8/13/2012

Background
Conservation and Nonrenewable mineral Resources
Ananta MS Pradhan • Conservation is cardinal principle in nature; matter is never destroyed, it only changes form. • When it comes to some of the natural resources like forests and wild life, however, conservation may also imply idle saving of resources by not cutting trees and not killing animals.

“This is easier said than done”

Contd…
• In normal circumstances, most of the commodities can be grown by human effortsbarren lands can be afforested and animals can be bred. • Such is not the case with mineral resources. These are one time resources, which can not be produced by man. • so far as mineral resources are concerned, man is only the consumer. In other words, man and minerals have reciprocal relationship.

Conservation of mineral resources/Means of conservation
• Mineral conservation can be defined as the intelligent utilization of mineral resources plus a proper regard for the rights of coming generations. • There are several means to achieve these objectives either directly or indirectly. These are discussed as :

1)Exploration:
• This is not directly related to conservation. • From the point of time when a deposit has been identified, it is usually a long drawn process reserve and the grades are estimated.

Note:
• Resources - the total amount of a valuable geologic material in all deposits, discovered and undiscovered. • Reserves – discovered deposits of geologic resources that can be extracted economically and legally under present conditions

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the same can be recovered from such dumps by using latest technology. • Mining technology determine how much of the deposit can eventually be mined and how much will have to be lift in situ and wasted forever. whatever can not be marketed or used. • This facilitates effective monitoring of the country’s mineral resources. it is of utmost importance to continually update the national mineral inventory. Storage technology: • While solid rejects can be dumped. 3.8/13/2012 2. 4. • in future. be systematically dumped. Mineral inventory: • Simultaneous with the exploration and exploitation activity going on in the country. instead of being through away. the same does not hold good for gaseous rejects. Mining technology: • Mining technology depends on the mode of occurrence and nature of deposits. 5. Systematic dumping: • The ideal situation is that out of the mined out product. 2 . The natural gas comes out at the time of extraction of petroleum. should.

Scrap recycling: • Scrap may be generated in the factories during manufacturing or worn out consumer articles like cans. Firstly. 3 . conservation of mineral resources can be promoted. 9.8/13/2012 6. Technology: • Reduction in the consumption of mineral raw materials can be achieved by improving the process of manufacturing or the design plants. bottles etc. • Secondly the volume of consumption of the Secondly. • One of the ways to increase the life span of articles is preventing corrosion. higher grade mineral is brought down. a mineral commodity of lower grade is mixed with the same commodity of higher grade in a suitable ratio. • By recycling the scrap in the manufacture of consumer goods. Life of product: • Conservation of some of the mineral resources can be achieved by increasing the life span of the end products based on those minerals. 7. gets utilized. • It has two fold advantages. Substitution: • Substitution of a scarce mineral. 8. Blending: • In blending operation. • Firstly. either by a relatively more abundant mineral or by synthetic substance or by renewable substance. 10. the lower grade mineral resources.

• During the Preliminary stage. which point to the possibility of discovering various mineral deposits. Remote Sensing: • Many on-site procedures are obsolete • Aerial photography and remote sensing are used Contd… • Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object. Prospecting criteria • Geological prospecting criteria mean such geological settings. Contd… • Detailed exploration helps clear up with high degree of accuracy the geological structure of the deposit. • The mine exploration is conducted in order to ascertain more precisely the shape and position of mineral bodies. area or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object. Prospecting criteria 1. the shape of ore bodies. This includes study of the local geological and economic conditions. the distribution of the ore grades and the mode of occurrence of the mineral during actual exploitation of the mine. • Prospecting comprises several stages: a) Search b) Preliminary c) detailed and d) mine exploration. general geologic conditions of occurrence. the deposit is studied by bore holes allowing general idea of the deposit. size and commercial value. 4 . It is conducted in permanent mine working. the grade and distribution of the ore along with hydrogeological and mining conditions. Contd… • The object of Search is to establish the presence of a deposit and evaluate its promise from the geological point of view.8/13/2012 Locating and extracting mineral resources • The prime objectives of locating and extracting (prospecting and exploration) work are the outlining or delineation of a deposit. area or phenomenon under investigation.

• 95% of all deposits of the sedimentary sulphur occur in the Permian. • Oil deposits accumulate in porous sands. and other manned missions 2. • Minor faults and joints can serve as passage for hydrothermal solutions or become the site for the localization of mineral bodies. • Coals are associated with sandy clay sequences.. Lithological criteria: • Lithological composition of rocks quite often features with possible generation of certain types of deposits. gases and also of some deposits of fluorite. Stratigraphic criteria: • A number of sedimentary deposits is associated with specific paleo-environmental conditions that had existed only during certain stages of the geologic history of a particular segment of the earth’s crust. • Sophisticated but valuable exploration tools. record. Structural tectonic criteria: • Endogenous deposits are associated chiefly with folded regions. 4. • Folded structures in the shape of domes. 3. • Fractures often play an important role in the formation of mineral bodies. sandstones and cavernous limestone. sometimes with the presence of abundant vegetable remains. anticlines favor the formation of oil.8/13/2012 Contd. 5 . Jurassic and Neogenic rocks. • Useful to detect. and analyze energy emitted off the earth – Aerial photography – Satellites – Space shuttle.

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