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1) Adverb of Time Adverb of time is used to tell the time that an action happens or someone does something.

There are many adverbs of time as the following. Adverbs of Time : 1. Adverbs of Time:

These adverbs are used to answer the question when.

points of time (definite):

now then today tomorrow tonight yesterday

relationships in time (indefinite):

already before early earlier eventually

finally first formerly just last late later lately next recently since soon still yet previously

Formula1: Sentence + Adverb of Time Example: - I study English today. - He met his friends last night. Formula2:

Adverb of Time + Sentence Example: - Yesterday she went to Phnom Penh. - Now Im learning English

POSITION: Mostly in END POSITION ; INITIAL POSITION is also common if the adverb is not the main focus of the message. Some can go in MID-POSITION adverbs of indefinite frequency (often, ever etc) go in mid-position.

Im going to London today. / Today Im going to London. She has a new hair style every week. / Every week she has a new hair style.

Finally, eventually, already, soon and last can also go in mid-position; still and just only go in mid-position. So you finally got here. Ive already paid the bill. I still love you.

2) ADVERB OF PLACE Adverb of place is used to tell the place where an action occurs or where someone does something.

There are many adverbs of place as the following. Adverbs of Place: These adverbs are used to answer the question where. about above abroad anywhere away back backwards (also backward) behind below down downstairs east (etc) elsewhere far here in indoors inside near

nearby off on out outside over there towards under up upstairs where Common suffixes

-wards or -ward (backwards, downwards, eastward, forwards, homewards, upwards) -where (anywhere, everywhere, nowhere, somewhere)

Formula: Sentence + Adverb of Place Example:

- We have the meeting in the hotel. POSITION: END OF CLAUSE Come and sit here. The children are playing upstairs. INITIAL POSITION It is also possible, especially in literary writing and if the adverb is not the main focus of the message. At the end of the garden there was a very tall tree. Adverbs of direction (movement) come before adverbs of position. The children are running around upstairs. Here and there often begin clauses. Note the word order in here/there is, here come and there goes. Here/there +verb +subject Here comes your bus. Theres Alice. There goes our train. Pronoun subject come directly after here and there. Here it comes. There she is. 3) ADVERB OF MANNER

Adverb of manner is used to tell how an action happens. Those Adverbs of Manner are: Adverbs of Manner: These adverbs are used to answer the question how.

accidentally angrily anxiously awkwardly badly beautifully blindly boldly bravely brightly busily calmly carefully carelessly cautiously cheerfully clearly

closely correctly courageously cruelly daringly deliberately doubtfully eagerly easily elegantly enormously enthusiastically equally eventually exactly faithfully fast fatally fiercely fondly foolishly fortunately frankly frantically

generously gently gladly gracefully greedily happily hard hastily healthily honestly hungrily hurriedly inadequately ingeniously innocently inquisitively irritably joyously justly kindly lazily loosely loudly madly

mortally mysteriously neatly nervously noisily obediently openly painfully patiently perfectly politely poorly powerfully promptly punctually quickly quietly rapidly rarely really recklessly regularly reluctantly repeatedly

rightfully roughly rudely sadly safely selfishly sensibly seriously sharply shyly silently sleepily slowly smoothly so softly solemnly speedily stealthily sternly straight stupidly successfully suddenly

suspiciously swiftly tenderly tensely thoughtfully tightly truthfully unexpectedly victoriously violently vivaciously warmly weakly wearily well wildly wisely Formula: Subject + Intransitive Verb + Adverb of Manner Example: - She sings beautifully. - He runs quickly.

NOTE: For lately and hardly its formula is: Subject + Lately/Hardly + Verb + Complement Example: - She hardly believes you. - He lately goes to USA. WARNING: Dont use adverb after Linking Verb.


Adverbs of manner; comment adverbs most often at the end of a clause, especially if the adverb is important to the meaning of the verb and cannot be left out. Adverbs in ly can go in midposition if the adverb is not the main focus of the message.

End position He drove off angrily. She read the letter slowly. Mid position She angrily tore up the letter. I slowly began to fell better again. Mid-position is especially common with passive verbs.

Her books are always well written. Comment adverbs (which give the speakers opinion of an action) most often go in mid-position. I stupidly forgot my keys.

Adverbs An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb. Types of Adverbs : There are seven classes of commonly used adverbs: List of adverbs: Adverb of Time 2) Adverb of Place 3) Adverb of Manner 4) Adverb of Frequency 5) Adverb of Probability

6) Adverb of Degree

4) ADVERB OF FREQUENCY Adverb of frequency is used to expresses how often something happens or someone does something. 100% Always everyday 50-40% sometime occasionally 80% usually normally generally 20% seldom 10% rarely hardly ever 60% often frequently 0% never

Adverbs of Frequency: These adverbs are used to answer the question how often. frequency (definite):

annually daily

fortnightly hourly monthly nightly quarterly weekly yearly

"bimonthly" is ambiguous and best avoided. Bimonthly can mean "twice a month"or "every two months". The same is true of "biyearly"/"biannually frequency (indefinite):

always constantly ever

frequently generally infrequently

never normally


often rarely regularly seldom sometimes regularly usually


Example: - They always do their homework at night. - We sometime go to the cinema at the weekend.

Subject + Adverb of Frequency + Verb + Complement

POSITION OF ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY The position of adverbs of frequency is often very tricky. However, there are several good rules that you can follow. Let's divide adverbs of frequency into two groups. Group "a": always, continually, frequently, occasionally, often, once, twice, periodically, repeatedly, sometimes, usually. Group "b": ever, hardly ever, never, rarely, scarcely ever, seldom. Adverbs in both groups are normally placed:


After the simple tenses of "to be": o o He is always in time for meals. They sometimes stay up all night. Before the simple tenses of all other verbs:

With compound tenses, they are placed after the first auxiliary, orwith interrogative verbsafter "auxiliary + subject": Exceptions "Used to" and "have to" prefer the adverb in front of them: He can never understand. You have often been told not to do that. Have you ever ridden a camel?

You hardly ever have to remind him; he always remembers.

Frequency adverbs are often placed before auxiliaries when these are used alone, in addition to remarks or in answers to questions: o o Person A: Can you park your car near the shops? Person B: Yes, I usually can.

I know I should take exercise, but I never do.

and when in a compound verb, the auxiliary is stressed: I never can remember. She hardly ever has met him. Similarly when "do" is added for emphasis: I always do arrive in time! But emphasis can also be given by stressing the frequency adverb and leaving it in its usual position after the auxiliary: You should always check your oil before starting.

Adverbs in group (a) above can also be put at the beginning or end of a sentence or clause. "always", "often" The adverb "always" is rarely found at the beginning of a sentence/clause except with imperatives. Always wash your hands before the meal! "often", if put at the end, normally requires "very" or "quite": Often he walked. He walked quite often.

Adverbs in group (b) above: "hardly ever", "never", "rarely" etc. (but not "ever" alone), can also be put at the beginning of a sentence, but inversion of the following main verb then becomes necessary:

Hardly/Scarcely ever did they manage to meet unobserved. (Inversion of word order for emphasis)

"hardly" / "scarcely ever", "never", "rarely" and "seldom" are not used with negative verbs. "never", "ever" "never" is chiefly used with an affirmative verb, never with a negative one. It normally means "at no time" He never saw her again. I've never eaten snails. They never eat meat, (habit) I've never had a better flight.

"never + affirmative" can sometimes replace an ordinary negative: I waited but he never turned up. (Meaning: He didn't turn up) "never + interrogative" can be used to express the speaker's surprise at the non-performance of an action: Has he never been to Japan? I'm surprised, because his wife is Japanese


Adverb of probability is used to show how sure when someone does something. Probably, perhaps, definitely, obviously, certainly, truly, exactly....

Formula1: Adverb of Probability + Sentence Example: - Perhaps she comes today. - Probably I have to get up early tomorrow. Formula2: Subject + Modal Verb + Adverb of Probability + Main Verb + Complement Example: - He will probably get married next year. - Many people can exactly speak English very well.

6) ADVERB OF DEGREE Adverb of degree is used to give information about the extent or degree of something. Adverbs of Degree: These adverbs are used to answer the question how much or to what extent.

almost absolutely awfully* badly* barely, bit, completely

decidedly deeply enough enormously entirely extremely fairly far fully greatly hardly highly how incredibly indeed intensely just least less little lots most much nearly

perfectly positively practically pretty* purely quite rather really scarcely simply so somewhat strongly terribly* thoroughly too totally utterly very virtually well *informal

Formula1: Subject + Intransitive Verb + Adverb of Degree Example: - My friends talk a lot. - The economy grows extremely. Formula2: Sub +Transitive Verb + Object + Adverb of Degree Example:

- My boss treats all workers fairly. - Children study English, too. Formula3: Subject +Linking Verb + Adverb of Degree + Adjective

Example: - She seems too hungry. - I feel too much better.


He had hardly begun. (auxiliary verb + adverb + main verb) My work is almost finished. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) I just asked. (adverb + main verb) She hardly realized what she was doing. (adverb + main verb) He is entirely right. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb) She was rather busy. (is/am/are/was/were + adverb)

An adverb of degree qualifying an adjective or another adverb normally goes before it.

She is very beautiful. Those mangoes were very sweet. I am extremely sorry.

Enough is an exception to this rule. It is placed after the adjective or adverb it qualifies.

You are not old enough to marry. This is good enough to be true.

ADVERBS: position (details)


Connecting adverbs

These adverbs join a clause to what came before. Examples: however, then, next, beside, anyway Position: beginning of clause

Some of us want to a new system; however, not everybody agrees. I worked until five oclock. Then I went home. Next, I want to say something about the future.

Mid-position is often possible in a more formal style.

I then went home.

Indefinite frequency

These adverbs say how often something happens. Examples: always, ever, usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, never.

Position: mid-position (after auxiliary verbs and am/are/is/was/were; before other verbs.\

Auxiliary verb + adverb I have never seen a whale. You can always come and stay with us if you want to. Have you ever played American football? Am/are/is/was/were +adverb My boss is often bad-tempered Im seldom late for work.

Adverb +other verb We usually go to Hawaii in February. It something gets very windy here.

When there are two auxiliary verbs, these adverbs usually come after the first.

We have never been invited to one of their parties. She must sometimes have wanted to run away.

Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally can also go at the beginning or end of a clause. Always, ever, rarely, seldom and never cannot normally go in these positions.


These adverbs point to one part of clause. Examples: also, just, even, only, mainly, mostly, either, or,, neither, nor. Position: mid-position. They can also go in other places in a clause, directly before the words they modify.

Auxiliary verb + adverb Hes been everywhere hes even been to Paris. Were only going for two days.

Am/are/was/were + adverb Shes my teacher, but shes also my friend. The people at the meeting were mainly scientist.

Adverb +other verb Your bicycle just needs some oil thats all. She neither said thank-you nor looked at me.

Adverb directly before word(s) modified Only you could do a thing like that I feel really tired. He always wears a coat, even in summer.


adverbs of certainly

We use these adverbs to say how sure we are of something.

Examples: certainly, definitely, clearly, obviously, probably. Position: mid-position

Auxiliary verb +adverb it will probably rain this evening The train has obviously been delayed. It will probably rain this evening.

Am/are/was/were + adverb There is clearly something wrong. She is definitely older than him.

Adverb + other verb He probably thinks you dont like him. I certainly feel better today.

Maybe and perhaps usually come at the beginning of a clause.

Perhaps her train is late. Maybe Im right and maybe Im wrong.


Adverbs of completeness

These adverbs say how completely something happens or is true. Examples: completely, practically, almost, nearly, quite, rather, partly, sort of, kind of, more or less, hardly, scarcely. Position: mid-position

Auxiliary verb +adverb I have completely forgotten your name. Sally can practically read.

Am/are/is/was/were + adverb It almost dark.

The house partly ready.

Adverb + other verb I kind of hope she wins. It hardly matters.


Emphasising adverbs

These adverbs modify particular words or expressions in a clause, and go just before them. Examples; very, extremely, terribly, just, almost, really, right. Ill see you in the pub just before eight oclock. She walked right past me.


mid position: detailed rules

Mid-position adverbs usually go after auxiliary verbs, after am/are/is/was/were, and before other verbs.

She has never written to me. It certainly looks like rain

When there are two or more auxiliaries, the adverb usually goes after the first.

She never definitely been working too hard, She would never been promoted if she hadnt changed jobs.

But other positions are possible, especially when the first part of the verb phrase is modal auxiliary, used to or have to.

They sometime must be bored. She could have easily been killed.

When adverbs of completeness or manner go in mid-position, they are normally put after all auxiliary verbs.

I will have completely finished by next June. Do you think the repair has been properly done?

When an auxiliary verb is used alone instead of a complete verb phrase, a mid-position adverb comes before it.

Are you happy? I certainly am. I dont trust politicians. I never have, and I never will.


Mid-position adverbs with negative verbs

In negative sentences, adverbs generally come before not if they emphasise the negative: otherwise they come after. Compare: I certainly do not agree. I do not often have girlfriend.

Both positions are possible with some adverbs, often with difference of meaning. Compare: I dont really like her. (Mild dislike) I really dont like her (strong dislike)

When adverbs come before not, they may also come before the first auxiliary verb; they always come before do.

I probably will not be there. He probably does not know.

Only one position is possible before a contracted negative. I probably wont be there.


Mid position adverbs with emphatic verbs

When we emphasise auxiliary verbs or am/are/is/was/were, we put most mid-position adverbs before them instead of after. Compare:

She has certainly made him angry.

She certainly has made him angry!

Im really sorry.

I really am sorry.


Mid-position in American English in American English, mid-position adverbs are often put before auxiliary verbs and am/are/is/was/were, even when the verb is not emphasised. Compare:

He probably has arrived by now. He has probably arrived by now.

As an extreme example, here are four sentences in a journalistic style taken from an American newspaper article on crime in Britain. The most normal British equivalents are given in brackets.


End position: details rules

Some sentences are in complete without adverb complements. For example, a sentence with put, go or last may not make sense unless one say where something is put, where somebody goes or how long something last. To say how well somebody does something, one is likely to need an adverb of manner. These essential complements usually go in end position, and before other adverbs.

Put the butter in the fridge at once. Lets go to bed early

Except for essential complements, adverbs in end position usually come in the order manner, place, and time.

I worked hard yesterday. She sang beautifully in the town hall last night.

Position of Adverbs

An Adverb of time is placed before the verb it modifies. For example: He always enters late in the class. Adverbs of time such as now, then, yet and today are placed after the verb or after the object (if there is one). For example: They arrived early.

Adverbs of place as there, everywhere, here, etc are placed after the verb or after the object (if there is one). For example: There is peace here.

When there are two or more Adverbs after a verb (with its object), the normal order is: Adverb of manner, Adverb of place and Adverb of time. For example: He spoke aloud everywhere then.

Where the Auxiliary Verb is used with the Principal Verb, the Adverb is placed between the Auxiliary and the Principal Verb. For example: I have just completed my work.

The Adverb enough is always placed after the word it modifies. For example: She was clever enough to speak the truth.

There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.


Verb Manner Place in the pool into town in her room Frequency every morning every afternoon every morning Time before dawn before supper before lunch. Purpose to keep in shape. to get a newspaper. Beth swims enthusiastically Dad walks impatiently Tashonda naps

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.

Adverbs of Affirmation and Negation: These adverbs are used to confirm or deny. yes certainly of course clearly, sure, very, really, obviously, Affirmatively, assertedly, avowedly, positively, definitely,

absolutely, doubtlessly, undoubtedly. no neither never Contradictorily, invalidly, rejectedly, disaffirmedly, disclaimedly, refutationally, oppositionally.

Adverbs of Reason ( adverbs of purpose) : These adverbs are used to give the reason.

Hence, Thus, Therefore, Consequently, So