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Pronoun is a word that stands for a noun and does the function of a noun. It is used
instead of a noun. The noun it refers to is called an antecedent. Ex: (1) Raju did not go to the office because he was ill. Antecedent Pronoun
(2) The boys are playing. They will be the winners. Antecedent Pronoun
There are nine types of pronouns. They are 1. Personal Pronoun 2. Reflexive Pronoun 3. Emphatic Pronoun 4. Demonstrative Pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun 7. Distributive Pronoun 8. Reciprocal Pronoun 9. Relative Pronoun
5. Indefinite Pronoun
1. Personal Pronouns
Personal pronoun refers to the pronouns that come under the three persons in grammar. First person stands for the speaker. Second person stands for the person spoken to. Third person stands for the person spoken of. Function Nominative case (subject) Objective case (object) Genitive case Possessive Adjective Possessive pronoun Reflexive Pronoun First person Singula Plural r I We Me My Mine Myself Us Second person Singular Plural You You You You Third person Singular Plural He, She, It Him, Her, It They Them Their Theirs Theirselves
Our Your Ours Yours Ourselves Yourself
Your His, Her, Its Yours Hers Yourselves Himself, Herself, Itself
Object of preposition: 1. Subject of an Infinitive: 1. The forms yours. her. but I don’t want mine to go. object of a preposition and the subject of an infinitive. They never stand alone. Eg: 1. Her husband is not at the office. the pronoun should be in the plural. yours. . But when they represent different persons. They can stand all alone. Possessive Adjectives my. Raju got his car painted. His dog is small. We want our too. 2. I can give his money first and then theirs. his. object of a verb. We got no letter except yours. My uncle and my guardian have reached their office at the right time. Possessive pronouns mine. He lost his pen and so I lent him mine. hers and theirs are usually used after a noun. our. its and they are used before a noun. its and theirs have no apostrophe. Object of a verb: 1. Hers is dark. 2. ours. ours. When two singular nouns are connected by and. So they are used as a subject of a sentence. My brother’s son has gone to the states. Their father has arrived. but refer to the same person the pronoun should be singular. I prefer your company to theirs. Yours is very big. 2. 2. My hair is grey. Eg: 1. your. Eg: Subject of a sentence: 1. 2. But when ‘it is’. hers. ‘it has’ are contracted we use it’s.
Sasthri(he). Neither Raju nor Ram took his food today. 3.2. George ran faster than I. When two singular nouns are joined by or either… or. The secretary and the treasurer were asked to submit their report at their own expense. 5. (ran) 2. (All the above three sentences have singular pronouns) When two singular nouns are connected by and. But when there is a verb the subject pronoun can be used. Either the Minister or his sons have to visit their areas. Raju is older than me. Every General and every Admiral did his duty well. 2. neither…nor the pronoun should be in the plural. (All the above three sentences have plural pronouns) 1. Eg: 1. Each man and each boy cast his vote for his party. Eg: 1. (Pronoun is plural) Usually object pronouns me. 3. The collector and District Magistrate was Mr. Either Rani or rohini will write her letter.. 2. 2. 2. him. neither…nor the following pronouns should be singular. Raju is older than I. Hari or Govind may bring his book. them etc are used after ‘than’. The secretary and treasurer has submitted her report. My uncle and guardian gave his permission to my plan. Eg: 1. Eg: 1. (am) . preceded by each or every the pronoun must be singular. 3. Neither the manager nor his assistants completed their work. But when a singular noun and a plural noun are joined by either…or. I don’t work as hard as them. The collector and the District Magistrate have sent in their resignations. when there is no verb. (Pronoun is in the singular) 4. her.
My sister lives by herself. Eg: 1. (better than he likes me) (The meaning of the above sentences changes drastically). Eg: 1. Eg: 1. Good manners require that I should come last in expressions. He and I. George. 2. (do) The pronoun following ‘than’ must be in the same case as the noun or pronoun preceeding it. George likes her better than me. 2.3. 2. Eg: 1. . 2. Don’t kill yourself in laughing. I myself posted the letter. 2. The expression by + a reflexive pronoun means alone. You. Singular Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Oneself Plural Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Reflexive pronouns are also used for emphasis. He often talks to himself. It is possible only when the subject and object refer to the same person. Haris and I. Some people like doing everything by themselves. It should not be ambiguous.‘self’ to the object pronoun. George likes her better than I. It can be called compound personal pronoun. Reflexive Pronoun A reflexive pronoun is a word that refers back to the subject. I don’t work hard as they. (like her) 2. Eg: 1. I posted the letter myself. George. It is formed by the addition of suffix.
. but demonstrative pronouns stand for only nouns and do the function of nouns. 5. 4. 2. The above three sentences are demonstrative adjectives because they qualify the nouns and do the function of an adjective. Eg: 1. Demonstrative pronoun are subtly different from demonstrative adjectives. These and Those are plural. I don’t like this picture. Those are yours. Such and yonder are common. 2. These mangoes are quite ripe. I saw the Minister myself. Eg: 1. I can’t bear with such people. That is her pen and These are her friends. Indefinite Pronoun A pronoun that refers to a general indication to any person or thing is indefinite pronoun. 2. Demonstrative Pronoun It is a pronoun that points out a particular person. My words might have wounded him. 3. Demonstrative adjectives are immediately followed by nouns. Eg: 1. but such was not my intention. 3. The house itself is good. They are usually placed immediately after the noun or pronoun which they emphasize. place or thing.3. This and That are singular. This is my book. Emphatic pronoun Reflexive pronoun used for emphasis is called emphatic pronoun.
6. Few escaped unhurt. One. Example: 1) Who goes there? . Nothing. None of his friends came to help him. 2. 2. All people cannot be trusted. 3. 7. Something. Raju was given another responsibility. Nothing more was given to him. everybody are called indefinite pronouns. Who is only used to refer to persons. What is mostly used for things. Anybody can answer the question. Eg: 1. 4. Which is used for both persons and things. Who has different forms for the different cases? Who (nominative) Whose (possessive) Whom (Objective) What and Which remain unchanged in all cases. all. few. (none means not one) 4. 6. 5. The common interrogative pronouns are who. One should not behave rudely before the elders. Nobody. Interrogative Pronoun Interrogative pronouns are those which introduce questions. anybody. Indefinite pronoun too are different from Indefinite adjective. One girl was selected for the team. any. Eg: 1. 3. Some. She has many friends. Nobody knows his native place. what. which. Many were killed in the accident. None. many.
Each and every refer to every one of the many persons and things taken separately. Ben. So they are usually singular and are followed by singular verbs. Example: 1. Interrogative pronouns What and Which are called interrogative adjectives when they are followed immediately by the nouns. Either of the boys submitted the thesis. 3. no one . . 2) Who is your father? My father is Mr. What points can you give for the statement? 2.2) Which is your room? 3) Which of the two is your friend? 4) What does he speak? “What is he?” refers to a persons profession. “Who is he?” refers to a persons name Example: 1) What is your father? My father is an advocate. They do not refer to the class collectively. Example: 1. Each and every are normally used with singular countable nouns. 2. Each can be used when the group has only 2 members. I don’t like any of the books 2. Which book would you like to select? 7. None but that boy could speak the truth. When we speak about more than two persons or things any. Neither of the students was present. Either and neither can be used only when we speak about two persons or things. Either means one or other of the two neither means not one nor the other of the two. Example: Each or every man has received the token Each and every are interchangeable in many occasions. none can be used. but there are differences. Distributive pronoun: They are referring to persons or things taken one at a time or an individual of a class. No one came forward to help him. Example: 1.
1. Example: 1. but every does not take off. Every parent should sign the reports. Eg: 1. Either of these books is / are useful. Either means ‘one or the other of the two’. Everyone of+ objective pronoun is a common usage. No one there is a student. Each of the families was given a token. The pronoun used for either can also be singular or plural. Either book /either of the books is useful. 2. 2. 4. Everyone. The families were each given a token. ‘Every’ cannot occur without a noun. It can also be used without a noun. every one. Everyone is good by birth. Neither of can be followed by a singular or plural verb. We have to take the medicines every five hours. Each can have different positions in a sentence. Everyone as a single word is used only before persons or people but everyone as separate words can be used about both people. but ‘everyone’ comes without a noun. everybody do not usually take ‘not’ after them. Everyone here is a student. but every implies a large number. When either of the boys comes to make a complaint tell him or her / them to meet me first. 2. 2. Every is normally used before a singular noun. Neither means not one nor the other of the two. Eg : 1. Eg: 1. 2. Neither can also occur alone. Either of can take a singular or a plural verb. but it is used before a plural noun to denote intervals. Everyone can take the opportunity. 2. I visit my grandpa every two or three weeks. Every student must come in uniform. Each may be followed immediately by of. Each may refer to two or more. 3.Example: The husband has slapped her on each cheek. Each boy was given a chance to act. 3. 2. Each of the books has some stories. Example: 1. It is used with a singular noun. Eg: 1. . Instead we use ‘no one’ and ‘not everyone’. 3. There are novels or plays you can take either. Every one of the applicant or application has to be seen before the appointment. The families were given a token each.
whose. I have an Alsatian whose name is Teddy. Fruits which are over-ripe should not be used. Which is used for animals and inanimate things . whose. 2. I saw a man who was deaf. Reciprocal pronoun: Each other. The tree which gave beautiful flowers was cut down. 3. What would you prefer chicken or mutton? Neither I prefer. They keep away from each other. ‘That’ is a common pronoun. 8. 3. Relative pronoun: Relative pronouns are those which introduce relative classes or adjective classes. 2. which. Eg: 1. whom are generally used for persons. The dog which chased the thief was shut down.Eg: 1. whose or which. They loved/ embraced/ kissed/ abused each other. because they express mutual or reciprocal action or relation. 2. whom. This is the boy whose father was killed in an accident. They wear each other’s dress. They meet regularly at each other’s house. ‘That’ is a common relative pronoun which is used for persons. 2. Their possessives are formed by’s’. This is the book that you were searching for. what. They are normally considered as single unit or compound pronouns. ‘That’ is used only in adjectival classes that restrict or define an antecedent. They won’t talk to one another. 2. Who. one another are called reciprocal pronouns. which is used for both persons and things. Eg: 1. When can you come to meet her Monday or Tuesday? Neither day is convenient. . 2. but occasionally for some animals and some inanimate things. animals and things. Modern grammar ignore the rule that each other is used with two nouns and one another is used with more than two nouns. One cannot substitute that for whom. 3. The reciprocal pronouns are not used as subjects but they may serve as objects of propositions. A boy who cannot read well will never be a good writer. Eg: 1. Eg: 1. Who. that are relative pronouns. 9. Eg: 1.
can give the details about it. I. 3. who were caught. Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown. They. 2. Eg: 1. but when it is the object of a verb or a preposition it cannot be omitted.Eg: 1. who is so strong. 3. This is the monument that was built by the king. I am the monarch of all (that) I survey. The man (whom) I invited was one of the politicians. Eg: 1. Hence the verb which follows the relative pronoun must agree with the antecedent. 2. 2. . who am a teacher. He. 4. cannot control himself. The relative pronoun must be of the same number and person as its antecedent. This is the book (that/ which) you are looking for. When the relative pronoun is a subject of a clause it cannot be omitted. This is one of the best pictures that have been released this year. were hanged.
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