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# Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems

Suhas Deshmukh

Assistant Professor SIT, Lonavala

9 July 2008

Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems

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Today’s Class

Recap Basic Concepts of Measurement … Principles of measurements … Characterization of Measurement Systems System Response Revision

9 July 2008

Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems

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Recap …. Introduction of mechatronics systems Basic elements of mechatronics systems Discussed various mechatronics systems 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 3 .

Mechanical System Sensors Amplifying Electronics Actuators Data Acquisition System Amplifying Electronics Data Acquisition System Control System Micro-controller or Computer 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 4 ..Basic Elements of Typical Mechatronics System cont….

current. Conversion Device Useful Signal Voltage. Transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another form of energy. Temperature.Basic Principle of Sensor / Transduction Measuring Parameter Displacement. mechanical. force. etc. etc. magnetic. Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 5 . capacitance Sensor is a device that when exposed to a physical phenomenon (temperature.).) produces a proportional output signal (electrical. Pressure etc…. displacement.

Basic Principles of transduction Resistive Capacitive Inductive Piezoelectric Thermoelectric Photovoltaic 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 6 .

strain. R. temperature into change in resistance of the material Measure of change is resistance can be done using wheat-stone bridge e. g.T. …. many more Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 7 .D. Strain gauge.Resistive Principle Measuring Parameter Resistive Material Change in Resistance Converts measuring parameter such as displacement.

Capacitive Measuring Parameter Parallel plate capacitor +ve -ve Capacitive element Area of overlap of two plates Change in capacitance C = ε rε o Permeability of free space A d Plate Separation Relative Permeability between plates 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 8 .

Inductive Change into inductance (self inductance or mutual inductance) due to motion of the core 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 .

also it can be used as actuator F 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 10 .g.Piezoelectric F Piezometerials : change In the dimension in the material produces voltage and can be measured using simple multi-meters or any other measuring devices Piezo material e. piezo displacment measurement sensor.

is to be measured Voltage Output is proportional to Difference in temperature e.g Thermocouple 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 11 .Thermoelectric Low Temperature High Temperature Reference Bath Actual Bath where temp.

Photovoltaic Light Energy or optical signal Photovoltaic Material Change is voltage is proportional to light intensity falling on the photovoltaic material e. Solar cells Change in voltage 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 12 .g.

D.T.Classification of Transducers Based on conversion Primary > o/p is directly measured Secondary > o/p is converted into voltage …. L. solar cells. piezoelectric.T.D. ) Based on form of output Analog > gives continuous measurement Digital > in the form of steps of voltages Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 13 . Based on excitation Active > Do not need external energy (Thermocouple. R. Photoconductive. tachogenerator ) Passive > needs external source (Strain Gauge.V. etc.

9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 14 . Resolution is also frequently known as the least count of the sensor. Resolution The resolution of a sensor is the smallest increment of input that can be reliably detected.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers (Range and Resolution) Range The range (or span) of a sensor is the difference between the minimum (or most negative) and maximum inputs that will give a valid output. Resolution of digital sensors is easily determined. Range is typically specified by the manufacturer of the sensor.

A sensor exhibiting truly linear behavior has a constant sensitivity over the entire input range. The sensitivity of digital sensors is closely related to the resolution. The sensitivity of an analog sensor is the slope of the output versus input line. as shown in Figure 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 15 . Other sensors exhibit nonlinear behavior where the sensitivity either increases or decreases as the input is changed.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Sensitivity Sensitivity Sensor sensitivity is defined as the change in output per change in input.

. loading errors (adding the sensor to the measured system changes the system). errors due to sensor sensitivity to variables other than the desired one (e. 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 16 .Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Error Error is the difference between a measured value and the true input value. These bias errors can be further subdivided into calibration errors (a zero or null point error is a common type of bias error created by a nonzero output value when the input is zero).g. temperature effects on strain gages). Two classifications of errors are bias (or systematic) errors and precision (or random) errors.

Fortunately. precision errors can be accounted for by averaging several measurements or other operations such as low-pass filtering. Un Loading I/P Loading Hysteresis 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 17 . Precision (or random) errors cause a lack of repeatability. Electrical noise and hysteresis (described later) both contribute to a loss of repeatability.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Repeatability O/P Repeatability (or reproducibility) refers to a sensor’s ability to give identical outputs for the same input.

e.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Linearity and Accuracy The accuracy of a sensor is inversely proportional to error. Linearity (or accuracy) is specified as a percentage of full scale Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 18 . a highly accurate sensor produces low errors.. i.

Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Accuracy and Precision 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 19 .

Piezoelectric sensors in particular have high output impedances and cannot source much current (typically micro-amps or less). Input impedance is a measure of how much current must be drawn to power a sensor (or signal conditioning circuit). (Oscilloscopes and data acquisition equipment) Output impedance is a measure of a sensor’s (or signal conditioning circuit’s) ability to provide current for the next stage of the system.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Impedance Impedance is the ratio of voltage and current flow for a sensor. Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 20 . since the device will then draw less current from the source. Two types of impedance are important in sensor applications: input impedance and output impedance. High input impedance is desirable.

then the response to input C = input A + input B) will be output C ( = output A + output B).Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Nonlinearities Linear systems have the property of superposition. backlash (or hysteresis). Unfortunately. saturation. most real systems have nonlinearities that cause them to operate outside of this linear region. If the response of the system to input A is output A. Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 21 . such as superposition. Several nonlinearities commonly found in mechatronic systems include static and coulomb friction. no longer apply. Many real systems will exhibit linear or nearly linear behavior over some range of operation. and the response to input B is output B. eccentricity. and deadband. and many common assumptions about system behavior.

. With an actuator velocity of zero. In reality. A typical plot of friction force vs. velocity is given in Figure 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 22 . viscous friction.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Static and Coulomb Friction friction forces are assumed to be proportional to velocity. there should be no friction.e. a small amount of static (no velocity) or Coulomb friction is almost always present. i. even in roller or ball type anti-friction bearings.

the true center of the gears pitch circle and the center of rotation will be separated by a small amount. In reality. pulleys. as the output gear is not exactly where the sensor measurement indicates. Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 23 . The combination of these two effects can lead to a nonlinear geometrical relationship between two gears like that of Figure. known as the eccentricity.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Eccentricity The ideal relationships for gears. and chain drives assume that the point of gear contact remains at a fixed distance from the center of rotation for each gear. Eccentricity impacts the accuracy of position measurements made on the input side of the gear pair. where the nonlinear behavior is greatly exaggerated for clarity. Small tooth-to-tooth errors can also cause local variations in the pitch circle radius.

between the teeth.e. Backlash exhibits effects similar to those for eccentricity. or backlash.. When the input gear reverses direction. a small rotation is required before this clearance is removed and the output gear begins to move.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Backlash If two otherwise perfect gears are not mounted on a center-tocenter distance that exactly matches the sum of the pitch radii. particularly when approaching a measured point from different directions. i. a loss of repeatability. there will be a small clearance. Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 9 July 2008 24 .

then the output varies with input. regardless of the input. Once the input travels outside the deadband.The deadband is typically a region of input close to zero at which the output remains zero.All real actuators have some maximum output capability. 18. as shown in Fig.10.Characterization of Sensors and Transducers Saturation. Deadband :. 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 25 . DeadBand Saturation :.

Recap Basic principles of sensing and transduction Characterization of measuring system System response first order and second order systems 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 26 .

40 pm 9 July 2008 Principles of Measurements and Characterization of Measurement Systems 27 .Thank you Next Lecture on 11th July at Friday 2.