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Abhilash Kumar Sethi 1111323
For example. Cadbury Diary Milk which still keeps the brand name Cadbury even after being owned by Nestle uses amazing brand communication. When we say positioning a brand. comfort. before going to accomplish any task or during any festival. it refers to how a brand is different or similar to the competitor. It provides a reason to customers to buy one brand in preference to others. innovation. When we consider a particular brand. Expensive. Cadbury captures all these moments in their advertisements and tries to communicate with its customers effectively. For this we consider the points of parity and the points of difference of a particular brand with respect to the others. stylish. quality etc. clothing. if we consider Nike. Communication of brand involves all the ways a brand comes into contact with its customers. Similarly in another example of Dominos. Brand positioning is positioning the brands clearly in the minds of customers. running. . A brand can be positioned at any of the three levels: product attributes. Positioning of the brand is done through the process of brand communication. There are different ways in which customers come in contact with a brand such as seeing an advertisement or seeing the product in a shop. we can see that Dominos position its offering in the desirable benefit level. It also guides all the activities that a brand undertakes to connect with its customers showing all the benefits and reasons to buy the brand. inspirational/ empowering ads. Its advertising tells us that they provide freshly baked pizzas and deliver within 30 minutes or entire money will be refunded.1. It becomes very important for a brand to create an impression in the mind of the customer. For example. desirable benefits and beliefs and values. Thus it positions itself in the mind of its customers as deliver of fresh pizzas. It positions its brand as a sweet for all occasions. we create a mind map which includes various attributes about Nike such as shoes. Air technology. CONCEPTS AND EXAMPLES Brand Positioning According to Kotler. This shows the benefit of freshness that Dominos offer through their product. An effective brand positioning is possible only through effective integration of brand communication both internal and external to the market positioning. Brand Communication Brand communication along with brand positioning are two solid steps for the process of brand building. The “kuch Meetha Ho Jaye” communication technique has been successful and has positioned the brand as a chocolate for all people breaking the old positioning of Cadbury as a chocolate for children. It perfectly understands its Indian customers who prefer having sweet after dinner. When we compare it with its competitor such as Reebok stylishness and comfort may become the point of parity and inspirational and empowering ads may act as point of difference. American. we create a mind map of its various features. Communication should be done keeping in mind the target customers and their choices and preferences.
stakeholders. Brand image is supposed to hold all the vision and mission of the brand. Apple gets the retina display technology (LCD Screen) from Samsung. The brand architecture is most of the times a result of the management decisions and a way to deal with the market competitiveness. Brand image is formed by the association of the customers with the brand. It tells us how brands within the same company are similar or different from each other. Most of the automobile companies use such branding. They are known as they are to the consumers. It is just the brand identity when perceived from the eyes of the customers. the artificial shortage creation for newly launched products to instigate curiosity about the product. But with effective brand communication and positioning many brands have been able to achieve it. Brand managers mission is to match brand identity with the brand image. any benefits provided with the brand and so on. Ex: Cadbury Dairy Milk. Ex: Dettol by Reckitt Benckiser. . 3. It can be defined as the customer’s net extract from the brand. It is kind of a feedback that the consumers generate when they purchase a product. the interactive showrooms etc create a very strong brand image for Apple even though most of the components featured in an Apple product are imported from another company. Positive brand image directly leads to higher brand equity and is a hard thing to attain. Brand image of a particular brand includes its features. The endorsements increase the credibility of the endorsed brands. Still Apple enjoys a very positive brand image. As an example we can consider the case of Apple. slogans. It is basically how the brand communicates its positioning defines the image of that brand. Brand Architecture It tells us how organizations structure and name the brands under their portfolio. Pampers by P&G etc. but Samsung never branded the product as Retina Display. This brand has a very positive brand image of being a highly innovative company. partners etc. Heinz etc 2. Brand image is not created but it is formed automatically. Corporate Brands: These are the brands which directly interact with the consumers. Ex: TATA. Individual product brands: In such branding the parent company name stays silent and is given less importance. any emotional attribute attached with the brand. The individual brands interact with the customers directly. The launch programs by Steve Jobs. Endorsed Brands: These brands are endorsed by a parent brand which may be a corporate brand. Maruti Suzuki 800. customer service etc. There are broadly three kinds of brand architecture: 1.Brand Image Brand image is the view of the brand that is present in the mind of the customers. It acts as a very strong tool against the competitors. Kingfisher. For example. the appeal. It is not just because of the positioning but the way they connect with the consumers. The association is through a lot of channels like logos.
colours etc. positioning etc and it is portrayed through various features like logos. style etc also comes to my mind. credibility and thus more brand equity.Brand Identity Brand Identity is how the company wants to portray itself among the customers. sentiments. It differentiates a brand from its competitors. quality. tunes. Brand Knowledge is considered to be a summation of brand awareness and brand image. Brand knowledge is conceptualized as creation of a brand node in the customer’s memory to which various associations are linked. service and cleanliness as its brand identity. . understanding the content and structure of brand knowledge is important because they influence what comes into mind when a consumer thinks about a brand. Brand identity includes brand vision. We can take the example of Mac Donald’s. Moreover the red and yellow color of the interiors and menu attract customers. It is a very famous and has become a very common logo among the customers. It motivates the employees to work towards a common goal. Brand knowledge is what one knows about the brand and how quickly can one recall the brand with how much little information. mission. when we say cars. features such a mileage. culture. Brand identity promotes a sense of belongingness for a brand internally. strength and uniqueness of brand association create lasting brand knowledge. For example. It is produced from inside the organization. symbol and vocal generate strong brand knowledge. It uses the big M logo. This shows that I have good brand association with Maruti. attributes that the company associate with the product identifies the product as a brand. The big M logo is used to attract customers from a long distance. Brand logo. According to Keller (1993). After that the various other consumer knowledge linked to my memory. slogans. which kind of brand association impact the most in the brand knowledge. The features. Customers do not feel comfortable staying in such places for a long time. Although this is not directly portrayed to the customers. Factors related to the type of brand association and the similarities between the various brand associations determine the favorability. Now the question arises. the first thought that comes into my mind is Maruti. Thus it helps Mac Donalds to have their seat vacant for new customers as well. It also ensures brand loyalty. the colours of red and yellow. This also acts to portray the image of Mac Donalds as a take away restaurant as the bright colour combinations do not go easy on the eyes. It is how the customers perceive the brand to be and how well do they recall and recognize the brand. as the favorability. strength and uniqueness of brand association. Brand Knowledge Brand knowledge is a function of brand awareness.
Differential effect is obtained by comparing the consumer response to the marketing of a brand with the response to the same marketing of its generic equivalent. so that when the company launches a new product or expands an existing line of products. loyalty. trademarks etc. through the price premium charged by brand over its generic equivalent. perceived quality and other brand assets such as patents. preferences and behavior that has arisen due to the marketing activity of the brand. Pampers from P&G. . Ex: Coca Cola Lite. the cash flows due to the brand is forecasted and the net present value of it discounting at an appropriate rate is termed as the brand equity of that brand. Maruti Suzuki 800 etc At the third level come the individual brands. Ex: Chevrolet series from GM. differential effect. associations. While from top to bottom in a brand hierarchy. HP use the corporate brands as the only brand. Various factors contributing to brand equity are brand awareness. Some brands like GM. it is mentioned that brand architecture refers to the architecture of brands of a company. At the second level is the endorsed brand. The brand equity is measured by determining the returns to the shareholders. it can relate that product to the existing products and see where does the new product fit into the catalogue. If consumers are ready to pay more for a brand than its generic equivalent then the brand is said to have a positive brand equity and vice versa. Corporate Brand 2. the number of entries at each level keeps on increasing. Three important attributes are mentioned here. Endorsed brand 3. Consumer response is the consumer perception. Julio Monteiro Teixeira and Eugenio Andres Diaz Merino. by evaluating the increase in sales due the brand presence etc. where there is no mentioning of the corporate brands. The name of the corporate brand is always associated with the brand. A new range is launched by the company but by giving an entirely independent identity. Individual brand The highest level is the corporate brand or the umbrella brand. According to an article by Lucas Jusé Garcia. Brands create brand equity by making the brands easily memorable. which is endorsed by the corporate brands. The main importance of brand architecture is it tells us the various position of different brands in the company portfolio. The order is as follows: 1. Brand equity Brand equity is defined as the differential effect of the brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. recognizable and improved quality. brand knowledge and consumer response to the marketing of a brand. With brand hierarchy we can have a clear picture of how various products are branded in a company.Brand Hierarchy Brand hierarchy is a means of summarizing the branding strategy of a firm by graphically displaying the number of similar and different brands across the company’s portfolio. The name is always present in the packaging of the product though it may not be used along with the name of the product.
Brand knowledge is the perception about the brand that has arisen in the minds of consumers due to the brand associations and how strongly are they recognized by the consumers. for motorcycle brand such as Harley Davidson. First. It is the personification of the brand. Brand personality creates stronger association with the consumers thus creates better awareness and knowledge and thus leads to better brand equity. the consumers have to think of a brand when they are thinking about the product category. “Yeah. stronger will be the association of the brand with the consumer and thus better will be the chances of brand image. when Pierce Brosnan appears in the advertisements of Omega watches. The first part is associated with the brand image and the strength of the brand’s trace in the memory of the consumer is defined as the brand awareness. It is consumer’s ability to identify the brand under various conditions. Brand awareness measures the ease with which the brand name comes into the mind of the consumers. With HD enjoying this supremacy. After many brands come into the consideration set. This personality differentiates HD from any other bike brand in the world. . the rebel’s brand. The Harley Davidson fans keep singling. There is an inherent quality perception in the minds of consumers for Omega watches. the only thing that keeps HD sail through all the rough waters and emerges as a truly top class brand is its personality. Kawasaki etc. Brand personality provides differentiation to the brand by assigning various human traits to the brand. Better brand awareness can be treated as a success of the marketing team as they have then successfully been able to penetrate into the awareness set of the consumers. Brand awareness plays an important role in consumer decision making for many reasons. consumers relate Omega to be a very stylish and cool brand and associate it with James Bond. Generally brands are associated with iconic figures to participate in its campaigns. more is the brand awareness. For example. consumers generally select those brands with whom they are most familiar. Similarly. it is clearly reflected in their brand equity as well. Brand personality is different from the brand image in such a way that brand image deals with mostly the physical and tangible aspects of a product or brand whereas the personality trait caters to the emotional aspect of the brand.” That truly is a strong personality of HD that differentiates itself from others. A point in time when HD’s position was questioned by the Japanese bike brands like Yamaha. Brand recognition is the ability of the consumer to recognize the brand as previously heard or seen when confronted with that particular brand. You buy Harley for the sound. Consumers associate the personality of the brand with these icons.Brand Personality It is the way a brand speaks and portrays itself to the consumers. It is a combination of brand recognition and recall. You buy it to buy into the Harley-Davidson mystique. Brand Awareness The brand knowledge is a composition of brand awareness and brand image. Brand recall is the ability of the consumer to generate the name of the brand and think about it when the specific product type is given as a cue. a Harley-Davidson may not be the fastest thing there is on the road but that is not the point of Harley. smell and look. Another important aspect of brand awareness is that. Better brand awareness will put the brand into the consideration set of the consumers for purchase. the brand the personified as a rowdy highwaymen.
brand loyalty can also be achieved through good sales team. good customer relations team. commitment. If a brand is proliferating into a similar product category. Extending brand outside its category can be a bit riskier. but if carried out properly can become very beneficial as the strong brand image will cover many of the marketing expenses and it can gain an early acceptance by the consumers as well. Thus the level of brand loyalty that Apple enjoys is unprecedented and enviable for most companies. The advertisements and the taglines are so alluring that a person even if has not seen the commercial can recite the tag of Amul Butter “Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul”. it has very strong brand awareness among the consumers. The best example of brand loyalty can be seen in the case of Apple. The original brand is then termed as the parent brand. Brand loyalty is the ultimate stage if consumer association. their product will be rendered old and uncool. The consumers of Apple products are so brand loyal that they do not consider any other brand apart from Apple. They don’t even care that when the next version of the product will come. repetitive buying. Once the consumers are loyal the brands get a consumer for a lifetime. Brand Loyalty Brand loyalty is scenario when a consumer doesn’t prefer buying any other brand other than what he is loyal to. It is as a result of the strong association that the brand has with its consumers through various communication techniques and Apple stores etc. Brand loyalty is achieved when the qualities of a brand perfectly match the needs of the consumer at the right price. Thus brand loyalty is always achieved post purchase. They also drive competition away from the market and do word of mouth publicity for the brand.If we take the example of AMUL. The brands which are present in a high involvement product . Loyalty is measured through word of mouth publicity. especially in the US. trust and satisfaction. he/she wouldn’t go for another product even if it is available at a cheap price. Thus brand loyalty is a key aspect of brand equity. When the association with the brand is good and the knowledge of the brand is good in the minds of the consumers. then there are higher chances of that being accepted by the consumers. The brands also have the responsibility to provide easy access to the product. loyalty comes into the picture. Once the consumer is loyal. Apart from the quality and price of the product. The new category can be related to the original category or may be unrelated as well. It also depends on the type of the brands and the category they are previously present in. Apple consumers queue up in front of the stores when a new Apple product is launched to show their loyalty. Brand Extension When a company is diversifying its portfolio to other product categories and uses an established brand name in doing so is termed as brand extension. Another brand that enjoys such huge brand loyalty is Amazon. Brands which are associated with consumers on a daily basis gains the loyalty of the consumers. Brand loyalty also comes as an alternative to the marketing techniques and they save huge amount of marketing expenditures. “Amul the taste of India” and so on. According to a survey in 2011. even though one can get better quality products at a lot price rate than that. good support to the consumers and constantly innovate to keep enjoying the loyalty of the consumers. Amazon came first in the list of brand with most loyal customers.
Today they are the second largest manufacturer of aircraft engines after GE. The idea of linking the macho style motocycle DNA with a domestic past time add on appeared to be highly unrelated to the core values of Harley Davidson and thus was considered to be the worst brand extension of 2005. The core competency of Nike being in the field of foot wears. it is personified with a rowdy and rugged image. the HD icing kits are sold in bakeries for birthday celebrations. The 2012 advertisement of Harley Davidson featuring Iron Man and all the Avengers personifies the brand as a bike for the superheroes. they did under a liscence from Renault and after one year they were successful in implementing the same level of craftsmanship in building plane engines as well. its marketing etc. At this stage a brand differentiates itself from its competitors. It may also lead to the dissolution of the brand image. 2. Earlier a car manufacturer. the brand is personified. and apparels and succeeded in the new business. the points of difference and the frame of reference. pressures were put on Rolls Royce to diversify its portfolio from cars to planes. Both these entities. Based on your positioning of your brand. In 1914. as they kept the core values the same. The Harley Davidson cake decorating kit is an example of failed brand extension.category if moves into a unrelated category. It comes along with the marketing strategy of the brand and is highly influenced by the brand positioning. Along with positioning comes the personality of the brand. For example as Harley Davidson is positioned as a bike for affluent people who are rebellious in nature. it later extended into the field of footballs. then it may lose reliability of brand among the consumers. Brand positioning and Brand personality along with several other features constitute the Brand Identity. A strong brand positioning directs all other activities of branding. the points of parity. BRAND MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK The 7 elements of Branding can be linked together to form a Brand Management Framework. that is sports. during WW I. Licensed by Bakery Crafts. Nike’s example can be treated as an example of successful brand extension. It is again decided by the organization itself on how to personify the brand. The organization has to be clear about how to position its brand in the mind of the customers and then has to develop the identity of the brand accordingly. The entire process of Branding starts with Brand positioning. One more example of successful brand extension is that of Rolls Royce. In this phase the consumers reason to buy the product is analyzed. .
Both brand awareness and image are collectively termed as brand knowledge. It forms the basis of distinguishing on brand from the other. It can be positive or negative depending on the effectiveness of the entire prior activities. Once the consumers approve the brand and then come the brand equity. The consumers once communicated by the brand become aware about the brand. It forms the link between the organization and the consumers. social media. Thus this is how the entire processes are linked to ultimately generate the desired brand equity. The brand identity then has to be properly communicated to the consumers using various techniques such as advertising. The brand communication has to be effective both internally and externally to let both the employees in the organization and the outside world know what exactly does the brand wants to portray. With all the brand identity communicated properly the consumers develops a perception for that brand called the brand image. It should reveal all the associations aspired for the brand. newspaper etc. The effectiveness of the brand awareness depends on the involvement created by the brand marketing. After this the information comes to the consumers. The awareness has to be proper for brand recall and recognition. The positioning. . It shows the added advantage in monetary terms marketing of the brand generates by the additional sales in contrast to the marketing activity of its generic equivalent. the personality and the entire brand identity is communicated to the consumers at this stage.Brand Identity is a broader term which includes everything about a brand from the perspective of a company.
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