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Version 11.

Module 4
Equipment Design

Training Manual

PLEASE NOTE: AVEVA has a policy of continuing product development: therefore, the information contained in this document may be subject to change without notice. AVEVA MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. While every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this document, AVEVA shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material.

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Contents
Session

1................................................................ 1-1

The Principles of Building. .......................................................................... 1-1 Objectives . ................................................................................................ 1-1 Must Know Points ...................................................................................... 1-1 Equipment................................................................................................. .1-2 Primitives ................................................................................................... 1-2 PDMS Names ............................................................................................ 1-3 Creating Equipment ................................................................................... 1-3 Default Axes............................................................................................... 1-4 Equipment and Primitive Orientation.......................................................... 1-4 Creating Primitives ..................................................................................... 1-5 Setting Attributes........................................................................................ 1-5 Size Attributes (Primitives) ......................................................................... 1-5 Positioning ................................................................................................. 1-6 Positioning Using P-Points....................................................................... 1-10 Orientation ............................................................................................... 1-10 Orientate>Axes ........................................................................................ 1-11 Orientate>Rotate...................................................................................... 1-12 Orientate>Primitive>Point ........................................................................ 1-12 Other PDMS Attributes............................................................................. 1-13 LEVEL Attributes...................................................................................... 1-13 Obstruction Attributes............................................................................... 1-13 PDMS Units ............................................................................................. 1-14 Exercise 1 ................................................................................................ 1-15 Correcting positional errors ...................................................................... 1-16 Correcting Orientation errors.................................................................... 1-16 Summary of design errors........................................................................ 1-17

Session

2................................................................ 2-1

Building the Basic Structure ....................................................................... 2-1 Objectives .................................................................................................. 2-1 Must Know Points ...................................................................................... 2-1 Exercise 2 .................................................................................................. 2-2 What You Will Be Expected to Do!............................................................. 2-2 Checking the Slab Position ........................................................................ 2-5 Savework ................................................................................................... 2-5 Exercise 3 .................................................................................................. 2-6 Exercise 4 .................................................................................................. 2-9 Copying Equipment.................................................................................... 2-9 Exercise 5 ................................................................................................ 2-11

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Contents

Creating Heat Exchangers........................................................................2-11 Exercise 6.................................................................................................2-12 Creating Equipment from individual primitives ..........................................2-12 BUILDING/E1301 .....................................................................................2-12 Primitives ..................................................................................................2-14 Exercise 7.................................................................................................2-15 BUILDING /C1101 ....................................................................................2-15 Exercise 8.................................................................................................2-16 BUILDING /D1201 ....................................................................................2-16 Appendix A The PDMS Primatives . ...........................................................3-1 Appendix B Simple Plant . ..........................................................................4-1

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Session
The Principles of Building

This module includes all the fundamentals of Equipment building including positioning and orientation both by attribute manipulation manually, but also using graphical picking which also introduces event driven graphics. The fundamentals learnt here are projected later for piping design so its worth taking time to make sure trainees fully understand all the topics.

Objectives
At the end of this session, you will able to: Create equipment elements. Know how to create, position, orientate and connect primitives. Know how to modify elements and manipulate attributes. Understand the principles of graphical hits to modify elements Manipulate the graphical representation of elements.

Must Know Points


The following points need to be understood by the trainees

How to create equipment and primitive elements. How to manipulate and check position and orientation of the above. How to manipulate graphical representation and set obst and lev attributes of primitives.

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Equipment
Equipment items consist of a collection of PDMS primitives, arranged in such a way that they physically model the real life object to some degree. When you build equipment, you need to decide how you want to model the object, just as you would if you were building a plastic model. The only difference in PDMS terms is that you model the object at full size rather than working to a scale.

Primitives
In order to build an equipment item, you first need to decide what types of primitives to use. As an example, the simple storage vessel shown below could be constructed from a cylinder for the main body, two dishes for the ends, two boxes for the support legs and a nozzle for the piping connection.

All of these building blocks are selected from the list of available PDMS primitives. These are described in detail in Appendix A. At the same time as you choose the primitives you want to use you must also consider the position of the equipment origin. Once you have decided on how you want to represent a equipment, that is, what primitives you want to use, the next stage is to begin creating each primitive in turn. There are other facilities in PDMS, which allow you to model items in varying degrees of detail for different levels of viewing; we will look at these later in the session. The following topics are selected from the Design>Equipment bar menu, as shown below or from their submenus. The command path will be shown i.e. Position>Explicitly (At).

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PDMS Names
Any element in the PDMS database may be named. Names enable you to identify elements and to produce meaningful reports from the database. Which elements you attach names to is a matter of choice, but in general you would be expected to name all major design items such as Equipment, Nozzles, Pipes and Valves. Conventionally, for equipment, you would probably name the main equipment and all of its nozzles. Nozzles usually carry the equipment name plus a suffix to identify the specific nozzle. For example nozzle 1 of an equipment called /E1101 would probably be called /E1101-N1 or /E1101/N1 or simply /E1101/1. Whatever names you apply, the name convention is usually defined in the project specification used for the project you are working on. It is probable that the project will have autonaming rules set up for items such as nozzles so that the project conventions are followed in every detail. Attaching names to elements may be done in a number of ways. If you are using the PDMS applications menus, most creation forms offer you an opportunity to name the element you are creating. If you forget to name an element, or want to change a name, then you can use the Modify>Name. . . menu to change or set a new name. All of the application forms allow you to input a name without the preceding slash (/) character. This is because the system adds this automatically during the command processing.

Creating Equipment
When you want to create new elements in the system, you can either use the Equipment application or commands at the command line. Creating elements using the equipment applications can be done in several ways. For equipment itself, you can either use the Create>Equipment menu to create an empty equipment element, or you can select one of the standard items by selecting the Create>Standard option on the bar menu. The Create>Equipment option presents you with a form for the name, position and certain other attributes while the Create>Standard option takes you through a series of steps, which allow you to build a parameterised equipment based on a specification of standard equipment types. During the course, you will use both the Create>Equipment and the Create>Standard options.

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The Axis System


After you have decided how to represent an equipment item with the appropriate primitives, you need to consider both the orientation of the equipment itself and that of its primitives. PDMS models are built in a 3D world, which allows you to position and orientate any element. The axis system used in the 3D world relates to compass directions, as you would expect in conventional plant design. Just as you use positions such as NORTH4500 EAST3000 UP8000 you can also use orientations like NORTH 45 EAST or UP 45 SOUTH 15 DOWN. In PDMS, you need only give the first letter of these directions, i.e. N, S, E, W, U, D, and you do not usually need spaces between the different co-ordinate directions; thus N37.5 E27.3 U is a valid direction.

Default Axes
In PDMS, each element has a default orientation. If you refer to the primitives shown in Appendix A, you will see that they all lie in a particular orientation with respect to the axis system labelled X, Y and Z. These axes relate to the World co-ordinates as follows:
X = EAST Y = NORTH Z = UP -X = WEST -Y = SOUTH -Z = DOWN Z Y X

Equipment and Primitive Orientation


When you plan the layout of your equipment, you will need to make some decisions about orientation. The first major decision will be to fix equipment north, that is, where north is in relation to the equipment drawing. When you are considering this, it is usually best to try and build the equipment in such a way that it does not need to be orientated within the Zone. Primitives like boxes should be built such that their X, Y and Z lengths are aligned with the default axis system not built in such a way that they need to be rotated from the default axis system. Obviously, some primitives will need to be rotated, but if you try to keep these to a minimum then any subsequent changes to the equipment will be easier.

Creating Primitives
After creating an equipment item, you need to know how to create primitives. Using the Equipment application, you can select from the list of primitives given on the Create>Primitives menu. Simply selecting the correct option creates each of the primitives in this section. For example, if you select a box, the box creation form is shown on the screen and you are invited to enter the appropriate attributes. When you have filled in the form, selecting OK creates the new box.

Setting Attributes
All new elements may need to have some or all of their attributes changed from their defaults. The four main ones on a cylinder, for example, are: HEIGHT DIAMETER

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POSITION ORIENTATION A new cylinder has, by default, zero length and diameter, so its HEIGHT and DIAMETER attributes need to be set in order to give it size. After setting the size, you also need to set position and orientation attributes. There are other PDMS attributes that may be changed. We will now look at the different ways of setting or changing attributes.

Size Attributes (Primitives)


When you create new primitives using the equipment application, you automatically see what attributes need setting from the form and its associated picture. The form gadgets should be filled in with values for each of the attributes you want to set. When you select OK on the creation form, you will get the shape and size of primitive you want. If at any time you select the Cancel option, the process will be abandoned. Sometimes, after you have created a primitive, you will want to change an attribute. This is achieved by using the Modify>Attributes menu, and re-specifying the attributes you want to change. Click on the attribute you want to change and this will display a form with the current setting, which can now be modified. OK to return the value back to the Attributes menu. Remember to OK the Attributes form. Alternatively, you can re-specify any attribute directly from the command line by entering the attribute type and its required setting. For example, the command HEIGHT 200 sets the HEIGHT attribute for the current element to 200mm.

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Positioning

There are two ways of setting the position attribute, Explicitly or Relatively. Selecting Position>Explicitly (AT) will display the following two forms. The first is the Positioning Control form. The Positioning Control Form (event-driven graphics) is shown automatically whenever you need to pick positions in event-driven graphics mode. It lets you specify how your cursor picks are to be interpreted as positions. The form has two option lists from which you can make the required selections: Option 1 Pick Type: Lets you control the types of items to which cursor picking will respond. As you move the cursor over the 3D View, only items of the specified type will be highlighted as the cursor passes over them. The identities of highlighted elements are shown in the prompt bar, immediately above the graphical view. The choices are: Any: Element: Aid: P-point: Screen: Graphics: You can pick any element, aid, P-line or P-point. Picking is restricted to elements. Picking is restricted to drawing aids. Picking is restricted to P-points. Lets you pick anywhere in the graphical view, which identifies two coordinates. The third co-ordinate is taken from the current Working Plane. Lets you pick any graphical element (including aids, construction pins, etc.) that is displayed in the view. Determines how the position will be derived from subsequent cursor picks. The currently selected mode is shown in the prompt bar. Note: Most of these options are mainly applicable to Steelwork

P-line: Picking is restricted to structural P-lines.

Option 2 Pick Method:

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The choices are:

Snap: Distance:

Selects the snap point nearest to the cursor pick point. Applies the offset value, which you enter in the adjacent text-box (e.g. 500 gives a point 500 mm from the nearest snap point, measured towards the cursor position; 500 gives a point 500 mm from the nearest snap point, measured away from the cursor position).

Mid-Point:

Derives the mid-point between two snap points along a linear item

Fraction:

Subdivides the distance between two snap points into a specified number of parts (as entered in the adjacent text-box). Then derives the fractional position closest to the cursor pick (e.g. 6 gives a point at the nearest sixth of the distance along the line joining the first snap point to the second snap point).

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Proportion:

Derives the point whose proportional position between two snap points has been entered in the adjacent text-box (e.g. 0.25 gives a point 25% along the line joining the first snap point to the second snap point).

Intersect: Cursor:

Lets you to pick two lines (any directional items) or three planes and then derives their intersection point. Places the derived point exactly where the cursor picks on the element. The second form that is displayed is the Position At as shown below.

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This form lets you position an element either by typing in co-ordinates or by reference to the position of another design item. Use of the Datum option allows identification of the specific point on the element to which the position is to apply, or to a Designate Position. If you choose the latter, you will be prompted to pick the position on the element using any of the facilities provided by the Positioning Control form. To define a position explicitly, enter the required co-ordinates in the East/West, North/South and Up/Down boxes, using the option buttons to set the appropriate direction in each case. If necessary, use the, WRT (with respect to) box to identify the element whose co-ordinate system is to be used for the Position data. To define a position by reference to existing design items, use the Positioning Control form and the cursor to identify the required positions by picking them in a graphical view. If required, use the Lock buttons to fix the current co-ordinate along any axis. To position another element, use the Select menu options to change the focus of the form. Use the CE or Owner option if you have already navigated to the required item, or use the Pick or Pick Owner option and then pick the required item when prompted. The form will display the current position and you can then change any part of this by entering new values. The position you give will be relative to the Datum, which may be the Origin or a selected ID Design point. Selecting Position>Relatively (BY)... will display the following menu, as well as the Position control menu described earlier.

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The values you give will position the item by that amount relative to its origin.

Positioning Using P-Points


All the PDMS primitives have a number of predefined points on their surfaces known as p points. For example, a cylinder has three ppoints, P0 (the origin), P1 and P2 at either end. P0 is normally used for general positioning whereas P1 and P2 are used for connecting or positioning relatively.

P1
Origin of the element P0

Y X

P2

You can connect a ppoint on the current element to any other ppoint in the design. The act of connecting both positions and orientates the current element such that the two connected points are at the same position and facing each other.

Orientation
Like positioning, orientating items can be done in a number of ways. The application menus split orientation into different categories for safety reasons, so that you do not inadvertently orient the equipment when you expected to orient a primitive. The menus are split as follows:

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Orientate>Axes Orientate>Rotate Orientate>Primitive>Point

Orientate>Axes
This option is used for orientating Equipment and Primitives. Some elements such as SCTNs cannot be orientated using this form, and the system will signal an error and ignore the command.

The default orientation for any element is Y is North and Z is Up. With this orientation, the X axis can only be East. If we apply an orientation of Y is North 45 East, the Z axis is allowed to take its default value, so in effect we have done a single axis orientation.

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Orientate>Rotate
This option enables you to specify an angle of rotation about a given axis.

Orientate>Primitive>Point
This option allows you to orientate any of the ppoints of your current element.

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Other PDMS Attributes


When you create elements, the attributes you set are usually related to position, orientation and size. Taking Equipment as an example, there are a number of other attributes relating to the engineering data, which you may wish to set. These include: Function Design code Paint specification Insulation code Below equipment level, all primitives have the two extra attributes LEVEL and OBSTRUCTION. These relate to how PDMS sees the primitives both visually

LEVEL Attributes
The LEVEL attribute defines the range of detailing levels at which the primitive is visible. For example, if you build an equipment item, you can display the primitives in layers 1-3, the base in layers 5-7 and the nozzles in layer 8-10. An example of how this works in Steelwork is that you might draw the centreline representation between, say, levels 0 and 5, and the full section between levels 6 and 10. The levels visible in DESIGN determine the picture you see. The current visible, levels are given by the Settings>Graphics>Representation menu.

Obstruction Attributes
All primitives in PDMS have an OBSTRUCTION attribute which can be set to 0, 1 or 2. This is used by the clash-checking utility, to determine the types of clash that the element could be involved in. The three values have the following meanings: OBST = 0 OBST = 1 OBST = 2 Any clashes with this object will be ignored. The object is considered to be a soft obstruction. The object is a hard obstruction, that is, it is solid.

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PDMS Units
Although on this course you use only metric units, PDMS can deal with both metric and imperial units. By default, the numbers you input are assumed to be in metric units, but you can enter imperial units simply by changing the format of your input. For example:

Input 56IN 5.5FT 2.3M

Meaning 5 feet 6 in 5.5 feet 2.3 metres

By choosing the Settings>Units option, the following form will be displayed. Select from the list the units you require for both distances and bores.

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Exercise 1
Your trainer will have changed the small site that you were working on earlier, shown in Appendix B and introduced some errors. The object of this exercise is to correct these errors in a slightly messed up version to what it looked like previously. The first task is to go into design and display the site on the screen. When you have done this, you will see some of the errors immediately. A summary of the errors is given at the end of the exercise, if you get into difficulties. All the errors are in the equipment, so you will need to select the equipment application before you begin. The types of errors in the equipment fall into three categories. 1. Size errors Some primitives have one of their size attributes incorrectly set . Your task is to identify which attribute is wrong and correct it. Equipment or primitives are incorrectly positioned within the equipment, or the equipment itself is incorrectly positioned. Equipment or primitives are incorrectly orientated Hint - All equipment should be orientated on an orthogonal axis.

2. Positional errors 3. Orientation errors

The method used, to change size parameters is influenced by the type of shape you are changing. Quite appropriately, the different shapes have differing parameters to control their size. Cylinders have HEIGht and DIAMeter, whilst Boxes have XLENth, YLENth and ZLENth. The equipment application provides a facility for changing the attributes of an element under the Modify>Attributes menu. When you select this menu, a form appears with the current settings of each of the elements attributes. To change an attribute, all you need to do is to select the attribute you want to change. A second form will appear allowing you to input a new value. Select the OK button. Finally you must select the Apply gadget to send the new values back to the database.

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Correcting positional errors


The Equipment application allows you to manipulate equipment items and any of the primitive shapes below. The options which you will need to use, are the Position>Explicitly (AT) and Position>Relatively (BY) menus. (All other positioning menus belonging to the equipment application may be ignored for this exercise.)

Correcting Orientation errors


Correcting orientation errors is a similar procedure to that of positioning, except that the attribute that controls orientation is called the ORI attribute.
Orientation is based on an X, Y, Z axis system where Y points North X points East and Z points Up. Each different primitive in the database has a default orientation. For example, a cylinder stands vertically on one end. Its orientation is therefore defined by the orientation of the Z axis. If you were to query the orientation of a cylinder, and it was found to have an orientation of Y IS E AND Z IS N, then you could deduce that the cylinder is lying on its side with one of its end faces pointing north. The equipment application provides facilities for orientating three different levels of element Equipment, Sub-Equipment, and Primitives. Each of these sub categories has a choice of orientating by the Orientate>Axes or Orientate>Rotate options in the menu. The difference between the two is that the rotate option, allows the item to be rotated around a defined axis, whilst the Axes option requires two axes to be defined. (Two axes are sufficient to define all three).

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Summary of design errors


The following is a list of the database errors and their correct settings. /TANK1 Cylinder 1 Box 1 /TANK2 Cone 1 Cylinder 1, Pyra 2 Pyra 1 Nozzle /TANK2-N2 /PUMP1 DTOP should be 1500 East position should be 2600 WRT /* North position should be zero WRT EQUIP Up position should be the same as Pyra 2 Orientation of p1 should be east Elevation should be changed to up 350 WRT /* The drive shaft cylinder should be orientated with p1 pointing east. Dish 2 Should be connected to the motor cylinder Orientation should be Y is North and Z is UP POS should be at up 1500 YLEN should be 2850

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Session
Building the Basic Structure

This module includes all the fundamentals of Equipment building using practical exercises. Project 2000 started in this module is used in subsequent modules for other disciplines and principles. Basic input checking is also introduced here.

Objectives
At the end of this session, you will able to: Create and understand the top-level elements in a project situation. Understand the methods of element naming and conventions. Know how to input and check project 2000 civils base. Understand how to create a standard equipment item Understand the power of the copy function and its options. Create an equipment item from primitives and add in detail of obstruction and soft volumes. Appreciate some basic syntax for equipment design

Must Know Points


The following points need to be understood by the trainees
How to create equipment and primitive elements. How to manipulate and check position and orientation of the above. How to manipulate graphical representation and set OBST and LEV attributes of primitives.

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Exercise 2
In this exercise we use a real engineering design for our training course. Project 2000 is part of a real chemical plant, and it is built in the same way that you would expect to see any other plant. In building this model, you will be able to use general engineering techniques to create your design in PDMS

What You Will Be Expected to Do!


For the rest of the course, you will be using different PDMS techniques to build up a replica of Project 2000 (Stabilizer). As the course progresses, you will practice what you already know, and build on existing knowledge by introducing new subjects. Starting with an empty design database, you will begin by building various types of equipment items using several different techniques. These techniques will be explained by your tutor before you use them, or introduced in the form of exercises. The sequence of modelling will be as follows: 1) Basic Modelling 2) Equipment Modelling Building a Site, Zones and a site base. Building all of the equipment in the plant.

This is the first exercise in which you will actually create new elements. The object is to create the basic design structure in which you will build the training site. The training site (Project 2000) is a real plant design, which has been adopted for this course. The design package contains all of the drawings necessary to create a PDMS model of this site, and it will be used extensively during the rest of the course. For now, we will consider the initial design structure in which the design will sit. When you next enter DESIGN, you will find that the data structure is completely empty of elements. In fact your Trainer will have given you a new database in which to work. Project 2000 consists of equipment, steelwork, civils and pipes. In this module we will create the civil and equipment data of the project. From your knowledge of PDMS so far, you should know that these elements need to belong to a ZONE, and the ZONE needs to belong to a SITE. These are what you are about to build. The simplest data structure, which would allow you to build the model, is a single SITE, which owns just one ZONE. This could then accommodate all of the equipment, structures, civils and pipes without difficulty. The practical way of building the data structure is to place similar element types in individual zones so that they can be accessed in logical groups. For your design, the hierarchy should be something like; SITE /STABILIZER ZONE /EQUI.ZONE ZONE /PIPE.ZONE ZONE /STRU.ZONE ZONE /CIVIL.ZONE Containing all equipment items Containing all pipes Containing all structural items Containing the site base

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When you select the Create>Site

or Create>Zone options you will be shown a form on the screen. Enter the name of the site or zone you want to create. Select and appropriate zone purpose for each zone and select the OK gadget on the form. Although SITES and ZONES could be positioned, we recommend that at this stage, you leave them at the default position of North 0 East 0 Up 0. REMEMBER: To create any element, you need to be positioned at the correct level in the hierarchy - so before you can create a zone, you must have a site. Once you have built the basic hierarchical structure, you need to start building actual physical objects to make up your design. The first of these is a simple box to form a site base upon which all of the rest of your design will be positioned. In practice, the site base would probably be much more complicated than the simple slab that we are proposing, but for now, this will form the Civils for our project.

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The actual box, which will represent the site base, needs to be owned by an equipment element, which in turn belongs to a ZONE. For our purpose, we suggest that you create an equipment belonging to your civils zone. To do this, you will need to be using the Equipment application so that you can build an equipment item.

Create > Equipment You will need to calculate the POSITION of the Equipment Origin

Create Primitive - BOX

You will obviously need to calculate the length, width and position of the box.

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Checking the Slab Position You will need to know how to check that it is correct when you have built it. The method of checking is as follows. From the above diagram, you can see that each of the box edges is labelled with a single co-ordinate. You can check this co-ordinate by checking the position of the appropriate ppoint, which is associated with each of the edges. The PPOINTS for all elements are given in appendix A. Those for a box are reproduced as follows for convenience.

The PPOINTS are in the centre of each face apart from the origin of the box, P0, which is in the centre of the box. The way of checking the box PPOINTS is to use the Query>General menu and select the PPOINTS option to check each of the individual points in turn. By default, all querying will be done relative to the equipment, but you can select world, site or zone options as well. For this exercise, you should query the PPOINTS in World co-ordinates, to make sure that they are correctly positioned. Any mistakes made during this exercise need to be corrected. The errors you are likely to have made will only be in the areas of position, size or orientation, so you should try to use the appropriate menus to make corrections.

Savework
If you have just completed the exercise above, you will probably be keen to make sure that you save the results, so that you dont have to do it again. Any work that you do during a design session is automatically saved when you leave DESIGN The Savework option allows you to save the results of your efforts without having to leave DESIGN. Whenever you complete a significant amount of work, we recommend that you use Savework. Select Design>SaveWork from the main bar menu.

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Exercise 3
This exercise is designed to familiarise you with the Standard Equipment Application by building and positioning the set of four pumps: /P1501A, /P1501B and /P1502A, /P1502B. First, you will build the two pumps /P1501A and /P1501B using the following procedure: In DESIGN with the Equipment Application selected Make the Equipment Zone your Current Element (/EQUI.ZONE) Select Create> Standard from the bar menus Enter the name of the pump on the equipment creation form P1501A. From the CADC Standard Equip specification, select Standard Pumps Centrifugal Pumps Centreline Mounted Centreline mounted tangential outlet (PUMP005) Click the Properties button and enter the required values into the equipment properties form.

For this first exercise, (the purpose of which is to get used to the Equipment application), it is not necessary to work out the dimensions from the drawing, these are as follows: A=1390, B=510, C=154, D=155, E=340, F=180, G=545, H=70, J=135 When you have completed the dimensions, press OK the to accept the values. Select the Apply button to accept the choice and to position the equipment using the EDG.

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On the Positioning Control form that is appears in the top right of the screen, select the button and enter the position. positioning explicit W 312660 N 303300 U 100645 and press Apply to instruct the event (EDG) to position the equipment. When entering the (W) coordinate it will be (-E) in the positioning form.

Kill the Explicit Position Form using X, the Create Standard Equipment Form can be Dismissed using Dismiss. Having positioned the pump, the orientation of the pump needs rotating 180 degrees. On the form invoked from Orientate>Rotate set the angle to 180 degrees and check that the direction is set to U. Apply the form to set the new orientation and Dismiss the form.

Use the Modify>Attributes form and fill in the Equipment description and the attributes below and press the Apply button. FUNCTION PAINT SPEC (PTSPEC) INSCHEDULE REFLUX PUMP N/A N/A

The equipment attributes will be used later when you learn about database reporting. If you cannot think of an appropriate set of titles for these, we suggest the above. When you are satisfied, press the Apply and Dismiss the form. Note: Modify > Properties can be used at any time to change the sizes of the Equipment.

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We now need to name the nozzles and set the nozzle specification. With the Equipment Application Form set to Element probe the nozzles in turn to change their names and specification To set the nozzle name use the Modify>Name from the menu bar

To modify the nozzle size and rating, use Modify>Nozzle Specification to set the required Bore size and specification.

The nozzles are SUCTION DELIVERY P1501A-N1 P1501A-N2 100NB 50NB #300 RAISED FACE #300 RAISED FACE

Check that the PPOINTS for the Nozzles on the Pumps correspond with the Equipment Arrangement drawing. Remember this is done using Query > General, check the position of /P1501A-N1 P1.

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Exercise 4 Copying Equipment


Rather than repeat the previous exercise, we can use the copy facilities in the equipment application to create pump /P1501B.

The copy facilities can be accessed from the Create> Copy>Offset menu. (Providing of course that your current element is still /P1501A.) The following form will be displayed. By selecting the Offset menu you can choose that the offset is any of the following: from Element > to Element from Design Point > to Design Point from Pline > to Pline From Edge > to Edge or a mixture of each. The Object to copy can be CE, List or Pick. The to option can be CE or Rel. which means relative (the same position in the hierarchy as the copied item). Input the distance between the equipment origins. -1830mm in the OFFset X box, then hit Apply and Dismiss. Use Modify>Name to change the name of the pump to P1501B, and the nozzles to P1501B-N1 and P1501B-N2 Check that the PPOINT for the Suction Nozzle corresponds with the Equipment Arrangement drawing.

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Now create the other two pumps /P1502A and /P1502B. This time you will need to calculate the positions and dimensions from the drawing. Use the pump type - Centreline mounted with vertical offset nozzles (PUMP 006) Check that the PPOINTS for the Nozzles on the Pumps correspond with the Equipment Arrangement drawing.

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Exercise 5 Creating Heat Exchangers


After the Pumps, come the two stacked exchangers, /E1302A and /E1302B. These can be built using the standard equipment items with box supports. The standard option of heat exchangers, Dished and flanged with nozzles (EXCH 005) should be selected.

Remember to set the Exchanger Support before selecting Apply on the properties form. You should have no problems in building these two following the detail drawings provided. The standard supports should be used to construct the basic equipment. Built one exchanger and copy it for the other. The Nozzles should be rotated and the sizes checked. The support Sub Equipment should be copied to form the double height saddle on the lower exchanger E1302A. Check that the PPOINTS for the Nozzles on the Exchanger correspond with the Equipment Arrangement drawing.

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Exercise 6 Creating Equipment from individual primitives


The next building exercise is to build Reboiler /E1301 and stabilizer /C1101 using the primitives bar menu to create and set the primitive attributes.

BUILDING/E1301
When you build any equipment item in PDMS you need to make three decisions before you can begin. Firstly you need to define an origin point about which all of the primitives will be placed Secondly, you need to decide on the direction or orientation of the equipment Thirdly, you need to decide on the number and types of primitive to use. Find your drawing of /E1301. When you start designing this you would probably choose one of two origin points. Your first choice may well be the base of one of the support legs, so that you can position the exchanger on top of a steelwork member. Your second choice may well

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be along the centreline of the cylinders in line with nozzles N1 and N2. This second choice may not appear as logical as the first, except for the fact that this is the point dimensioned to on the plant layout drawing. This means you do not need to do any further calculations to find the equipment position. As for the orientation, there is little point in building the piece of equipment in one axis and then reorienting it after it is complete. You might as well build it in the correct orientation in the first place. Therefore, looking at the arrangement drawing, you will see that /E1301 lies with its flanged end to the south, and its dished end to the north. This is the orientation we will use for the primitives. The next task is to decide on how you would represent the exchanger in the PDMS model. If you refer to the drawing of /E1301 you will see that you could use quite a number of primitives to represent it. In fact, taking all of the individual cones, cylinders and boxes, we could use up to 31 primitives to represent this equipment. However by combining some of the primitives and not being so detailed, we can reduce this number to 13 or 14. Whenever you are looking at how to build a piece of equipment, you should always look at creating the minimum number of primitives, while still enclosing the overall obstruction. Another way of looking at this would be to imagine the sort of model that a plastic model maker would build for the same piece of equipment. The drawing below should give you an idea of how /E1301 should look.
3 13 4 12 9

14

Origin Point

11

10

Sequence of building To begin building the reboiler, first select Create>Equipment . . . from the Main menu. This will display a form, which allows you to input a name and position for the equipment. Give the name as E1301 and the position as N296950 W319150 U101470

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Primitives

Now select the Create>Primitives . . . form, as shown below, to build up your equipment.

From the Create option you may choose Solid or Negative, which means a primitive may represent a hole in a solid object. Select the other option button (displayed here as Nozzle) to select the type of primitive you wish to create.

Build the equipment to the dimensions shown on the drawings. Check that the PPOINTS correspond with the Equipment Arrangement drawing.

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Exercise 7 BUILDING /C1101


Now it is time to build /C1101. This is a similar exercise to the previous one, except you will be left on your own to complete it. There is just one complication in this exercise, that is the orientation and positioning of the angled nozzles. The sequence here is to set the height and direction in line with the centreline of the vessel and then use the Position>Move or Rotate menus to move to the offset position.

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Exercise 8 BUILDING /D1201


If time, create the last equipment in a similar manner to the two previous items. Otherwise, a macro to build the items can be read in using !!traRunMacro(d1201.pmlmac)

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Appendix
The PDMS Primatives
The BOX Element (BOX)

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The PDMS Primatives

The Cylinder Element (CYLINDER)


DIAM P1

Z P0

Y X HEIGH

P2

Special Attributes: DIAMETER HEIGHT Diameter Axial height

The origin of the cylinder is at the midpoint of the axis, the default orientation of the cylinder is with the axis on the Z-axis, and 3 P-points are as shown.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Cone Element (CONE)

DTOP

P1

Y X

HEIGH

P2 DBOTT

Special Attributes: DTOP DBOTTOM HEIGHT Diameter of top surface Diameter of bottom surface Axial height

The origin of the cone is at the mid-point of the axis, the z-axis lies along the longitudinal axis of the cone.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Dish Element (DISH)


P1

Z P0 P2 Y X

HEIGH

DIAM

RADIUS 0

RADIUS 70

Special Attributes: DIAMETER Diameter of base. HEIGHT Maximum height of dished surface above base. RADIUS If the radius is set to zero, then the Dish is drawn as a section of a sphere. If the radius is greater than zero, then the Dish is defined as half of an ellipsoid. The origin of the Dish is at the centre of the base, and its Zaxis lies along the normal to the base.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Circular Torus Element (CTORUS)

X P1 P2 ANGLE Y X P0 RINSI ROUTS

Special Attributes:

RINSI ROUTS ANGLE

Inside radius Outside radius Subtended angle (not allowed to be greater than 180 degrees)

The origin of the circular torus is at the centre of the circular arcs of radii RINSI and ROUTS, and is defined in the X-Y plane.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Snout Element (SNOUT)

DTOP P1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z . . . Y . . . . P0 . . Y . X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YOFF . XOFF.

HEIGH

P2

YOFF

DBOT

Special Attributes:

DTOP DBOTTOM XOFF YOFF HEIGHT

Diameter of top surface Diameter of bottom surface Displacement of axes along Xaxis Displacement of axes along Yaxis Perpendicular distance between surfaces

The origin of the Snout is at the midpoint of the line joining the centres of the top and bottom surfaces and the Zaxis is normal to the top and bottom surfaces.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Pyramid Element (PYRAMID)

P XTO

YTOP

XOFF YOF YBOT P XBOTT

Special Attributes:

XBOTT YBOTT XTOP YTOP HEIGH XOFF YOFF

Dimension of bottom parallel to Xaxis Dimension of bottom parallel to Yaxis Dimension of top parallel to Xaxis Dimension of top parallel to Yaxis Height between top and bottom surfaces Displacement of axes along Xaxis Displacement of axes along Yaxis

The origin of the Pyramid is at the midpoint of the line joining the midpoints of the top and bottom surfaces, and its Zaxis is normal to the top and bottom faces.

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The PDMS Primatives

The SlopeBottom Cylinder Element (SLCYLINDER)


P1 XTSH YTSH P1

Z P0 X HEIGH Y

Z P0 DIAM XBSH YBSH P2 P2

SOUTH ELEV.

WEST ELEV.

Special Attributes:

DIAME HEIGH XTSH YTSH XBSH YBSH

Diameter Height along axis, between P1 and P2 Inclination of top face to Xaxis Inclination of top face to Yaxis Inclination of bottom face to Xaxis Inclination of bottom face to Yaxis

The origin of the slopebottom cylinder is at the midpoint of the axis (midway between P1 and P2) and the default orientation is with the axis on the Zaxis.

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The PDMS Primatives

The Nozzle Element (NOZZLE)

HEIGH

Z P2

P0

P1 X

Nozzles are significant to the Design because they provide the link between an Equipment (which owns them) and a Pipe (Branch) which is connected to each one. It may be helpful to think of a nozzle as being a vessel attachment point.
Some of the Special Attributes of a Nozzle

TEMP PRES HEIG CREF

These information attributes can hold relevant Temperature and Pressure ratings. Controls the height of the Nozzle stem (assuming normal Catalogue conventions are followed. Connection Reference. Usually set automatically when a Branch is connected to a Nozzle. It stores the name of the connected Branch. If it is not set, the Nozzle is not connected to anything. Provides the physical description of the Nozzle directly from the Catalogue. If it is not set, then the Nozzle has no geometry. 12character text attribute describing the type of fluid handled by the Nozzle.

CATREF DUTY

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The PDMS Primatives

The Polyhedron Element (POHEDRON)

The Polyhedron is constructed from a number of Polygons (PGON) and has only the general attributes to all equipment members.

The Polygon Element (POGON)


The Polygon has the following attributes: Owner: owner reference Level: drawing level It is owned by the Polyhedron and consists of a number of Points (POINT) which define the Polygon. GROUT automatically draws a line from the last point of a polygon to the first point.

The polyhedron above is composed of seven polygons. Five of the points contain four points each and two of the polygons contain five points each. Each point will be defined three times in the design data.

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Appendix
Simple Plant

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Simple Plant

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Simple Plant

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Simple Plant

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