regulated through a parking ticket dispenser activated with a smart-card. in addition to scanners that can survey undersides of vehicles entering the compound. SECURITY AND EVACUATION PLAN An Environmental Impact Assessment must also incorporate a contingency plan to meet emergencies and security situations for buildings where there is likely to be a large deal of public dealing or where there will be constant presence of people.1 SECURITY Security of premises and employees must be of primary concern to the proponents. A fully-equipped Communications Room shall be designated for round-the-clock surveillance and monitoring of premises. supplemented either by road blockers or rising step barriers. with security cameras on all floors and basement. • There shall be a pole barrier at main entrance. preferably supplemented by rising step barriers in order to avert not only unauthorised parking but also vehicle theft. arrival and departure of each visitor. Entrance and exit of the ramps to and from the basement shall similarly have pole barriers. Mitigation: The following steps shall be taken to maintain security at the hospital: • The proponents shall ensure that all employees are issued identity cards and entry passes. • The proponents shall install closed circuit television system for sensitive parts the hospital and immediate surrounding areas. • All visitors shall pass through security gates and would be manually scanned with metal detectors by security guards. • Briefcases and handbags or any other form of baggage shall be similarly scanned or put through X-ray machines. entrances and exits. 144 Bizcorp Consultants . • A security protocol shall be evolved to monitor identity. Sukkur 10/2011 11. especially to ensure that unauthorised people do not enter the compound and interfere with service delivery.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
• Fire Alarms: There shall be fire alarms in all parts of the building. The proposed fire strategy is based on the American National Fire protection Association (NFPA) Life Safety Code (NFPA 101).2 EMERGENCY AND FIRE-FIGHTING PROTOCOLS There are estimated to be a large number of people in the building at peak visiting hours. particularly geared for smoke. 11. Sukkur 10/2011 11. as also in the basement. The design and specifications of the actual fire protection measures are based on British and European standards. shall be available throughout hospital at all levels. • Smoke Clearance: Smoke clearance system will include high capacity impulse fans. • Emergency Lighting: Emergency lighting. A structure of the size of the proposed project would be susceptible to a fire hazard and other emergencies. • Sprinklers: Sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the proposed building. • Staircase Protection: Staircases shall have fire-proof doors and have been designed to ensure that they remain smoke-free. Mitigation: This mandatory provision has been complied with by the architectural planners and incorporated into the building design.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. appropriate protocols would be employed to reduce risks and manage emergency situations. The system is based on the following elements that will be provided at the hospital to meet requirements: • Means of Escape: Means of escape shall be provided on all sides and parts of the building. Therefore. • Fire Detection System: Smoke detectors shall be fitted in all hospital rooms and common areas of the hospital.2. including parking basement.1 Fire-fighting Regimes The building regulations of the District Government specify that every new building must be provided with sufficient means to extinguish fire. and 145 Bizcorp Consultants . Capacity and design of escape follows the National Fire Protection Safety criteria and design capacity of various components of the building.
11. A smoke clearance system using high capacity impulse fans would also be employed.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Such employees shall 146 Bizcorp Consultants .2 Fire Drills In addition to safety features within the project design. There shall be at least two fire hydrants on each floor to connect with the fire-hose reels and a minimum level of water shall be maintained at all times in the water tanks to be available for fire-fighting purposes. A sprinkler system is a vital component of the fire-fighting regime and would be centrally-controlled and trigged in the event of excessive smoke typical of a fire incident. smoke alarms. The fire-hose reels will be connected with firehydrants through pipes with appropriate diameter so as to provide effective pressure and discharge of water for fire-fighting. office equipment and machinery. The elevators shall be disconnected automatically at the time of fire emergency signalled by a fire-alarm. There shall be smoke detectors and fire alarms inside each hospital room. smoke detectors and fire-hose reels on all floors. Sukkur 10/2011 • Elevators: Elevators shall conform to fire-fighting emergency operations and requirements. sets of fire extinguishers. All openings to staircases shall be enclosed with fire-proof doors so as to contain possible blaze(s) within the fire area and also to provide safe passage at evacuation. which shall reduce the risk of fire. There shall be at least four fire hydrants within the compound and two at the exterior. Mitigation: The proponents shall impart training to selected employees to launch safety measures at the time of emergency.2. The fire-hose reels shall have length sufficient to cover the entire length of the floor. people using the premises should also be aware of safety precautions and protocols. Emergency lights shall turn on whenever the fire alarm is triggered for facility of people attempting to leave the premises. fire-fighting buckets filled with sand or fire-repellent substances. Inspections shall also be carried out frequently to check electricity wires and mains. The building shall be equipped with adequate fire-fighting measures in the form of fire-escapes. fire-resistant clothing. Under standing government instructions. air-conditioning plant and water pumps to eliminate possibility of fire through equipment malfunction. smoking is not allowed within public buildings and the proponents shall ensure enforcement of the smoking ban. such as generators.
Mitigation: Guidance notes shall be placed on the inside of all doors to inform people about exit points from the building in the event of fire or other similar emergencies. The Communications Room surveillance-cum-monitoring room shall also have a backup source of power so that the building can be properly scanned when power supply is cut off. fire-alarms will release a loud klaxon warning to alert people present in the hospital. On engagement. The proponents shall organise fire drills at least once a month to keep employees familiar with procedures to be adopted at the time of a fire emergency and to test alertness of selected employees. Fire-proof clothing for at least one employee will be available on each floor in closets next to fire-stations.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Finally. The fire alarm at the same time shall be subject to failsafe to prevent from being operated accidentally. the Communications Room shall be located in such a way that evacuation procedures can not only be observed but evacuation for staff is also convenient. 147 Bizcorp Consultants . Installation of closed-circuit television. it would be possible to engage fire alarm manually. in case of a fire. selected employees will be provided mandatory training to use fire-fighting apparatus in case of a fire emergency.2. which shall be sounded by fire alarm klaxons. At the time of a fire emergency. employees should be aware of actions to be taken during evacuation from the premises in an emergency situation. designated Emergency Coordinators on each floor shall wear fire-proof clothing and guide people to nearest exits. Personnel on duty shall cover all aspects of evacuation and monitor exit from the building. to be powered by standby batteries when electricity supply is cut off.3 Evacuation Plan Similarly. Accordingly. as also everyone outside to ensure that no one enters the premises. In case smoke detectors fail to engage the fire alarm. Sukkur 10/2011 don fire-resistant clothing available on each floor prior to initiate evacuation protocols. all electric installations shall be inspected regularly to prevent malfunction and short-circuiting. and supervise evacuation procedures. Smoke detectors and fire alarms shall be tested at least once every fortnight to test whether these are functional. Frequent inspections shall be conducted on the instructions of the proponents to ensure that smoking ban is being adhered to. Such Emergency Coordinators shall immediately wear fire-resistant clothing. will greatly facilitate evacuation from the hospital. 11. Smoke detectors shall trigger fire alarms. As stated earlier.
In any case. Similar protocols shall be devised to put the Evacuation Plan in force in case there is some other form of emergency necessitating evacuation from the building. All fire proof doors shall be closed immediately after complete evacuation to contain the fire. Staircases shall be enclosed with fireproof doors so as to contain possible blaze(s) within the fire area and also to provide safe passage at the time of evacuation. including the basement. communication shall be made with the Fire Brigade and hospitals for urgent support. The proponents shall devise a list of all possible emergencies and prescribe reaction. convenient and swift. Fire hose reels shall be activated and Emergency Coordinators will engage all portable fire-extinguishers to arrest the blaze as much as possible or to put the fire out. Fire alarms can be activated to signal evacuation. which shall be clearly marked. shall be provided at all upper floors. and shall follow protocols defined within the evacuation plan. The proponents shall devise a standard operating procedure to be followed in the telephone exchange in this behalf. 11. 148 Bizcorp Consultants . At the same time. epidemic. There shall also be at least two clearly marked emergency telephones on each floor. In short. and would preferably be within the Control Room.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The location of the telephone exchange should also be such that evacuation is unimpeded. pest attack or terrorist activity. Arrows in fluorescent ink will delineate fire-escape routes on each floor and the stairs. all fire-emergency measures prescribed under the building regulations shall be adhered to strictly.4 Other Emergencies Emergency Coordinators shall also be trained to act in case of other emergencies. response and evacuation procedures for all such contingencies. which shall connect to the Control Room. Sukkur 10/2011 Elevators will be immediately vacated and disconnected from electricity mains in case they have not been disconnected in unison with fire alarms. and would be conveniently accessed through large windows or doors. There shall be dedicated lines to handle emergency calls and telephone operators shall be under instructions to put all calls on hold to attend to emergency calls. Access to fire-escapes. such as earthquakes. instructions are issued from time to time by federal government agencies to either prepare plans for meeting emergency situations or to follow laiddown procedures.2. Procedures to be followed and escape routes to be used will be clearly displayed at each floor.
1 ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING Environmental testing was carried out according to the following sequence: TABLE 52: ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS Date (s): June 2011 September 13.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. The soil was found to be sturdy enough to take the load of the proposed structure. Hand-held apparatus Water quality Traffic congestion Noise Results of various tests conducted are discussed briefly in the following sub-sections. 2011 August 21.2 Water Quality Ground water sample was collected from existing source at the project site and subjected to tests to determine quality. 149 Bizcorp Consultants . in order to gauge whether any aspect of the project has interfered with the local environment. 12. Govt. 2011 August 21. of the Punjab N.A.1 Soil Tests ascertained that the quality of the soil was good and did not contain any infirmities requiring use of special building materials. 12.1. Sukkur 10/2011 12. 2011 Tests: Soil Source: Geo-technical Consultants Environmental Consultants Environmental Consultants Environmental Consultants Laboratory: Geo Project Consultants Public Health Engineering Department. The water was found chemically fit for direct human consumption.1. 12. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Environmental testing at a project site is essential not only during project implementation but also prior to launching of the project and after the project comes into operation.
it shall also be required of the proponents to monitor environment at the hospital when it comes into operation in order to fathom whether project operations are impacting adversely on the environment.5 Conclusions of Environmental Monitoring All tests carried out in connection with environmental monitoring of the project site have revealed that implementation of the project is not likely to impact adversely in any manner whatsoever on the local environment. Sukkur 10/2011 12.1. Mitigation: Accordingly. 12.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DURING PROJECT EXECUTION Environmental Monitoring shall continue during the course of execution of the project in accordance with specified time-frame and conditions of environmental approval to be issued for the project.4 Noise Noise samples were taken at various locations and it was found that noise levels are a maximum of 66 dBA in the immediate project area.3 Traffic Congestion A traffic count was taken in the project area to work out possible effects of project operation on local traffic.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Firstly. construction and operational phases of the proposed project. it shall be incumbent upon them to ensure effective and complete implementation of the Environmental Management Plan. Impact of project operations traffic is discussed in detail in Chapter 10 relating to the Traffic Impact Analysis. The proponents 150 Bizcorp Consultants . 12. the proponents shall have to evolve a protocol so that monitoring is regular.1. Secondly. which provides appropriate mitigation measures during the design. meaningful and consistent.1.3 POST-PROJECT MONITORING Two aspects of this environmental study require attention of the proponents. 12. 12.
especially between the building line and Sukkur Bypass. Sukkur 10/2011 should nominate the Waste Management Team to be appointed in compliance of Rule 4 of the Hospital Waste Management Rules. The Waste Management Team will be responsible for following aspects relating to project operation: • Maintaining liaison and relationship between the proponents. The Waste Management Team should be entrusted the following charter of duties: • Implementation of all conditions contained in the environmental approval to be issued by Sindh Environmental Protection Agency.000 shall be required for environmental monitoring during operation of the project. 780. green areas and plantations within the compound and beyond its outer limits. The proposed Team shall also need to be allocated a reasonable budget to commission environmental testing periodically and thereafter report findings to Sindh Environmental Protection Agency. • Enforcement of measures aiming to reduce solid waste within the hospital and its compound. • Taking stock of efforts made to contribute towards plantations in adjoining areas. recyclable waste. • Ensuring appropriate storage of all forms of segregated waste. employees. as calculated in the Environmental Monitoring Programme at the end of this chapter. • Assessing arrangements for collection of solid waste. 151 Bizcorp Consultants . green waste and non-recyclable waste. and • Submission of requisite information and reports to the hospital administration and Sindh Environmental Protection Agency. • Ensuring segregation of solid waste to separate hazardous waste. patients’ attendants and visitors n the context of environmental preservation. • Maintaining security of premises.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Checking safety protocols within the building. if any. to carry out environmental monitoring of the hospital and the neighbourhood. • Environmental monitoring within the hospital and the neighbourhood. 2005. patients. • Proper maintenance of trees. • Ensuring disposal of all forms of segregated waste in an environmental-friendly manner. An annual amount of Rs.
and • Conducting fire-drills a least once a month. • Monitoring measures taken for reuse of water. noise levels and groundwater quality and checking emissions of employees’ vehicles. • Checking worthiness of fire-fighting equipment. both inside and outside the hospital to measure ambient air quality. • Adoption of measures for minimisation of liquid waste. • Managing and testing safety equipment and protocols to ensure safety within the premises. Sukkur 10/2011 • Direct supervision of incineration processes and regular maintenance of the incinerator. • Supervising annual maintenance within the hospital building. • Appropriate conservation of water resources. • Checking measures taken to eliminate wastage of water. • Conducting environmental testing. • Ensuring that the basement is used only for parking of vehicles. • Ensuring that vehicles owned by employees do not create pollution and that these are kept in good working condition.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Ensuring that all obsolete equipment and machines are disposed of in an environmental-friendly manner. 152 Bizcorp Consultants . through a certified laboratory. • Regular monitoring of the wastewater treatment plant. • Maintaining noise levels inside the hospital building and its compound within the levels specified under the National Environmental Quality Standards.
This contributes to lessening any unfounded adverse environmental impact of the project on local communities and assists project implementation. • Document concerns of the stakeholders about the project in order to allay their fears. 13. not only for the project area but for the country as a whole. SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT The project is outside the city on an unencumbered plot. • Compile data pertaining to the project area and collect informal information that may have not been otherwise documented • Assess public perceptions about the project.1. i. Public consultation was carried out and a social survey was undertaken to assess public perceptions about the project and whether mitigation measures are necessary and if these shall be enough. Sukkur 10/2011 13.1 PUBLIC CONSULTATION Public consultation is an important element in establishing environmental parameters of a development project and an environmental impact assessment would be incomplete without eliciting views of primary stakeholders. On the basis of findings of the field team. Accordingly. people directly affected by project implementation and operation.e. there are no social issues arising out of land acquisition proceedings and dislocation of authorised or unauthorised users of the project site.1 Identification of Stakeholders Fieldwork and public consultation was designed to identify stakeholders. it will not only be aware of benefits and disadvantages of the project but can also be convinced of advantages of trade-offs. The rationale for consultation can be summarised as under: • Inform stakeholders about salient features of the project. primary stakeholders are: 153 Bizcorp Consultants . 13. In case affected public is educated and well-informed. Public consultation is thus designed essentially to allay fears of affected population about the project and to inform them of direct or indirect benefits.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. and • Pinpoint any section of the local population that could be particularly affected by project activities.
such as drug stores.1. and Other stakeholders listed in the previous sub-section. Results of the social survey are indicated in Table 55 overleaf. public-sector infrastructure. along with dates. Deputy District Officer (Revenue).Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • Government departments directly or indirectly involved with the project. Executive District Officer (Health).2 Consultation Process Discussions were held with a number of government departments to gather information about the land and the people.. clinics etc. Directorate of Labour. Wildlife Department. Executive District Officer (Education). Conservator of Forests.2 SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND SURVEY Surveys were conducted twice to collect stakeholders’ views about the project. • People who shall benefit from project activities in the form of employment or business opportunities. Traffic Office. Consultation was held with following offices of District Government or the Government of Sindh: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Deputy District Officer (Coordination). Divisional Forest Officer. 13. Works & Services Department. are shown in Table 54 overleaf. and • Knowledgeable residents of the area keen to contribute to the consultation process. 154 Bizcorp Consultants . • Local businesses. Hyderabad Electric Supply Company. Sukkur 10/2011 • Close neighbours. District Social Welfare Office. of project activities on the surrounding environment and any private or public concerns about the project under review. 13. possible impact. if any. Locations of public consultations.
government servants. • Questions were simple and direct and properly explained in order to remove distortions in sampling.2. is summarised as under: 155 Bizcorp Consultants . and • All interviewed were briefed about the project under review. 13. while most stakeholders were satisfied with the proposal. People desirous of seeking information about potential benefits of the project were briefed on the number of jobs that would be created during construction and operation.2 Conclusions of the Social Survey It would be observed from findings of the social survey that many of those interviewed bore positive about the project. • While conducting the interviews. in case unaware of impending project activities.2. it was ensured that a crosssection of the public is covered by the survey. • No extraordinary discrimination was exercised in selecting people to be interviewed and the questions were directed not only at educated people alone. business opportunities for local businesses etc. • People interviewed were selected at random. volume of monetary investment. local doctors.1 Social Survey Methodology The following methodology was adopted to conduct the social survey. medical students. which was carried out by two separate teams: • Local students were engaged to conduct the survey. A number of doctors however were generally sceptical about the project on the ability of the proponents to maintain the desired standards. Sukkur 10/2011 There was no alarming concern about the proposed project amongst local residents. 13. businesses. leading workers’ representatives. • People selected for interview were chosen carefully to ensure that only knowledgeable individuals were approached for views. staff at hospitals. Feedback from those interviewed in response to sample questions and direct questions that were not put to everyone. • People interviewed included patients at local hospitals.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.
• A number of residents were happy with the planned development as it would drive up property prices in the area. thereby generating business. • There were no complaints about possible noisy works from project activities. • There were a few concerns that traffic in the immediate area would increase. • There were barely concerns about intrusions into privacy of residences and these concerns were withdrawn when it was explained that hospital rooms overlooking the neighbourhood do not remain occupied on a twenty-four hour or permanent basis. • Patients at local hospitals were especially happy that a new hospital with modern equipment and facilities was being planned. 156 Bizcorp Consultants . • Workers’ representatives were in full praise of the project but expected that workers and their families should be given preemptive rights over medical facilities. Sukkur 10/2011 • Most residents were pleased with the state-of-the-art medical facilities that would be added to the city. • There were very few concerns regarding pollution that may be caused by the proposed project. • There was relief that these medical facilities would also be available to the general public and would not be exclusively for workers. • Chemists in the local area were especially in praise of the project as it would not only add a new hospital but would add to the capacity of the city to attend to medical needs of patients throughout the district as also adjoining districts.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • All doctors were appreciative of the proposed intervention but a few commented on the inability of the public sector to maintain highest standards of service delivery. • There was general satisfaction that project development had not caused any undue hardship for the local public. • Medical students were unanimously pleased by the proposed project and hoped that they would have the opportunity to be given rounds and instruction within the proposed modern medical facilities as exposure to modern equipment and techniques would enhance their medical training. • There were not many views that construction of a high-rise building would add prestige to the project area.
Since the project is yet to be launched and some prior actions can be taken. • Project vehicles should follow traffic laws and road courtesies. the following suggestions were made: • The proponents. • The contractor should make sure that sufficient steps are taken for observing privacy of residents..Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. • There were some concerns amongst government functionaries about location of the project away from the city but many retracted their comments when informed that the previous site was in the heart of the city and would have added to congestion. • All roads and paths that may be damaged should be rehabilitated. or the construction contractor. • Construction activities should not interfere with local customs and traditions. • Construction activities should not interfere with movement of local traffic or pedestrians. • Machinery and equipment should be moved only when there is minimal inconvenience for local population. and • District Government officials had concerns about disposal of solid waste and expected that the proponents would make suitable arrangements for removal and ultimate disposal. Sukkur 10/2011 • Workers’ representatives also wanted that all facilities should be free of cost. technicians etc. • There was no adverse reaction to impending movement of construction vehicles. • Employees interviewed at two local hospitals appreciated the project as it would open up employment opportunities for experienced nurses. • Arrival of workers and supervisors would not be unwelcome. • There were concerns that not enough jobs would be offered to locals and that workers would be brought in from outside the project area. • Most people are not disturbed by major construction works that would follow. • All labour should be engaged locally. • Government departments and government servants were positive about the project and were of the view that the facilities should be open for the entire public. 157 Bizcorp Consultants . must restore roads or paths that are damaged during project implementation.
13. it was not considered necessary to broaden the scope of the survey beyond the questions put to those interviewed.2. other than questions relating to the previous site. Private properties should not be encroached upon. Due to the nature of the project. and • There are no trees or vegetation at the project site. However. which shall generate business and economic activity.7 billion. traffic counts. or to extend the survey beyond the people approached. and laboratory tests for 158 Bizcorp Consultants . topographical survey. All private lands that may be disturbed during project implementation should be rehabilitated. Jobs to be created include assignments taken on by permanent employees. an elaborate plantation and greening programme is embedded in the project which shall liven up the area. Sukkur 10/2011 • • • • Unskilled labour should be introduced to training. social survey. • There are no natural habitats or breeding grounds for animals and birds within this strip.2. No environmental hazards should be created at the site. The following arguments provide mitigation factors for the proposed project: • The proposed project will be implemented on a parcel of land that is presently lying unutilised. 13. • The proponents must supervise the work of the contractor to ensure that all concerns of the local population are appropriately addressed. noise testing.3 Mitigating Factors The social survey indicates that the sampled public is more or less comfortable with impending construction activities. • Implementation of the project will cost a minimum of Rs. implementation and operation. and • There should be appropriate disposal of liquid and solid waste. 2.4 Employment Generation The project shall result in creation of a large number of temporary as well as permanent jobs during the pre-project stage.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. Surveys included geotechnical investigations.
Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.5 Complaint Redressal Mechanism During Construction A major project must put in place a complaint redressal system so as to resolve issues arising out of project implementation and to alleviate impacts on the local environment and inhabitants.3 MEASURES FOR SURROUNDING AREAS The proponents will ensure that there will be no adverse environmental impact of the construction process or project operation on surrounding areas. there is no necessity for any special measures to be undertaken by the proponents for alleviation of socio159 Bizcorp Consultants . 13. about project activities and to advertise such link through a notice at the site. The proponents are being advised through this environmental report to put up a link on their website to receive public complaints. The proponents shall thereafter also establish a complaints redressal mechanism to respond to public concerns. if any. Sukkur 10/2011 water quality. noise and dust pollution from construction cannot be eliminated one hundred percent and at best can only be minimised. Mitigation: A sign shall be posted at the site regarding project activities and a qualified project manager will be appointed to entertain or respond to public complaints.2. TABLE 56: EMPLOYMENT GENERATION Jobs created Permanent Temporary 15 --15 30 24 6 12 --12 400 --200 5 --5 605 605 --6 6 --- Phase Surveys Studies Designing Construction Supervision Operation Environmental Monitoring Type of workers Skilled/unskilled Skilled Skilled Skilled/unskilled Skilled/unskilled Skilled/unskilled Skilled/unskilled 13. However. The following table gives a rough but possibly accurate picture of job creation from project activities. Since the proposed project shall not impinge on living conditions of local residents in any matter whatsoever. considering especially that project implementation shall take a minimum of two years for completion.
consider a plantation and beautification campaign in the immediate area of the proposed project. Construction of the hospital and subsequent operation will provide work for local workers and generate business for commercial establishments. solid waste generation. Such measures are needed in only those cases where location of a project creates hardships for local population and surrounding areas and are usually taken by multinationals or large industrial units in the form of employment opportunities. Mitigation: The project site shall be sprinkled frequently to minimise dust pollution.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. congestion. It shall. depend greatly on the ability of local civil society to motivate the proponents to contribute further to the surrounding areas in various different ways when the project enters operational phase. however. dispensaries. sanitation services and recreational facilities for local population. especially neighbours. 160 Bizcorp Consultants . hospitals. Sukkur 10/2011 economic conditions of local residents or surrounding areas. The proponents could. No activity shall take place at the construction site that can endanger local community. schools. machinery and equipment to ensure that noise and smoke emissions are within limits set under the National Environmental Quality Standards. which will be beneficial for project operation too. Measures for surrounding areas become especially expedient as a part of a major environmental enhancement campaign especially in case of usually large industrial projects that can have significant off-site impacts in the shape of emissions. This contribution shall add immensely to improving aesthetics of the area. water supply. The construction contractor shall use good quality vehicles. however. and construction area shall be cordoned off. land compensation or resettlement. or cause any undue hardship.
The site is unencumbered and available for development. 14. 14. Therefore. orchards. 14. payment of compensation for land. has not been invoked for project implementation. Therefore.1 COMPENSATION Land for the project site has been placed at the disposal of the proponents for implementation of the project by the Government of Sindh. trees. 161 Bizcorp Consultants . and resettlement of population that may have to be removed and relocated. relocation and resettlement of authorised or unauthorised occupants of the project site. COMPENSATION AND RESETTLEMENT Implementation of a project can touch on issues relating to acquisition of land.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. there are no issues involved in payment of compensation. structures and other assets. it would be worthwhile to mention here that it provides a mechanism for redressal of grievances of all persons affected from a project. the proponents shall develop a link on their website to record and monitor complaints of not only the dislocated families but also from residents of the area or from any other persons directly or indirectly affected by project implementation. damages for crops. Sukkur 10/2011 14. a Resettlement Plan was not required for the project under review of this Environmental Impact Assessment. Even where displacement is not anticipated or is minimal.2 RESETTLEMENT PLAN A Resettlement Plan must developed by a proponent where the project under implementation involves displacement of large numbers of the local population. the proponents must compile details of expected damages and estimate payment of compensation requiring interventions shown in Table 57 overleaf. Since the proposed project site is public property and arrangements for transfer of land and its possession have been finalised through inter-departmental meetings. 1894.3 GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL MECHANISM Even though the Land Acquisition Act.
possible soil contamination. also lowers general aesthetic values of the local environment. excess construction materials. Construction waste will include removed vegetation. While the objectives of this study have been to describe the project and its environmental impact. • Wastewater Generation and Disposal: A large measure of wastewater shall result from construction activities as also during operation of the project. • Solid Waste: Solid waste shall be generated both during project implementation and operation. vehicular traffic. dust emissions. CONCLUSIONS This Environmental Impact Assessment has been conducted. if any. to the extent possible. • Hazardous Waste: Hazardous and medical waste shall be a major cause for concern during project operation. An implementation mechanism for mitigation measures in the form of an Environmental Management Plan is included in the study. The Environmental Impact Assessment contains description of the project. in line with relevant guidelines provided by the Government of Pakistan.000 cubic feet of earth during pitting. Disposal of medical waste during operation of the hospital shall be a primary concern. Its impact on the environment of the immediate surrounding area will have the following features: • Earthworks: A basement is envisaged in the project design. potential environmental impacts and suggested mitigation measures. Inappropriate disposal. it also identifies adverse environmental factors associated with the proposed project. description of the environmental baselines. solid and liquid waste from construction activities. machinery and equipment. apart from creating pollution of water and soil.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. construction camp effluent. Sukkur 10/2011 15. The objective of such studies is to identify and assess potential environmental and social impacts of the proposed hospital. construction waste and excavated material. and smoke emissions and exhausts from vehicles. • Socio-economic Impact: Construction of the hospital shall in no way impact adversely on socio-economic conditions 162 Bizcorp Consultants . • Construction Impact: Construction impacts of the proposed project could include noise. which shall involve removal of about 315.
Appropriate mitigation measures as explained in the environmental study shall reduce. The contents of Section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. resulting in loss of sunshine and thereby impacting adversely on agricultural productivity and loss of light and energy for structures upon which the shadow falls.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. particularly in urban and semi-urban areas. The environmental study has established that operation of the hospital will not impact adversely on socio-economic conditions prevailing in the area and will in fact be beneficial in many respects. • The proposed project shall cater especially for exclusive medical facilities for workers and their families.76 million on establishment and Rs.35 million on operations and maintenance shall lead to economic opportunities for local businesses. and can be summarised as follows: • The two hundred bed modern surgical hospital shall add to the existing pool of medical facilities in and around the area. can have an adverse impact on the local environment. 75. 1997. • Equipment to be installed shall correspond to the latest international quality control standards. shall hail from the project area. 2. and some skilled workers. Operation of the project shall not have any adverse impact but shall rather enhance availability of medical facilities in the project area. and annual operating costs of Rs. and • Almost the entire unskilled labour force. • Shadow: Shadows from structures.7 billion during construction. • The project cost of Rs. 160. resulting in higher heating costs for affected households. the above impacts so that these are within acceptable limits. Sukkur 10/2011 prevailing in the project area. • The project under review will result in creation of at least two hundred temporary and six hundred and five permanent employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled workers. whereby environmental approval has been made mandatory prior to 163 Bizcorp Consultants . thus benefitting the local population directly. and • Visual Intrusion Physical presence of tall buildings can have some impact on aesthetics value of a project area by marring the skyline and can also sometimes obstruct a scenic view. thereby providing the best medical attention in the project area. if not eliminate.
and no further study is required in this context. make it plainly evident that any economic activity can have some sort of environmental impact. it is concluded that the proposed project is not likely to cause any significant adverse impact on the social.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital. provided that suitable mitigation measures as identified in this study are implemented. Sukkur Bypass. subject to payment of the requisite scrutiny fee by the proponents of the project. physical and biological environment of the area. It is further concluded that all potential environmental concerns associated with the project have been adequately addressed. Surgical Hospital. 164 Bizcorp Consultants . The objective of preparation of an environmental study is to identify how environment is impacted and to suggest mitigating measures to reduce if not totally eliminate adverse effects of a project. Sukkur. It is accordingly recommended that environmental approval for the proposed project. Sukkur 10/2011 commencement of a project that may have an adverse environmental impact. Based on overall assessment of the environmental impact of the proposed project. should be issued by Sindh Environmental Protection Agency.
gov.pk/eia_pdf/C_P_P11SeptRev.environment.pk/Publications.environment. Sukkur 10/2011 ENDNOTES 1 Page 11 Page 16 Page 23 www.gov. Zain Plaza.gov.htm www.pk/act-rules/IEE-EIA-REG.pk/eia_pdf/e_RevPublicCon.gov.pk/eia_pdf/f_Crit_%20Areas.com www.pk www. Road.gov.pk.pdf www.pdf www. Zone-V.gov.pdf www.environment. G.pk www.gov. (Shehla Zia and Others Versus Water and Power Development Authority) www.pk www.environment.pdf Geo Project Consultants.gov.gov.gov.pdf www.pk/eia_pdf/j_rev-Hous-guid.environment.pk www.gov.environment.pdf www. Islamabad.gov.environment.gov.pk/NEP/Policy. Supreme Court of Pakistan. June 2011 1 1 2 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 25 Page 26 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 28 Page 28 Page 30 Page 30 Page 30 Page 30 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 37 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 1 1 165 Bizcorp Consultants .pdf www.environment. environment.environment.environment.environment.gov.equator-principles.langdonwilson.pk/act-rules/envprotact1997.environment.gov.environment.pk/Publications.pk www.pk www.environment.pdf www. Geotechnical Study.htm www.gov.gov.com www.gov.pdf) www.T.Environmental Impact Assessment: Surgical Hospital.environment.environment.pk/eia_pdf/D_rev_enReprt.environment.pk/act-rules/envprotact1997.
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