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Originally Issued: April 2006 Updated: December 2008 Abstract—This paper summarizes a new approach for the design of concrete shear wall structures for nuclear facilities. Static and dynamic analyses are carried out with the same finite element model, using SAP2000 and SASSI2000 computer programs, respectively. The method imports the dynamic solution from SASSI2000 into the optimum concrete (OPTCON) design computer code in order to compute the stresses in the concrete members for every time step of analysis. Static stresses are imported from the static solution for applicable static loads, and total stresses are computed for concrete design. The design process allows both element-based and cut-section design methods. This approach has the advantage of considering the stress time history in the design of concrete members, avoiding the conventional approach of combining maximum seismic stresses for all elements simultaneously. Significant savings in concrete design (both time and material) were obtained in a test problem, simulating a typical shear wall structure for nuclear facilities. Keywords—computer code, cut-section design, element-based design, impedance matrix, integrated design, mass matrix, optimum design, reinforcement, seismic design, shear wall structure, shell element, static and dynamic analysis, stiffness matrix
INTRODUCTION he current approach to the design of safetyrelated shear wall structures generally involves using the SASSI2000  computer code for the seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis. Acceleration profiles obtained from the SASSI analysis are applied to a detailed finite element model as equivalent static loads to determine the seismic forces. The SASSI models may be coarser than the static models. The design may be carried out using a concrete design program, with appropriate combination of applicable static loads. In the design process, maximum seismic forces in each of the three orthogonal directions are combined. This step assumes that all maximum seismic loads are acting at the same time, thus resulting in a very conservative design. The conventional two-step design procedure described above is tedious and requires two separate analyses to develop design loads and the compatibility of the static and the dynamic models needs to be demonstrated for each application. However, it has the advantage that a detailed static model considering major openings and composite slabs can be analyzed for design. The proposed approach requires the same model to be used for static and dynamic analysis and thus offers a more robust approach for concrete design, if the same static model can be used in the dynamic analysis. For dynamic analysis, the new version of the SASSI2000 code is used. This version has the state-of-the-art thin/thick shell element with five stress output points allowing computation of out-of-plane shear forces. To avoid transfer of large sets of stress time histories from SASSI2000 to optimum concrete (OPTCON) [design computer code], the transfer function solutions, which comprise a much smaller set of data, are imported to OPTCON and the STRESS module in SASSI2000 is implemented in OPTCON to compute element stresses. OPTCON combines the shell stresses into one 3-D record for design while preserving the maximum responses. OPTCON imports static loads, such as dead-load from SAP2000  models. OPTCON module is a Windows program using a project database. An earlier version of the OPTCON reinforced concrete design engine was developed 30 years ago and used extensively in the design of
Thomas D. Kohli firstname.lastname@example.org Orhan Gürbüz, PhD
Farhang Ostadan, PhD
© 2008 Bechtel Corporation. All rights reserved.
In SASSI. To include the SSI effects. the equation of motion is formulated in frequency domain and fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques are used to convert the frequency domain solution to time domain solution. AND TERMS ACI CG DLL DOF FFT OPTCON SSI American Concrete Institute center of gravity Dynamic Link Library degree(s) of freedom fast Fourier transform optimum concrete soil-structure interaction non-seismic loads using the same model. in effect. • Selective output includes the required reinforcement on each face of the wall or the slab. The integrated process incorporates theoretical accuracy and engineering judgment and is a valuable tool in the design of next generation of nuclear power plants. for each element. • Contour plots of shell forces and computed reinforcement are available to the designer. Each of these steps is described below. For the new integrated design approach. The impedance matrix is. respectively. Seismic Analysis with SASSI2000 The computer program is widely used in the nuclear industry for seismic SSI analysis of structures and development of seismic responses for structural design and equipment design. which is interconnected to all other interaction nodes and is obtained from the point load solution for each interaction node. in each direction. which refer to degrees of freedom (DOF) associated with different nodes (see Figure 1): [C ] = [K ] – w 2 [M ] Subscript Nodes b i the boundary of the total system at the boundary between the soil and the structure (2) • All design meets the requirements of ACI 349-01 (both shear walls as well as floor diaphragms are designed). SASSI solves for the following equation of motion where [C] is a complex frequencydependent dynamic stiffness matrix III II II III ⎡C ii − C ii + X ii − C iw CC is ⎤ ⎧U ⎫ ⎧X U ′⎫ ⎥ ⎪ i ⎪ ⎪ ii i ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎨U w ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ (1) ⎢ − C II − C II 0 wi ww ⎥⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ III III C si 0 C ss ⎥ ⎩U s ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ The process streamlines the analysis and design process and reduces the engineering time for design significantly. and (3) design of the structural members using the OPTCON module. • OPTCON performs automatic elementgrouping where forces on sections of elements need to be considered as a set. w within the excavated soil volume g s f at the remaining part of the free-field site at the remaining part of the structure combination of i and w nodes METHODOLOGY T 2 he integrated design methodology involves (1) seismic analysis of the overall structure using SASSI2000. determining the “best-fit” reinforcement at each face of the concrete. For each selected frequency of analysis. • OPTCON assures design is adequate for stresses for all time steps. ACRONYMS. Using the following subscripts. the OPTCON computer code was modified to affect the design as follows: • Design is performed using the element shell forces as a function of time.ABBREVIATIONS. (2) static analysis under the Formulation of the dynamic stiffness and mass matrices is very similar to all other finite element codes. obtained from the Dynamic Link Library (DLL) using factored time history loads. Bechtel Technology Journal . The process streamlines the analysis and design process and reduces the engineering time for design significantly. nuclear power plants. stress-strain and [K] and [M] are the global complex stiffness and mass matrices.  OPTCON optimizes its reinforcement design by considering all the factored shell forces at once. a complex frequency-dependent spring and dashpot. • OPTCON uses parabolic relationship for concrete. thus preserving the phasing of the response motions and combining with applicable static loads. SASSI2000 requires computation of the free-field motion U′i in Equation 1 and the impedance matrix for all foundation interaction nodes Xii.
The stress time histories for each element are computed from the response time histories of the nodes forming that element using the stress-strain relationship of the respective element. The solution from Equation 1 in terms of U is the transfer function solution for each degree of the freedom in the model. Substructuring Method in SASSI2000 Analysis Figure 1 depicts the substructuring method used in SASSI2000 analyses. Any general purpose finite element analysis program can be used for this purpose.Qb (a) Total System g w i b w i s i Qb (b) Substructure I Free-Field Site (c) Substructure II Excavated Soil Volume (d) Substructure III Structure Figure 1. Since the design will be carried out for the total structure. Static Analysis for Non-Seismic Loads The finite element model of the structure used in SASSI2000 for seismic analysis should be used for the non-seismic loads in accordance with the project criteria. it is necessary to capture the internal forces and moments for all members. The transfer function solution is convolved with the Fourier components of the input motion and converted to time domain to obtain the response time history for the respective degree of freedom in the model. In this study. SAP2000 is used. Details of SASSI2000 substructuring methods and the internal modeling can be obtained from the theoretical manual of the program (see ). the lateral soil pressures must be included in the static analysis. December 2008 • Volume 1. Number 1 3 . the finite element model must include the soil stiffness to capture the basemat response. if the structure is embedded. Consequently. Also.
the SHL17 thin/thick shell element’s stress recovery routines were rewritten using complex arithmetic so that their inputs were the frequency domain nodal transfer-functions rather than the original nodal displacement time histories. For a diaphragm. in-plane membrane forces and moments are calculated.e. the process used by OPTCON is for the user to isolate all the shell elements to be considered in a design (i. All analysis is done on a time-step basis for the entire time-history duration using the 3-D combined shell stresses. Myy . OPTCON automatically assembles the individual shell elements to be considered in the design into internal logical groups. Vxz . OPTCON uses the imported static shell stresses for dead-load and live-load along with user specified loading-combination scale factors and for each time-step combines them into the final shell element stresses to be used for design. M xx . Definition of Design Forces Design of shear wall structures has been carried out in the past using both element stresses and “cut section” forces. always considers all possible cut-sections of groups of elements in the design at each elementlevel. typically Sxx and M xx are considered as P and M pairs at each timestep to design the horizontal reinforcement in the shear wall and Syy and Myy to design the vertical reinforcement. Then. During the 3-D combination. and Vyz— for each shell at all five stress output points on the SHL17 element. and Z-excitation) and uses the three components of time histories. For element-based design (i. one for each respective direction. in-plane overturning moment Mu. M xy . In the integrated approach. SASSI2000 performs the analysis one direction at a time (three runs for X-. these forces are: membrane force in the vertical direction Pu. Therefore. with no elementgrouping) the final shell element stresses are used directly. For a wall. the three directions of excitations are permutated in terms of plus/minus sign for all eight possible combinations so that their maximum resulting shell stress components are captured. including the out-ofplane bending moments M x and My and out-of-plane shears Vxz and Vyz . All analysis is done on a time-step basis for the entire time-history duration using the 3-D combined shell stresses. Integrated Design Using the OPTCON Module The shell stresses computed in the SASSI2000 STRESS DLL in OPTCON use the transfer-functions of the DOF defined by the connectivity of the 3-D shell finite element model. Thus. The stress recovery was therefore performed in the frequency domain and converted to time domain using the SASSI2000 FFT routines. The twisting moment.. one is at the center of gravity (CG) of the element and the other four are located about 80 percent of the way from the CG to the corner nodes. the ACI 349-01 code criteria is considered so the envelope of the controlling design step is assured. M xy is added to amplify both M xx and Myy so that the design at each time-step is conservative. Syy . At each time-step. Sxy . The time histories of shell element stresses are used for design. The out-of-plane design forces are calculated on an element basis. require special ACI 349-01 code considerations. In this. OPTCON performs element-based design using the single shell element stresses using an iteration process where both As and As’ are initially set to their minimums and then swept through all the steps so that all P and M pairs best-fit within a numerical reinforced concrete interaction diagram.The analysis results are saved in the project database that will be used during the design process. and horizontal shear force Vu.e. the final 3-D combined shell stresses contain all the time-history stress components— Sxx . a combination of both is used as described below. Y-. rows of elements in both walls and diaphragms are designated as “element-groups. Then.. a shear wall or a floor diaphragm) and then the internal STRESS DLL is executed three times. once for each of the global directions and the results of these analyses are saved to disk. In the OPTCON program module. The SHL17 quadrilateral shell element has five output points where the shell stresses are computed. Figure 2 shows the element-grouping on a simple shear wall with one door opening. these forces and moments would be calculated in both directions. 4 Bechtel Technology Journal . OPTCON. For element-groups. This is accomplished considering openings in the designs such as doors and windows in shear walls or openings in floor diaphragms. Such openings form piers at each of the element-levels that. each of the three directional analyses is post-processed so the result is a combined 3-D time history record for each shell element in the analysis. Thus.” For each element-group. To do this. in certain cases. with element-group design.
1 Element Column No. 1 5 6 1 Pier No. 2. 1 Pier No. 8 8 Element Level No. vectors 1. Elevation of Shear Wall with One Opening . Showing Horizontal Groups When using element-grouping. 2 2 3 Figure 2. Fvi Sxx. Fxi X CG of Shell i Yj Pu (+ = tension) (kips) Mu (ft–kips) Iw/2 (5 Shell Elements Shown) hi Vu (kips) CG of Shell n C Wall Section L Figure 3. 4 7 4 Element Level No. the individual CG shell stresses are integrated at each time step to determine the design forces and/or moments.Shell Elements Element Column No. the shell stresses at the five output points on the element are averaged. and 5 represent cut-sections on the wall piers to be used for design. Fyi Y Sxy. Then. Number 1 5 . Vectors 3 and 6 are cut-sections on multiple piers. the shell stresses at the five output points on the element are averaged and assumed to be located at the CG of the element. Figure 3 shows how these integrations are performed using an example of a five-element group: Applied Axial Load on Wall (tension is positive): Pu = ∑ Fyi i =1 i =n (3) December 2008 • Volume 1. across the whole wall. When using element-grouping. Fxi = (Sxx)(hi) Fyi = (Syy)(wi) Fvi = (Sxy)(wi) Iw/2 wi Xj Syy. and vectors 7 and 8 are cut-sections on the wall where no piers exist. 4. Integration of CG Shell Stresses to Determine Design Forces and/or Moments — Five-Element Group In Figure 2.
000 nodes and 8. This is an illustration of a plot of the eight shell stress components that may be viewed at the option of the engineer. Concrete Stress Block When designing reinforcing steel with elementgroups while considering membrane forces and their overturning moments. 0. inches per inch) f s = e s E s ≤ 0. These are the absolute value of the maximum 3-D combined seismic plus static vertical shell forces in the wall. Figure 6 illustrates the shell element mesh in the wall segment used in the example. The shear wall runs from the basemat at elev. 5. e0 = 0. As can be observed from this model.0 to the first floor at elev. resulting in 9. 27.27 and is 206 ft long.002 xbar C ƒc = 0. extending across the entire building. OPTCON considers equally distributed rebar located along the section to be designed. numerous openings exist in the walls and slabs and therefore the design forces must be calculated considering these discontinuities. and 6—formed by intersecting interior walls as shown above. The shear wall has three shear panels—numbered 4. Design of a Typical Cut-Section with No Openings 6 Bechtel Technology Journal . i. OPTCON considers equally distributed rebar located along the section to be designed.e.85ƒc e Lna ec (max) = 0. e s . The finite element model for this building is shown in Figure 5. Applied Shear Load on Wall: Vu = ∑ Fν i i =1 i =n DESIGN EXAMPLE (5) T When designing reinforcing steel with element-groups while considering membrane forces and their overturning moments. Figure 7 is a contour plot of the Syy shell forces in units of kips per foot of shell width.002 es o Neutral Axis lw Figure 4. Figure 4 shows the design of a typical cut-section where no openings exist: Strain in Rebar Set.. as a Function of the Strain of the Concrete.85ƒc Xi 2e e0 e e0 (Parabolic Hognestad Concrete Stress Block) C bar set i L Concrete Stress Block 0.9 f y (force per unit of area) (7) Force in Bar Set: Fs = f s x As (units of force) (8) NOTE: Forces on bar sets in compression zone are reduced to consider force taken by concrete. The two-story building is approximately 150 ft x 250 ft and 64 ft high. OPTCON iterates on the area of reinforcement considering differing concrete stress block having discontinuities and the reinforcing steel is not considered where the openings exist. at the Edge of the Concrete Sections: he integrated approach was applied to a shear wall structure in a high seismic zone. These plots are for information only and are used 2 ⎛ x − Lna e s = ec ⎜ i ⎜ L na ⎝ Stress in Bar Set: ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (6) (strain. The design of the lower exterior shear wall illustrated in Figure 5 is shown as an example below.Applied Moment about Center Line of Wall or Wall Segment (counter-clockwise is positive): i =n ⎧ ⎛1 ⎞⎫ M u = ∑ − ⎨ Fy i × ⎜ w − x i ⎟⎬ ⎜ 2 ⎟ i =1 ⎩ ⎝ ⎠⎭ (4) If openings such as doors or windows should exist in the cut-section shown in Figure 4. ec . The model used a 5 ft x 5 ft mesh size.000 elements.
6 of ACI 349-01. Contour Plot of Syy Shell Membrane Forces December 2008 • Volume 1. Example of Shear Wall Structure Figure 6. Lower Exterior Shear Wall Figure 7. Horizontal shear reinforcement was designed with OPTCON. The largest demand-capacity ratio for individual piers was 0. In-Plane Reinforcement Requirements The entire wall was checked using OPTCON with element-grouping for limiting shear strength per Section 220.127.116.11 and the largest for piers sharing a common lateral force was 0. Number 1 7 .39. using element-grouping to meet Z X Y Figure 5.to view the stress concentrations that tend to dominate the design of the reinforcing steel.
cgi?0872621723>.com/ProductDetails. USA.org/cgi/ WWWdisplaybn. 2005. The proposed approach resulted in reinforcement requirements that were 77%–93% of the reinforcement determined using the two-step approach. he is an advisor to senior management on technology issues. SAP2000 User’s Manual. directly related to time-history design due to combined static and seismic loading. and C. Inc. pp.86 sq. December 1975. it can be readily applied to complex projects. asp?ProductCode=SAP2KDOC-3>. Kohli and O. F. he total reinforcement was obtained by combining reinforcement required for in-plane loadings with the added reinforcement required to resist out-of-plane loadings and considering minimum code requirements. 11-31. As a Fellow. in San Francisco. cgi?7670213> and <http://cedb. access via <http://cedb. retired from Bechtel after 25 years of service. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering (Paper No. BIOGRAPHIES Thomas D. Chin. This design tool will accelerate the design process and.the provisions of ACI 349-01. The controlling reinforcement designed was 0. Louisiana. New Orleans.org/cgi/WWWdisplay. CONCLUSIONS A dequate tools are important for the design of complex structures for both commercial nuclear power plants and US Department of Energy facilities. amplified by Mxy with the membrane forces Sxx and Syy set to zero (since they had already been considered in the in-plane design above).asce. Reinforcement Required Resulting From Out-of-Plane Loads on the Wall OPTCON was used with element-based design using only the shell moments Mxx and Myy.asce. Shear-friction was checked at the bottom of the wall (basemat intersection) using elementgrouping per paragraph 11. Lysmer. CA.” Geotechnical Engineering Division.” Proceedings of the Second ASCE Specialty Conference on Structural Design of Nuclear Plant Facilities.5 hours using a high-end PC running the OPTCON Windows program.131. University of California. at the same time. 8 Bechtel Technology Journal . Computers and Structures..-in.85/SASSI2000/index_html>. “SASSI2000 – A System for Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction – Theoretical Manual. Orhan Gürbüz is a Bechtel Fellow and senior principal engineer with over 35 years of experience in structural and earthquake engineering. 1999. No out-of-plane reinforcements (stirrups) were required in the wall during the design. Gürbüz. Ostadan. per foot of shell width per face. Berkeley. 2006. and 11-32 of ACI 349-01. 996). access via <http://orders. “Optimum Design of Reinforced Concrete for Nuclear Containments. and represents Bechtel in technical societies and at industry associations. Kohli is a consulting engineer. held April 18–22. His specialty is modern windows software engineering as applied to Finite Element Analysis and optimized reinforced concrete design meeting the requirements of ACI 349 and ACI 359 Codes.csiberkeley. 1292–1319. T.S. Because the design process meets the ACI code requirements. Civil Engineering Department. This resulted in the added reinforcement needed to resist the out-of-plane loadings on the wall. Including Thermal Effects. He has more than 40 years of experience in the analysis and design of nuclear related structures. RESULTS T The original version of this paper was published in the Proceedings of the 8th U. Thomas served on the Senior Structural Staff in the Bechtel Los Angeles Office and managed the Containment Specialty Group that performed front-end design for Nuclear Containment design in the 1970s. will minimize the peer review process that has become a large part of such projects. Los Angeles. Thomas holds a BS in Civil and Structural Engineering from the University of Southern California. California. access via <http://203. equations 21-7.96.   The integrated design approach presented in this paper takes advantage of the time history phase relationship of the seismic forces and also optimizes the design. Berkeley. The example design shown above was accomplished in less than 3. REFERENCES  J.7 of ACI 349-01 but did not control. The integrated design approach presented in this paper takes advantage of the time history phase relationship of the seismic forces and also optimizes the design to provide a balanced design.
Berkeley. Number 1 9 . an MS in Civil Engineering from the University of Michigan. investigation and resolution of design and construction issues. Dr. Iran. Ames. he has overall responsibility for this discipline and manages the efforts of a large and diverse group of geotechnical specialists in locations across the US and around the globe. Iowa.As a senior principal engineer. He co-developed a method for dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis currently in use by the industry worldwide. Gürbüz is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers’ Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Structures Committee and the American Concrete Institute 349 Committee. His project oversight responsibilities range from major transportation projects to petrochemical. Dr. and a BS in Civil Engineering. and power. December 2008 • Volume 1. and supervision of special analyses. Ann Arbor. These committees develop and update standards and codes used for the nuclear safety-related structures. Dr. and a BS in Civil Engineering from the University of Tehran. serving as Independent Peer Reviewer for special projects. Gürbüz received a PhD and an MS in Structural Engineering. and components. Ostadan is currently a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). he provides support to various projects and performs design reviews and independent peer reviews. nuclear. The scope of work includes development of design criteria. has more than 25 years of experience in geotechnical and geotechnical earthquake engineering and foundation design. Dr. all from Iowa State University. a Bechtel Fellow. structural evaluations and investigations. and the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) Foundation Committee. systems.and energy-related projects. Farhang Ostadan. seismic evaluations. As chief soils engineer for Bechtel. Ostadan is a frequent lecturer at universities and research organizations. Geotechnical Division. Ostadan received a PhD in Civil Engineering from the University of California. Dr. the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI). Ostadan has published more than 30 technical papers on topics relating to geotechnical earthquake engineering. Dr. technical review and approval of design. and is a past member of California’s Seismic Safety Commission.
10 Bechtel Technology Journal .