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Language Chapter 5 RESPONDING TO A NOVEL What are the narrative elements?

? They are the theme, the genre, the setting, the characters and the plot. What is the theme? Its broad idea, message, or lesson that is suggested by a text. The message may be about life, society, or human nature. Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas and may be implied rather than stated explicitly. What is the genre? It is a type or category of literature which is marked by rules of style, format, and /or content. Genres include: mystery, fantasy, epic poetry and so on. What is the setting? Where and when the story takes place, usually every scene has a change of setting. What are the characters? Fictional character: an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story); "She is the main character in the novel." They are people or animals that have roles in a work of art. What is the plot? Its a series of related events that unfolds in and makes up the story. It deals with what happens in the story. The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea; It is the sequence of events in a story or play. The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end. The short story

usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting. There are five essential parts of plot: What are the parts of the plot? Exposition includes setting, character, problems introduced and also known as The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed. Rising Action (Story starts to unfold, complications arise and suspense builds. This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events

between the introduction and climax)

Climax (Most interesting point, turning point or things that can either turn good or bad for the main character. The strongest part of the story; where the conflict builds up to the emotional peak. This is the

highest point of interest and the turning point of the story. The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not? )
Falling Action (Its when the story dies down and events and problem fall into place. The events and complications begin to resolve

themselves. The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and denouement)
Resolution (Everything makes sense, all falls into place and loose ends are wrapped up where the conflict is resolved. This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story) What is a book review? It tells what a book is about and the reviewers opinion of the book. Its an article that presents a critical evaluation of a text, performance, or

production (for example, a book, movie, concert, or video game). A review customarily includes the following elements:

An attention grabbing introduction identifies of the genre or general nature of the subject being reviewed, besides the author and title. A body includes a brief summary of the subject matter (such as the basic plot of a film or novel) A conclusion contains an evaluation through a discussion supported by evidence of the specific strengths and weakness of the subject reviewed and recommendation. a comparison of the subject with related works, including other works by the same author, artist, or performer

What are the parts of a book review? Introduction (setting, characters) Brief Summary Recommendation (strong and weak points) Reaction Biography of the author How does the author make his viewpoint clear? The authors point of view is clarified through his or her positive or negative words used to review the book. What is wordbusting strategy? (CSSD) Its a four part strategy that helps reader identify the meaning of words: Context: evident clues that shed light on the meaning.

Structure: the word may have a familiar root, prefix or suffix. Sound: It may sound like a word you know. Dictionary: You can look it up. What is a summary? A summary of any piece of writing includes only the key ideas of that piece so when you summarize a novel, youll retell the important events. What is evaluation? Evaluation is systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Its the last part of a book review. What is a clich? A clich is a saying, expression, idea, or element of an artistic work which has been overused to the point of losing its original meaning or effect, rendering it a stereotype, especially when at some earlier time it was considered meaningful or novel. The term is frequently used in modern culture for an action or idea which is expected or predictable, based on a prior event. It is likely to be used pejoratively. But "clichs" are not always false or inaccurate; [1] a clich may or may not be true.[2] Some are stereotypes, but some are simply truisms and facts.[3] A clich may sometimes be used in a work of fiction for comedic effect. Its an expression that has been used so often it has lost its original meaning. What is a rhyme? A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds in two or more words and is most often used in poetry and songs. The word "rhyme" may also refer to a short poem, such as a rhyming couplet or other brief rhyming poem such as nursery rhymes.

What is a rhythm? A musical quality created by the repetition of stressed ( ) and unstressed ( ) syllables in a line or by repetition of certain sounds. Chapter 8 Writing Effective Sentences A complete sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence fragment is a part of a sentence that is punctuated as if it were a complete sentence. It doesnt express a complete thought. It lacks the subject, the verb, or the complete thought. A run-on sentence is actually two or more sentences that run together without proper punctuation as if they were one sentence. Its often hard to tell where one idea in run-on sentence ends and the next begins. Run-On Sentences: A run-on is when two or more sentences are combined without connecting words or punctuation. Examples Run-on: Billy learned about raccoons, Billy studied their habits and he came to learn they were tricky creatures. Corrected: Billy learned about raccoons. Billy studied their habits, and he came to learn they were tricky creatures. Run-on: Grandpa told Billy stories about coon hunting he taught him

how to build a coon trap. Corrected: Grandpa told Billy stories about coon hunting, and he taught him how to build a coon trap. Run-on: Billy hunted during the night he slept during the day. Corrected: Billy hunted during the night, so he slept during the day. Corrected: Because Billy hunted during the night, he slept during the day. A stringy sentence is a sentence with too many clauses usually connected with and, but, so, and because, forming one very long sentence. Stringy sentences are so long the reader forgets the beginning of the sentence before reaching the end. Example: Stringy: The fame of my dogs spread all over our part of the Ozarks, and they were the best in the country, so that no coon hunter came into my grandfather's store with as many pelts as I did. Corrected: The fame of my dogs spread all over our part of the Ozarks. They were the best in the country. No coon hunter came into my grandfather's store with as many pelts as I did. Choppy Sentences: Choppy sentences are sentences that are too short. When several short sentences come together they force the reader to go slowly. This makes the writing seem more "elementary" than it truly is. Examples Choppy Sentences: Our home was in a beautiful valley. It was far back. It was in the rugged Ozarks. Corrected: Our home was in a beautiful valley far back in the rugged Ozarks.

Practice: Write choppy, run-on, or stringy to describe which sentence problem each sentence below contains. 1. ____________________________ I arrived at the millhouse. I tied my mule to the hitching post. I took my corn. I set it by the door. 2. ____________________________ Rubin was two years older than I was, and he was big and husky for his age, and he never had much to say although he had mean-looking eyes that were set far back in his rugged face. 3. ____________________________ Rainier was the youngest he had the meanest disposition of any boy I had ever known. 4. ____________________________ He snatched the candy out of my hand. He ate it. Then he sneered at me. He said it wasn't good. 5. ____________________________ The boys entered the store they stopped and glared at me. 6. ____________________________ When the last of my corn was just going through the grinding stones, Grandpa pushed a lever to one side, shutting off the power, and then he came over and asked Rainier why he was looking for trouble, and asked him why he was always looking for a fight. 7. ____________________________ He's an old-timer folks call him the "ghost coon". 8. ____________________________ A strange little smile was tugging at the corner of his mouth the big artery in his neck was pounding out and in. 9. ____________________________ I could hear him chuckling as he walked toward his store, and I thought to myself that there goes the best grandpa a boy ever had, and that is just what I thought of my grandpa. 10.____________________________ I did not want to argue I carried both the lantern and the ax. 11.____________________________ A bird chirped. A rabbit ran. Mallards took flight. I whooped to my dogs. 12.____________________________ The wily old coon crossed the river several times I couldn't shake my dogs from his trail.

Combining Sentences
a. Combine short, related sentences by inserting adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases.

Note how the following three sentences have been rewritten as one sentence by eliminating unnecessary words. THREE SENTENCES: The Prime Minister closed the session. The Prime Minister felt weary. He closed the session with the Cabinet. ONE SENTENCE: The weary Prime Minister closed the session with the Cabinet. There may be more than one correct way to combine short sentences. THREE SENTENCES: The plane moved slowly. The plane moved along the runway. The plane moved toward the hangar. ONE SENTENCE: Slowly, the plane moved along the runway toward the hangar. or Along the runway, the plane moved slowly toward the hangar. b. Combine closely related sentences by using participial phrases. Participial phrases-phrases containing a participle and any complements or modifiers it may have-help you add concrete details to nouns and pronouns in

sentences. In the following example, the participial phrases are printed in bold-faced type. Notice how they describe the subject of the sentence, the noun ship. Badly damaged by high winds and deserted by half its crew, the ship finally reached a safe harbor. Participial phrases are often a useful way to combine sentences and to express ideas concisely. The following two sentences can be combined by using a participial phrase. TWO SENTENCES: The colors were orange, red, and blue. The colors were painted on the ceiling. ONE SENTENCE: The colors painted on the ceiling were orange, red, and blue. The second sentence has been turned into a participial phrase, painted on the ceiling, and attached to the first sentence. Unnecessary words have been deleted. A participle or participial phrase must always be placed close to the noun or pronoun it modifies. Otherwise the sentence may confuse the reader. MISPLACED: Wrapped in silver paper, the bride accepted the wedding present. IMPROVED: The bride accepted the wedding present wrapped in silver paper. c. Combine short, related sentences by using appositives or appositive phrases. Appositives and appositive phrases add definitive detail to nouns and pronouns in sentences by helping to identify or explain them. Note how the appositive phrase in the following sentence helps identify the noun captain.

The captain of the swim team, holder of six school records, won a full athletic scholarship. Two sentences can often be combined through the use of an appositive or an appositive phrase. TWO SENTENCES: Many students in the school play lacrosse. Lacrosse is the national summer sport of Canada. ONE SENTENCE: Many students in the school play lacrosse, the national summer sport of Canada. d. Combine short, related sentences by using compound subjects or verbs or by writing a compound sentence. Compound subjects and verbs and compound sentences are common in writing. Writers, however, often overuse compound constructions by loosely stringing together ideas that belong in separate sentences. You should not only learn the appropriate function of various connectives but should also avoid the overuse of and or so in your writing. Compound subjects and verbs are joined by conjunctions such as and, but, and or and by correlative conjunctions such as either-or, neither-nor, and both-and. EXAMPLES: Either Mr. Sanderson or one of his students will bring the slide projector. We watched the game this afternoon and cheered our team to victory. Independent clauses are joined into a compound sentence by conjunctions such as and, but, for, and or and by other connectives such as furthermore, yet, however, therefore, either-or, and neither-nor. The relationship of the independent clauses determines which connective works best.


EXAMPLES: Two cats were stranded in the tree, and no one could rescue them. The police officer questioned him; however, he refused to answer. [Note the use of the semicolon.] Ideas in separate sentences can be combined by using the appropriate connecting words. TWO SENTENCES: Rain had soaked the playing field. Practice was canceled. ONE SENTENCE: Rain had soaked the playing field; therefore, practice was canceled. e. Combine short, related sentences into a complex sentence by putting one idea into a subordinate clause. Subordination allows you to express the relationship between two unequal ideas within a single sentence. Methods for subordinating ideas include the use of an adjective clause, an adverb clause, and a noun clause. Mastering these methods of subordination will improve the variety and clarity of your writing. (1) Use an adjective clause to combine sentences. Adjective clauses, like adjectives, modify nouns or pronouns. In the following sentence, the adjective clause is printed in bold-faced type. The detective who solved the case was a master at logical thinking. To combine sentences by using an adjective clause, you must first decide which idea to emphasize. Then you must choose the correct relative pronoun to join the sentences. RELATIVE PRONOUNS who, whom, whose, which, that The adjective clause must always be placed close to the word or words it modifies. TWO SENTENCES: The story has an intricate plot. I found the plot hard to follow. ONE SENTENCE: The story has an intricate plot that I found hard to follow.


TWO SENTENCES: The woman heads the delegation. I met her yesterday. ONE SENTENCE: The woman whom I met yesterday heads the delegation. 2) Use an adverb clause to combine sentences. Adverb clauses can express a relationship of time, cause, purpose, or condition between two ideas within a single sentence. EXAMPLE: Although you present a convincing argument, I will not change my mind. To combine sentences by using an adverb clause, you must first decide which idea should become subordinate. You must then decide which subordinating conjunction best ex- presses the relationship between the two ideas. TWO SENTENCES: Elsie received the reply in the mail. She tore open the envelope impatiently. ONE SENTENCE: When Elsie received the reply in the mail, she tore open the envelope impatiently. TWO SENTENCES: Injuries would decrease. People would be more careful. ONE SENTENCE: If people would be more careful, injuries would decrease. 3) Use a noun clause to combine sentences. A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun. Read the following examples of noun clauses and note where they appear in the sentences. Whoever buys that car will be sorry. [noun clause as subject] Yesterday we learned what Napoleon had accomplished. [noun clause as direct object] We can spend the money for whatever we like. [noun clause as object of preposition]


A noun clause can also be used as a predicate nominative and as an indirect object. Noun clauses are usually introduced by that, what, whatever, why, whether, how, who, whom, whoever, or whomever.