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Engineering System Investigation Process
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Engineering System Design Process
Engineering Design K. Craig 1
• Introduction to User-Centered Engineering Design • High Performance Teams, Leadership, Managing Conflict • Conducting Meetings, Project Notebook, Team Writing, Project Scheduling • Written and Oral Communication • Defining and Researching the Problem • Writing the Project Definition • Generating and Learning from Alternatives • Choosing a Design Concept • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis • Conducting Design Reviews • Concluding Conceptual Design: Moving toward Detailed Design
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Introduction to User-Centered Engineering Design
• The idea of design – of making something that has not existed before – is central to engineering. • The heart of engineering is complex problem solving that leads to new products and solutions. • The best way to learn design is to actually do design, i.e., work on a real project involving real people who need your products and audiences who are not simply your instructors. • Here you will be introduced to the user-centered design process, along with the team and communication skills, you will need for doing that work well. • The design process is iterative rather than sequential.
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Design A Complex Recursive Process Engineering Design K. Design is a systematic approach to problem solving with fairly predictable results. You redefine your problem by gathering additional information from experts or new groups of users.• In design. do more testing. and finally more design. you move back and forth through the different stages of the process. Craig 4 .
Help humans understand and describe their world Seek to explain how the world works Follow the Scientific Method for discovery and understanding: Observe – Hypothesis – Prediction – Test Predictions by Experiment or Observation and Modify Hypothesis – Repeat to Eliminate Discrepancies What Do I Want To Create Today ? Attempt to create new objects and devices that are important to humans and society Rely on the Engineering Design Algorithm (step-bystep process to achieve a goal) to create nearly every object around you: Identify Problem – Define Goals and Constraints – Gather Information – Create Potential Solutions – Analyze – Choose Best Solution – Build – Test and Evaluate – Repeat As Necessary K. Craig 5 Engineering Design .
(Feasibility) Integration Sustainability) Business Research Engineering HumanCentered (Desirability) Design Human Factors Complexity (Usability) INNOVATION HAPPENS Engineering Design K.Technology Business System (Viability. Craig 6 .
Engineering Design K. and manufacturing processes necessary for implementation of the design. As you continue through the process of becoming an engineer. – Here we focus on Conceptual Design. materials. science. materials. Craig 7 . and manufacturing processes in order to see a design through to implementation. you will have many opportunities to perform detailed design work. – Detailed Design is the process of performing necessary calculations and evaluating components. and engineering. Detailed Design – The design process can be divided into two large phases. – Conceptual Design is the systematic process of developing a general solution to a problem but not performing all the calculations and the evaluation of components.• Conceptual Design vs. This requires advanced knowledge in mathematics.
Craig 8 . – As you become a skilled communicator. build mockups. you will become a better design engineer. Engineering Design K. and provide graphs and equations. – As a design engineer you will have to communicate with experts.• Communication: An Integral Part of Design – The design process requires communication at every step of the way. – A real design is something you can articulate and explain to others. – You will also need strong interpersonal skills for working successfully in client and team meetings. Good problem solvers have the logical ability to be good communicators. not only when you write reports and give oral presentations. You will use your analytical skills in both to succeed. clients. and team members. but also when you sketch ideas.
Comparing Design and Writing Engineering Design K. Craig 9 .
• Supplementary Materials – The following pages contain: • Marquette College of Engineering June 2008 Deep Dive for the Developing World Posters • Some Thoughts on Design • A Design Thinker’s Personality Profile • Design Thinking. Tim Brown. Craig 10 . 2008 NY Times: How Green is the College? • ASEE Prism Magazine. May 2004 • Design Research for Radical Innovation – In addition see: • ABC Deep Dive Video • Dave Blakely. Video • Design Case Study Engineering Design K. IDEO. March 2008: Caroline Baillie • Business Week: Power of Design. Harvard Business Review. June 2008. IDEO. • May 26.
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Craig 12 .Engineering Design Deep Dive Design for the Developing World June 2008 Marquette University K.
It has a price. but all the time. you must pay the price to stay there. regardless of his/her chosen field or endeavor. Once you have established the goals you want and the price you're willing to pay for success. Winning is a habit. We have all watched people achieve success and then be unable to repeat the success. You have to pay a price to win and you have to pay the price to get to the point where success is possible.Some Thoughts on Design • Leadership and Excellence – The quality of a person's life is in direct proportion to his/her commitment to excellence. Every really successful person understands deep in his/her heart the grind. Craig 13 . Unfortunately. To succeed again requires dedication. you don't do what is right once in a while. Success is not a sometimes thing. It's like anything worthwhile. Most important. the discipline that it takes to succeed. perseverance and. so is losing. discipline and mental toughness. above all. – To achieve success. Success is a habit. whatever the job we have. In other words. we must pay a price for success. you can ignore the temporary failures. • Vince Lombardi Engineering Design K.
ask what the problem is! Don’t overlook the big picture. and learn from failure. Embrace the design attitude: be willing to take risks.• Focus and Motivation – The Right Mindset – Technical expertise without the right motivation and without a vision will not lead to successful designs. test the limits (big. try different things. companies. become an expert in the problem and solve the right problem. fast. extend yourself. Craig 14 . look at the problem and its surroundings. Identify multiple solutions to the problem. …) as you explore the problem. never stop asking “Why?” Find inspiration from outstanding examples – products. small. slow. Engineering Design K. people. it is highly unlikely that the first solution identified will be the best solution. methods. Focus on the need. View problems as opportunities to excel! Don’t ask the customer what they think they need.
This process is not a rigidly-adhered-to set of rules. but rather a guide to keep the designer or design team on track towards the final destination – the problem solution. Believe in iteration in the design process and strive for constant improvement. Craig 15 . This formal plan is essential in breaking the project down into tasks. Engineering Design K. in assigning responsibility and authority. from the problem definition to the problem solution. and in measuring progress. a procedure. Consider whether radical product innovation or incremental improvement is best.• Process and Procedure – The successful designer or design team follows a process.
as design is an iterative process.• Documentation – The steps which lead to the problem solution must be documented so they can be continually reviewed. Craig 16 . Engineering Design K. Assumptions should be challenged since they are often constraining and limit opportunities in solving the problem. State all the assumptions made during the process and why they are necessary. Good documentation will show others how the design solution was obtained.
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Craig 18 .Harvard Business Review June 2008 Design Thinking Engineering Design K.
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Craig 31 .ASEE Prism Magazine March 2008 Engineering Design K.
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Managing Conflict • Defining a High Performance Team – How do teams develop? – What makes a team succeed? – What causes teams to fail? • Developing a Leadership Structure – Three forms of leadership structure – Guidelines for exercising effective leadership • Resolving Team Conflicts – Sources of team conflict – Guidelines for resolving conflict – Tools for resolving team conflicts Engineering Design K. Leadership. Craig 42 .High Performance Teams.
Solving complex problems demands the integration of many divergent points of views and the effective collaboration of many individuals. • The world is teeming with teams! • Teams have become integral to organizations largely because of the accelerating complexity of the decisions that need to be made.• Defining a High Performance Team – Teams make the engineering design process more efficient and productive. • Teams are a fundamental feature of organizations. Engineering Design K. • • • • Ability to approach problems from many perspectives Varied knowledge and skills among team members Opportunity to motivate each other Leads to improved communication – Teamwork is important no matter what profession one enters. Craig 43 .
have high expectations for success. common goal and who collaborate in their efforts to achieve that goal. and deny or suppress any potential for disagreement. Engineering Design K. act politely and considerately. they are built by individuals working together.• Successful teams don’t just happen. Craig 44 . – Storming – Team members encounter problems: tension and conflicts build between team members. the team feels disillusioned and discouraged. learn about each other. • There are four stages of team development: – Forming – Team members exchange vital information. • Real teams take time and work to develop. – How Do Teams Develop? • A real team is two or more people who recognize and share a unified commitment to a specific. team harmony breaks down. expectations are no longer so idealistic.
methods for communicating. resolve team problems as they arise. and ways to hold individuals accountable for responsibilities.– Norming – Team members discuss and resolve problems. and put success of the project above individual goals. Eventually team members become deeply committed to each other’s growth and success. – Performing – Team members work collaboratively. they establish operating rules / checks and balances. achieve a high level of productivity. Engineering Design K. Craig 45 . scheduled meeting times. use individual differences as a source of strength.
Craig 46 .Stages of Team Development Engineering Design K.
and urgent goal: High performance teams have both a clear understanding of the goal to be achieved and a belief that the goal embodies a worthwhile or important result. – Decisions are based on facts and data. Engineering Design K. Craig 47 . hunches. • A results-driven structure: The success of the team is measured by results. keeping all team members informed in a timely way. and the team needs to be structured to achieve those results. – The team has an effective communication system. or assumptions.– What Makes a Team Succeed? • A clear. – Each team member has a clear role and is held accountable for his or her contribution. not effort. – Team members give each other prompt and helpful feedback on their performance so each can do his or her best work. not on preferences. challenging.
There needs to be a balance between “group think” and “analysis paralysis. • A unified commitment to the team and its goals: Every team member must be willing to do whatever it takes to make the team successful.” • A collaborative climate: Members should have defined roles. Team members must also trust each other. and to be able to identify. and resolve issues as they arise. Craig 48 . open. Engineering Design K. They must be honest. including helping each other out if the need arises. confront.• Competent team members: Team members need technical skills and knowledge. and clear lines of communication. mutual accountability. and respectful. consistent. to know how to work with others. The most common reason teams fail or fall short of their potential is lack of commitment from all members.
and faithful to your commitments. Hold yourself and each other accountable to team standards.• Clear standards of excellence: Standards should be measurable whenever possible. • External support: Make sure the team has the resources necessary to achieve its goals. • Principled leadership: Be honest. willing to do things differently. Put your ego aside. Both individual and team standards need to be established and members need to be held accountable to these standards. trustworthy. – What Causes Teams To Fail? • • • • Lack of unified commitment Lack of collaboration Poor time management Failure to get to know each other K. Craig 49 Engineering Design . open to others’ ideas.
Rotating leadership also is a good choice for teams with members who have strong personalities and are reluctant to give leadership over to one person. Engineering Design K. Craig 50 . – Three Forms of Leadership Structure • Shared Leadership – Team members who decide to share leadership tend to be self-motivated and comfortable taking charge of a particular aspect of a project. • Rotating Leadership – This model works well when team members have time constraints at different points in the project.• Developing a Leadership Structure – A team must decide which leadership structure works best for them.
motivating. Engineering Design K. missed deadlines. and communicating with his or her teammates or when sharing leadership is causing confusion about roles. lead meetings effectively. – Guidelines for Exercising Effective Leadership • Assign tasks based on members’ interests and skills – But make sure everyone has a learning experience and broadens their knowledge and experience base. help identify and resolve team conflicts. and poor communication.• Single-Person Leadership – This model works well when one member is good at managing. Craig 51 . • Trust team members • Work towards ownership – not consensus! – Consensus is something in which no one believes and to which no one objects! Shared ownership is the key! • Encourage communication: send e-mails.
– Sources of team conflict • Differences of opinion about goals and decisions • Differences in personality and working style • Perceptions that members are not filling their responsibilities – Guidelines for resolving conflict • When your team is having conflicts over goals and decisions. Successful teams learn how to manage team conflict.• Resolving Team Conflicts – Team conflict is inevitable. – Use members’ personality and working style to their best advantage. shift the focus from what team members want to why they want it. Engineering Design K. Craig 52 . • When you have a problem with a team member’s personality or working style: – Decide what you can and can’t change.
– Precisely describe the irritation behavior and when it occurred. try the following: – Find out through discussion whether you’re correct in thinking these members are not doing their fair share. Craig 53 . – State explicitly that you want to discuss the problem. – Offer explanatory facts if appropriate. » Begin by stating facts. » Finally.– Decide when and where to discuss the conflict. offer a suggestion. Engineering Design K. explain how the behavior affects you and the team. » Next. – Paraphrase what you heard the person say. – Comment on the suggestion your teammate offers. • When conflicts arise from the perception that some team members are not doing their fair share of work. • When someone tells you he or she has a problem with your behavior: – Try not to get defensive.
Engineering Design K. – Tools for resolving team conflicts • Team Process Checks – These provide an opportunity for the team as a whole to take stock of its effectiveness and make necessary improvements. – They also allow you to compare your assessment of yourself with your teammates’ assessment of you. • Peer Reviews – These provide an opportunity to assess your own and your teammates’ contributions to various aspects of the project. the rest of the team has two options: » Discuss a fair way to assign responsibilities. – Process checks also give team members a chance to raise issues they believe are important to the team’s success. – In a successful team. each member makes a substantial contribution to the overall work of the team.– When it becomes apparent that one or more team members are not doing their fair share. Craig 54 . » Ask for intervention from your supervisor.
Conducting Meetings. Craig 55 . Team Writing. Project Scheduling • Conducting Meetings – Setting the Agenda – Conducting the Meeting – Keeping Meeting Minutes • Project Notebook – What Should a Project Notebook Contain? – How Should the Notebook Be Organized? • Team Writing – Guidelines for Team Writing • Project Scheduling – Responsibility Allocation Matrix (RAM) – Gantt Chart Engineering Design K. Project Notebook.
interests. “What should our objectives be?” and “What kind of user testing should we do?” • They help clarify team goals. and practice presentations. analyze information. Engineering Design K. • They are an incentive to complete your work. These meetings are valuable for the following reasons. • They help you figure out answers to difficult questions such as. you will need to meet at least once a week outside of studio to plan tasks. • Members can talk about their skills. write reports. reach consensus on decisions. • They spark creativity by having you bounce ideas off each other. knowing you will have to report on it at a team meeting.• Conducting Meetings – In addition to the time you spend in studio. and bring to the surface and resolve underlying problems that may be hampering the team’s performance. Craig 56 . and outside commitments so that work can be distributed in the most realistic and productive way.
and method of achieving the outcome.– Setting the Agenda • Prepare a formal agenda. specify allotted discussion time. Craig 57 . the scribe takes notes during the meeting and posts the minutes to the team afterward. Rotate roles from meeting to meeting. desired outcome. required pre-meeting preparation. The agenda should include: – Meeting Date. to make the best use of your time. presenter. Time. the time keeper makes sure the team stays within its allotted time for each agenda topic. – Discussion Topics: For each topic. with input from team members. Engineering Design K. and Location – Meeting Objective: Be specific as possible in your meeting objective so you don’t get off track. – Key Roles: The leader posts the agenda and facilitates discussion.
Team Meeting Agenda Example Engineering Design K. Craig 58 .
» Encourage everyone to participate. Encourage discussion to clarify and resolve any disagreements. Engineering Design K. and when they will be completed. » Help the team reach a consensus. » Make sure all agenda items are discussed. Craig 59 . If that is not possible. – Leader » Set the agenda and send it out well in advance of the meeting. » File a copy of the meeting agenda in your project notebook.– Conducting the Meeting • Below is a list of responsibilities for members holding roles in a team meeting. ask individual members to circulate material on items that will carry over to the next meeting. » Make sure the meeting starts on time and ends on time. who will be responsible for those action items. » Help the team identify what actions need to be taken based on decisions made at the meeting. » Keep the discussion focused on the topic and tactfully steer it back when it drifts.
can decide to continue the discussion. decisions reached. or clarifications. Craig 60 . or table the discussion and continue with the original agenda. After all corrections are made.– Timekeeper » Let the facilitator know when discussion time is up for an agenda item. Review the action items with the team at the end of the meeting. At that point. – Scribe » Take notes on key points of items discussed. post the revised minutes to team members and file a copy in the project notebook. and thus modify the agenda. along with who is responsible for those actions and when they should be completed. and actions to be taken. Engineering Design K. corrections. the leader. » Type up your meeting notes (called minutes) and email them to the team promptly so members can offer additions. with the concurrence of the participants.
not majority rule. and time of meeting – Names of people present and absent – Name of scribe Engineering Design K. If circumstances prevent you from completing the assigned task or attending the meeting. date. • Meeting minutes should include: – Location. – Keeping Meeting Minutes • Minutes serve as a record of key ideas discussed. Craig 61 . • General Guidelines for Participation in Team Meetings – Have everyone participate. – Don’t reject ideas out of hand. on all key decisions. and tasks assigned.– Topic Presenter » Prepare the material specified in the agenda and bring it to the meeting. decisions reached. Minutes help keep the project on track. – Don’t interrupt. – Require consensus. notify team members immediately.
The payoff is a valuable reference for the team. notes. data. plus a brief summary of the major points and decisions made in regard to each. The most common tool for doing this is the engineering notebook. • Minutes should be posted promptly for review and use by team members. • Writing and posting minutes usually takes no more than 15 minutes if the scribe has taken good notes at the meeting. – Actions planned. • It provides a central location for recording research plans and results. Craig 62 . which has two purposes. and sketches – all of which are used by the team and others who continue the project. • Project Notebook – Professional engineers and designers know the importance of keeping complete records of all their projects.– Topics discussed. and the deadline. the names of team members assigned to them. design ideas. Engineering Design K.
Craig 63 . photos taken at observation and user testing. course syllabus. alternatives sketches. mockup drawings. project report. dimensioned drawings of final prototype. • The project notebook should contain: – Title page with name of team and team members – Student / Client understandings forms (signed) – Project management tools » Initial project description. progress reports. RAM charts – Written deliverables » Research reports. proposal – Drawings and other visual representations » Brainstorm sketches.• It serves as a legal record of design activity to preserve patent protection. – What Should The Notebook Contain? • All documents in the project notebook should be dated and initialized. photos and drawings from the Internet Engineering Design K. Gantt charts.
and other instruments for gathering information » Client interview guides. and design-review handouts – Teamwork-related materials including team standards and teamwork reports from instructors – Agenda and minutes from all team meetings – Project definition with all versions – Other material you deem relevant to your work on the project Engineering Design K. performance testing protocols. questionnaires.– Interview guides. designreview questionnaires and notes on oral feedback – Notes and summaries of research gathered from client meetings. expert interviews. user testing guides. Internet and library research – Memos and e-mails to and from the client. posters. competitive and model product analysis. performance testing. user observations. expert interview guides. Craig 64 . user testing. experts. and instructors – Oral presentation materials including slides.
Here’s a possible set of topics: – Project Definition – Team Standards / Meetings – Gantt / RAM – Client Communication – Reports – Internet / Library / Expert Research – Brainstorming – Alternatives / Mockups – User Observation / Testing – Design Reviews – Final Deliverables Engineering Design K. making sure topics are narrow enough for users to quickly find relevant documents.– How Should the Notebook Be Organized? • It is the responsibility of each team to maintain and organize the notebook. Craig 65 . • Organize the material by topic and also chronologically within a topic.
Craig 66 . Remember that a team is a group of two or more people working together in an interdependent manner to achieve shared goals. and solve difficult intellectual and business problems. • Work as a team.• Team Writing – Engineers and scientists in both industry and academia often team up to write. – Select a leadership structure and a fair way of dividing the work. This collaboration allows them to split up their work. • Follow these general team practices to succeed at team writing. then do your part to follow the schedule. – Here are guidelines that can help you produce effective documents. – Create a schedule and set deadlines. – Decide as a team what you want to accomplish in the piece of writing. pool their strengths and talent. not as a group. Engineering Design K.
sentence structure. – Draw on members’ individual strengths and contributions. whether it’s to share ideas or problems. These strategies will help you focus better and thus save time. Then decide the goal of your introduction. and other such considerations. Craig 67 . make sure everyone gets heard. style. Once you have completed your research. and level of detail. decide on font style and size. organize your findings and then meet to discuss them. To save time later in the project. – Develop a set of research questions and an outline. • After you produce a draft. personal pronouns (using “we” to refer to work done by the team). – Agree on a consistent style and format.– Keep the lines of communication open. A team paper should read as if it were written by one person with consistent tone. Engineering Design K. – Keep your goal in mind and don’t let petty annoyances distract you. the purpose of each section of the report or presentation. type of headings. and a method for dividing up the writing. have one team member revise it.
Make sure the document looks attractive and professional. • Project Scheduling – Whenever you’re working on a large project. you are responsible for everything in it. Whether you are giving or receiving criticism of the draft. coordinate your activities. persuasive report. and establish and stick to a schedule. be open-minded. Members should be on the lookout for errors or omissions of any kind. Engineering Design K. and sections that need more explanation or argument. it’s crucial to share the workload. Your goal is to produce a clear. • Have one team member edit the final copy. Craig 68 . or that might benefit from a figure or table. Keep in mind that when your name goes on an article or report. • Give and receive criticism of the draft with respect.• Have the whole group read an almost-finished draft. which tend to be the most error-ridden parts of a document. This includes carefully proofreading all headings and references.
– Successful teams use meeting minutes. It is also a good record-keeping tool. the course syllabus. Craig 69 . and two other important tools to help them stay on top of things: the Responsibility Allocation Matrix (RAM chart) and the Gantt chart. It gives you a detailed view of tasks and their deadlines. It displays what work needs to be completed. – Responsibility Allocation Matrix (RAM Chart) • The RAM chart is a good project-planning tool because it shows the primary and secondary tasks of each individual on the team. Engineering Design K. • The RAM chart details who’s in charge of what and when it’s due. The most useful RAM charts divide complex tasks and major deliverables into sub-tasks. when it should start and finish. and shows who is responsible for performing the task. • The Gantt chart is a schedule of tasks using a timeline. and which tasks need to be worked on simultaneously. and by what date.
– A square marked with an O shows who else is working on that task. Craig 70 Engineering Design . use a final RAM chart to document who did what. Post the RAM chart to the team and place it in the project notebook. – If a square is marked with an X. – A blank square means the corresponding team member is not involved in that task. Creating the RAM chart should be a team activity so that it draws on everyone’s knowledge and makes members feel invested in performing the tasks. this means the person assigned to that task has primary responsibility for seeing it is done. K. Prepare a new RAM chart every one to three weeks. At the end of the project. rather than giving all members primary responsibility for all or most tasks. with tasks listed on one axis and team members and due dates on the other. A well-written RAM chart divides large tasks among team members.• • • • – A RAM chart takes the form of a grid.
Craig 71 .Engineering Design RAM Chart Example K.
and time frames (by weeks or months) on the horizontal axis.– Gantt Chart • The Gantt chart (named after its inventor. • Gantt charts are used for internal team planning and also for external reporting. or take place simultaneously. a management theorist) is the most widely used method of scheduling group work by due dates. a Gantt chart undergoes modification as you complete portions of your project and better understand it. Henry Gantt. • These bars also indicate which tasks overlap. are interdependent. Engineering Design K. Craig 72 . the Gantt chart lists key project tasks on the vertical axis. That’s why you need to keep updating the chart throughout the project. • Using both a table and bar-graph format. Like all project documentation.
Craig 73 . uncompleted tasks project milestone Engineering Design K. not individual assignments.Heading Generic Gantt Chart completed tasks main tasks and sub-tasks Include only those tasks related to the team’s design process.
Craig 74 . as you make progress and also add tasks to your project plan. – Include the updated Gantt charts in your progress reports and project notebook. – Divide your horizontal axis into columns.• Guidelines for Creating Gantt Charts – Brainstorm all the tasks that need to be done for your project. – End the list with your final deliverables. labeling each week. – Review and revise your Gantt chart frequently. differentiating between main tasks and sub-tasks. – Group these tasks into categories. – List the tasks along the vertical axis. – Use a horizontal bar to show the estimated beginning and end of each task. Engineering Design K. starting with the tasks that must be done first.
worse. meeting minutes – Oral: final presentations. career advancement. Craig 75 . memos. Without that skill. charts. • Engineers need to be proficient in the following types of communication: – Written: reports. graphs. slides – Mathematical: equations. design reviews – Visual: sketches. engineers are shut out of decision making and. tables. posters. drawings. proposals. interviews Engineering Design K. statistical analyses – Interpersonal: team meetings. instructions. emails.Written and Oral Communication • Engineers market their skill through the ability to communicate.
etc. and respectful.• Engineers often use several kinds of communication at a time. Craig 76 . video. engineers use a variety of media: paper. fax. tables. – They support oral presentations with written slides. and other visual elements. • Writing is the most commonly used form of communicating among engineers. which contain drawings. telephone. Engineering Design K. which may be illustrated by visual elements such as tables and graphs. complete. electronic files. Your writing communication needs to be clear. • In communicating. projectors. well-edited. email. Each medium imposes specific requirements on engineers as they shape what they want to communicate. – They use written agendas to organize team meetings. – They write reports using mathematical elements such as statistical analysis of test data. where they focus on sketches of design ideas.
Both Writing and Design Are Iterative
Types of Writing in Engineering
• Planning Your Written and Oral Communication
– There Are 4 Elements To Keep In Mind • Audience
– Who will be reading your writing or listening to you talk? What does your audience already know? What do they need to know? What questions will be on their mind?
– What do you want your audience to do or know after reading the document or listening to you speak? What does your audience expect the document or presentation to help them understand or do?
– What do you need to say to accomplish that purpose? What is the best way to organize what you will say?
– How do you need to sound to accomplish your purpose? Formal or informal? Assertive or questioning?
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Users. Request Engineering Design K. Instruct. Persuade. Teammates.Client. Respectful Serious Polite Considerate Positive Concern Inform. Craig 80 . Experts Structure Categories Headings Start Finish Emphasis Details The Communication Square There are no absolute rules for what to say and how to say it ! There is a process – the same problem-solving approach you take to design applies to communication.
In either case.Defining & Researching the Problem • The design team first needs to identify an energy need and a client. • You must define the problem in solution-independent terms. Craig 81 . – Studying the problem thoroughly gives you a better grasp of the project. Why? – The client may not have defined the problem correctly. Sometimes the client has come to you with the need defined. • You must become experts to solve the problem in the best way. They may have told you what they think they need and not what the actual problem is. you need to perform research and define the need / problem yourself. Engineering Design K.
• It is important to note that the State-of-the-Art Review will be continuously updated throughout the design process as you gain experience by collaborating with customers and others who are experts in specific areas.State-of-the-Art Review • Research is an important part of a designer's job. Craig 82 . Engineering Design K. It is the foundation for the entire design process. If it is done well the chances of achieving an outstanding design are increased greatly. • The State-of-the-Art Review is that body of information that must be gathered in order to become expert in the area of the problem. In fact. a recent study of some of the most innovative companies by the National Research Council listed keeping abreast of the state of the art as one of the primary components of good design practice.
– Historical Perspective • It is important to consider information from the earliest known references to the problem area. we must anticipate future needs. Craig 83 . New technology might now be available to make it possible to incorporate the 'old' information into an outstanding design. – Trends in the Field • We want our designs to meet future needs and be as long-lasting as possible. Therefore. It is also possible that information may have been determined in the past which could now be utilized because of inadequate technology at that time. Engineering Design K. One way to do this is to look at past and present trends and try to determine future trends. This can help prevent efforts that merely serve to 'reinvent the wheel'.
You must investigate all new technologies that could possibly be applied to the problem. performance.– New Technology • It is the responsibility of engineers to solve problems by applying existing technology. We must search for ways to produce designs that achieve breakthroughs in quality. Craig 84 .? What is the potential market for the product? What would be the likely production volume? What service requirements are there? Who will perform the service? How is the product likely to be used? In what environment will it be used? Engineering Design K. – Marketing • Who is the customer? Where can I find them? Do I have the names of potential customers that I can approach during the design process? What does the customer want in the way of: cost. and cost. especially the latest technology. etc. reliability. performance. safety.
Craig 85 . mechanisms.– Design • What are the competing products on the market? What are the results of reverse engineering one of the competitors' products? What technologies are being used? What engineering disciplines will be involved (mechanics. electronics. etc. thermodynamics.)? What materials are being used? Is there an opportunity to use new materials? Who are potential vendors for the design? What research journals would have information pertaining to this area? What articles on this topic have been published in the past 5 years? What periodicals are likely to have articles related to this design? What are the pertinent articles in the past 5 years? Engineering Design K.
– Manufacturing • What manufacturing methods are being used in producing the parts on the competing products? What are the limitations of these manufacturing methods? Are there any new manufacturing methods that could be used? How are the competing products assembled? What is the assembly sequence? Where can I find data on manufacturing costs? What fastening methods are used for the parts? Are there any assembly problems? Who are potential vendors for the manufacturing? What research journals would have information pertaining to manufacturing-related topics? What articles on the manufacturing methods we expect to employ have been published in the past 5 years? What periodicals are likely to have articles related to this design? Have there been any pertinent articles in the past 5 years? Engineering Design K. Craig 86 .
• Submit in a Team Memo the details outlined above. – Identify likely sources to answer the questions. – Generate a list of questions you need to answer to become experts on the design problem. Spend a team meeting doing the following: – State in general terms the design problem you have chosen. – Group related questions into categories. – Assign each team member several questions to research. – Document team members’ research assignments in a Responsibility Allocation Matrix (RAM). Craig 87 . Document this research plan in your team design notebook. Engineering Design K.Developing a Research Plan • You need to plan your research carefully.
Craig 88 .• Individual Memo – What excites you about the project? – What do you think are the main challenges to this project? – What does your group see as the first steps to take on the project? – Do you anticipate any particular resources or assistance you will need to move forward on the project? – What is your team’s goal for the project and does everyone in the team agree on that goal? – Is the timeline your team is constructing realistic in your opinion? – How do you feel about your role in the team? – Do you feel there is anything missing from your team’s code of conduct? Engineering Design K.
Craig 89 .Writing the Project Definition • The topics we will discuss are: – Introduction – Mission Statement – Constraints – Users and Stakeholders – Requirements – Specifications – Format for the Project Definition – Closing Comments Engineering Design K.
or other stakeholders • Users and Stakeholders: those who will use.• Introduction – As you conduct your research. or in other ways interact with the product. install. – The Project Definition has 4 parts: • Mission Statement: a concise. regulators. Craig 90 . produce. those in the larger community who will be affected by the product Engineering Design K. market. you will get a clearer idea of the problem your design must solve. maintain. solution-independent statement of the problem to be solved • Constraints: limitations imposed on the design by the client. You keep track of the formulation of the problem through a document called a project definition. also.
engineers translate requirements into specifications as part of the design process. You don’t write the document first and then create the design. and engineering specifications are just a few. – The Project Definition is a living document that parallels the creation of the design itself. your project definition will become more detailed.• Requirements and Specifications: the needs that the users and stakeholders want the design to fulfill. Craig 91 . – The Project Definition goes by a variety of names in the engineering workplace: user requirements. As you learn more about users. and the measurable values associated with those requirements. This document evolves along with your research and testing. Engineering Design K. specific. and focused. functional requirements and constraints.
but it will not actually describe the solution. your project definition will grow. how it will work.– As you add detail. It will describe what the solution must do. and the supervisors can evaluate the design. allowing others to make revisions and improvements. or too costly. Craig 92 . Engineering Design K. – A project definition’s main function is to describe the purpose of the design. even as you eliminate requirements and specifications that prove irrelevant. – Members of the design team need a project definition to help them evaluate as they are designing. The bottom line is that your final project definition will contain all the requirements of your design and the metrics for measuring success. unnecessary. Also the project definition typically outlives the design team. and how a user will interact with it so that the team. the client. – The project definition must be solution-independent.
and regulatory approval. – Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement • Phrase your mission statement in a solution-independent way to help you ascertain the problem. cost.• Mission Statement – A good mission statement not only succinctly summarizes the problem to be solved. usually imposed by the client and related to scope. but also provides direction and tells others what you are trying to accomplish. Craig 93 . • Emphasize measureable objectives that allow you to determine whether you have accomplished your goal. Engineering Design K. • Constraints – Almost all projects are subject to constraints. It should not go into detail about the features of the solution.
Craig 94 . • Users and Stakeholders – Composed of all those who are effected by a product’s success or failure. • Primary Users: end users. or maintaining the product. If no clear rationale is stated. – If a client imposes constraints. review them carefully to understand why the client thinks they are essential. talk to your client about eliminating the constraint. Engineering Design K. users and stakeholders fall into the following categories. the client. and anyone else who makes important decisions about buying. using.– Constraints cannot be changed and therefore limit the design space you explore.
service. sales people. Engineering Design K. Secondary users also include those who will interact with the product at some point: installers. • Other Stakeholders: regulatory agencies. and others. etc. community organizations and others who are somehow affected by the design and have an interest in its functioning. marketing. repair people. • Requirements – As a designer.). Craig 95 .• Secondary Users: those employed in the client’s various departments (manufacturing operation. one of your major tasks is to uncover the requirements of your users and stakeholders who are not always aware of or able to articulate them.
Asking clients the reason for each requirement will help you understand their thinking. install. etc. – Identifying the Requirements of Secondary Users • Assessing the requirements of secondary users – those who manufacture. analysis of competitive products. Engineering Design K. – Indentifying the Requirements of Primary Users • You can identify the requirements of primary users through observation. maintain. researching on-line and print sources. See diagram on next page. interviews. Craig 96 . and user profiles and scenarios. – involves using the same techniques you would employ to assess end users’ requirements.– Identifying Client Requirements • Face-to-face meetings provide a good opportunity to identify client requirements. sell the product. service.
Craig 97 .Understanding User Requirements Engineering Design K.
measurable terms to evaluate whether their design satisfies those requirements. – As you develop the project definition. they must turn them into precise. There are literally hundreds of public and private organizations that set standards and regulations.g. Virtually every engineering design has to meet a set of standards or regulations. Craig 98 . you will be able to gather the information necessary to develop specifications with metrics. • Specifications – Once engineers identify user and stakeholder requirements. Engineering Design K. e. easy to clean.. – Metrics must be used even for requirements that are difficult to quantify.– Identifying Community Requirements • Most engineering designs affect the broader community in some way.
Craig 99 .Checklist for Drawing up a List of Requirements Engineering Design K.
• Project Name • Client • Team Members • Date • Version • Mission Statement Engineering Design K. The format you choose should be easy to update as the design evolves and should help designers see the relationship between requirements and the specifications that measure success.• Format for the Project Definition – There are a variety of formats used to document a design. Craig 100 . – Here is the format we will use.
– There is not necessarily a one-to-one correspondence between requirements and specifications. One requirement may have four specifications.• Constraints • Users and Stakeholders • Table with two columns: one column showing the requirements and a second column showing the corresponding specifications. and conversely. Engineering Design K. one specification might involve two different requirements. Craig 101 .
Craig 102 .Project Definition Example: Wheelchair Access Project Engineering Design K.
Engineering Design K. Craig 103 .
the mission statement will become sharper. Keep a copy of each version of your project definition in your project notebook. These elements drive and control the design throughout the process.• Closing Comments – You will produce several versions of the project definition. and detailed than the previous one. the list of requirements will expand and become more refined. – As your project definition evolves. Craig 104 . the constraints may change. Engineering Design K. each more complete. focused. rather than according to users. – As your research and testing evolve. you will want to eliminate repetition of requirements by grouping them according to their related functions. – The importance of establishing clear design requirements and specifications cannot be overemphasized. and you will put specifications (with metrics) next to requirements.
Generating & Learning From Alternatives • The topics we will discuss are: – Brainstorming – Generating Alternative Design Concepts – Creating Mockups – Observing and Interviewing Users – Organizing User Feedback – Testing Performance – Iterating the Process Engineering Design K. Craig 105 .
an activity that continues in one form or another throughout the design process. build on each other’s ideas. and then choose the solution that combines the best of those ideas.• Introduction – Once you have begun to research and define the problem. Craig 106 . – We speak of solutions – plural! Not just one solution! – Why bother to generate multiple solutions. it’s time to start generating solutions. Engineering Design K. when the best one may seem obvious to you? Here are a few reasons: • To stimulate your team’s creativity – It’s the most important reason for generating alternatives because it allows team members to approach the problem from different directions.
you learn early which ideas work and which don’t. revising. or added. By testing. Ask users general questions about their needs. Engineering Design K. specific answers. eliminating. changed. adding.• To make the design process more efficient – Focusing on one design concept is like putting all your eggs in one basket. which elements of your designs best meet those needs. Show them several designs and let them compare them. and which features should be eliminated. Craig 107 . and you’ll get more helpful. • To narrow down users’ preferences and more efficiently assess their needs – Giving users several solutions to test helps you better understand what they need. and they’ll tell you what they think they like. and refining several alternatives.
you can use the best features of each. if one alternative is easy to use and another is more durable. Engineering Design K. you can figure out how to incorporate features of both into the same product. – Work Together on each alternative and then take the best elements of each to produce your final design.• To improve the design’s ability to achieve multiple objectives – By generating a variety of alternatives that incorporate different functions. For example. Craig 108 .
designers use the tried-and-true technique of brainstorming. when you want to be open to as many perspectives as possible. Brainstorming involves generating a large number of ideas quickly. In later stages. Engineering Design K. a process which sets off a chain reaction of creative thinking.• Brainstorming – Good engineering design requires creativity in developing solutions to problems. brainstorming is effective when you need to generate alternatives or possible modifications for a design or when you get stuck at any point in the design process. – Brainstorming is especially useful at the start of the design process. Craig 109 . But our own ingrained attitudes can interfere with our ability to think creatively. To get beyond these restrictive attitudes.
The secrets of success are being generous with your own ideas and picking up on others’ half-baked ideas.– The goal of brainstorming is to generate as many ideas as possible in a limited amount of time. Engineering Design K. • Evaluating the clusters. Craig 110 . – Ground Rules for Brainstorming Sessions • Defer Judgment – Making quick judgments tends to block our flow of ideas and dampens the spirit of the session. making other people hesitate to contribute their ideas. • Build on the Ideas of Others – You don’t need a whole idea to keep things going. – Two other steps usually follow it: • Clustering brainstormed ideas according to similarities.
Craig 111 . primitive. improbable. Convey that seemingly off-topic idea in a way that relates. • Encourage Wild Ideas – Get radical. unrealistic. impractical. and even dangerous in your thinking. the facilitator must remind participants to let the first person get his or her idea out before going on to the next person. Unplanned force-fits can be a delightful surprise. Your wild ideas are a great way to spark solutions in fellow brainstormers. Engineering Design K. • Stay Focused on the Topic – Avoid straying too far afield.• One Conversation at a Time – To keep the energy flowing and frustration at a minimum.
Craig 112 . someone has to lead them. • The facilitator needs to: Engineering Design K. • Draw It! – A picture is really is worth a thousand words when it comes to help explaining a concept and recording it in detail. Pictures also allow you to see connections between ideas that words may not reveal. Be sure you sketch each idea and number your sketch.• Quantity Not Quality – Your goal is to generate as many ideas as possible. not just “good” ideas. – Facilitator Guidelines • Brainstorms don’t just happen.
make only positive statements. – Keep the ideas flowing. – Keep encouraging participants to sketch their ideas. – Keep participants aware of the rules and stay focused. – Record ideas. Maintain a positive attitude. Repeat or rephrase the problem statement if necessary. Engineering Design K.– Keep a high energy level at the session. – Make sure all ideas are recognized. If the problem is complex. Each idea should be accompanied by a sketch. – Write a one-sentence problem statement on the board. Assign a number to each idea and sketch. – Keep the session light and spirited. Encourage out-of-the-box thinking. break the concept into simple parts and brainstorm each one. Craig 113 .
but some common ways are to group them according to user requirements. Engineering Design K. • There is no one right way to cluster ideas. the next step is to cluster them so that you can see connections. cost. and functionality. Craig 114 .– Clustering the Brainstormed Ideas • Because it is difficult to work with a long list of ideas. you will discover a wealth of ways to solve design problems. • The purpose of clustering is to choose categories that will help you generate design concepts. • As you cluster and recluster. to name a few.
these criteria focus on cost and feasibility. eliminating those that do not meet your established criteria. Discuss each idea in the clustered brainstorm list. – At this point you should be developing at least three design alternatives that are significantly different enough to give you good information in testing. – To develop alternative design concepts: • Decide on the criteria you will use to choose which brainstormed ideas to keep and to eliminate.• Generating Alternative Design Concepts – Now you are ready to convert the most promising ideas into alternative design concepts that you can test on users and/or in a laboratory or other controlled environment. Craig 115 . Generally. Engineering Design K.
Or. To decide how different ideas can be mixed and matched to create alternatives. Discuss each idea until the team reaches a consensus on whether to keep or eliminate it. and the other has the alternatives. have each team member vote for a designated number of ideas in each cluster. The cells in the matrix contain the ideas you have chosen and others that may have emerged. • Create an Alternatives Matrix. have each team member rank each idea in a cluster on a numerical scale. Craig 116 . Or. Engineering Design K. create a matrix: one axis has the major design requirements.• Choose the best remaining ideas.
By using a fast. This helps clarify what you want the mockup to do and look like. • Include enough detail so users can perform (or simulate) the tasks you want to observe. Craig 117 . low-tech approach you can get your design concepts out to users quickly and learn about their ideas and preferences early on without wasting time in fine details that may be eliminated after the first round of user testing. • Keep your mockups low-tech.• Creating Mockups – Mockups are objects that embody your concepts in a physical form. It will also help you communicate your mockup ideas. Engineering Design K. – Guidelines for creating mockups are: • Sketch your mockup ideas first.
• Include only the parts of the design that you want to learn about through testing. Focus on one component at a time in your mockups. – Even at that point you might revert to building relatively crude mockups to test ideas for particular components of the design. you will build prototypes that come closer to looking and operating like a final design. – Mockups are useful in testing your initial alternatives. Craig 118 . After you have settled on a single design conception. Engineering Design K.
pay close attention to their facial expressions. Go to locations where the product would logically be used. and friends. – As you observe and interview users. – Guidelines for Observing and Interviewing Users • Find appropriate users to observe and interview by asking your client.• Observing and Interviewing Users – Observations and in-person interviews are the most effective way to obtain user feedback. By observing users as they attempt to perform designated tasks using your mockups. instructors. which often convey more than words can. Keep in mind that the best designs grow out of user feedback. Engineering Design K. – Be objective. family. Craig 119 . and then interviewing them. you can discover how your mockups meet or fail to meet their needs.
– Tasks – Give users tasks with your mockups to observe how easily they’re able to use the various features.• Make an appointment. The guide is composed of the following: – Introduction – Team members. This provides a consistent methodology. This allows you and your users to prepare and schedule time for the session. purpose of product. • Write an interview / observation guide. background information. ensuring that all members of the team ask the right questions and that all users perform the same tasks and answer the same questions. Craig 120 . Engineering Design K. – Demographic Information – Knowing about respondents helps you place them into user groups as well as tell you their knowledge of and experience with your product.
Ask users to explain their responses. • Resist the temptation to defend your design alternative or explain the rationale behind a feature to your users.• After observing users. Word questions precisely. if possible. Engineering Design K. Take careful notes. ask what they like and dislike about the alternatives and whether they have suggestions for improving them. Give users a scale of numerical responses. Craig 121 . Your goal is to gather as much information as possible from users – not to convince them of a design’s merit.
Engineering Design K. – Second Column: list future design opportunities suggested by the observations. The demographic information you elicited from each user will help you do this sorting.• Guidelines for Organizing User Feedback – Organize information from observations. • Sort your observation notes by user groups. noting any user difficulties. Craig 122 . – First Column: list the observations. • Tabulate your results for each user observation using a three-column format. – Third Column: list directions the team should take to follow up on those opportunities.
– Be sure to carefully record and date test results and to include them in your project notebook.– Organize information from interviews. you should never refer to performance testing as user testing. – Be aware that performance testing complements. • Testing Performance – In addition to user testing. user testing. • Organize the quantitative responses (numerical ratings and rankings) and the qualitative responses (users’ explanatory comments) responses in one or more tables. but does not replace. Craig 123 . Your product needs to work for users! Engineering Design K. and that in your written documentation and oral presentations. you may need to test your alternative designs in a laboratory or other controlled environment to discover whether they work at all.
• Iterating the Process – Although you may have figured out a design direction after your initial round of testing. – Design is an Iterative Process! Engineering Design K. Craig 124 . you still must decide on the components of that design by continuing to generate and test alternatives.
Choosing a Design Concept • The topics we will discuss are: – Using the Results of User and Performance Testing – Using Design Requirements and Specifications – Creating Decision Matrices – Talking to the Client – Interviewing Experts and Testing More Mockups Engineering Design K. Craig 125 .
– Of course. – You will certainly want to continue generating alternative components for those features. Engineering Design K. Craig 126 .• Comments: – Generating and testing alternatives will yield a great deal of information that you can use to decide on a single direction for your final design. that does not mean that you know the details of every feature of the design you propose. but all that will be done within the context of the design concept you have settled on. – How do you decide on the key elements of the design concept that will be the focus of your further work on the project? – These notes discuss several methods for making those decisions. and testing them. mocking them up.
36 • Trackball: 2. Craig 127 .12 • ATM: 2. with 5 being the best) were: • Touch Screen: 4. a team designing the interface for an electronic kiosk to give shoppers information on restaurants and entertainment observed users operating three mockups: a touch screen.• Using the Results of User and Performance Testing – If you have organized the results of your design concept clearly. – For example. Engineering Design K. aspects of your design direction will leap out at you. trackball. the team picked the touch screen.15 – Because their research had already shown that the three methods were comparable in price and durability. The average scores (on a scale of 1 to 5. and keypad.
price.03 • Type: 3. test results do not clearly favor one alternative feature.– Sometimes. Craig 128 . Engineering Design K.55 – Users rated searching by location and price nearly the same.09 • Price: 4. and type (of entertainment or food). because doing so stayed within the client’s budget and offered users several search methods. – In this case. When the kiosk team presented users with three alternative methods for searching by location. they got these results: • Location: 4. with searching by type not far enough behind to be eliminated. the team decided to incorporate all three search methods into their design concept.
• A team designing a structure that would help their client organize the papers on her desk relied on the project definition to help them decide on their design concept. – Here is an example. the team turned to their project definition. so they combined the best elements of all three alternatives in an original way and presented a design that delighted their client. Craig 129 .• Using Design Requirements and Specifications – Your project definition is another important tool in helping you choose the main features of your design. • When no clear favorite emerged after testing their three alternative mockups. which revealed that the client wanted an individually tailored product not offered in an office supply catalogue. The team realized that their alternatives were all similar to catalogue products. Engineering Design K.
Engineering Design K. – A simple and effective decision matrix lists the relevant design requirements along one axis and the alternative features along another.• Creating Decision Matrices – A decision matrix can help you sort through multiple alternatives and requirements to determine which features of your alternative designs to use. – Here is an example. • A team designing a stage in a church generated two alternatives – a ramp and an electric lift – to accommodate users with walkers and wheelchairs. Craig 130 . – Each alternative is then “scored” (using plus and minus signs or some other method) with respect to each requirement.
Alternatives Requirements Engineering Design K. Craig 131 . • With these conflicting views in mind.• Many church members favored a ramp because they worried that a lift would strain the church budget. Other members thought the ramp would take up too much room and that a lift would be easier to use. the team drew up the decision matrix shown.
the decision matrix helped the team decide that the lift was a better option because it satisfied more requirements. based on interviews with church members. they could have created a weighted decision matrix to help them evaluate the alternatives (see next page). even though it is less effective in meeting the other requirements.• Although most church members favored the ramp. In that case. – The decision matrix also could help the team evaluate alternatives against requirements that are not equally important. the team might conclude that if the cost is the driving requirement. a ramp is the better choice. • Using this matrix. Then they could double-check their assumptions about priorities with the client. Engineering Design K. • For example. that cost was the most important requirement. Craig 132 . the team may have decided.
Craig 133 .Alternatives Engineering Design Requirements K.
but will help you eliminate alternatives. a matrix might not lead you to a single answer. • While the matrix enabled the team to decide against full menus. • User testing on the electronic kiosk showed that some users wanted extensive information. Craig 134 . such as restaurant menus.– Sometimes. the other two alternatives fared equally well. • To figure out a solution. – Here is an example. Engineering Design K. the design team created a matrix (shown on the next page) to measure three alternatives against three requirements. which would mean more time and money to build and maintain the database and possibly cause long lines at the kiosk as users pondered their choices.
Alternatives Requirements Engineering Design K. Craig 135 .
Engineering Design K. it’s important to seek input from your client.• Talking to the Client – When you have tough decisions to make about your design. • The deciding factor was cost. especially those involving costs. Craig 136 . the kiosk team had to decide. A meeting with the client confirmed that she / he was willing to spend the money required to enter information on featured dishes into the database. who can tell you what he / she is willing to spend and what is most important. • After eliminating complete menus. whether to list a restaurant’s featured dishes or just the type of food and the address. based on inconclusive user testing.
Craig 137 . college faculties.• Interviewing Experts and Testing More Mockups – The last two methods for making decisions about your design concept involve interviewing experts and testing more mockups on users or in controlled settings. – Interviewing Experts • When you don’t know enough to measure how well certain features meet all relevant requirements. you can go back to users or the lab with new mockups that embody the alternatives you are stuck between. – Testing More Mockups • Lastly. seek out experts. • For example. the team designing the access to the church stage sought the advice of experts on handicap accessibility in rehabilitation institutes. Engineering Design K. and companies that make equipment for people with disabilities.
• The purpose of a FMEA is to identify every possible way in which the product could fail and to assess the potential effects of that failure on the product and any people interacting with it. Once all the risks have been identified and understood. it is important to assess the risks related to the product being designed. These risks can be addressed through careful project planning and monitoring with tools such as Gantt and RAM charts and by creating contingency plans. Craig 138 .Failure Modes and Effects Analysis • Periodically throughout the life of a project. – Other risks are product focused. Engineering Design K. One useful tool for analyzing the product risks is called Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). designers can determine how to change the product. – Some risks are project focused and often have to do with schedules and budgets.
• To create a FMEA Table. List each way the part could fail (Failure Mode). The column titles in the table appear in parentheses after each step. Craig 139 . List the parts of the product (Item).• A table format is used to capture the information gathered during the FMEA. Different companies vary in their approach. Below are questions to consider to help you think of how a part might fail: • What are the potential manufacturing defects? • How might the product fail due to normal wear and tear? • What are the steps the user is supposed to take when using the product? What mistakes might the user make? • How would users with various limited abilities interact with the product? What problems might they encounter? • How might the product likely be misused or abused? Engineering Design K. but the basic function is the same. 1. 2. It is helpful to group these parts in their subassemblies if they exist. follow these steps.
4. Some failures might be immediately obvious while others might not be noticed until they in turn cause greater damage. 7. Describe the effect of the failure on the part itself (Failure Effect on Component). What happens if the user continues to use the product? 6. Severity Values (user / device): • 1 = mild annoyance / visual but not functional defect • 2 = really irritated / damaged part. still functional • 3 = minor injury / part requires replacement • 4 = serious injury / device requires replacement Engineering Design K. Provide a severity rating for the failure (Severity). Describe how that failure is detected (Failure Detection Method). Does the part still function? Is it weakened? Will it need to be replaced? 5. Craig 140 . Describe how that failure impacts the overall product (Failure Effect on System). Explain the cause of each failure (Failure Cause).3. It is important to determine the relative values of the ratings in advance to maintain consistency.
10.000 uses • 3 = 1 in 100 uses • 4 = 1 in 10 uses 9. Describe the action to be taken in response to this potential failure (Action). you might be able to design it out. Provide a frequency rating (Failure). Determine the part failure score (Part Failure Score).8. Multiply the severity rating by the frequency rating.000 uses • 2 = 1 in 1. Based on the results of your analysis. you may be able to combine them to address as many failures as possible with the minimal number of changes. Depending on the failure. By understanding all of the failures that require design changes. Higher scoring items must be addressed. Craig 141 . How frequently do you expect this type of failure to occur? Frequency Values: • 1 = 1 in 10. Engineering Design K. The use of labels and clear instructions might be required. determine what actions should be taken to improve your product. Low scoring items may be able to be ignored – no action required.
particularly fellow designers. • Design Reviews are an important way for a team to get an informed outside perspective and to keep the project on track. • The purpose of the review is to ensure that the design meets client and user requirements. identify problems. • A typical review begins with the team briefly discussing client and user requirements. Craig 142 . The reviewers’ role is to evaluate the design critically: ask questions.Conducting Design Reviews • A Design Review is a scheduled. and make suggestions. if a single design concept has not been decided on). Engineering Design K. systematic evaluation of a design by knowledgeable people. The team then presents its design (or design alternatives.
Craig 143 . • In presenting your design for review. Engineering Design K. Each review helps designers to rethink and refine their concepts. • Instead. your goal is to encourage them: – to uncover possible problems in the design – to offer suggestions for improvement – to help ensure that you have followed the design process rigorously with your client and users constantly in mind • Don’t deflect criticisms and suggestions! Don’t attempt to justify what you have done! • Use the Design Review as an opportunity to ensure quality control at a point in the process when it’s not too late to correct mistakes. your goal is not to persuade the reviewers that it is wonderful.• Design Reviews are often done at several points during a project.
• Similarly. and and/or minimize the effect of these hazards. – Use visual aids. – Be brief. guard against. Present background information as needed. Craig 144 . as needed. Designs have to be reliable and safe. – Outline the key points you will make. you are obligated to eliminate. all designs have safety hazards. As an engineer. Focus on the design itself.• Preparing the Review – Design Reviews usually last 20-30 minutes. Engineering Design K. • Reliability has to do with the likelihood of the design and its subsystems to fail. – Prepare an analysis of failure modes and effects. Since all systems and subsystems fail at some point. your job as an engineer is to delay that failure and minimize its impact.
Craig 145 . offer suggestions. – Ask for oral feedback. Emphasize that you are interested in getting suggestions and criticisms of all aspects of the design. – Assign responsibilities. Engineering Design K. so reviewers need not confine their comments to your specific questions. Ask general questions about the strengths and weaknesses of the design as well as specific questions about areas that particularly concern you. and make criticisms during and after the presentation of the design.– Prepare a sheet of questions that you want reviewers to answer about your design. Who will speak and in what order? Who will take notes? • Presenting the Review – Distribute a questionnaire. Encourage reviewers to ask questions.
Probe for more information. Engineering Design K. • Have a meeting as soon as possible to discuss the feedback. Give your reviewers a chance to help you think of possibilities you may have missed. – Record all comments. Craig 146 .– Respond to questions . Listen carefully and write down reviewers’ comments and suggestions. criticisms. • Organizing Feedback from the Review – After the design review is over. both written and oral. • Have a team member categorize all feedback. and suggestions nondefensively. Make decisions about how you will act on the feedback from reviewers. you will need to organize and discuss the feedback you received in order to decide how best to apply it to your design.
• Be on the lookout for latent defects. What. • Ask questions about the design’s reliability & safety issues. Why. Where? Probe the how and why of the design.• Offering Useful Feedback as a Reviewer – As a reviewer. Present scenarios for the product’s use that may uncover a defect they have not anticipated. • Ask basic questions that get the designers to explain their design: Who. Engineering Design K. You don’t have to be an expert to offer criticisms and suggestions. How. Keep in mind the following guidelines: • Say what you like and dislike. your job is to offer constructive feedback and probing questions that will help your fellow designers improve their design. These are design flaws that are not obvious and that may surface during the product’s use. When. Get the designers to explain their design clearly and carefully. Craig 147 .
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