AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

INTRODUCTION
HISTORY OF DEEPIKA Deepika has an illustrious history of over a century. It was first published by a Syrian Christian priest, NidhirikkalManikkathanar, or Father Emmanuel Nidhiri, or Nidhiri Mani Kathanar, under the masthead NazraniDeepika. (Nazrani in Malayalam means a follower of Jesus, the Nazraene). The first issue came out on 1887 April 15, which coincided with Vishu (the spring equinox festival according to Kerala tradition). The word “Deepika” in Malayalam means “lamp”. Printing was on a crude handmade wooden press. As its first name denotes, Deepika began as a paper of Syro Malabar Nasranis or Catholics of Kerala‟s Syrian tradition. For many years it was run by Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI), a religious order within the Roman Catholic Church. In 1989 its control was transferred to a Public Limited Company, “RashtraDeepika Ltd”. Deepika has a long tradition of going for bold innovations. It introduced many changes in Malayalam journalism. Important Things Followed By Deepika While Displaying News Deepika gives importance to three things while displaying news. They are the following.  Language

 Space Limitation 

Completeness

Language The language used in Deepika is simple, frank and clear. It is very helpful for the common people to understand the content of the news.

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Space Limitation Deepika also gives consideration to space limitation. The news should be included in a particular space provided. The news should not be too long. Completeness One of the important features of news published in Deepika is completeness. The news should be correct and concise. It should not be too long. Only then the readers can understand the meaning of the content in an exact manner. DIFFERENT BRANCHES OF DEEPIKA RashtraDeepika Limited has its branches in;  Thiruvananthapuram  Kannur  Ernakulam  Thrissur  Kozhikode  Kottayam

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BOARD OF DIRECTORS            Dr Francis Cleetus (Chairman)

Rev Dr. James Aerthayil CMI (Vice Chairman)

P .P. Sunny (Managing Director)

Fr. Alexander Paikada CMI (Chief Editor)

Fr. Joseph Kurinjipparampil

George Jacob Mannamplackal

ChackochanMalayil

Sunil Joseph Koozhampala

C.P.PaulChungath

JohnyKuruvillaPadikkamyalil

Fr. Joseph Kuzhinjalil

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1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the organization study are;

1. To familiarize the organization.

2. To familiarize the different departments in the organization and their functioning.

3. To understand how the key business processes are carried out in the organizations.

4. To understand how information is used in the organization for decision making at various levels and

5. To relate theory with practice.

Processes and functions of the organization are the focus and not data from various departments, which should only be used to help to understand the organization. Care to be taken when choosing the organization. Choose the organization where there is     Accounts and Finance

Personnel and HR

Operations and Systems

Marketing Functions and their interaction with each other.
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The organization chosen need not be very large, but should have all the above functional areas for the study. This study is focused on principles and techniques in use and not on data and information i.e. to gain firsthand knowledge about how an organization is being run. The main objective of this study is to know more about the organization. For that, we have to do various things. They are;  Make the organization chart for the organization and try to understand the functions of the managers/officers and supervisors in the different departments. 

Identify the key functions of each department and try to understand how it is carried out (the process). For e.g. Materials department having the purchase function. Process could be: collect intends, check intends, find suppliers, get quotes, decide who to purchase from, prepare and issue purchase orders, follow up till delivery is got.

Interact with personnel and customers to find if there are problems with the processes. Make record of our findings.

Find how the following are done in the organization.

1. New product development

2. Marketing o Promotion o Sale – locating customers o Contacting customer and making sale o Payment collection

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3. Operations / Manufacturing o The operations / manufacturing process o Raw materials and conversion o Production planning and control o Quality control

4. Accounting and Finance o Accounting systems adopted o Source and application of fund o Costing system o Pricing system o Budgeting and budgetary control o Financial analysis of a few previous years statements of accounts.

5. Personnel and HR o Recruiting o Induction o Training – types and where used (process of training) o Performance appraisal system o Industrial Relation Scenario o Grievances and grievance handling o Separation

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1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study helps to have a practical knowledge about how an organization is working. It is also helpful in getting more knowledge about each and every department. For getting information about the functioning and processes of the management it is necessary to have an organization study. While working in an organization it is necessary to have a common knowledge about the functions, principles, processes and different departments. Thus this organization study will be very much helpful in future. It is erroneous to say that the management of a newspaper organization is different from any other business enterprise. Generally the management is taken as a body of specialized knowledge based on general principles when are verifiable in terms of business practice. Management is a science by itself. The management involves a lot of manipulation involving planning, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling the organization. It is vital to have such a unified concept of the management, as the successful manager has to plan and control the organization to meet its objectives. Planning involves a development of objectives or goals to guide the overall flow of work. The manager must anticipate repetitive problems and the situations and must establish policies. The planning will evolve work methods, standard time for completing assigned tasks and estimates regarding men, material and money. Organization is the process of identifying and grouping of the work to be performed. It also defines and delegates the responsibility and the authority, thus establishing the relationship between the different groups. The clear cut enunciation of the individuals‟ or the groups‟ role enable them to work together most effectively in accomplishing the objectives.

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The advent of industrial psychology has outdated the word command now the individual have to be motivated to do a particular job at a particular place at a particular time in a particular manner. The modern techniques of production have thus made the selection and the placement of the persons on the team an important job. Besides, an adequate provision has to be made for communication with such persons, who must feel the sense of participation in the management. This can be achieved only by appraising, counseling, coaching and training each person. Modern industrial structure is usually complex involving various groups of persons working at different levels of the operations and on occasions, in different places. It becomes extremely necessary to coordinate the work of all such groups by balancing, timing and integrating the work of all the groups. Till now, all activities were revolving around the basic plan, which has certain objectives. To attain these, it is very necessary to control all the activities, so that proper appraisal of the process can be undertaken. The controlling activities will include measurement of work through recording and reporting systems, evaluation of actual performance against the performance standards and finally taking of appropriate managerial actions.

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1.3 METHODOLOY
The method of collecting the data needed for the study is classified into two. They are;  Primary data  Secondary data Primary Data Primary data is the data that we collect ourselves directly. The different methods used in collecting the primary data are;

1. Direct Observations

2. Surveys

3. Interviews

1. Direct Observations One of the methods used for collecting primary data is through direct observation. In this method we visit the organization and have a walk through and to understand the processes carried out by the different department. Interact with personnel and customers to find if there are problems with the processes 2. Surveys Another method for collecting primary data is survey method. Survey can be done in two different ways. They are;  Censes method  Sampling method
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Censes Method In censes method questionnaire is given to the employees in the organization. They have to fill the questionnaire. The main limitation of this method is that sometimes the employees may not answer all the questions in the questionnaire. Sampling Method In sampling method only a few members are selected. The selected members are considered as samples. Information is collected from these samples. As the data is collected from selected persons it may not be accurate completely.

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3. Interviews Another method for collecting primary data is direct interview. I collected a part of primary data related to RashtraDeepika Limited by interviewing directly the Human Resource Manager and the Chief of News Bureau. As these persons have direct contact with the organization, information collected are accurate. The major limitation of this method is that they don‟t disclose all the information relating to all the departments. Primary data can be relied on because we know where it came from and what was done to it. It‟s like cooking something ourselves. We know what went into it. Secondary Data

Secondary data are the data collected from external sources such as;   

Internet

Magazines

From other people

Secondary data is cheaper and easier to acquire than primary data. The problem is that often the reliability, accuracy and integrity of the data is uncertain. Who collected it? Can they be trusted? Did they do any preprocessing of the data? Is it biased? Where was it collected? Can the data be verified, or does it have to be taken on faith?

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Often secondary data has been pre-processed to give totals or averages and the original details are lost so we can‟t verify it by replicating the methods used by the original data collectors. In short, primary data is expensive and difficult to acquire, but it‟s trust worthy. Secondary data is cheap and easy to collect, but must be treated with caution.

1.4 DURATION OF STUDY
The duration of study is from 3rd May 2010 to 31st May 2010.

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
 The Management refused to give the information about the department like Finance and Accounting department.  There was a limitation of time due to the busy schedule of the managers and officials.

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2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE
NEWSPAPER INDUSTRY IN INDIA The newspaper revolution in India is started in the late 18th century. The first major newspaper in India – The Bengal Gazette – was started in 1780. Other newspapers such as The Indian Gazette, The Calcutta Gazette, The Madras Courtier (1785), The Bombay Herald (1789) etc soon followed. These newspapers carried news of the area under the British rule. The Times of India was founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce by Bennet, Coleman and Company, a colonial enterprise now owned by an Indian conglomerate. India consuming over 100 million newspaper copies in 2008 is the second largest market in the world for newspapers, after China. LEADING NEWSPAPERS OF INDIA AND KERALA The main national newspapers of India include The Times of India, The Indian Express, The Hindustan Times, TheAnanda Bazaar Pathrika etc. In Kerala, Deepika was started as the first Malayalam Daily in 1887 followed by the MalayalaManorama in 1888, which is the state‟s largest selling newspaper. Other prominent Malayalam newspapers include Mathrubhoomi, Kerala Kaumudi, Deshabhimani and Mangalam.

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2.2 COMPANY PROFILE The dawn of April 15, 1887 witnessed a rare moment in the history of publishing in Kerala when Deepika, (NazraniDeepika- as it was initially named) India‟s first Malayalam Newspaper was first published. A marvel at that time, it was the realization and fulfillment of a long- cherished dream of many, which its Founder Editor, Fr. Emmanuel Nidhiry (Nidhirikal Mani Kathanar), a renowned priest and perceptive, creative thinker of those times, initiated and shaped. The newspaper was initially printed on a crude, hand- made wooden press built by the legendary and farsighted visionary Carmelite Monk, Fr. Kuriakose Elias Chavara (now blessed Chavara)at Mannanam; a remote hamlet near the town of Kottayam in Central Kerala over a quarter century before them. This event further marked the epoch- making but humble dawn of organized, elite, free press journalism in Kerala. The Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI) congregation managed the newspaper till 1989, when it was converted into a Limited Company with public participation named RashtraDeepika Ltd; with a view to giving it fresh impetus, added professionalism and new ethos.

The newspaper‟s founders had high and noble ambitions for this unique project that served as a major milestone in the evolution and advancement of literacy in Kerala. Under the dynamic leadership of Fr. Emmanuel Nidhiri, (a versatile genius and renowned philosopher of those times) and his team of thinkers, NazraniDeepika marched unflinchingly over the years into the 20th Century, growing in stature and spreading its wings further. The printing frequency gradually increased from weekly to twice a week and later thrice a week. Correspondents and contributors were from virtually all segments of society.

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On January 3, 1927, NazraniDeepika was converted into a Daily, the first ever of the State, re-emphasizing the noble goals its founding fathers had put forward in its very first issue, namely:  To represent the needs of the common man to the rulers.  To protect and safeguard the inalienable rights of the people.

On August 1, 1939, the newspaper shifted to Kottayam, which has since become a nerve center for printing and publishing in the state.To give it a more secular outlook, its name was also then changed to Deepika.Over the years, Deepika has continued to make a strong inpact on the masses becoming the voice of the voiceless, staunchly standing out for truth, justice, freedom and equality for all. It is today a credible, authentic, secular and dignified newspaper committed to genuine social, cultural and ethical values. It is mouthpiece of the oppressed, a source of inspiration for many and has carved out a distinctive personality for itself in the world of newspapers in Kerala; bravely and boldly leading by example from the front.

In 1986, Deepika‟s year-long centenary celebrations were inaugurated by Pope John Paul ii and the newspaper commemorated its 100th year of publication in April 1987. Well over the past 120 years, Deepika has grown in strength and stature, standing out boldly for the people, fearing and favoring none. It has relentlessly fought for the well being of farmers, the weaker sections and the rights of the minorities, irrespective of caste or creed. It has also maintained a neutral political stand, earning then appreciation of politicians and leaders, both national and regional, which has helped it earn added credibility and respect.

In August 1989, Deepika was converted into a Public Limited Company, RashtraDeepikaLtd.. This was to facilitate the organization to gain corporate

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dimensions, stimulation and new ethos so as to enable it to meet the myriad challenges of the ever growing and highly competitive world. The event has been the turning point in the history of the organization, which has grown leaps and bounds, ever since.

CLASS OF READERS RashtraDeepika publications has the distinction of being widely read by the affluent, educated and influential class of Kerala society, mostly middle and upper middle class Christian families, who form the bulk of its readership. Many of their readers has distinguished and established themselves at the summit of diverse fields of economic, political and social activities. Top Engineers, Doctors, Bankers, Jewelers, Share brokers, Industrialists, Businessmen, Agriculturists etc. are regular readers. Their readers are also receptive as well as widely considered market creators and market movers. DIFFERENT VARIETY OF NEWS IN DEEPIKA DAILY News means important or interesting recent happenings or it is the interesting or important information not previously known. Same news may be differentiated from each newspaper based on the policy. News is the integration of 4 Ws and 1 Hi.e, 4 Ws - who, when, where & why 1H - How It means that who had caused particular event, when, where and how it was occurred and why.

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There are different varieties of news published in Deepika Daily. They are;

 Political News  International News  Local News  Cultural News  Features  Sports News  Educational News  Youth Edition  Business News  Agricultural News  Obituary  Matrimonial  Exclusive News  Sensational News

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Political News Political news is classified into International, National and Local. Deepika publishes all the political issues taking in International, National and Local level.

International News Deepika publishes almost all the news of the International level. The main sources of such news are news agencies, liners i.e. part time reporters, foreign channels and internet.

Local News Reporters of Deepika residing in local areas are reporting different events and news taking place there.

Cultural News Deepika also publishes news relating to film industries like Silver Screen, Colliwood, Bollywood etc. and other cultural activities.

Features Features are articles which have given special prominence appearing at the editorial page of the newspaper. Sports News Like all other newspapers Deepika also publishes news relating to sports. News relating to sports from different parts of the world is reporting to Deepika by the liners

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Educational News Deepika also devote special place for the educational edition. It is very helpful to the students who are looking for a better career.

Youth Edition The Youth Edition is included in Deepika for attracting the youths. This part consists of information relating to new fashion, current trends etc.

Business News Deepika provide important position for business news. These are very much helpful for the business men.

Agricultural News Agricultural news had given special importance in Deepika. It is useful for the farmers and other who are interested in agriculture.

Obituary Like all other newspapers Deepika also publishes news relating to death, accidents etc. Matrimonial Deepika also have a marriage section. This section is helpful for the persons who are seeking for their life partners.

Exclusive News Exclusive means a story or news reported only in one newspaper. Deepika also have a separate section for that.

Sensational News

Deepika also produce sensational news. Sensational news are the news that cause a state of wide spread excitement.
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SOURCE OF NEWS The main sources of news are;    

The Reporters

District Bureaus

News Agencies

Internet

The Reporters Reporters are the asset of Deepika. They are the main source of news. Deepika have reporters all over the world. There are part time reporters called liners. Deepika also have local reporters. District Bureaus Another source of news is district news bureaus. Deepika has news bureaus in all the 14 districts in Kerala. Each bureau consists of experienced reporters News Agencies News agencies are another source of news in Deepika. News agencies are organizations that collect news reports for newspapers. It is also known as press agency. Internet The most important source of news is Internet. Through Internet news from different parts of the world is collected.

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2.3 PRODUCT PROFILE

PUBLICATIONS:

         

Deepika (Daily)

RashtraDeepika (Eveninger)

Business Deepika (Economic and Financial Weekly)

Karshakan (Agricultural Monthly SthreeDhanam (Women‟s Monthly)

RashtraDeepika Cinema KuttikaludeDeepika (Children‟s Fortnightly) Children‟s Digest (Children‟s English Monthly)

Deepika Online

Special Publications

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Deepika Daily This is the company‟s flagship publication and has been a trendsetter among newspapers of the State, pioneering innovation and new technology. It has ever stood out for equality, truth, justice and human rights in society as well as persistently fought for obtaining fair prices for agricultural commodities – the backbone of their economy as well as encouraged the use of high-yielding crop varieties and scientific fertilizers. Deepika has always supported the poor, the downtrodden and oppressed both through its columns and in multiple other ways. The establishment of the „Deepika Educational and Charitable Trust‟ and the „Helping the Helpless‟ scheme are examples of recent projects in this regard, which has enabled countless readers to reach out and directly and indirectly support thousands of deserving people through the newspaper. RashtraDeepikaEveninger RashtraDeepikaEveninger was launched in April 1992 as Kerala‟s first organized and professionally edited Eveninger in the State and that too, coming from an established and reputed daily newspaper group. It is today the largest selling newspaper of its kind in Southern India with 10 editions and a leadership of over a million, every afternoon. It provides the latest and the best of news in an attractive and handy format. Businessmen, traders and the travelling public alike, throughout the State, eagerly read and appreciate its variety contents. On exclusive occasions, when circumstances call for, additional editions are printed to keep the public informed of the most up-to-date information on exceptional issues.

More editions are in the offing in the days ahead. RashtraDeepikaEveninger is printed from Kottayam, Kochi, Thrissur, Palakkad, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Kannur, Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram.

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Business Deepika

Business Deepika is Kerala‟s only economic, financial and commercial Malayalam weekly newspaper, published since November 1992 and launched by India‟s then President, Dr.ShankarDayal Sharma. It provides informative and qualitative news of corporate Kerala and India, covering a wide range of related issues. Bankers, financial experts, stock brokers, investors, traders, businessmen, management experts and students; all form part of the newspaper‟s readership group.

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Karshakan

Karshakan, the popular agricultural monthly was launched in March 1993. Catering to the needs of agricultural Kerala, it appeals effectively to agriculturists, both big and small, from big time plantation owners to the down-to-earth farmer. The magazine provides informative guidelines on choices of crops, farming methods, fertilizer application, pesticides, etc. It is in many ways a seasonal handbook for farmers, enabling them to apply correct farming methods and reap higher yields. It also proves to be an ideal magazine for strategists who wish to reach out effectively to the environs of both rural and urban Kerala, where farming is a way of life.

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SthreeDhanam

SthreeDhanam was launched in July 1994 as women‟s and family weekly. Over the years, it has evolved into a magazine of stature and popularity in Kerala. Its myriad contents are widely appreciated and alluring to readers, particularly to women; young and old, traditional and modern. The magazine encompasses their tastes, fancies and preferences in an elegant and appealing manner.

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RashtraDeepika Cinema

RashtraDeepika Cinema, launched in September 1995, has been a success from day one. Attractive, appealing and aesthetically designed, it is an appealing and popular film weekly. It provides the latest and the best of the glitter and glamour of Kerala‟s cinema world as well as gives due importance to Bollywood and Hollywood. Avoiding cheap gossip, its articles are appreciated for their authenticity by even the big wings of the industry and its opinions have been known to influence the success of many a film.

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KuttikaludeDeepika

KuttikaludeDeepika was launched as the first Malayalam monthly for children in 1952 with a view to publishing a worthy magazine for the new generation. It is now a popular fortnightly. Children all over eagerly read it and enjoy its assorted contents, which include stories, puzzles and features of all kinds.

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Children’s Digest

Children‟s Digest English monthly for the young at heart was launched in January 1997. It has been a winner from its very first issue and is today second to none in quality and content. Highly popular and cherished all over India and abroad, the Digest has an array of interesting, amusing, educative and mind-testing features that make it largest selling magazine in its class. Youngsters and elders alike enjoy the magazine and enthusiastically look forward to reading it, month after month.

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Deepika Online www.deepika.com made history in October 1997 by becoming the first Malayalam Daily on the World Wide Web. Receiving over three million hits per day and combined with its unique features including easy accessibility, live news broadcasts, personalized websites and e-kathu; a rare and exclusive provision that facilitates Malayalees all over to communicate on-line in their mother tongue, their Internet edition is today the largest read on-line Malayalam Daily. www.deepikaglobal.com, the English edition is one of the premier Internet English editions in South India. The modern web radio –Deepika Global Radio, is widely appreciated the world over. Deepika Global SMS sends news to over 25000 Malayalees in 125 countries. „Helping the Helpless‟ the on-line charity fund promoted by deepika.com, continues to receive tremendous response and to-date, under its auspices, over five million rupees has been given to the needy and deserving in society, on behalf of well-wishers and philanthropists from all over the world. Special Publications The company has in recent years brought out several special publications in the better interests of readers including Business Directories, Annual Agricultural Directories and Higher Studies Directories. The Indian Christian Directory 2000 and 2006 editions, „JeevithaVijayam‟, a book on inspirational thoughts for better living, and more recently- „Kerala VignjanaDeepika‟ a compendium on Kerala on the 50th anniversary of its formation, „Exotic Eastern Paradise‟ – a book on tourism in Kerala, „Bon Voyage‟ – a handbook for overseas employment seekers and several other value added publications. The special volume on St.Alphonsa brought out last year in connection with her canonization from the Deepika group. All these have all been well received in the market.

PRINTING UNITS
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Deepika Daily is printed from their Kottayam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode, Kannur and Thiruvananthapuram Units. They have their own presses and premises at Kottayam and Kannur whereas they use rented presses for printing at other units. Kottayam Unit covers Kottayam, Idukki, Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta districts. Thiruvananthapuram Unit covers Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam Districts. Thrissur Unit covers Thrissur and Palakkad. Kozhikode Unit covers Kozhikode, Malappuram and Wayanad. Kannur Unit covers Kannur, Kasargode, Bangalore and Mangalore. RashtraDeepikaEveninger is printed from Kottayam, Kochi, Thrissur, Palakkad, Malappuram, Kozhikode, Kannur, Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram. ACHIEVEMENTS  irst newspaper in Malayalam to be published on a daily basis.  First among Malayalam newspapers to go online. It is still the largest Indian vernacular online newspaper.  First Malayalam newspaper to devote a full page for sports and agriculture news.  RashtraDeepika, its sister – eveninger, is the largest circulated of its kind in India according to ABC.  Online edition- Deepika.com, Deepika global and Deepika global Radio are also popular among Malayalees the world over.  Altogether, RashtraDeepika group has more than 15 million readers all over the world.  KuttikaludeDeepika, Business Deepika, Children‟s Digest, RashtraDeepika Cinema, Streedhanam, Karshakan are the other publications of the RashtraDeepika Ltd.

DEEPIKA’S VISION

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The newspaper‟s founding fathers envisaged the evolution and advancement of literacy in Kerala through the rich and educative columns of the newspaper. The management, 122 years late, today remains committed to the noble goals had put forward at the inception of the newspaper, namely;    To represent the needs of the common man to the rulers.

To protect and safeguard the inalienable rights of the people.

To fight for Truth, Justice and Freedom and to unite the separated brethren of Kerala.

Deepika also pledges to remain standing out as a voice of the voiceless; perpetuating truth, justice, freedom and equality. It always aims at being a credible, authentic, secular and dignified newspaper, committed to genuine social, cultural and ethical values. It further serves as a mouthpiece of the oppressed, a source of inspiration for many and has carved out a distinctive personality for itself in the world of newspapers.

DEEPIKA’S MISSION
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 They commit themselves to their reader‟s service and will ensure their satisfaction in every service they offer.  They will stand by people for social justice and security by providing accurate and objective information on time. They will also strive to influence public opinion for positive social change.  Their employees are their assets. They will ensure transparent and professional work environment and constantly assist their people to grow along with the Company.  They cherish the contribution of their business associates in the value addition of their products and services. They will treat them as partners in their continuous effort for quality improvement.  They recognize the plurality of their society and their role in it. They will promote and undertake social and cultural activities that will educate, enrich and synergize the society we live in and bring people closer.  They appreciate the confidence of their shareholders have in them. They commit themselves to protect their interest in the Company and will strive to increase shareholder value in both monetary and prestige terms.  They will ensure, as a team, quality and consistency in every task they undertake. Also they will always conduct themselves in a manner that benefits the dignity and image of their organization.

DEEPIKA’S MOTTO
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 Excellence in performance.  Best service to all our readers and customers.  Respect for themselves, their colleagues, their company, their products and their customers.

PRESENT PROFILE AND PERFORMANCE IN RECENT YEARS The newspaper and company was taken over by and is under the direct manager of the Kerala Catholic Church as of January 2008. Since then, its circulation has more than tripled and its advertisement revenue also increased substantially. Special value added publications have been brought out in recent years such as The Indian Christian Directory, Exotic Eastern Paradise, Higher Studies and Nursing Directories, Exclusive volumes on Blessed Chavara and St. Alphonsa etc. The quality and content of Deepika Daily and its seven allied publications have also significantly been improved. More qualified and experienced personnel have joined various departments. Several professionally qualified and eminent persons have also joined the management team as Directors to further strengthen its base.

RANKING Deepika is a newspaper with valued principles and ethics but a predominantly regional newspaper. It would be ranked as the fourth largest in Kerala in terms of sales volumes, preceded by MalayalaManorama, Mathrubhoomi and Kerala Kaumudi. It hopes to improve its position to the second position in an organized and systematically planned manner over the next few years.

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MANPOWER The RashtraDeepika Ltd. Group has a manpower strength of over 500 dedicated and qualified personnel working at various printing units and offices all over Kerala and India in different capacities. Matters related to personnel are handled by Human Resource Department at the company‟s Head Office in Kottayam. FUTURE PLANS The company is mulling the revamping of its Daily and other publications in a phased manner. More improved output quality, professional coverage of news, starting of new editions, effectively and economically developing its infrastructure, publication‟s quality, news sources, personnel output etc. are being planned. Improved business promotion techniques and strategies are on the anvil. Ways of facilitating faster productivity and reducing production costs as well as other overheads are being planned. The company further aims to enhance its readership portfolio and become an even more forward looking, progressive, popular and profitable newspaper in the days ahead, living up to the myriad.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD. ORGANIZATION CHART

Chairman

Manging Director

Gen. Mgr. (CIR.)

Dir . Mktg

Chief Editor

FM

HRM

Prch. Mgr

Unit CIR. Mgrs.

DGM (ADVT.)

CNE

AFMs

RMs & Prch. Officer

CIRC. Execs & Office staff

Unit Advt Mgrs

Rrsident Editors

A/Cs Staff

Production Staff

Advt Execs & office staff

Sub Editors/Bure au chiefs

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS IN RASHTRA DEEPIKA

There are six departments. They are;  Editorial  Circulation  Marketing Department  Human Resource Department  Finance and Accounting Department  Production Department

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF DEPARTMENTS
The office administration at head office is under the control of the Chief General Manager (Admn.) with the other departmental heads reporting to him, i.e. Human Relations, Advertisement, Circulation, Finance, Public Relations and Production. The company also has Bureaus, Sub Offices, or Local Reporters (Stringers) in virtually all major towns of the state. These are for better acquiring News and Advertisements, co-ordinating Circulation Promotion and facilitating collection of news paper dues. Funds received at these places are later sent to the respective Unit Office or remitted in the bank. All such sub offices will be having Editorial as well as Advertisement and Circulation department personnel.
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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.1 EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Editorial work involves of two different types. Obviously the first one is reporting and the second one is subbing.

The reporting can be done by local reporters stationed in towns other than the place of the publication. Deepika have its reporters at all major towns, which have significant contacts with its primary area of circulation. All the copy that is filed by the reporters and the news agencies cannot be accommodated in the newspaper due to paucity of space. Naturally, certain selection has to be done with an eye on the tastes of the readers. On occasions the copy needs rewriting, further pictures, attractive headlines and eye catching displays. This work is done by sub-editorial staff, who works under the guidance of Editor. He has to be fully aware of the needs and likes and dislikes of his product accordingly.

Proof readers are essential members of the editorial team, which is usually well served by the Morgue or library which provides up to date references on all important events and personalities.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT

Chief Editor

Chief Reporter ditor

Executive E Reference Section

Reporter

News Editor

Sub Editor

Proof Reader

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.2 CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT
A newspaper‟s circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Newspaper circulation rates are currently experiencing a downward trend. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold, often called paid circulation, since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. Readership figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person. In Deepika the head of the circulation department is the General Manager Circulation. The General Manager is assisted by the Unit Circulation Managers. They coordinate all the matters relating to circulation at each unit. Under them reporting to the Unit Circulation Managers are field executives, who are primarily responsible for coordinating and promoting circulation promotion. Local reporters in prominent localities also render external support to the circulation staff in their promotion work. Circulations are audited by independent bodies such as the Audit Bureau of Circulations to assure advertisers that the given news does newspaper does indeed reach the number of people claimed by the publisher. One of the reasons behind the increasing circulation of Deepika is that it produces publications for all types of people, like children, youngsters, middle aged people, women etc. Its

RashtraDeepikaEveninger is the largest selling newspaper of its kind in South India with 10 editions and a readership of over a million, every afternoon.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR

GENERAL MANAGER (CIRCULATION)

UNIT CIRCULATION MANAGERS

CIRCULATION EXECUTIVES

OFFICE STAFF

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.3 MARKETING DEPARTMENT

“Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others”. The mission of marketing is satisfying customer needs. That takes place in a social context. In developed societies marketing is needed in order to satisfy the needs of society‟s members. Industry is the tool of society to produce products for the satisfaction of needs. The main function of Marketing Department is Advertisement. In Deepika the head of the marketing department is the Director Marketing. He is assisted by Deputy General Manager. Under the Deputy General Manager is the Unit Advertising Managers. They are coordinating matters relating to advertisement and marketing at each unit. The senior executives are assigned a specific area and charge of the office there. Local reporters in prominent localities also render external support to the Advertisement staff in their promotion work. Marketing department has other three important functions. They are;    Connective function.

Integrative function. Function of business enterprise.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

Connective Function Marketing has a connective function in the society. It connects supply and demand or production and consumption. At micro-level, marketing builds and maintains the relationship between producer and consumer. Integrative Function At business unit level, marketing can have an integrative function. It integrates all the functions and parts of a company to serve the markets. Marketing was born out of a need to take better into consideration the demand factors in production planning. The function of marketing is to channel information of consumer needs to the production and satisfaction of needs to customers. The basic power of marketing is the aspiration to produce and sell only that kind of products which have demand. Marketing integrates the whole company to serve this demand. Marketing aims at effective production systems, where information is transmitted effectively between production and consumption. Function Of Business Enterprise Another function of marketing is as a function of a business enterprise between production and markets taking care that products move smoothly from production to customers.

FUNTIONS OF MARKETING MANAGER
There are mainly three functions for the Marketing Manager. They are;    Exchange Function

Distribution Function

Facilitating Function

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

Exchange Function Exchange functions include two sub functions i.e. o Buying and o Selling

One of the important functions of Marketing Manager is buying. Buying include purchasing the raw materials needed for printing, such as ink, printing paper etc. Another important function is selling. Advertisement is the most common technique used for selling. Distribution Function Distribution function includes other sub functions. They are;

o Transportation o Storage o Processing and packaging o Grading and standardization

Physical functions enable the actual flow of commodities through space and time from publisher to the reader. Assembling or concentrating the product at convenient points allows its economical transport. This is a valuable function which is often overlooked in the public perception of traders. Storage allows the newspaper and other publications to be held till the time of delivery. Processing transforms the commodity into the publications desired by the readers. Grading and standardization allow the reader to be more confident of the standard of the publication being purchased.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

Facilitating Functions Another important function of the Marketing Manager is facilitating function. It is composed of various sub functions such as;

o Financing and o Risk bearing

Financing and Risk bearing are two important facilitating functions. Other facilitating functions enable publishers to respond to readers‟ needs and thus provide newspaper and other publications in the locations, quantity and form desired. Among all the above functions the most important function is advertising. A newspaper cannot exist without advertisements. All major functions relating to advertising is done by the Advertising Manager. He is assisted by the Assistant Manager. Under the Assistant Manager there is various staff like Advertising Representative, Scheduling Clerk, Billing Clerk and Accounts and Realization Clerk. The Advertisement Representative will call on direct advertisers, while the managers will call on National Advertisers and their advertising agencies.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR

DIRECTOR MARKETING

DEPUTY GENERAL MANAGER (ADVERTISING)

UNIT ADVERTISEMENT MANAGERS

ADVERTISEMENT EXECUTIVES & OFFICE STAFF

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.4 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

In RashtraDeepika Ltd, the top position is occupied by the Managing Director. All other departmental heads will come under him. The head of the Human Resource Department is the Human Resource Manager. He is handling all the issues relating to the human resource. The Human Resource Manager is assisted by the Human Resource Executives. Under the Human Resource Executives there is Resident Managers. Functions of Human Resource Management Integral to the Human Resource Management (HRM) functions are;

     

Recruitment and selection

Training and development

Appraising

Wage and salary administration

Disciplining workers

Industrial Relations

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

Recruitment and Selection

These deal with hiring and employing of the human beings in the organization. With respect to selecting employees, managers are well advised to avoid hiring out of desperation, to develop appropriate interview questions and formats that focus on key behaviours and skills that are needed for the job, to carefully check all references given by an applicant, and to avoid overselling the position. At its core, appropriate employee selection depends upon matching the individual to the job. This requires a comprehensive job description that clearly delineates the behavior of the job.

Training and development One of the important functions of the Human Resource Manager is giving training and development to the selected employees. Training and development helps to improve the performance of the employees and thereby increasing the efficiency of the organization. Appraising Another important function of the Human Resource Manager is appraising. What is necessary is for the appraisal is to be directly related to the job requirements and to specific standards and measures known to the employee as well as the supervisor. Since supervisors frequently conduct appraisals of subordinates, there are some specific steps that should be taken in order to prepare for the interview, i.e, review the record and personal history of the person by collecting all the information, including that from other people. Look into the person‟s background, service time with the company, previous positions held and what progress the person

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

has made since joining the company. Study any notes made of all marketing systems have evolved within the constraints and conditions placed upon them by the production sector and by the nature of the goods being marketed. The type of publications, the number, size and density of producers, the infrastructure and policy and institutional environments all determine the type of marketing system and the effectiveness with which it operates. Wages and Salary Administration Another major function of the Human Resource Manager is wages and salary administration. These are related with wage and salary surveys, job evaluation, merit rating and incentives. Wage and salary are given according to the work done by the employee.

Disciplining the Workers Disciplining the workers is another important function of the Human Resource Manager. The Human Resource Manager requires competency in not solely to punish but also to effect change in workers behavior and attitudes. He should have a control over the behavior of the employees.

Industrial Relations

The Human Resource Manager helps in keeping good industrial relations. This area deals with the maintenance of overall employee relations functions. Keeping good industrial relations help in maintaining a good working environment. This will help in increasing the efficiency of the organization and thereby helps in smooth functioning of the organization.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGER

HUMAN RESOURCE EXECUTIVES

RESIDENT MANAGERS

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.5 FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING

In Deepika the head of the Finance and Accounting department is the Finance Manager. He is dealing with all the matter relating to finance. The Finance Manager is assisted by Assistant Finance Managers. Under the Assistant Finance Managers there are Accounting staff.

Functions of Financial Department

This area deals with the record-keeping of various transactions and management of financial resources. The important functions of the Finance and Accounting department are;

    

Financial Accounting

Management Accounting

Costing

Investment Management

Taxation

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

Financial Accounting

Financial Accounting relates to the record-keeping of various financial transactions, their classifications and preparation of various statements to show the working of results and financial position of the organization. Management Accounting

Management Accounting deals with the analysis and interpretation of financial records so that management can take certain decision. Costing Costing deals with the recording of costs, their classification, analysis, interpretation and cost control.

Investment Management

Investment Management takes care of how the financial resources can be applied to various alternatives. Taxation This area deals with the management of various direct and indirect taxes which the organization has to pay.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR

FINANCE MANAGER

ASSISTANT FINANCE MANAGERS

ACCOUNTING STAFF

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

3.6 PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT In Deepika at the top of all departments is the Managing Director. The head of the Production Department is the Regional Manager Sales and Public Relation Chief Head. He is dealing all the matters relating to production. There is production staff under the Regional Manager Sales and Public Relation Chief Head for assisting him in the production work. Production department is usually grouped in two subsections. They are;  Composing  Printing

Composing All the copy is composed in this section, under the supervision of a Printer, who is constantly in touch with the Editorial department. He ensures that the editorial instructions are properly complied and the entire matter is set within the shortest possible time. Once it is read and corrected, the pages are made as per layouts prepared by the editorial. The page proofs are once again checked and then pages are released to the printing section either for the flonging or the printing.

Printing Printing section will be primarily concerned with the printing and on occasions with the packing of the copies. The packages are made as per the instructions of the Circulation department which will arrange for their distribution.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

MANAGING DIRECTOR

REGIONAL MANAGER SALES AND PUBLIC RELATONS CHIEF HEAD

PRODUCTION STAFF

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

STRENGTH
Deepika has a distinction of being one of the top newspapers of the state and has several distinct advantages like;  Having manpower of more than 500 dedicated and qualified personnel working at its various printing units and offices all over Kerala and India in different capacities.  Company has high future growth.  Effective organizational planning.  Readers‟ satisfaction is an important strength of the organization.  Being read by people with ample purchasing power.  Being read by an educated class of people.  Being read by people who belong to the noble Christian and Catholic communities.  Being read by people who are considered market movers and market makers and more open to new products and processes.  Being read by those who prefer quality and brand name to quality or price.  High ethical standards.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

 Wide product range.  Management-Employee relationship.  Being a newspaper with remarkable influence in several core commercial towns and districts of Kerala including Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha and Idukki.

These and other such factors give it a competitive edge and enhanced strength over other newspapers as well as enable it to receive more advertisements.

WEAKNESS

   

Quality of paper used for printing the newspaper is low.

High production cost compared to the volume of production.

Employees are congested because of the tight schedule.

Advertisement of the company is very less as compared to that of the competitors.

Lack of professionalism in some area.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

OPPORTUNITIES

 The company has effective planning so it can also dominate in the foreign countries.  The company has enough facility for future expansion.  New technologies.  Variety marketing techniques.  Accurate time and speed.

THREATS

  

One of the important threats of the organization is though competition.

Threats from lower circulation. Threats from the lower market share.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

FINDINGS
 One of the important things I found in RashtraDeepika Limited is that there is a cooperation of more than five hundred dedicated and qualified personnel working at its various printing units and offices all over Kerala and India in different capacities.  Superior and subordinates keep good relationship between each other in the organization. It helps a lot in the smooth functioning of the organization.  Though Deepika was started as the First Malayalam Daily in Kerala, it is not the State‟s largest selling newspaper.  Employees are highly motivated and labour problem such absenteeism, labour turn over etc. are relatively low.  The greatest asset of the organization is the highly skilled employees who help in the smooth functioning of the organization.  The employee morale is also very high.  A strong relationship with the clients of the firm helped in the growth of the firm.  The influence of Deepika on overseas market is too low.  The majority of workers are satisfied with the labour welfare measures provided with the company.

 The labours are satisfied with the relationship with the management and the grievance handling procedures of the company

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

SUGGESTIONS

Employee should be given the right opportunities to use the recreational facilities.

 

Training facilities should be improved. Employees should be rewarded well for suggesting creative ideas and thus can be motivated.

  

To create a conductive climate to motivate and encourage the employees. Improving upon the current strategies.

Deepika should focus on improving its paper print quality. This would play a major role in communication its modernization efforts to the end users. This effort should be coupled with a more attractive lay out should focus on giving a face lift to the newspaper. This effort would also help the firm to attract more customer segment.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

CONCLUSION

Newspaper

must

be

produced

“quickly”,

“accurately”,

“attractively” and “economically”. Today, when electronics has made tremendous strides and new communications machinery has been developed, the boundary between news editing and typesetting often overlaps and it has become difficult to draw a line between them clearly. And as mechanization of typesetting and composing advances, corresponding improvements in make-up techniques have become necessary.

In an increasingly aggressive and dynamic market, RahtraDeepika Limited has significantly enhanced its reader base, advertisement revenue and popularity of its publications. Professional Directors with considerable business experience have joined the organization, giving it added vitality and vivacity. The company also has some of the finest journalistic talent in Kerala, many of who have won laurels; regional, national and international. The Internet edition with valueadded features and several million hits daily, habitually makes waves and is a major source of news and information for Keralites the world over. Added to this, the unstinted support of its readers together with the invaluable support and confidence reposed by shareholders has helped the organization grow in strength and stature over the years. Equipped with all this, RashtraDeepika Limited gallantly marches on in the twenty first century, continually setting land marks and mile stones in its relentless pursuit for excellence.

Above all I feel completely overwhelmed to have been a part of this institution atleast for a short period of time.

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AN ORGANISATION STUDY AT RASHTRA DEEPIKA LTD, KOTTAYAM.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 www.Deepika.com  www.wikipedia.org  Human Resource Management – T N Chabra  Manual study of Deepika daily Kottayam  Human Resource Management- Shashi K Gupta,Rosy Joshi

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