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1. Why is there the study of Bio ethics? Issues have arisen as a result of advances in Biotechnology: -The use of microorganisms such as bacteria or yeasts, or biological substances such as enzymes to perform specific industrial or manufacturing processes. -Biological/Medical Research 2. What is the Physician’s responsibility in terms of the AMA’s code of Medical Ethics? -Physicians and Health care professionals must follow state and federal law, as well as Ethical standards. -State and Federal laws do not always mirror ethical principles. -Ex: Physical, sexual, and psychological abuse 3. Does the AMA Code of Ethics prohibit a physician from performing an abortion? No the AMA Code of Ethics doesn’t prohibit a physician from performing an abortion as long as they get mandatory parental consent, depending on the state and follow the procedures in an ethical manner. 4. List and describe the guidelines AMA code of ethics suggests for clinical investigations. -Program activities -Caution and concern -minors and the mentally ill -Physician and patient relationship -voluntary consent -media 5. List and describe the guidelines the code of ethics suggests for fetal research. -Designed Program -animals and nonpregnant humans -care and concern -federal and state laws -money -review boards -informed consent 6. What is gene therapy? gene therapy is the writing or rearranging bits of genetic code to suppress the expression of harmful effects. 7. What are the two types of gene therapy? somatic cell gene therapy- a procedure in which human cells other than germ cells (eggs and sperm) are genetically altered. germ line therapy- procedure in which replacement genes are put into human gametes, resulting in expressions of the new genes in the patient’s offspring. 8. what is genetic counseling? genetic counseling is screening prospective parents for genetic disease before conception
-analyzing pre embryos before implanting -in vitro testing after conception Testing: employees, insurance companies, children 9. what is the position of the AMA on human cloning? human cloning has not been done before because we don’t know that much about it, AMA takes un ethical position on cloning. 10. What is the advanced directive? a document that makes one’s wishes known concerning medical life support measures in the event that one’s unable to speak for oneself. 11. what is a physician-assisted suicide? occurs when a physician, aware that a patient might commit suicide, provides the necessary means (prescription drugs) and info (dosage) for that suicide to occur. Ex: injecting, etc. 12. what are the Do-Not-Resuscitate orders? -orders written at request of patient or their authorized representative that cardiopulmonary resuscitation not be used to sustain life in a medical crisis. 13. What is the Federal Welfare Act and when was it established? The Federal Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research. 14. What types of animals are used in research? percentage? 95 percent rats, mice, or other rodents less than 1 percent are dogs, cats, and other primates. 15. What is the IRB? The institutional review board is a committee of physicians, researchers and others that ensure that a clinical trial is ethical and participants rights are protected. 16.What are the characteristics differences between qualitative and quantitative research? Qualitative: Quantitative: -involves words -involves numbers -research is inductive -researcher is deductive -hypothesis not needed -must have a hypothesis -researcher can learn the most about a situation -Researcher is an objective observer that by participating or being immersed in it neither participates in nor influences what’s being studied 17. List the types of interviews and examples of each. -Topic or event based: about superbowl football - Historical or cultural: WW2 interview -Testimonial or oral histories: 9/11 testimony
18. When are patients excluded from research studies? pregnancy, you are taking other medications, risky behavior, fail to follow directions 19. what areas of science use qualitative research as a method? psychology and anthropology study of human behavior and thinking, in the beginning stages of clinical trial. 20. what occurs during all four stages of research in a clinical trial? safety, effectiveness, and side effects, and the scientific method which is the control and variable. 21. what are the types of questions used when creating a survey? contact questions, main questions, control questions, and supplemental questions. 22. when are patients considered eligible for a research study? For their age, medical history, and current health. 23. who sponsors clinical trials? physicians, medical institutions, foundations, voluntary groups, producers of medical devices, and pharmaceutical companies. 24. what are the two types of quantitative research? Descriptive/observational: measure things as they are, no attempt ot change behavior or conditions. Experimental/longitudinal: take measurements, try some sort of intervention, then take measurements again. 25. What is the aim of unstructured interviews? to delve deep beneath the surface of superficial responses and to obtain the “True meanings" -events, attitudes, behaviors, experiences 26. what are the advantages and disadvantages of unstructured interviews? pros: complex issues may be probed, answers clarified, relaxed atmosphere cons: time consuming,difficult to collect and analyze data,interviewer bias, more money less sample size. 27. what should you tell a person you are interviewing about the process? -the aim of the study - its sponsorship -where you go their names -confidentiality 28. what are good interviewing techniques? -skills -need for neutrality -checklists
-critical incident techniques -questions 29. what is the book “Animal Liberation?” Animal Liberation by Peter Singer 1970 is the animal rights basic platform using animals like racism. 30. what was the first animal welfare organization? Royal society of the prevention of cruelty to animals london 1824. 31. what are the common errors made when writing survey questions? questions that are incomprehensible, vague, confusing, complicated, and assumed 32. what are the limitations of non-animal testing? -information differs from what can be learned from animals -theoretical -hypothetical -researchers still have to confirm finding by using living systems (animals/humans) 33. what are the reasons animals are good research subjects? -biologically similiar to humans -susceptible to many of the same health problems -have short life experiences -scientists can control an animal’s environment -most people would be ethically against using humans 34. how should a person structure an observation? -the setting -the participants -activities and interactions -frequency and duration -subtle factors 35. Explain the in-vitro method of research. experiments performed in laboratory containers with living tissues or biological materials obtained by animals or people. tissue examples include: enzymes, cells, tissues, organs. Advantages of in-vitro: allow researchers to study a single effect of a substance or an action in isolation offer high sensitivity without interference, researchers get data faster and at a lower cost. 36. Explain the difference between animal rights and animal welfare. Animal rights is against using animals in any kind of testing, food, but treating animals equally as humans and PETA for example is an organization that supports animal rights, Animal welfare endorses the responsible use of animals to satisfy human needs, not against using animals in experiments but with respectful standards.
37.Vocabulary: a. informed consent-Consent by a patient to a surgical or medical procedure or participation in a clinical study after achieving an understanding of the relevant medical facts and the risks involved. b. Side effects-any undesired actions or effects of a drug or treatment. c. Hypothesis-an assumption made as a basis or guide to an experimental investigation. d. Blind-a type of trial in which the participant is not told which arm of the trial he is on. e. control group-the standard by which experimental observations may be evaluated. f. Double-blind study-a clinical trial in which neither the person nor the doctor knows who is receiving the drug and who gets the placebo. g. placebo effect-Placebo effect occurs when a treatment or medication with no known therapeutic value (a placebo) is administered to a patient, and the patient's symptoms improve. h. single-blind study-a study in which one party, either the investigator or participant, is unaware of what medication the participant is taking. i. Experimental drug-the drug used in the experiment j. Protocol-a study plan in which all clinical trials are based k. sentience-the feeling of pain or pleasure (used to support animal rights) L. Placebo-an inactive pill m. observer bias-a point view which prevents impartial judgement on issues relating to the subject of that point of view.
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