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Finishing is a series of processing operations applied to a textile material to improve it’s appearance, handle and functional properties. We can also say finishing is a series of processing operations applied to gray fabrics to enhance their appearance and hand, properties and possible applications. Play a fundamental role for the commercial excellence of the results of textiles. Develop the "product finishing" in all its fundamental elements such as hand and appearance; Give the finished fabric some properties that grant an optimum behavior during the making up and all through the life of the textile.
Object of Finishing
To enhance the suitability of the fabric for end use. To improve appearance and sale appeal for comport and utility.
To give desirable qualities to the fabric like1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Softness Luster Drape Dimensional stability Crease recovery Soil repellence
More specifically, objects of finishing can be
To improve the appearance of the fabric. To improve the feel of the fabric. To cover faults in the original fabric. To improve wearing qualities of fabric by making it shrink or crease resistant. To set garment shape. E.g. Durable press. To import special properties to the fabric for special end uses such as waterproofing, flame-proofing etc. To strengthen the fabric by coating or laminating. To produce novelty effects e.g. organdie fabrics by parchment sing.
Different Fabric Characteristics Required by the Consumer:
Wearability, hand, mechanical resistance, easy care,wettability, washability, deformability, anti bacterial, anti fungal, soilproof and fire-proof ability .
The above mentioned results are achieved by applying respective functional finish. As far as Aesthetic looks of the fabric/garment is concerned the Aesthetic finishes deal with them.
The dry finishing process is mechanical and 100% chemical free Combing the pile very carefully and thoroughly during the weaving process after each row of knots is tied so that the pile fibres are disentangled and lie parallel to each other, imparting a rare clarity to the design. The finishing is thus very much a part of the weaving process itself.
The advantage of this method :
The method is green. It is labour friendly. The workers are not exposed to dangerous chemicals like caustic soda, acids, bleaches etc to which they most definitely are in the chemical washing process.
The process being lengthy and time consuming is very expensive.
Heat Setting Crinkle Effect:
Heat setting effect
A process of decorating fabric includes the step of imparting wrinkles to the fabric oblique to the warp and weft directions and heat setting the wrinkles into the fabric.
The wrinkle imparting step may include moving the fabric longitudinally and simultaneously moving portions of the fabric from side to side by frictionally engaging the fabric to an oscillating means such as an elastomeric pad or interleaved fingers and oscillating the pad or fingers from side to side. Heat setting of the fabric includes exposing the wrinkled fabric to heat at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient duration to set the wrinkles in the fabric. Desirably, the wrinkled fabric is in contact with a transfer print paper while the fabric passes through the heat setting step to set the wrinkles and fix color on the fabric. The longitudinal movement is desirably coordinated with the side to side movement to obtain aesthetically pleasing results. The invention also includes apparatus and the product.
A fibrous web is parchmentized by drawing the web from a parchmentizing bath and passing it through successive washing positions and the feature of the invention resides in maintaining at a substantially constant level the temperature of the washing liquid at the first washing position. If cellulose is treated with a mixture of two parts of sulphuric acid and one part of water perfectly cold, it becomes like parchment. It should at once be washed with water, and then with ammonia and water. The Swan incandescent light fibres are made of parchmentized cotton thread, which is afterward carbonized.
Fabric Softener Finishing:
Fabric softener is a product used while laundering to make clothes soft and eliminate static cling. Depending on the brand of fabric softener one purchases, it can be added at the beginning of the laundry cycle at the same time detergent is dispensed or during the rinse cycle. Fabric softener can also come in sheets to be placed in the dryer.
Mercerized cotton is cloth produced by the action of a strong alkali on cotton fiber rinsed under tension. The cost of producing a high grade of mercerized cotton, it has been stated, is about three times that of unmercerized cotton. The gloss of properly mercerized material will not disappear on hard wear or laundering.
Chintz (Glazed Finish):
Chintz is a closely woven plain weave cotton fabric with a shiny and lustrous finish. It usually has bright figures of large flower, birds, and other such designs.
The fabric is processed with glazed finish to give it a polish look. Resin finish chintz is a durable glaze. It withstands washing or dry cleaning. The wax and starch glaze washes out. It is produced by friction or glazing calendars.
Uses of Chintz Fabric:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Curtains Draperies Slipcovers Dresses Sportswear
Water Repellent Finish:
Water and oil-repellent finishing agent for all fire types with increased oil repellent properties. Specially Durable to washing. Also resistant to dry-cleaning. Easy handling and storage. Improved finish durability, can provide repellency to 30 home laundry washes. Solvent Free and Low foaming. High resistance to yellowing, suitable for colored and white goods. Excellent spray rating performance.
Typical application fields are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Carpet finishing. Clothing (e.g. sportswear & rain coat.). Umbrella cloth. Table linen, curtains and upholstery fabric. Tarpaulins and tents. Technical fabrics (e.g. protective clothing).
Waterproofed fabric has the pores of the fabrics covered with a continuous surface The coating being done on the surface, air permeability is nonexistent, with no bonding Between the fibers and the coated product.
Key Features of Waterproof Finish:
Intended for use in the fabric of rain- and water-resistant clothing .
The type of hydrophobic treatment chosen affects the quality of the garment and its durability during washing or chemical cleaning . Finish is applied by filling the fabric pores with a film-forming compound or by the applying to individual fibers or fabrics of compounds which repel water and have a high surface tension.
Zero Finish :
During spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing and the various finishing processes, yarns and cloth are under a continuous tension The process is Controlled Compressive Shrinkage, also knows it as SANFORIZED. The process is a purely mechanical treatment without any addition of chemicals. The purpose of the process is to shrink fabrics in such a way that textiles made up of these fabrics do not shrink during washing. The amount of potential wash shrinkage must be determined prior to shrinking. A full width sample is wash-tested according to the test method. After the lengthwise and widthwise shrinkage has been determined, the compressive shrinkage machine can be adjusted accordingly.
Embossing means to create a raised or lowered image on the surface. The embossing machine is made up of a heated and embossed roller made of steel, which is pressed against another roller coated with paper or cotton, its circumference being exactly a whole multiple of the metal roller. The garment will have to be dry-cleaned. Washing and drying the garment will raise the pile and destroy the embossed image.
2. 3. 4.
The fabric passing through the rollers of the calender is subjected to a very uniform pressure all along its width; if the rollers rotate at a different speed, a vigorous friction effect is generated. Steel rollers may be equipped in such a way to be heated from the inside by means of steam, circulating fluids or electrical power. The wavy engraving on the rollers give the effect. The fabric passing through the rollers of the calender is subjected to a very uniform pressure all along its width; if the rollers rotate at a different speed, a vigorous friction effect is generated. Steel rollers may be equipped in such a way to be heated from the inside by means of steam, circulating fluids or electrical power.
The rollers coated with paper/wool, containing 45-50% of wool, feature good elasticity and excellent resistance to wear and are suitable for a wide variety of applications; they can also be used in embossing calendering units. Rollers made of paper/cotton, are used almost in friction calenders and for treating hard fibres Cotton rollers, featuring higher elasticity than the paper ones, are mainly used for cotton and blends finishing and for a final full hand effect.
Finishes on Denims:
Denim washing is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric to enhance the appeal and to provide strength. Dry denim, as opposed to washed denim, is a denim fabric that is not washed after being dyed during its production.
Denim Washes are of Two Types:
Stone wash Microsanding
Denim bleaching Enzyme wash Acid wash
In the process of stone washing, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumice stones to achieve a soft hand and desirable look. Variations in composition, hardness, size shape and porosity make these stones multifunctional. The process is quite expensive and requires high capital investment. Pumice stones give the additional effect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.
Sand blasting technique is based on blasting an abrasive material in granular, powdered or other form through a nozzle at very high speed and pressure onto specific areas of the garment surface to be treated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.
It is purely mechanical process, not using any chemicals. It is a water free process therefore no drying required. Variety of distressed or abraded looks possible. Any number of designs could be created by special techniques.
Also known as Cat's Whiskers Crease lines around the crotch. Industrially done with laser, sandblasting, machine sanding, hand sanding and abrasive rods. Also used for 'knee whiskers' (whiskers on the sides of knees) and 'honeycombs' (crease marks on the back of the knee)
Leather fabric carries natural textures. Some has scars where as others show a grainy surface. Few of them have velvety appearance and some marbled or creased look. Many of them are given textures artificially, such as embossed leather.
Different types of leather fabric textures are described below :
Aniline Leather - It is the most natural and beautiful form of leather. It shows the healed scars and varying natural textures. Nubuck Leather - It is actually aniline leather but with a brushed and polished look. It has a velvet like texture with lush appearance. Suede Leather - It is the finish applied to leather by buffing the underside of the hide heavily and creating velvet like nap. Corrected Leather - It has a grain layer, which is buffed or sanded to minimise imperfections. Sometimes an artificial grain is also applied to give an uniform look. It is fuzzy on one side and smooth on the other. Crust Leather - It is a semi-finished leather. The leather is tanned with vegetable, chrome or the combination of both. It is tanned to make it nonperishable. PU Coated Leather - It is made from the inner splits of the hide and is finished with a polyurethane coating. The coating is also sometimes embossed with a design to give the leather the widest variety of textures.
Distressed Leather - It is an aniline dyed leather showing the signs of wear and natural aging that have been artificially created. Embossed Leather - Similar to corrected leather. It is stamped under high pressure in a press to make unique designs. It is sometimes also made to imitate full grain characteristics. Sauvage Leather - It is a top grain, semi-aniline leather with two-tone effect adding depth and character, producing a marbled or creased appearance. Split Leather - It is the lower or the inner (flesh) side of a hide, which is split away from the upper, or the grain layer. It is buffed to make the surface smooth. A coating of urethane is applied to make it more tough and uniform.
Double fabric: the front is viscose, the back is polyester chiffon. After burnt-out printing, it has modern pattern in two colors. Usually used for evening dresses, bridal gowns and scarves Burnt-Out Printed Viscose/Polyester Fiber.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/05/textile-finishing-treatment-object-of.html#ixzz20J3QVDsu
Heat-setting is a heat treatment by which shape retention, crease resistance, resilience and elasticity are imparted to the fibres. It also brings changes in strength, stretchability, softness, dyeability and sometimes on the colour of the material. All these changes are connected with the structural and chemical modifications occurring in the fibre. This operation is crucial for fabrics made of synthetic fibres (PE, PA, elastomers), for triacetate, and partly for PAC fibres (setting), since it grants excellent dimensional stabilisation and creaseproof properties, maintained till the fabric is exposed (by air blowing) to temperatures exceeding the heat setting one (after being treated with water at a temperature above the second order glass transition temperature, i.e. 80-85°C for acrylics). Heat setting is carried out on gray fabrics (scarcely applied), on scoured fabrics (frequently applied) and on dyed fabrics (scarcely applied). The process grants excellent dimensional stability and good crease-proof properties. As far as operating
conditions are concerned, the fabric must be treated in accurately controlled moisture and temperature conditions.
Heat setting of Some Fibers
Fibre Polyester (PE) Polyamide PA 6.6 Polyamide PA 6 Triacetate Acrylic (PAC) Elastomers Min T. °C 170 170 160 160 160 170 Max. T. °C 210 210 180 180 180-200 180-200 Time in sec 15-50 15-40 15-40 15-40 15-40 15-40
Stages of Heat Setting
Heat-setting can be carried out at three different stages in a processing sequence i.e. in grey condition; after scouring; and after dyeing. The stage of heat-setting depends on extent of contaminations and types of fibres or yams present in the fabric. Heat setting after dyeing could lead to the sublimation of disperse dyes (if not accuratelyselected).
Stenters are widely used for stretching, drying, heat-setting and finishing of Fabrics. The stenter frame is usually 80-100 feet long and 70-100 inches wide. The speed ranges from 10-45 m/min with a maximum setting time in the setting zone 30 sec at temperature ranging from 175 to 250~ depending upon the thickness and type of the material.
Stenter machine in heat setting
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/03/what-is-heat-setting-working-processof.html#ixzz20JAvKjfW
Mercerization is a finishing treatment of cotton with a strong caustic alkaline solution in order to improve the luster, hard and other properties, was names after its discoverer, John Mercer, and has been in use for sometime. It has been seeing an increase in application recently.
Effect of Mercerization:
1. Improve Luster. 2. Increase ability to absorb dye. 3. Improve reaction with a verity of chemicals. 4. Improve stability of form. 5. Improve strength/elongation. 6. Improve smoothness.
7. 8. 9.
It has been shown that the increase in the luster occurs because of an effect. The cotton fiber do convoluted. The cross-sectional shape changes.
Factors of Mercerizing:
In mercerizing followings are important:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Twaddle Temperature Tension Time
(1) Twaddle (Concentration of NaOH):
If the concentration of NaOH is increased above 56oTw improvement in luster will be attained but if it is decrease below 48o Tw. The quality of luster will begin to be adversely affected.
High degree of luster is attained at temperature 18-20oC. As the temperature is increased the quality of luster is adversely affected but on lowering the temperature no improvement in the luster is obtained.
For acquiring better luster the material must be stretch to its original dimension (both in warp and weft direction during mercerization). If the material is allowed to shrink during mercerizing then quality of luster will be impaired on the other hand if the material is stretched more no improvement in luster is achieved.
The optimum time for mercerizing is 30-60 seconds by increasing the duration of time no applicable improvement in the quality of mercerization can be achieved but if the time limit is less than 30 seconds in the quality of mercerization will be improved.
Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/04/mercerizing-finishing-process-effectof.html#ixzz20JBINkas
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