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TOPIC 6 : ELECTROCHEMISTRY

1 Which of the folllowing is an electrolyte? Antara berikut, yang manakah elektrolit? A B C D 2 Glucose Copper Naphthalene Sodium chloride

Diagram 7 shows the set up of the apparatus for the electrolysis of molten lead(II) oxide. Rajah 7 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi elektrolisis leburan plumbum(II) oksida.

Diagram 7 Rajah 7 What are the products formed at the anode and the cathode? Apakah hasil yang terbentuk pada anod dan katod? Anode Anod Lead Plumbum Oxygen Oksigen Hydrogen Hidrogen Oxygen Oksigen Cathode Katod Oxygen Oksigen Lead Plumbum Oxygen Oksigen Hydrogen Hidrogen

A B C D

3.

Copper (II) sulphate solution is electrolysed using copper electrodes. What can be observed at the anode and cathode after 30 minutes? Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat dielektrolisiskan menggunakan elektrod kuprum. Apakah yang diperhatikan pada anod dan katod selepas 30 minit? Anode A Copper plate becomes thinner Plat kuprum menjadi nipis B Copper plate becomes thinner Plat kuprum menjadi nipis C Copper plate becomes thicker Plat kuprum menjadi tebal D Gas bubbles are released Gelembung-gelembung gas terbebas Cathode Copper plate becomes thicker Plat kuprum menjadi tebal Gas bubbles are released Gelembung-gelembung gas terbebas Copper plate becomes thinner Plat kuprum menjadi nipis Copper plate becomes thicker Plat kuprum menjadi tebal

4.

Table 2 shows the observation of electrolysis of a substance using carbon electrode . Jadual 2 menunjukkan pemerhatian bagi elektrolisis suatu bahan menggunakan elektrod karbon. Electrode Elektrod Anode Anod Cathode Katod Observation Pemerhatian A greenish-yellow gas released Gas berwarna kuning kehijauan terbebas A colorless gas which burns with a pop sound is released Gas yang tidak berwarna dan terbakar dengan bunyi pop terbebas Table 2 Jadual 2 The electrolyte maybe Elektrolit itu mungkin Dilute hydrochloric acid Asid hidroklorik cair Concentrated potassium chloride solution. B Larutan kalium klorida pekat Copper (II) chloride solution. C Larutan kuprum (II) klorida Concentrated magnesium bromide solution D Larutan magnesium bromide pekat. A

Which of the following set up of apparatus is correct to electroplate iron ring with copper? Antara susunan radas berikut, yang manakah betul untuk menyadur cincin besi dengan kuprum? A

Copper

Iron ring Iron(II) sulphate solution

Iron ring

Copper Iron(II) sulphate solution

Copper

Iron ring Copper(II) sulphate solution

Iron ring

Copper Copper(II) sulphate solution

The diagram shows the set up of the apparatus for the electrolysis of copper(II) nitrate solution.

Rajah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) nitrat.

Which of the following is produced at copper electrode X?

Antara berikut, yang manakah dihasilkan di elektrod kuprum X?


A Copper

Kuprum
B Oxygen

Oksigen
C Hydrogen ions

Ion hidrogen
D Copper(II) ion

Ion kuprum(II)

Diagram 7 shows the set-up of the apparatus of an electrolytic cell. Rajah 7 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi satu sel elektrolisis.

Diagram 7 Which of the following half-equations represents the reaction that occurred at electrode P? Antara persamaan setengah berikut, yang manakah mewakili tindak balas yang berlaku di elektrod P? A B C D
8 A B C D 9

Na+ + e Na + 2H + 2e H2 2ClCl2 + 2e 4OHO2 + 2H2O + 4e


Which of the following is the cation in molten lead(II) bromide?

H+ Pb2+ Br OHDiagram 1 shows the set up of the apparatus for the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution.

Carbon electrodes

Copper(II) sulphate solution


DIAGRAM 1

Which of the following is formed at the anode? A Oxygen B Copper C Sulphur D Hydrogen

10

Impure copper can be purified by using electrolysis. Which of the following pair of electrodes is correct?

Kuprum tak tulen boleh ditulenkan dengan menggunakan elektrolisis. Antara pasangan elektrod berikut, yang manakah betul?
Anode Cathode

Anod
A Pure copper

Katod
Impure copper

Kuprum tulen
B Impure copper

Kuprum tak tulen


Pure copper

Kuprum tak tulen


C Carbon

Kuprum tulen
Pure carbon

Karbon
D Carbon

Karbon tulen
Impure carbon

Karbon

Karbon tak tulen

11 Table 4 shows information about three simple voltaic cell. Jadual 4 menunjukkan maklumat tentang tiga sel ringkas. Voltaic cell P Q R Electrodes used Iron and Zinc Zinc and magnesium Copper and magnesium Table 4 Jadual 4 What is the potential difference of the voltaic cell which consists of copper and iron electrodes? Apakah nilai voltan bagi sel yang mengandungi elektrod kuprum dan ferum ? A 0.4 B 0.6 C 0.8 D 2.4 12 Table 3 shows the result of an experiment for three simple voltaic cells. Jadual 3 menunjukkan keputusan suatu eksperimen bagi tiga sel ringkas. Positive terminal W Y X Negative terminal X X Z Table 3 Jadual 3 The arrangement of the metals in the electrochemical series in descending order of electropositivity is Voltage (V) 0.3 0.8 1.9 Voltage (V) 0.2 1.6 2.6

Susunan logam-logam mengikut keelektropositifan dalam siri elektrokimia mengikut urutan menurun adalah A B C D W, Z, X, Y Y, W, X, Z Y, W, Z, X Z, X, W, Y

Trial kedah 2009


13 .Diagram 16 shows the set up apparatus of a simple chemical cell.
Rajah 16 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel kimia ringkas.

V e +

Metal P

Metal Q

Electrolyte Diagram 16
Rajah 16

What are metals P and Q?


Apakah logam P dan Q?

Metal P
Logam P

Metal Q
Logam Q

A B C D

Copper
Kuprum

Zinc
Zink

Lead
Plumbum

Iron
Besi

Magnesium
Magnesium

Iron
Besi

Tin
Timah

Zinc
Zink

Trial kedah 2009 14 Diagram 1 shows the set-up of apparatus of a chemical cell. Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel kimia.

Diagram 1 Which of the following substances is most likely to be Y? Antara bahan berikut, yang manakah mungkin Y? Iron A Magnesium B Silver C Copper D Diagram 5 shows an apparatus set-up for a chemical cell prepared by a student. Rajah 5 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel kimia yang disediakan oleh seorang pelajar.

15

Diagram 5 The student wants to modify the chemical cell so that it produces a higher voltage. What modification should the student make? Pelajar tersebut ingin mengubahsuai sel kimia itu supaya voltan yang dihasilkan adalah lebih tinggi. Apakah pengubahsuaian yang perlu dilakukan oleh pelajar tersebut? A Use a wider metal plates Gunakan kepingan logam yang lebih lebar B Substitute zinc with magnesium Gantikan zink dengan magnesium C Reduce the distance between the two metal plates Kurangkan jarak antara dua kepingan logam

Use magnesium sulphate solution as the electrolyte Gunakan larutan magnesium sulfat sebagai elektrolit

Trial kedah 2009

16

Diagram 5 shows the set up of apparatus of a simple voltaic cell.

Electrode X

Electrode Y Electrolyte

DIAGRAM 5 Which of the following pairs of electrodes is correct if the electrons move from electrode X to electrode Y? Antara pasangan elektrod berikut,yang manakah benar jika elektron bergerak dari elektrod X ke elektrod Y? Electrode X Tin Zinc Lead Copper Electrode Y Aluminium Magnesium Iron Silver

A B C D

`17 The table shows information about three simple chemical cells.

Jadual menunjukkan maklumat tentang tiga sel kimia ringkas


Pair of metals Potential difference/V

Pasangan logam
P and copper

Beza upaya/V

Metal of negative terminal

Logam terminal negatif P dan kuprum


Q and copper 0.45 P

Q dan kuprum
R and copper

1.30

R dan kuprum

0.56

Cu

Based on the information in the table, what is the potential difference of the pair of metals

Q and R?

Berdasarkan maklumat dalam jadual, apakah beza upaya antara pasangan logam Q dan R?
A B C D 18 0.74 0.85 1.01 1.86

Diagram 10 shows the set up of the apparatus of elecrolysis of 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium chloride solution. Rajah 10 menunjukkan susunan radas elektrolisis bagi larutan kalium klorida 2.0 mol dm-3. Carbon Karbon X Y 2.0 mol dm-3 potassium chloride solution Larutan kalium klorida 2.0 mol dm-3

Diagram 10 Rajah 10 What is the products at electrode X and electrode Y? Apakah hasil di elektrod X dan di elektrod Y? X Chlorine Klorin Hydrogen Hidrogen Oxygen Oksigen Hydrogen Hidrogen Y Oxygen Oksigen Chlorine Klorin Hydrogen Hidrogen Carbon dioxide Karbon dioksida

A B C D

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The diagram shows the set up of the apparatus of a simple chemical cell.

Rajah menunjukkan susunan radas bagi sel kimia ringkas.

Which of the following is metal X?

Antara berikut, yang manakah logam X?


A Zinc

Zink
B Lead

Plumbum
C Magnesium

Magnesium
D Aluminium

Aluminium
20 The diagram shows four simple chemical cells. In each cell zinc is used as one of the electrodes.

Rajah menunjukkan empat sel kimia ringkas. Dalam setiap sel, zink dijadikan salah satu elektrod.

In which cell does zinc act as the positive terminal?

Di sel manakah zink bertindak sebagai terminal positif?


A Cell S

Sel S
B Cell R

Sel R
C Cell P

Sel P
D Cell Q

Sel Q

21

Table 7 shows the potential difference of three simple voltaic cells. Jadual 7 menunjukkan beza upaya bagi tiga sel ringkas. Cell Sel I II III Pair of metal Pasangan logam Mg and Cu Mg and Zn Zn and Fe Potential difference Beza upaya (V) 3.0 1.5 0.5 Negative terminal Terminal negatif Mg Mg Zn

Table 7 Jadual 7 What is the potential difference of a simple voltaic cell for pair of iron and copper? Berapakah beza upaya dari sel voltan mudah bagi pasangan logam besi dan kuprum A 0.5 V

1.0 V

1.5 V

2.5 V

22

What are the products formed at the anode when molten sodium chloride and 0.001mol dm-3 aqueous sodium chloride are electrolysed separately, using graphite electrodes? Apakah hasil yang terbentuk di anod apabila natrium klorida lebur dan 0.001 mol dm -3 larutan natrium klorida dielektrolisiskan, dengan menggunakan elektrod grafit? Product at anode for molten NaCl Hasil di anod untuk leburan NaCl A B C D Chlorine Klorin Chlorine Klorin Oxygen Oksigen Oxygen Oksigen Product at anode for 0.001 mol dm-3 aqueous NaCl Hasil di anod untuk larutan akues NaCl 0.001 mol dm-3 Chlorine Klorin Oxygen Oksigen Chlorine Klorin Oxygen Oksigen

23

Which of the following combinations should be used to electroplate an iron spoon with nickel? Antara gabungan berikut,manakah yang patut digunakan untuk menyadur sebatang sudu besi dengan nikel? Cathode Katod A B Iron Spoon Sudu besi Nickel rod Anode Anod Nickel rod Rod nikel Iron Spoon Electrolyte Elektrolit Nickel nitrate solution Larutan nikel nitrat Nickel nitrate solution

C D

Rod nikel Iron Spoon Sudu besi Iron Spoon Sudu besi

Sudu besi Nickel rod Rod nikel Nickel rod Rod nikel

Larutan nikel nitrat Iron (II) sulphate solution Larutan ferum(II) sulfat Dilute sulphuric acid Asid sulfurik cair

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The figure shows a simple chemical cell. Gambarajah menunjukkan sebuah sel kimia ringkas.

Which pair of metals will produce an electron flow, in the direction shown? Pasangan logam manakah akan menghasilkan arah pergerakan elektron yang ditunjukkan? Metal P Logam P Magnesium Magnesium Copper Kuprum Tin Timah Iron Ferum Metal R Logam R Copper Kuprum Lead Plumbum Iron Ferum Aluminium Aluminium

A B C D
25

Which of the following diagram shows the metal displacement reaction will be occurred ? Antara rajah berikut yang manakah menunjukkan tindak balas penyesaran logam akan berlaku? A

Copper Kuprum Zinc sulphate Zink sulfat


B

Lead Plumbum Iron(II) chloride Ferum(II) klorida

Zinc Zink Sodium sulphate Natrium sulfat


D

Copper Kuprum Silver nitrate Argentum nitrat


26 Diagram 6 shows the set- up of the apparatus of a chemical cell. The arrow shows the direction of the electrons flow. Rajah 6 menunjukkan susunan radas satu sel kimia. Anak panah menunjukkan arah pengaliran elektron.

Metal M Logam M Solution Y Larutan Y

Copper Kuprum Copper(II) nitrate solution Larutan kuprum(II) nitrat

Diagram 6 Rajah 6 What are metal M and solution Y? Apakah logam M dan larutan Y?

Metal M Logam M A Silver Argentum B Lead Plumbum C Zinc Zink D Magnesium Magnesium

Solution Y Larutan Y Silver nitrate Argentum nitrat Lead(II) nitrate Plumbum(II) nitrat Zinc(II) nitrate Zink(II) nitrat Magnesium nitrate Magnesium nitrat

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The table below shows the results of an experiment involving 3 voltaic cells, using different pairs of metals as electrodes. Jadual di bawah menunjukkan keputusan eksperimen ke atas 3 sel voltan, yang menggunakan pasangan logam yang berbeza. Voltaic Cell Sel Voltan P Q R Electrodes Elektrod Magnesium and copper Magnesium dan kuprum Zinc and magnesium Zink dan magnesium Iron and Zink Ferum dan zink Voltage/V Voltan / V 2.8 1.7 0.3

What is the voltage produced by a cell using iron and copper as electrodes? Apakah nilai voltan yang terhasil dalam sel yang menggunakan elektrod ferum dan kuprum? A B C D 0.8 1.1 1.4 3.1

PAPER 2 SECTION A
1 Diagram 1 shows the set up of the apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution.

Carbon electrode X

Carbon electrode Y Potassium iodide solution

DIAGRAM 1

a)

i)

What is meant by anion?

.. [1 mark] ii) Which electrode is cathode ?

[1 mark] b) i) State all the ions present in potassium iodide solution.

.. [1 mark] ii) State the ion that will be discharged at Electrode X: ..

Electrode Y: .. [2 marks] (c) (i) What is the observation at electrode X?

. [1 mark] (ii) Write the half equation for the reaction at electrode X.

.. [1 mark] (d) (i) Name the gas collected at electrode Y.

.... [1 mark] (ii) The number of moles gas collected at electrode Y is 0.1 . Calculate the volume of the gas collected. [1 mol of gas occupies a volume of 24.0 dm3 at room temperature and pressure]

[1 mark]

(e) If 0.0001 mol dm-3 potassium iodide solution is used as electrolyte (i) What is produced at electrode X at the beginning of the experiment? [1 mark] (ii) Write the half equation in (e)(i) [1 mark]

2.

Diagram 3 shows part of the set up of apparatus of chemical cell. Rajah 3 menunjukkan sebahagian daripada susunan radas bagi sel kimia.

Zinc plate / Kepingan zink Zinc sulphate solution Lautan zink sulfat Diagram 3 Rajah 3

Copper plate / Kepingan kuprum Porous pot / Pasu berliang Copper(II) sulphate solution Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

(a) Draw a complete set-up of apparatus for chemical cell on Diagram 3. Lukiskan susunan radas yang lengkap bagi sel kimia dalam Rajah 3. [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) Label the negative electrode as ( - ) and positive electrode as ( + ) on the completed chemical cell. Labelkan elektrod negatif sebagai ( - ) dan elektrod positif sebagai ( + ) pada rajah sel kimia yang telah lengkap. [1 mark] [1 markah] (c) State the flow of electron for the chemical cell in diagram 3. Nyatakan arah pengaliran elektron bagi sel kimia pada Rajah 3. [1 mark] [1 markah] (d) What is the function of the porous pot used in the above chemical cell? Apakah fungsi pasu berliang yang digunakan dalam sel kimia di atas? [1 mark]

(e) What can you observed at the negative electrode? Apakah yang boleh anda perhatikan pada elektrod negatif?

[1 mark] [1 markah] (f) Write half equation for the discharged of ions at positive electrode. Tuliskan persamaan setengah bagi ion yang didiscas pada elektrod positif.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (g) (i) If the copper plate in the chemical cell above is replaced by silver metal, what will happen to the voltage reading of the cell. Jika kepingan kuprum di dalam sel kimia di atas digantikan dengan logam argentum, apakah yang berlaku kepada nilai voltan yang akan terhasil.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) Give the reasons for your answer. Berikan sebab bagi jawapan anda.

[1 mark] [1 markah] (h) Table 3 shows the voltage of chemical cell using metals A, B and C as the electrode Jadual 3 menunjukkan nilai voltan bagi sel kimia menggunakan logam A, B dan C sebagai elektrod. Pairs of metal Pasangan logam B/C A/C Voltage (V) Nilai voltan (V) 0.1 0.8 Positive electrode Elektrod positif C C

Table 3 Jadual 3 Based on the information given, calculate the voltage of a chemical cell using metal A and B as the electrodes.

[2 marks]

3. Diagram 1 shows the set-up of apparatus to investigate the electrolysis of 0.0001 mol dm3 of hydrochloric acid and 1.0 mol dm3 of potassium iodide using carbon electrodes. Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis 0.0001 mol dm3 hidroklorik asid dan 1.0 mol dm3 kalium iodida dengan menggunakan elektrod karbon.

Electrode X [Elektrod X] Electrode W [Elektrod W Hydrochloric acid [asid hidroklorik]

Electrode Y [Elektrod Y] Electrode Z [Elektrod Z] Potassium iodide solution [Larutan kalium iodida]

Diagram 1[Rajah 1]

(a)

(i) Identify all the electrodes which serve as anode and cathode. Kenalpastikan semua elektrod yang berfungsi sebagai anod dan katod Anode [anod]:.................................................................................................................... Cathode [katod]:................................................................................................................ [2 marks] (ii) Name the product that is formed at electrode W. Namakan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod W. .... [1 mark] (iii) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at electrode W. Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di elektrod W. [1mark]

(b)

(i) State the observation at electrode Y. Nyatakan pemerhatian pada elektrod Y. . [1 mark]

(ii) Name the product formed in b(i) Namakan hasil yang terbentuk di b(i)

........................................................................................................................................... . [ 1 mark]

(iii) Suggest a test to confirm the product in b(ii). Cadangkan satu ujian untuk mengesahkan hasil yang terbentuk di b(ii). .... .... [2 marks] (c) In a separate experiment, the 0.0001 mol dm3 of hydrochloric acid is replaced with 1.0 moldm3 of hydrochloric acid and electrolysis is carried out. Dalam experimen yang berlainan, asid hidroklorik yang berkepekatan 0.0001 mol dm3 digantikan dengan asid hidroklorik yang berkepekatan 1.0 mol dm3 dan elektrolisis dijalankan.. (i) State the product that will form at electrode W. Nyatakan hasil yang akan terbentuk pada elektrod W. .... [1 mark] (ii) Explain your answer in c(i). Terangkan jawapan anda dalam c(i). ............................................................................................................................................ ..... [1 mark]

Diagram 2 shows the apparatus set-up to study the electrolysis of copper(II) nitrate solution using copper electrodes. Rajah 2 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan kuprum(II) nitrat dengan menggunakan elektrod kuprum.

Copper electrode X Elektrod kuprum X

Copper electrode Y Elektrod kuprum Y

Diagram 2 Rajah 2 Based on Diagram 2: Berdasarkan Rajah 2:

Copper(II) nitrate solution Larutan kuprum(II) nitrat

(a) Write the formulae for all the cations present in copper(II) nitrate solution. Tulis formula bagi semua kation yang hadir dalam larutan kuprum(II) nitrat. [1 mark] [1 markah] (b) (i) State the electrode that acts as a cathode. Nyatakan elektrod yang bertindak sebagai katod. [1 mark] (ii) Name the product formed at the cathode. Namakan hasil yang terbentuk di katod. [1 mark] (c) The experiment has been carried out for 30 minutes and it is found that there is no change in the intensity of the blue copper(II) nitrate solution. Explain why. Eksperimen telah dijalankan selama 30 minit dan didapati tiada perubahan pada keamatan warna biru larutan kuprum(II) nitrat. Terangkan mengapa. .. .. .. [2 marks]

(d) (i) Write the half equation for the reaction that occurs at copper electrode X. Tulis setengah persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku di elektrod kuprum X. [1 mark] [1 markah] (ii) If the electrolysis process is repeated by replacing copper electrodes with carbon electrodes, what will be observed at the electrode X? Jika proses elektrolisis diulang dengan menggantikan kedua-dua elektrod kuprum dengan elektrod karbon, apakah yang akan diperhatikan di elektrod X? ....... [1 mark] [1 markah] (e) A student intends to electroplate an iron spoon with silver metal based on the industrial application of electrolysis. Seorang pelajar ingin menyadur sebatang sudu besi dengan logam perak berdasarkan kegunaan elektrolisis dalam industri.

(i) Draw the apparatus set-up used to electroplate the iron spoon with silver metal. Lukis susunan radas yang digunakan untuk menyadurkan sudu besi dengan logam perak.

[2 marks] (ii) Suggest one step that can be taken to ensure that the iron spoon is electroplated evenly. Cadangkan satu langkah yang boleh diambil untuk memastikan penyaduran sekata pada sudu besi. [1 mark]

SECTION B AND C
1. (a) You have an impure silver plate. The impure silver plate can be purified by using an electrolysis process. Draw a labelled diagram of the set up of the apparatus for the experiment.
Anda mempunyai satu kepingan argentum tak tulen. Kepingan argentum tak tulen tersebut boleh ditulenkan melalui proses elektrolisis. Lukiskan gambarajah berlabel susunan radas bagi eksperimen tersebut.

[4 marks] (b) Table 9 shows the set up of apparatus of two experiments to investigate electrolysis process by using different electrodes.
Jadual 9 menunjukkan susunan radas bagi dua eksperimen untuk mengkaji proses elektrolisis dengan menggunakan elektrod yang berlainan.

Experiment
Eksperimen

Apparatus set-up
Susunan radas
A

Copper electrodes

Elektrod kuprum

Copper(II) sulphate solution


Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

Carbon electrodes
Elektrod karbon

II
A

Copper(II) sulphate solution


Larutan kuprum(II) sulfat

Table 9
Jadual 9

(i)

Compare the observation and product formed at the anode for both experiments.
Bandingkan pemerhatian dan hasil yang terbentuk di anod bagi kedua-dua eksperimen.

(ii)

Write the half equation at the anode for both experiments.


Tuliskan persamaan setengah di anod bagi kedua-dua eksperimen.

[6 marks]

(c)

Study the following statement.


Kaji pernyataan berikut:

Chemical energy can be changed to electrical energy.


Tenaga kimia boleh ditukarkan kepada tenaga elektrik.

Describe a laboratory experiment to prove this statement by using dilute sulphuric acid as the electrolyte and two different metals.
Huraikan satu eksperimen untuk membuktikan pernyataan di atas dengan menggunakan asid sulfurik cair sebagai elektrolit dan dua logam yang berlainan.

Your explanation must include:


Penerangan anda mestilah mengandungi:

a labelled diagram
gambar rajah berlabel

procedure
prosedur

observation
pemerhatian

half equation
setengah persamaan

[10 marks]

(a)

Diagram 8.1 shows the set-up of the apparatus to study the electrolysis of potassium iodide solution.
Rajah 8.1 menunjukkan susunan radas untuk mengkaji elektrolisis larutan kalium iodida.

Carbon electrode P
Elektrod karbon P

Carbon electrode Q
Elektrod karbon Q

0.0001 mol dm potassium iodide solution


Larutan kalium iodida 0.0001 mol dm

-3

-3

Diagram 8.1
Rajah 8.1

(i)

State the ions attracted at electrode P and electrode Q.


Nyatakan ion-ion yang tertarik pada elektrod P dan elektrod Q.

[2 marks] (ii) Name the products formed at electrode P and electrode Q.


Namakan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P dan elektrod Q.

[2 marks] (iii) If the experiment is repeated by using 1.0 mol dm-3 of potassium iodide solution: Name the products formed at electrode P and electrode Q Write half equations for both electrodes Describe a confirmatory test to verify the presence of the product formed at electrode P
Sekiranya eksperimen ini diulangi dengan menggunakan larutan kalium -3 iodida 1.0 mol dm : Namakan hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P dan elektrod Q Tulis setengah persamaan bagi kedua-dua elektrod Huraikan ujian pengesahan untuk mengesahkan kehadiran hasil yang terbentuk pada elektrod P

[6 marks]

(b)

Diagram 8.2 shows two type of cells.


Rajah 8.2 menunjukkan dua jenis sel.

V
Copper kuprum Copper(II) sulphate solution
Larutan kuprum (II) sulfat

Copper kuprum

Aluminium
Aluminium

Cell X Diagram 8.2


Rajah 8.2

Cell Y

Compare and contrast cell X and cell Y in term of: Type of cell The energy change The terminals of the cells Ions presence in the electrolyte Observation Half equation for both electrodes Name of the processes occurred at the positive terminal of each cell

Banding dan beza sel X dan sel Y dari segi: Jenis sel Perubahan tenaga Terminal bagi kedua-dua sel Ion-ion yang hadir dalm elektrolit Pemerhatian Setengah persamaan bagi kedua-dua elektrod Nama proses yang berlaku pada terminal positif kedua-dua sel

[10 marks]