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# System Response, Flow and Pressure Measurements

Suhas Deshmukh
Assistant Professor SIT, Lonavala

11 July 2008

## What is system response

Input Signal System, Measuring Device, Mechanical System, Chemical System etc. O/P Output Signal

I/P

Time

Time

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## System Response: -System Stability

In the unstable case, a small motion of the ball away from the equilibrium position will cause the ball to move far away, as it rolls down the hill. In the stable case, a small movement of the ball away from the equilibrium position will eventually result in the ball returning, perhaps after a few oscillations. the absence of friction causes the ball to oscillate continuously about the equilibrium position once a small movement has occurred. This special case is often known as marginal stability, since the system never quite returns to the equilibrium position.
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## System Response : First order system

First-order systems contain two primary elements: an energy storing element and an element which dissipates (or removes) energy. e.g. resistor capacitor filter

Where y(t) is the dependent output variable (velocity, acceleration, temperature, voltage, etc.),t is the independent input variable (time), is the time constant (units of seconds), and f(t) is the forcing function (or system input).
System Response and Flow and Pressure Measurement Devices

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## System Response : First order system

Solution of first order differential equation,

Where y is the limiting or final (steady-state) value, y0 is the initial value of the independent variable at t = 0.
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## System Response : Second order system

Differential equation of second order system,

Where y(t) is the dependent variable (velocity, acceleration, temperature, voltage, etc.), t is the independent variable (time), is the damping ratio (a dimensionless quantity), n is the natural frequency (typical units of rad/s), and f(t) is the forcing function (or input). z

f(t)

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## System Response : Second order system

For case of under-damped system 0 < 1

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## System Response and Flow and Pressure Measurement Devices

Home Work
Solve second order differential equation for other two cases of over damped and critically damped > 1 over damped system = 1 critically damped

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## System Response : Frequency Response

First order System
The response of any dynamic system to a sinusoidal input is called the frequency response. where is the frequency of the sinusoidal input and is the firstorder time constant. The steadystate solution to this equation is Where amplitude ratio Phase Angle

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## System Response : Frequency Response

First order System

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## System Response : Frequency Response

Second order System
The response of any dynamic system to a sinusoidal input is called the frequency response. where is the frequency of the sinusoidal input and is the firstorder time constant. The steadystate solution to this equation is Where amplitude ratio Phase Angle

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## System Response : Frequency Response

Second order System

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## System Response : Frequency Response

Second order System

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## System Response : Frequency Response

Second order System
The peak value in the magnitude response, MP, can be found by taking the derivative of M with respect to and setting the result to zero to find

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## System Response and Flow and Pressure Measurement Devices

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Flow Measurement
Flow measurement mean any one of six different types of measurement Point velocity measurementthe fluids velocity at a fixed point across the pipes cross section (m/s) Mean flow velocity measurementaverage fluid velocity across the cross section of the pipe (m/s) Volumetric flow-rate measurementthe rate of change in the volume of fluid passing through the pipe with time (m3/s) Total volume measurementthe total volume of fluid which has passed through the pipe (m3) Mass flow-rate measurementthe rate of change in the mass of the fluid passing through the pipe with time (kg/s) Total mass measurementthe total mass of fluid passing through the pipe (kg/s)

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## System Response and Flow and Pressure Measurement Devices

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Flow Characteristics
The Reynolds number Re is the ratio of the inertia forces in the flow (vD) to the viscous forces in the flow (), and it can be used to determine whether a fluid flow is laminar or Inertia turbulent in nature. Re = where is the density of the fluid, v is the mean velocity of the fluid, D is the pipe diameter, and is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. If Re is less than 2000, viscous forces in the flow dominate and the flow will be laminar. If Re is greater than 4000, inertia forces in the flow dominate and the flow will be turbulent. If Re is between 2000 and 4000 the flow is transitional and either mode can be present. The Reynolds number is mainly calculated using properties of the fluid and does not take into account factors such as pipe roughness, bends, and valves
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## Force Viscous Force

Classification of Flowmeters
Differential pressure flow meters : Orifice plate, pitot tube, elbow,
wedge, V-cone, etc

## Variable area flow-meters : Rotameter, orifice and tapered plug,

cylinder and piston etc..

## Positive Displacement flow-meters: Sliding vane, tri-rotor, bi-rotor,

piston, oval gear etc.. cylindrical rotor etc..

Turbine flow-meters : Axial turbine, dual-rotor axial turbine, Oscillatory flow-meters : Vortex shedding, swirlmeter etc Electromagnetic flow-meters : AC magnetic, pulsed DC magnetic,
insertion etc..

anemometer etc

Ultra-sonic flow meters : Doppler, single path transit-time, etc Mass Flow meters : Coriolis, thermal Miscellaneous flow-meters : Laser anemometer, hot-wire

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## Differential Pressure Flowmeter

The basic principle of nearly all differential pressure flowmeters is that if a restriction is placed in a pipeline, then the pressure drop across this restriction is related to the volumetric flow-rate of fluid flowing through the pipe. The orifice plate is the simplest and cheapest type of differential pressure flowmeter.
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## Differential Pressure Flowmeter

The volumetric flowrate of fluid Q in the pipeline is given by Eq.

where p1 and p2 are the pressures on each side of the orifice plate, is the density of the fluid upstream of the orifice plate, d is the diameter of the hole in the orifice plate, and is the diameter ratio d/D where D is the upstream internal pipe diameter. The two empirically determined correction factors are C the discharge coefficient, and the expansibility factor. C is affected by changes in the diameter ratio, Reynolds number, pipe roughness, the sharpness of the leading edge of the orifice, and the points at which the differential pressure across the plate are measured. is used to account for the compressibility of the fluid being monitored.
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Venturi-meter
Convergi ng Section

C discharge coefficient
Divergin g Section

d diameter E the velocity approach factor depends on pipe diameter ratio Pd differential pressure in pascals density in kg/m3 Qv flow rate in m3/s

## Pressure sensing holes

3

U-tube manometer

Qv = 2.354 10 Cd E
2

Pd

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## The Variable Area Flowmeter

Rotameter
Variable area flowmeters are also based on using an obstruction in the flow to create a differential pressure principle, except in this case the differential pressure is constant and the area of the obstruction varies as the flowrate being measured changes Variable area flowmeter is the taper tube and float flowmeter, known almost universally as a rotameter The fluid being metered enters the tube at the bottom and forces the float up the tube, which also increases the cross-sectional area available around the float for the fluid to pass through. Increasing the flowrate will move the float further up the tube, and so the position at which the float comes to rest is a direct function of flowrate. A major limitation of the rotameter is that it can usually only be used vertically and so causes installation difficulties if the pipeline being metered is horizontal.

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Rotameter
Force balance equation for rotameter,

Float

## f density of float ff density of flowing

V f volume of float fluid

Tube

Pd , Pu pressure at
Qactual = Cd ( At A f ) ( At A f ) 2 1 At2

downstream, upstream
2g V f ( f ff ) Af

ff

Af At
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## The Positive Displacement Flowmeter

The flow being measured is displaced or moved from the inlet side of the flowmeter to the outlet side using a series of compartments of known volume. The number of compartments of fluid that have been transferred are counted to determine the total volume that has passed through the flowmeter, and if time is also measured then volumetric flowrate can be measured.

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## The Turbine Flowmeter

Multibladed rotor is placed in the flow and rotates as fluid passes through it. The rotors speed of rotation is detected using a sensor (RF, magnetic, and mechanical types being the most common), and is proportional to the velocity of the fluid flowing through the meter.

These flowmeters measure the average velocity of fluid in a pipeline, and since the pipe diameter is known, volumetric flowrate can be determined.
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## The Vortex Shedding Flowmeter

A nonstreamlined obstruction known as a shedder bar or bluff body is placed across the middle of the flow stream. As the fluid stream in the pipe hits this obstacle it must separate to pass around it, with fluid layers nearer the surface of the bar moving slower than those further away. As a result, when these fluid layers recombine after passing the bar, vortices are generated and shed alternately from either side of the shedder bar. The frequency of generated vortices is related to the upstream velocity of the fluid and the width of the shedder bar and is defined by the K factor of the flowmeter The frequency of generated vortices is usually detected using sensors integrated into the sides of the shedder bar. Pressure, capacitance, thermal, and ultrasonic are the most common types of sensor used for this purpose.

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## The Electromagnetic Flowmeter

Faradays law of induction, when a conductor is moving perpendicular to a magnetic field, the voltage induced across the conduction is proportional its velocity. the conductor is the fluid being metered, while the induced voltage is measured using electrodes in the pipe wall pipe wall of the flowmeter is made from a conductive material such as a stainless steel, an inner nonconducting liner is required to insulate the electrodes and prevent the generated voltage signal being dissipated into the pipe wall Coils on the outside of the pipe are used to generate a magnetic field across the fluid, with simpler AC coil excitation methods
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## The Ultrasonic Flowmeter

Doppler shift principle. Ultrasound at a frequency of typically 1 MHz is transmitted at an angle into the moving fluid being monitored. Some of this energy will be reflected back by acoustic discontinuities such as particles, bubbles, or turbulent eddies. The difference in frequency between the transmitted and received signals (the Doppler frequency shift) is directly proportional to the velocity of the flow. The ultrasonic transducers, which are used to transmit and receive the ultrasound, are usually located in a single housing that can be fixed onto the outside of the pipe

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Pitot Tube
Cylinderical tube inserted into fluid medium,

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Anemometers

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