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anx 3 1924 031 243 367 .arVIS/Oa*^"™" ""'*«™"y Library The electromagnet. olin.




<^HWt». VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY 23 Murray and 27 Warren Sts. NEW YORK: D. UNDERHILL Co.THE ELECTROMAGNET CHARLES R. 1903 . Chief Electrical Engineer Varley Duplex Magnet .


M. has been obtained from actual practice. and W. D.I. Varley. Scott. The author has endeavored to give the facts connectedly. J. C.. so that the reader may easily follow the reasoning without referring to different parts of the book. E.and Richard Varley. Balke for data and assistance. especially that concerning windings. August 29. H. A. J. which are placed in the Appendix for convenience. Varley. .PREFACE. Providence. Acknowledgments are due to R. This book is a new and revised edition of " Ths Electromagnet " by Townsend Wolcott. A. As the economy and efficiency of an electromagnet depend largely on the proper design and calculation of the winding. Underbill. Knox. R. with the exception of the tables. particular attention has been paid to that detail. R. Kennelly. W. 1903. Much of the data..


I. Effect of Joint in Magnetic Circuit 23 28 zo. 2. 1. 3. 18 Terms Expressed Permeability . 16. 34 35 Problems 36 V . g. 7. 4. 6.CONTENTS PAGE Notation ix CHAPTER ART. 5. 23. 13. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS. 18. 13 13 17 11. Magnetic Testing Practical Calculations of Magnetic Circuit 22 ig. 14. Magnetic Leakage Limits of Magnetization Hysteresis Retentiveness 29 32 21. 12. Magnetic Units Electromagnetism Force about a wire Ampere-turns Effect of Iron in Magnetic Circuit 10. 15. Magnetism Magnetic Poles Magnetic Field Forms of Permanent Magnets Magnetic Induction Electric Circuit i 2 3 4 6 6 6 7 11 Ohms' Law Divided or Branched Circuits 8. 22. Measure General Relations between Magnetic Units in English 19 19 21 17.

38. 46. .. and Ampere-tums Constant Resistance with Variable Insulation Layers and Turns per Inch .. CHAPTER II. WINDING CALCULATIONS. 50. 25. 81 8i . 48.VI CONTENTS.. 34.. 73 7^ 76 80 51. 35. . 49 51 31. 37. 30.. 33.. Circular Windings 42 47 Points to be Observed in Practice 29. 44. 43. 32. 49. 39. PAGE Simple Principle of Calculating Windings Copper Constants 39 40 41 26. 52 36. General Construction of Electromagnets Insulation of Bobbin for High Voltage Theory of Magnet Windings Paper Inserted into the Winding Duplex Windings Other Forms of Windings than Round Square or Rectangular Windings Windings with Elliptical Cross-Sections Windings Whose Cross-Sections have Parallel Sides and Rounded Ends Problems .. 40. 41. 53 53 55 56 57 59 59 60 63 Thickness of Insulation Ratio of Weight of Copper to Weight of Insulation .. 24. . Most Efficient Winding 27. Resistance. 63 66 Weight of Insulation to Insulate Any Wire . ART. Windings with Wires other than Copper Small Magnets on High-voltage Circuits Resistance Wires One Coil Wound Directly Over the Other Parallel Windings Joint Resistance of Parallel Windings RelationsHoldingfor Any Size of Wire and Winding Volume The American Wire Gauge (B & S) . Formulae for Turns. 45. 42. . 28. 67 68 70 72 47.

55.. Induction Self-induction 127 127 Alternating Currents Eddy Currents . ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA..CONTENTS.. 63. . 61. 64.. Action of an Electromagnet 59. 65. 06. PAGE Effect of Heating 90 . 57.. Forms of Electromagnets no 114 116 . 130 130 . 54.. Calculation of Traction 60. 117 Solenoids 119 Action of Solenoids Polarized Magnets 120 122 Problems 126 CHAPTER V. 53. . 62.. ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. VU CHAPTER III. 52. . Relation between Magnetomotive Force and Heating 96 103 Advantage of Thin Insulating Material Work at End of Circuit 104 107 Problems CHAPTER IV. . 56.. Direction of Flux in Core 58.. COILS... HEATING OF MAGNET ART.

Single Silk 1. Double Cotton (Commercial Half Sizes) Single Cotton (Commercial Half Sizes) Double Silk Double Silk 144 144 145 145 2-Mil. Double Cotton. Single Silk 4-Mil. 4-Mil. . Insulated Wire 8-Mil. PAGB Standard Copper Wire Table Explanation of Table 135 136 137 Bare Copper Wire Bare Copper Wire (Commercial Half Sizes) Weight of Copper in 100 Pounds of Cotton Covered Wire Weight of Copper in 100 Pounds of Cotton Covered Wire . 138 138 (Commercial Half Sizes) 139 Silk Insulated Weight of Copper in 100 Pounds of Wire (Com139 . 4-Mil. Double Cotton 5-Mil. APPENDIX. Single Silk i. Double Double Silk (Commercial Half Sizes) Silk (Commercial Half Sizes) (Commercial Half Sizes) 146 146 147 147 2-Mil. Single 8-Mil. mercial Half Sizes) Weight of Copper in 100 Pounds of Silk Insulated Wire Data for Insulated Wire Tables lo-Mil. . 151 Numbers 'S^i 153 Antilogarithms 'S4i '55 . 5-Mil. Single 4-Mil. Single Silk (Commercial Half Sizes) Table of Resistances of German Silver Wire Permeability Table Traction Table Insulating Materials 148 149 1^0 150 .viii CONTENTS.S-Mil. 140 140 141 141 Cotton Cotton 142 142 143 I4j 3-Mil. 3-Mil. . Decimal Equivalents of Fractional Parts of an Inch Ix)garithms of .

= constant = . 42. £= e E. 80.F. 82. p. = electromotive force in volts. = as in Fig.7182818.NOTATION. = diameter of core.0000027107. a «! (/ J I = as in Fig. A^ = area in square centimeters. . = circular mils. 41. = base of Naperian logarithms = 2. 76. </* I ^'1= Z>5= as in Fig. d = distance between centers of cores in inches. p. (B = magnetic induction in gausses. 80. "4 J > / rt'j </. c CM. 42.. = deflection of galvanometer. 82. p. 76. ^^ = as in Fig. 41. p. 36. Cy. p. B = magnetic induction (English system). A = area in square inches.M. = weight of cotton in pounds. = as in Fig. = percentage of copper in cotton insulated wire. 36. = percentage of copper in silk insulated wire. Z> = true outside diameter of round windings. as in Fig. p. = diameter of core + sleeve.

4. w" J^ = resistance factor = k = constant of galvanometer. 82. 42. Lb. L = length of winding.F.NOTATION.u = number of wires.M. = length of wrap of paper in inches. n = number of layers. P = paper allowance for duplex windings. tt . = horse-power. = length of magnetic circuit in inches. L = inductance in henries. = pounds adv. = lateral value of wire and insulation. = length of wire or strand in inches. / 4 = length of magnetic circuit in centimeters.P. 82. JI = as in Fig. g'' magnetomotive force (English system). p. M = mean or average diameter of winding in inches. 42. = space factor. M. H = magnetizing force (English system). «c = a constant (see p. n. iV = number of turns of wire in winding. / = current in amperes. = joint resistance. X = magnetizing force in gausses. gi g^ = vertical value of wire and insulation. = magnetomotive force in gilberts. 35). g = total diameter of insulated wire. m = turns of wire per inch. /p . H. J/i = as in Fig. P = SF = / = number of cycles per second. p. /JV= /r ampere-turns.

• Wc= X watts lost per cubic centimeter of iron. S„ = weight of silk in pounds. y^ = volume of silk space in cubic inches. combined resistance and space factor =— ^ • jR r s = magnetic reluctance in oersteds. V = volume of winding in cubic inches. p p. IT = as in Fig. X = weight of bare wire in pounds.NOTATION. p. S S. f i° = rise in temperature.. IVg = watts per square inch. Z = impedance. XI P = £ = (R magnetic attraction or pull. = gauge number of wire (B. X = intermediate diameter in inches. = time constant. 15. Fi = leakage coefficient.). A = diameter of wire in inches. series resistance. = ohms per pound for insulated wires. & S. 16. T = thickness or depth of winding. =3.1416 = ratio between diameter and fi circum- ference of circle. = permeability. y^ = volumeof paper in duplex windings (cubic inches). = = electrical resistance. = radius of circle. . = silk allowance for duplex windings. = radiating surface in square inches. = magnetic reluctance (English system). w = combined weight and space factor = — W = watts.

= = ii = us' = = lit useful flux.NO TA TION. ohms per foot. . S ^ <^i </)2 = = cross-section of insulation in circular inches. ohms per pound ohms per inch. for bare wires. flux in webers = lines of force. leakage in webers.

Magnetism. . one of its ends always pointed to the north. It was also discovered that when a piece of this ore was suspended so that it could move freely. Artificial magnets hardened steel with Artificial magnets which retain their magnetism for a long time are called Permanent Magftets.THE ELECTROMAGNET. of course. Thessaly. CHAPTER I." Magnetism is supposed to have first been discovered by the ancients in Magnesia. I. pointed south. " Magnetism is that peculiar property occasionally pos- sessed by certain bodies (more especially iron and steel) whereby under certain circumstances they naturally attract or repel one another according to determinate laws. ELBCTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS. stone ore. where they found an ore which possessed a remarkable tractive power for iron. and the other end. and hence the name Lode(meaning Leading Stone) was given to the natural were made by rubbing a bar of a piece of lodestone. Navigators took advantage of this principle to steer their ships. A piece of the ore having this power they termed a Magnet.

although this arrangement really makes the pole situated near the geographical North Pole of the earth the magnetic South Pole of the earth. Every magnet has two poles. the strength gradually decreas- ing until at all. . 2. with a north-seeking and south-seeking pole of equal strength. Magnetic Poles. and if the Par Magnet I should be broken into any number of pieces. In this book the term North-seeking Pole will be used instead of North Pole. The north-seeking pole of a magnet is equal in strength to its south-seeking pole. in Fig. magnet which has a tendency to point its North Pole. midway between is the poles there is no attraction This place called the Neutral Line.2 THE ELECTROMAGNET. each piece would be a perfect magnet. since like magnetic poles repel one anof a The end is north naturally termed other and unlike poles attract each other. as the latter is liable to become confused with the geographical North Pole of the earth.

and returning through the air or surrounding media to its south-seeking pole. and then if the paper be they will take positions as shown in Fig. 3 Magnetic Field. is north-seeking. or neutral line. the poles being stronger near the ends.ELECTRIC AXD MAGAETlC CIRCUIT. If filings sprinkled a piece of paper be laid over a bar magnet and iron over the paper. 2). while all on tlie other side is south-seeking. From mathematical and experimental research it has been fomid that tlie magnetism passes through the inside of a magnet from pole to pole. which fact shows that all of the magnet on one side of the center. 2. issuing from its north-seeking pole. jarred slightly so as to give the filings an opportunity to settle freely. . although aU of the mag- netism does not pass from the ends of the magnet (as may be seen by reference to Fig. 3.

This is done to bring the two poles of the magnet near each other. is called the Field of Force.Fig. Another form is shown in. through which they pass. A magnet thus arranged results is said to have Consequent Poles. through the substance of the magnet to the starting-point. Forms of Permanent Magnets. 3. lines of force flow the north-seeking pole of the magnet. and is a bar bent into the shape of a horseshoe. 3- of lines of force through a net. through the arma- and into the south-seeking pole. and the media about the poles of the magnet.THE ELECTROMAGNET. and thus shorten the magnetic circuit. and in effect is merely two horseshoe magnets placed with similar poles together. These streams of magnetism are called Lines of Force. is The as usual form of the magnetic circuit substantially shown in Fig. they flow is called the Magnetic Circuit. The lines are always closed curves hence the path through which . thus tending to repel one another. if The same would be obtained two or more horseshoe . the number mag- magnetic circuit should be as short. is called Armaout The through ture. and have as few Air Gaps. 4. as possible. 4. piece of iron which is The attracted its by the magnet ture. To obtain the largest 3 Fig. This form is called a Horseshoe permanent magnet.

I N. Magnets of the latter form are called Compound Magand are commonly used on magneto generators. Fig. nets. I s. s. s.) (See Fig.. 5- it is very important that each magnets should have the same strength otherwise. Fig. S magnets were placed side by side with similar poles together. ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. the weaker magnets would act as a return cir- In this type of magnet of the separate . M.

The force which causes a current of electricity to flow is through a conductor viated E. current strength. The rule expressing the relation force. When a magnet attracts a piece of iron. called Electromotive Force (abbreunit used in practice offers is and the the Volt. Ohm's Law.M. and will attract other pieces of iron.6 THE ELECTROMAGNET.). is The strength of the current equal to the electromotive force divided by the resistance. pieces is This successive magnetization of the iron said to be produced by Magnetic Induction. E = Ip (2) . Magnetic Induction. between electromotive and resistance is known as 7. Electric Circuit. 5. Every known substance electrical resistance is the some Resistance to the practical unit of passage of an electric current. The Ohm.F. 6. this iron itself becomes a magnet while it is being attracted. and the effective field cuit for the stronger ones. is The is unit strength of electric current the Ampere and produced by the unit electromotive force acting through the unit resistance. or '-V Transposing. would thus be weakened. which in turn also become magnets.

= 746 (7) Therefore. square of the current multiplied by the or W =^ I^p. electromotive force. the Joint Resistance is equal to the resistance one conductor divided by the number of conductors.00134 horse-power. (8) Divided or Branched Circuits. . = The unit of electric to the power is termed the Watt. or fF= 8. W=— (5). W = EJ.P. also. resistance. What will be the joint 74 resistance — when they are connected in multiple ? . The joint resistance of two equal or unequal resistances equal to their product contiected in multiple is divided by their sum. (4) whence. or H. The watts are equal resistance. one watt equals . by substitution.P.00134 H. fF. and where 7 '^ = 7' (3) /= E= p strength of current. (6) 746 watts equal one horse-power. or P + Pi Example. of equal resistances are connected When any number of in multiple.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. The resistance of two electromagnets is ohms and 92 ohms respectively.

the conductivity let PX1P21 ^iid Pa the reciprocal if =9 • Therefore. is Since the conductivity of a conductor of its resistance. and — respectively. we equal the separate resistances of the three 6. The joint is resistance of three or more conductors in multiple equal to the reciprocal of their joint conductivity._ ^ _ P-iP% + Pz PlPs + PlP2^ Pi PiPiPs and the reciprocal _ P2PS P1P. the conductivities will be — — ft Pi . branches. ^y^^ (^^) which is the same as riAAMAAMAAAH VWVWWVVW^ MWVWWWV^M Fig. as in Fig. Solution. . — X 92 92 74 74 _ 6.P3 + PiPs + P1P2 (9). JL _. 6. Ans. />s I Their joint conductivity is £ Px .808 + 166 = 41+ ohms.' THE ELECTROMAGNET.

84+ ohms. . from a . — — By formula PiPiPa (lo). 7). and then by formula £ = Ip. Example. and 8 ohms respectively are to be connected in multiple. 6 ohms. >VWWWW\/\r Example. 4 ohms. and p^. pj — In the diagram (Fig. What will be their joint resistance? Solution. through the branches.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. and next by applying formula (i). = 5 ohms. Jr = kPa 4X6x8 X 8) + PiPz + P1P2 (6 X 8) + (4 IQ2 „ = -^^— = 1. the internal pj = = resistance of the battery = 2 ohms. /= — P the current flowing through each branch. p^ ohm. . Three electromagnets having resistances of 4 ohms. + (4 X 6) 104 The current which will flow through each branch of the circuit is found by ascertaining the total current flowing {2). pi= 1 3 ohms. to find find the electromotive force across the branches ^.

Fig.28 ohms nearly.2 ^ /j = —= 1.24.= .. must have the resistance of each increased four times. 8. 3 4 S SO.2 .lO THE ELECTROMAGNET.8 (2) + 1+2 = the ^= = . From the foregoing it is seen that two resistances.4. /i = —= 1. 1. 9. formula — By formula (lo) the joint resistance of is the branched circuit (i). 1. amperes of current will flow How many branch ? through each Solution. . r-mNmmMAAAAAMAAAA^ Fig.935 ^ 73 -935 -'"P--^- By formula electromotive force across the circuit from a to b (i) X 1. Assume two electromagnet windings to of be used in series. Ans.28 = 1. By Ohm's law.. so.2 = —. the current ^= branched nearly.2 volts Then by formula .3. having a total resistance of 50 ohms each 100 ohms . to be connected in multiple and produce the same resistance to the line as if they were connected in series. f= .

9. is Unit Magnetic Pole in the C. The force producing the flow of magnetism is called Magnetomotive Force. but lines of force . X 3. a unit magnetic pole be placed from this pole a sphere of one centimeter radius (two centimeters in diameter). or only what the resistance would be were they connected in series.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.1416 X i^= 12. nothing to do with the total area. as in Fig. 9. ohms. at the center of Now. and as the area of the sphere there will be 4 is equal to 4 irr'' square centimeters. there will radiate one line of force for each square centimeter of surface on the sphere. called Intensity or unit magnetization.S. except when the contrary is stated. If II they were connected in multiple as in Fig. loo gausses are It is to 100 webers per square centimeter.G. system that so defined when placed if at it exactly similar pole one centimeter distance from an repels it with a force of one dyne. be observed that the gauss has it is the number of Per Unit Area in square centimeters. 8. The number of gausses are found by dividing the total number of lines of force by the total cross-sectional area of the magnet in square centimeters. and termed the Gauss (symbol Thus. the resistance \ of would be ^-= 2<. One Density line of force (also called is one Weber. In the following discussion it is assumed that there is no magnetic material in the circuit.5664 lines of force radiating from the unit pole. Magnetic Units. and the unit is the Gilbert (symbol JF). symbol unit is <^) per square centimeter of JC).

when com- posed of iron or Reluctance steel. = permeability. with the magnetic density or lines per square centimeter.) In the case of the magnetic circuit. (12) where = gilberts.M. (R = oersteds. (5^ Thus. is The law potential of the magnetic circuit identical with that of is the electric circuit. multiplied by the reluctance. divided by the product of cross-sectional area and permeability. = reluctance in oersteds.12 THE ELECTROMAGNET. page 6.) in gilberts equal to the number of lines of force. however. or more correctly. Ohm's law. of gilberts per centimeter length of The number netic circuit is mag- called the Magnetizing Force. the magnetic resistance called changes with the flow of magnetism called Flux.F. Thus. = ^ (ii) where = length of magnetic circuit in centimeters. g^ = ^(R. The ation is property of the iron or steel which causes this varicalled its Permeability. A^ = cross-sectional area in square centimeters. inasmuch as the Flow difference equal to the (See divided by the resistance. is The Reluctance or magnetic resistance equal to the its length of the magnetic circuit. /„ (R /A is The magnetomotive force (abbreviated M. £F 1^ . = webers.

-'Self*! -'^cara -^csrs 10. if In 1819. is The explanation of the foregoing is that the wire carrycircles of ing the current surrounded by concentric . The relation which exists between direction of current and deflection of compass needle is as follows If the : current flows through the wire from left to right.4) Substituting the value of (R from (11) in (12). tends up a position at right angles to the direction of the wire. l^cW When the magnetic circuit consists of several is parts. Oersted discovered that to take a compass needle be it brought near a wire carrying an electric current. the total reluctance reluctances . g: I 3 Also. the north-seeking pole deflected toward pole the observer. is deflected from 11. the north-seeking the observer. (. equal to the sum of all of the thus. Electromagnetism. Force about a Wire. "^ = m: *^'^^ a= |.' ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. If below the wire. is and the needle is above the wire.

there but one gauss. When the wire carries 10 amperes. lo.14 force. the center of the wire there square centimeter — that is but one line of force per is is. 10. THE ELECTROMA GNE T. or density of lines of force. is illustrated in Fig. two gausses and at two centimeters from of wire — . unless the earth's magnetism be neutralized. The relation between the current in the wire and the intensity of magnetization. . 1 1 also shows the relabetween direction of cur- rent and direction of lines of force. Fig. tion Fig. illustrated in Fig. Fig. at one centimeter from the center of the wire there are two lines of force (webers) per square centimeter for each centimeter length that is. II. set The compass needle can never set itself exactly in the direction of the lines of force on account of the earth's magnetism. and the compass needle. 12. tends to This is itself in the direction of these lines of force. being a magnet.

Hence the air is 15 following law : The tlie intensity in gausses in equal to two-tenths times current in amperes flow- .ELECTRIC AXD MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.

the lines of force circles no longer simple but are distorted.5664 centiand the M. 14.5664 is gilberts when 10 amperes through the wire.5664 gilberts. so that the force at any point can only be calculated by means of the higher mathe- matics. assuming positions as shown in Fig.5664 = 12. the total M.F. At two centimeters. the intensity 3C = (20) where r Fig.M.IS- is the radius of the loop or turn of wire as in Fig. flowing When through are the wire is bent into a circle and a current passed it. is always 12. Therefore. the circumference is 12. meters. is i x 12. .i6 THE ELECTROMAGNET.F.M. but in the center. 15.

cannot be calculated by simple approximately uniform near the center of the loop. (21) but at points algebra. is it is much greater. on the axis 3C = it .7 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. 13. the force is 1 of loop. The ampere-turns. . is In practice the wire wound and one turn through it of wire with in spirals on a bobbin.2 irlr^ -. and the same any number of turns and any number of One ampere flowing through one hundred turns amperes. are found by multiplying the number of turns by the current in amperes flowing through the turns.e. as in the case of the simple circle about a shown in Fig. increasing somewhat toward the wire. while very near the wire of the wire loop. gauss. and a current of 10 amperes passed through the wire.. the intensity will be one Ampere-Turns. especially if the diameter small as compared with the diameter of the The magnetomotive straight wire force. then.\-irI (22) gilberts. is still SF = . is From the above deduced the following law : If a centi- •wire one centimeter in length be bent into an arc of one meter radius. at the center of the arc there will be one line of force per square centimeter. however. one ampere of current flowing is called one Ampere-turn.. . . 12. gives exactly the same results as one hundred amperes relation holds for flowing through one turn. At any distance x from the center X. i. but ofl is the axis.

The symbol for ampere-turns is IN. Therefore. (B = /*3C. iron and steel have the same permeability as only the two latter will is be considered. and that a force of one dyne exerted along each one of these lines.5664 the 12. has already been stated that a unit magnet pole sends is out 12.8 1 THE ELECTROMAGNET. Effect of Iron in is Magnetic Circuit. iron or steel introduced into the magnetic the conductivity of the magnetic circuit called Perincreased. Where N= number of turns. In order to distinguish the lines per square centimeter in air from lines per square centimeter in iron is or steel.5664 lines of force. produces 1. (23) (24) . Thus. Lines of force There no insulator of magnetism.25664 gilberts. pass through or permeate every known substance. cir- When cuit. or 12. one ampere-turn 13. the symbol (B given to the latter.5664 dynes for that also 12.5664 gilberts. meahility is greatly is The all permeability of air taken as unity. and they are called Lines of Induction. It /= current in amperes. it may be shown is the force produced by ten ampere-turns dynes or 12. and since nearly substances excepting air. Now.5664 lines of force.

= gausses in iron = permeability. a great many engineers prefer to change the magnetic units into terms of English measure also. kLECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.3i32F. where 3e (B ju. and in order to avoid confusion the same symbols as applied to the units in metric measure will be used. (26) Therefore. F= 3-192 -^^ /i\^=.3i32. In Metric measure JF = 1. (27) (28) also B= 15. Terms Expressed in English Measure. F= 3-192/^ Unless otherwise specified in what follows. . will represent units in all (27) symbols English measure . or steel. (23) General Relations between Magnetic Units. Since in America the units used are in English measure. but in heavy tjrpe and English characters.3132 times the fiux and the reluctance. i^H. Thus. (is) 17 From ^ ^ Substituting the value of F in (28) ZV=.25664 IN. 14.. in English measure.^ That is. 10 = gausses in air. — / (29) the ampere-turns required to produce the fiux <j) are equal to the product of .

193 times the ampere-turns and permeability.) (31) in (29). (33) IN=-^1^ Bl 3-193/* (33) whence. (34) is That the number of of lines per square inch equal to the product 3. 16. B=^-^^^. Fig.. divided by the total length of the magnetic circuit.193 times the ampere- turns divided by the reluctance. also ^^3:193^. or of lines per square inch is equal to the total flux divided by the cross-sectional area of the mag- £ = !• Substituting the value of B from (3. is.20 THE ELECTROMAGNET. . The number netic field. (30) That the total flux is equal to 3. is.

ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT..6 mean diameter inches. or tables is (See permeability table on p.) Example. and referring to formula (32) and substituting the values of B.4248 Ans.3132 X 100.000 lines per square inch = 3- //. the length of the magnetic circuit 3 X 3-1416 = 9. i6.000 lines through square inch is equivalent to Assuming the ring to be made of annealed wrought iron. decreases as the magnetic density B increases.4248 = /. _ = . found for various grades of iron or steel and then curves plotted on charts. How many ampere-turns are required ? Solution. made. i6. the same grade of iron or the above result would only be approximate unless a very careful test was of tlie ring itself. _ 289. of the iron cross- Fig. 60. ring in — Assume the 16 to .6 diameter is is three inches. The above 21 formulae apply to the magnetic circuit con- sisting of a continuous iron or steel ring as in Fig. made . /. Permeability. 149.000 360 805 ampere-turns.000 X 9.000 lines of force through the iron. and by actual test. The permeability ju. and that required to force 60. is 360 Since there a wide variation in the permeability in steel. be three and the it is sectional area to be square inch. inches — Since the mean . and 100.

. Then where B = Kd». and coil C. M^netic Testing. is connected to a able rheostat R.22 THE ELECTROMAGiYET. (35) the mean length of the magnetic circuit in the When flection is the primary circuit is closed or broken. 17. wound with a re- magnetizing which is in series with a source of current B. a de- produced in the ballistic galvanometer propor- tional to the magnetic flux. adjustable rheostat R. 17. K (36) — constant of galvanometer. galvanometer through an adjust- Fig. Vj. The magnetizing force H where / ringis 3.192 -J zy . called the exploring ballistic coil. in Fig. and double-throw A secondary winding W. is One method of doing this is illustrated A is the iron ring to be tested. versing-switch S. d^ = deflection of galvanometer.

M. is has be'en stated that the induction force equal to the magnetizing multiplied by the permeability. In Figs. is proportional for any specific case depends upon the ampere-turns per inch of magnetic circuit. to the ampere-turns. The permeability is 23 then found by formula (24). and then vertically this point bined representing difEerent grades of iron and To from tally opposite the induction on the curve trace downwards to the ampere-turns per linear inch. find the point on the curve horizonper square inch.. Referring to the chart. B 18.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. since the M. 18.F. The product of the length of the magnetic circuit into the ampere-turns per linear inch gives the total number of ampere-turns required to maintain the induction B in of the iron.F. and the magnetizing force is equal to the M.000 lines per square inch are required. this principle curves show the value of B for have been constructed which any number of ampere-turns per steel. and the average length 10 inches. or B = jiH.M. As an example. It Practical Calculations of Magnetic Circuit. assume a form of a Swedish iron the magnetic circuit is closed magnetic circuit in the ring. and nothing else. Now. the induction B On inch. and that 87.000 lines per square inch there are required 20 ampere-tiurns for each . for 87. per inch. Fig. 18 and 19 there are several curves comuse the curves.

i . -rr~ i. Induction per Square CM.24 THE ELECTROMAGNET.

ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. iiduction per Square 25 CM.) o . (.OoMsses.

calculate the circuit.000 If X -S the 43.50°area was 2 = inches. but of parts of different cross-section. the total number of lines of force would be 87. is inch of circuit. induction per square inch for one of the parts of the and then the induction per square inch for the other parts will depend simply on the ratio of their cross-sections to the cross-section of the first part . the total ampere-turns required to maintain an is 10 X 20 = . If lo inches. the total flux would be 2 X 87.26 THE ELECTROMAGNET.000 webers.000 lines per square inch 200.000 = 174. and since the length of the circuit induction of 87. When the magnetic circuit consists of the same quality of iron.5 the cross-sectional area of the iron ring was square inch.

7854 = .1105 = 1„„ 88. for the cores are 34.1.25 = 65. — The cross-sectional area of the cores is f X . 18. howafter the bend around something form of the dotted lines in Fig. the ampere-turns required ture 3. Since the cross-section of the cores the smaller. the ampere-turns per linear inch required for 100. Referring to the chart. and the 65 total ampere-turns for the whole magnet 136. ever. How many ampere-turns are required ? Solution. or for reluctance at the joints. inch is 2/ — An induction in of 100. the is • induction required in the yoke and armature 100. In the above example no allowance was leakage.400 lines the ampere-turns per inch total are The length of the circuit through the cores 4 inches. 20. .125 square inches each.000 lines per square inch are 34.4. the cores consisting of Swedish iron.4 = 201. The and lines of induction are nearly straight in the cores.1 X 4= -|- 136. the lines In the yoke and armature.25 inches. Ans. made for . Example. so if" was considered as a fair average for the length of the circuit in the yoke and armature. is for 88.000 X . is sectional area of the yoke and armature is The \ X \ cross- = . and 20.H05 square inches each. Fig.000 lines per square required the cores of the magnetic circuit shown in Fig. for that reason the exact length of the cores was used in the calculation.4.400 hnes per square inch. 20.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. and for the yoke and armature 20 X 3. and through the yoke and armaTherefore.

3-193 or a total of 264 ampere-turns. .001" from both cores. 19. circuit.002 = 62. as the lines bulge somewhat. Joints or cracks in the magnetic circuit have the same general effect as demagnetization.6. including the air gap. 2 1 Fig. armature was removed even . and is i. 28 If the THE ELECTROMAGNET. In addition to increasing the reluctance of the an air gap introduces leakage and a demagnetizing action due to the iniiuence of the poles induced at the ends of the cores. since the permeability of air the ampere-turns required for the air gap alone would be IN = Bl = 3-193 100.0012 of an inch. introducing leakage and gap for Ewing and Low found the equivalent two wrought-iron bars to be about .002". as in Fig. an increase of 13. air an air gap. the total length of the air gap would be . The distance between the two faces of an air gap is not the exact length of the gap.. Efiect of Joint in Magnetic Circuit. 21.000 X .1 per cent over the ampere-turns required for the iron alone.

some reluctgap of the magnetic circuit. that there sulator of is no inmagnetism and that the permeability of air is taken as unity. "' = %• to) . The eifect 29 for low of the joint is more noticeable as magnetizations than for high ones. From the the above is seen the importance of having all joints faced as nearly perfect as possible. area of the joint should at least equal the cross- sectional area of the part having the lowest permeability. where there is a difference It is therefore evident that since there is in the iron ance and air of potential. furthermore. The ratio between the total number of lines generated and the number of useful lines is called the leakage coThus. efficient. thus reducing the reluctance. 20. may be applied by finding the relative reluctances of the magnetic circuit proper and of the path of the leakage lines. some of the lines of force must pass between the cores or other parts of the magnetic circuit. The law of the divided electric circuits to magnetic circuits in this case also. p. The leakage may be calculated with great accuracy by plotting the probable leakage paths. was stated in art. 18. 13. attraction the increased decreases the distance between the faces of the joint. and is denoted by the symbol Vi.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. It Magnetic Leakage.

The following table f gives the magnetic reluctance per inch between unit lengths of two equal parallel cylinders surrounded by air and having various values of the .30 where THE ELECTROMAGNET. <^ <j!)i = = total flux. length of cylinders. useful flux. b • ratio -T b .u logic (ii). distance between centers. (38). where -= 7 where d = = 4= diameter of the cylinders. but between two cylinders it is •737 (R = d^ -^ . of is The numerical value as long as the ratio — is constant for all dimensions — constant. flat sur' The faces reluctance of the air space between two : is (R A.

F. Since at the yoke the difference of magnetic potential is approximately zero.5" apart. divided by 2. The leakage may be included in the total reluctance by multiplying the sum of the reluctances by the leakage coefficient.5965 ^ IN > (39) R being found in the table as explained above. and the reluctance for :^ = . the total reluctance between them is the reluctance per inch divided by the length of each cylinder in inches. including 3" long. Thus. and at the poles it is approximately or maximum. dia. i?=^(ii + :4 + :4).M. the reluctance of the magnetic the air gap. Solution.M.M. the cores . Average M. is reluctance per inch . — What is the leakage coefficient of an eleccircuit.M. when —= 3" 4. center to center.258. ? and 2" and the M. being .F. From this the leakage coejfficient Vi is found.F. (40) Example. is equal to the total M. =- =—= is From table. or = 3-i93 ^N ^ is ^^^^^ ^^ Therefore. 3 . the leakage in webers _ 92 = 1.F. tromagnet. Therefore.1 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT To find the air reluctance 3 between two equal parallel cylinders. the average difference of magnetic potential M. find the ratio — and opposite this value in the table is the reluctance per inch of length..etc. 4.

M. though not in the same proportion. must be increased approximately 1. avoidance of sharp corners and abrupt turns. Also the M. and the leakage coefficient ^=^/37)=^6:^ = Therefore. said to be .000 useful lines through the poles and armature of the magnet. . the total reluctance 1.000 •OS total useful lines would = 80.250 = 56. there equal the total was no leakage the flux.4i.086 therefore the useful lines are 23>2S°. the leakage may be reduced by the uniform distribution of the winding over the magnetic circuit.M. 21. Limits of Magnetization.750. In general. When is the magnetizing force about an iron or steel core gradually increased from zero.F.0705 including the leakage. between the poles can not be considered as the total M.000 — 23.F. A high as the reluctance in the cores complicates the problem.000 x. but the leakage is. (*?) .M.05 may be x = . circuit. M.F.32 If THE ELECTROMAGNET.41 times to produce 80. 80. 41 <^ 80.000. which is 4. the magnetization in the iron also increases. roundness and evenness of the magnetic and the. Ans.

. Macliinery. The iron is then said to be saturated..) * wiener. Dynamo-Elec. Mitis iron . until it 33 reaches a point where it is not affected by a very material increase in the magnetizing force.. ..500 122. working densities are about two-thirds of For practical work- ing densities see table. and the point at which the duction reaches the in- maximum is called the saturation point. p. . or the limit of magnetization. 22.. . 18 and 19.000 ... Values of B Wrought Cast steel iron 130.500 77i500 Ordinaiy cast iron The practical the densities given in the above table. 127.. 117. The following table * shows the various values of B for different grades of iron and steel at the saturation point. The relation between the values of H and B can be plotted as a curve which has the general form as in Fig.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. (Also see Figs.

34 THE ELECTROMAGNET. Hysteresis. the magnetization will be found to have a higher value in the decreasing series of 3C than in the increasing series. If the now the magnetizing force is gradually reduced from maximum value to zero. . 22.

: ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. but the general form will always be the same.0045 for transformer irons. the corresponding values of (B 35 wUl be found on the tests of curve at the right. is which in alter- nating-current apparatus is very serious. The area of the loop represents the loss due to heat in is the iron. . and the force which maintains the magnetization is called the known Coercive Force. and known as the Hysteresis Loop. This diagram is taken from one of Ewing's is a very soft iron ring. = maximum induction per square centimeter. again. The area of the loop will vary for different grades of iron or steel. Retentiveness. The reason why tion coils rapid-acting electromagnets or inducin the have openings magnetic circuit is because the iron ness. and the values of (B in the increasing series will never be quite equal to the decreasing value. makes the it action sluggish due to the retentive- If the armature of an electromagnet actually touches will stick after the current ceases to the pole pieces.=/«„(B« where W^=. 23. flow through the winding. and called the Hysteresis Loss. «„ = a constant varying from . f= number of cycles per second.002 for soft irons to .watts (S> (41) lost per cubic centimeter of iron. and that portion of magnetization which remains is called Residual Magnetization. That property which tends to retain magnetization is as Retentiveness. This energy loss expressed by the following formula due to Steinmetz fF.

24 H. 5 ohms. How many Two coils of horse-power in the circuit in Prob3.F. how many watts would be expended on the winding? 25 watts.36 THE ELECTROMAGNET.M. ohms and 50 ohms respectively are connected in series in a 10-volt circuit. across its terminals when a current of ampere is flowing through the winding? 50 volts. How many watts would be expended in Problem 2 ? 4.400 watts. is of an electric circuit is no volts and the resistance will flow 2. 6. assuming the resistance of the coils to be the entire resistance of the circuit 1. What would be the expenditure in watts in Problem I ? 2. no volts? 33-91 amperes. Problems. 5. In Problem 10. What is the resistance of the II ohms. What will . How many ? watts will they consume. The E. circuit 3. 4.24 ohms. How many ? amperes of current 22 amperes. In Problem 3. .420 watts.F. is through the circuit The ? current strength of a circuit is 20 amperes and the E. 220 volts. A coil of wire has a resistance of 100 ohms. 11.M.F. What would be 7 ? the resistance of the circuit in Problem 9.P. 1.5 be the E. if how many watts would be con? sumed the two coils were connected in parallel 6 watts.M. 3. How many amperes would be required to produce S horse-power in a circuit at 8. 7. 25 lem 1 ? 10.33 watts.

gilberts.F.1 centimeter long by 2 ? in cross-section 5 gilberts.M.100 ? 11-93 ampere-turns. 37 Three coils of 5 ohms. and p^ = 3 ? 1. and with per- p = 2.200 gilberts and the reluctance will flow . = n.7 volts. The M. 2. square centimeter in cross1. measured along one 20.M. /*= intensity will i>SS°- What be required for an induction B of 5.200.000 webers through a reluctance of . would be required to force gap . with a magnetizing force of H= 4? 21. What is the reluctance? How many gilberts will be required to force 20.000 webers. A 10.500 ? many ampere-turns would be H= 3-33required to force 16.025 oersted? 500 17.000 lines of force through a magnetic circuit 10 inches long and meability square inches in cross-section.15 oersted. terminals of p^.92 ohms. is 15. ? How many webers through the circuit flux of 1.ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC CIRCUIT. What is the joint resistance? 13. is line of force the permeability of an iron core in which is the induction B 6. What if is the reluctance of a magnetic circuit 10 i centimeters in length and section.200. What What is the M. gilberts. 18. 7. In Fig.000 gausses 22. How 2 when p. 16. of a magnetic circuit is is 1. p^ = 7. How many 100 webers through an square centimeters 19.000 webers obtained with 1.800? the permeability gilberts air is -00555 H" oersted. 14. 12 ohms. if p^ what would be the voltage across the = 4. = 1.001 oersted.500 .F. p. 12. and 17 ohms respectively are connected in multiple. in 2 ? centimeters of length 2 gilberts. .


What would be
the total flux produced by 200

ampere-turns in a magnetic circuit 16 inches long,

square inches in cross-section, and with permeability 2,000?


119,738 webers.

In Problem


what would be the

intensity of



ampere-turns would be required to pro-

How many

duce a density of magnetization = 1,700 square inch if /= 8 and


of 55,000 lines per

81.06 ampere-turns.


What would be

the density of magnetization



IN =











the magnetizing force








In 25, what are the ampere-turns required per
10.13 ampere-turns.

linear inch of magnetic circuit



the leakage coefficient where the useful

flux is 120,000 lines

and the

total flux is

180,000 lines







the useful flux


the total flux



and the leakage

coefficient 1.4



the air reluctance between the cores of a magnet each i" diameter, 3" long, and 2" apart, center


to center?




ampere-turns would be required in Fig. 20 to force 50,000 lines per square inch through the cores

How many


the armature




from the poles, not

considering leakage

Approximately 2,000 ampere-turns.






Simple Principle of Calculating Windings.


length of any strand which

may be wound



given bobbin of any shape or form depends upon two
things only,


available volume

the bobbin,

and the

cross-sectional constant.


= length of strand in inches,
in square inches,

V = volume of winding space

= cross-sectional constant.





the cross-section of the strand.

must not be confused with To make the meaning clear, assume that a strand of roimd insulated wire is wound in two layers on a tube, as in Fig. 24, shown in
cross-sectional constant


Fig. 24.

It will

be seen


the insulated wire


once that the cross-sectional area of g^ X .7854, in which g represents

the diameter of the insulated wire, while the actual area

Wliile this

equal to g^, which

the area of each square.


only approximately correct on account of

the imbedding of the wires,

illustrates the

general prininsulated
wire, not-

As a matter
it is

of fact,


best to



when winding with known volume with the

ing the length of the wire, and then working backwards by

using formula (43), g^
of g', a

V = j-

Then, with the known value
to suit

volume may be calculated

any required

length of wire, or the length of wire

may be


will just

a given bobbin.


the resistance of an electrical conductor of constant

cross-section varies directly with


it is


that the resistance of any wire

which may be contained

any bobbin or winding volume may be readily calculated.

Copper Constants.



has been found by careful experiment that a


drawn copper

wire, .001" in diameter,

has a resistance of 10.3541 ohms per foot at 68° F.
Therefore, to find the resistance in

ohms per

foot for any

other copper wire, divide 10.3541 by the area of the wire
in circular mils,

a mil being one-thousandth of an inch,
the square of

and a

circular mil

the diameter in mils.

Thus, a wire .005"

mils) in

diameter has a cross-

sectional area of 25 circular mils, expressed 25

(40 ^^'

Thus, ohms per foot (u'= ^°'^t^^


may be


it is

required to

know what

resistance p

obtained in a given bobbin of volume V, with

sulated copper 4I that wire of diameter A.68 -2 = 1. ohms per foot times the number . Assume in. Most Efficient Winding.^1:41 = ^l.WnVDIXG CALCULATIONS. 2. and where a constant resistance is required.000196 7 = 8>S7o ^ „ = 715 . if the . since ^ =A+ (42). thereby increasing the ampereturns. is —^V.^c4i 100 •i°3S4i^^^ The resistance p equal to the product of the of feet.^^41 10= io. (46) Then. and the diamcovered diameter up . = 10. V =^= g'' 1.68 cu.-. The meth- ods of calculating volumes of various forms of bobbins will be given in subsequent pages. since the magnetomotive force proportional to the ampere-turns..103541 X 71S = 74 ohms.014 . Since the current is equal to the voltage divided by the resistance. CM. by using formula 4.68 .= —^^^ = 10.010" (10 mils). feet. the reader thor- The foregoing given merely to make oughly familiar with the underlying principle. 26. p = is . and that with cotton insulation to .014" which brings the total = g. the lower the resistance the greater will be the current flowing through the turns of wire. The most efficient is winding for developing or absorbing in magnetic energy one which the resistance is low and is the turns are numerous. ^ By formula ohms per foot ^ (45). it is the available winding volume eter of the wire is V= 1.

27. The ampere-turns depend upon two make mean volts. viz. the ampere-turns will increase also. the wire with lowest resistance should be used and as copper fulfills the practical requirements. for the cross-section of core. the round core . meaning would be / E =—= pi loo = ICO amperes. ohms and the cur- and consequently there would be loo ampere-turns as before. proportional to the surface of the core. of turns may be increased. the current in amperes clear. number of turns. all wires will be understood to be of copper unless other- wise specified. In calculating the above. things only. the voltage and the resistance of the average turn. . leakage from core to core. For this reason.. assume lo turns of wire instead of i turn. and the voltage loo According to Ohm's law. The ance will Now resist- increase directly with the therefore the resistance would be lo rent lo amperes.42 number THE ELECTROMAGNET. for the resistance of the turns increases directly as the diameter increases. in direct proportion to the number of turns. Circular Windings. the To assume the resistance of the or average turn to be one ohm. the average turn must always be taken. . A round core is the most economical form. as more turns of wire may be wound same thereon with a given amount Since the of copper. for equal is mean distances apart. 100 amperes and i turn= loo ampere-turns =^IN.

1 41 6 = circumference of circle. 25. thickness of winding. 25. ^ = diameter of core (49) and the volume r=7rZ XP.WIA'D/NG CALCULATIONS. therefore very commonly used. -). (5°) . core really a hollow cylin- and its volume is equal to ttMLT. Where M= Z= TT T= = (See Fig. has a decided advantage. length of winding. ratio between diameter and 3. as for equal sectional areas. (48) D = true diameter of winding. M== Where J? +d (47) T = D-d + sleeve. is The winding on a round der. it 43 has the minimum surface to and there are no sharp edges it is facilitate leakage. Fig.) the average diameter of the winding.

^=£2' (63) . be the inch. CM.00000086284 ttZCZ)^ . Formula (45) then reduces „ to —ohms . ^-= Since the resistance p is ^^ —d") (60 equal to the product of the of inches.000.0000027107. <u ^ .000 circular mils. and circular mils to circular one circular inch being 1. (57) (58) Since the unit of length throughout these calculations will reduced to ohms per inches. 10. Thus. (S5) (56) (si) (S2) (S3) (54) £) d=D-2T=M-T.001" in diameter is one circular mil or .00000086284 (60) Substituting the value of V in (42). (59) Substituting circular inches for circular mils.86284 per inch.0000027107 Z(Z''' _ — (/") 4FAr Assigning ^ to . T=D-M=M-d.— 44 THE ELECTROMAGNET.000001 circular inch. the cross-sectional area of a wire . and (62) ^to iroj". ohms per inch times the number _ . the resistance of conductors must be inch. also M=D-T=T+d. = 2T+d = M+T.3541 12 CM.

Z= 2. The As in practice the value of sizes of wire. (66) (6s) = -^-^(^-^) 4 is = rmLT. used. and the ratio between winding volume and resistance. is the resistance which will be obtained when MLT ^ factor. Example. g"^ is the space and R the combined resistance and space factor. What What size of single silk-covered wire must be used ? so that a resistance of 500 {b) ohms may be obtained will be the actual value oi Dl . the smaller wire is taken foimd for D between two and a new value by the formula deduced from (6g). (67) Hence ^ I.WINDING CALCULATIONS. K is it is the resistance factor. 137—147 are calculated on this prinand the proper wire to be used for the required resistance is found opposite the value of R. (a) — Given D = d= . Therefore. R usually falls y RL is This gives the actual theoretical diameter of the winding when a standard insulated wire \. ciple. follows that From (67) tables on pp. formula (62) reduces to '• 45 = -^7 i? (64) Let then p = ^.43.

185) ^ 2. use formula derived from (70).480 opposite No. as it When insulation always should be in practice. Hence. as a combined space and varies resistance R is inversely as A^ x A^ = A*. R- 4P LiEP-d'^ ^ 2. THE ELECTROMAGNET.63 ^ J 228 In the table. as the diameters do not have to be squared . R= not considering insulation. = To V. considered. -—^.960 V. factor. — From (69). resistance of a conductor varies inversely as the square of fill its diameter. and the length of a conductor that will a given winding volume varies inversely as the square its of diameter also. the factor <') R may be better underThe stood as a combined space and resistance factor. ''=V^^^As previously stated.185 = 2.18S (B).928. Therefore. Ans.861 = . 1. ^^A^(A+77' The following is *^^^^ a simple method of finding MT. {a). the nearest is R value for silk-covered wire Ans. 35 wire.000 2(1 -.00° 1. find the internal diameter of the winding.000 .676-1-. The actual diameter of the winding will be D 2.: 46 Solution.

32 =T . it is considered that the resistance inversely with the square of the diameter of the wire plus it is readily seen that these factors are most important. but with the outside diameter the variation even more marked. the diameter of the core i.6& (52). may to wind on must be core. a variation of 23 per cent in the amount of wire that in a given winding volume. the diameter after the paper or mica or other insulating material has been wrapped around the though for the thickness of the insulating sleeve. ^IAA .WINDING CALCULATIONS. (73) Points to be Observed in Practice. . varies When insulation. makes a great difference in the volume of the winding. 32 =. 4/ Thus.: MT=.^ = d :68 = ^ . T= ^~ ^ (48). Also. The variation of one-thousandth of an inch in the thickness of the insulation on a No.e. 35 wire will cause be wound taken. 00 = D 1.2ij6. slight. also The true outside diameter must is be accurately meas- ured for the same reason as with the core. the utmost care must in measuring the exact dimensions of the will winding volume. The length of wire in inches in any winding is L = -^r28. and M=T+d X . be exercised In calculating magnet windings. otherwise the results vary greatly..

Thus it is seen that too much precaution cannot be observed. D = — (74). a difference almost too small to detect with a micrometer.48 THE ELECTROMAGNET. there will be Assuming that the weight of the wire in the winding. if the above wire operation so that was stretched during the winding the diameter was reduced from . the resistance would be but 795 difference of 19. there would be an increase in resistance of 7 per cent. where = length of wrap of paper.6 per cent in the increase. insulation on the wire is 3 mil another error of 4. The proper way winding is to which will just to measure the outside diameter of a measure the length of a piece of paper go around it. 26. wound without considering the insulating sleeve. . 36 single silkcovered wire.005 " to .5 per cent. using the actual dimensions of the bobbin -:=_") 00 ^" Fig. and then dividing it by ir. if the winding to contain 950 ohms of No.95 inch diameter. Thus. or a Again. ohms. was calculated In the case of the bobbin in Fig. 26.0049 ". and then it was apparently full of wire but really to but . Ij.

(78) then from the table select the next smaller size for g''' and calculate the new diameter for this value of ^^ by the formula and with by formula ^ = ^V^. number of turns (76) (77) To find the insulated wire and resistance when dimenare given.WINDING CALCULATION^. If 40 be found to measured with calipers the winding it will be slightly elliptical. ^=^ance of the average turn. or p (75) The resistance may be easily found when the turns are known. sions of the bobbin and the proceed as follows : Find the value of g^ by formula deduced from (75). 29. of turns is The number which may be contained g"^ . in any bobbin of any form equal to one-half the longitudinal- sectional area divided by thus. the new value of D the resistance (67). ^^=#. Formulae for Turns. (79) is calculated P = RL{iy-cF) : . rendering impossible to measure the exact diameter accurately. by multiplying the number of turns by the resist- = TTis/'MN = KMN. Resistance. and Ampere-turns.

the resistance increases and the current decreases in the same constant for ratio. With constant current. ^=i. for as the length and turns increase..50 THE ELECTROMAGNET.(8o) . In order to find the resistance of a coil of wire having a definite number of ampere-turns with a certain size of wire. Ampere-turns are calculated by the formula /^=^. the ampere-turns and voltage would increase directly with the turns and resistance. KM representing the resistance of the average this it is (80) turn. The length of the bobbin affects the heating of the winding. This is found by the following formula derived 2 from (80): p produce a certain winding space with given To find the exact diameter of wire to in a given number of ampere-turns voltage. thus keeping the ampere-turns constant voltage. however. (63) IN = /i\^=-^. it is necessary to find the outside diameter of the winding. In seen that the length of the winding makes no differ- ence in the number of ampere-turns. and will be explained fully farther on. use formula derived from (63) and (80).

resistance w ance. but the number of turns will decrease as the . (83) D^l^^d.WINDING CALCULATIONS. the resistance of When will a bobbin is constant with a given size of wire. the outside diameter of the winding be increased by an increase in the thickness of the insulation. Constant Resistance with Variable Insulation.)] Ng' (^' (86) the resistance or weight directly Therefore. J/ = r+ ^ =^ + + dj. ^I T=\. found directly by Formula (87) of the winding is then found . is the combined and space factor.. the MLT'vs. multiplying Lb where Lb = "^^^ (^^^ J-i + '"^ (89) — weight in pounds. by R and w. and bears the same relation to weight that R bears to resist- Thus. (90) «'=y when Q = (91) =^2 (92) ohms per pound for insulated copper wires. d. 30. (52) (79) (84) (S3. by substituting the values as in formulte (88) and MLT and (89). MLT = L f(f. Lb = wMLT.

6% for the same in the value of ^. V- tg+^-.030. resistance. If the insu- lation on the wire brought the If diameter . . but the thickness of the insulation changes.600.5^ THE ELECTROMAdNMT. m= Thus. is all dimensions of the bobbin are constant resistance of the wire The diameter and of turns for constant. _ gi (95) (96) (97) (98) N mL N . ^ = the turns would be 6. Layers and Turns Per Inch.43 and L= 2.? («) ^J- assume a bobbin with total d= .001" 31. To find the number of layers of wire that may be wound in thickness of winding T. g up to . 36. and resistance 500 ohms. N= mnL. thickness of the winding increases. but the turns would be 7. In this case excepting D.009. because the length of the average turn increases with the diameter. wire No.008". or a loss of over with a difference of . The number will any thickness of insulation be "=^1 As an illustration. use formula « T =— I (94) The number of turns of wire per inch.

formulae convenient in 32. It would be impracticable to use a wire of greater often too high to be obtained in the . Small Magnets on High-Voltage Circuits.3541 X _ 194 The and simplest method is to find if what resistance would copper wire were used. This resistance given winding volume with the finest insulated copper wire on the market.WINDING CALCULATIONS. multiply the resistance of copper by the coefficent for the other kind of wire.76 10. 1 8 15^ German has a specific resistance 18. magnet or solenoid that the winding is and hence the resistance of the winding must be very great in order may not be overheated. 53 ^= ^. are often found The above practice. Windings with Wires Other than Copper. it is In practice often required to place a small electroin a high-voltage circuit. be obtained in the given bobbin tlien multiplying by the coefiicient for the other wire. (100) (lOl) Where ^„= gi vertical value of wire and insulation. = lateral value of wire and insulation. ^' T n (99) = ^.76 times that of copper hence the ohms per foot equal 18. Thus. 33. silver wire . winding with wire of differ- To find the resistance of a ent specific resistance than copper.

R^D" ^ R . and still leave enough wire winding to be room for the high-resistance wound over the copper wire winding. and the balance with a high-resistance wire. X— .R^ip' RX'' - X^. would short of requirements . using enough of the copper to give the greatest number of turns.: X= Changing signs. (102) ^ ^ .54 resistivity THE ELECTROMAGNET. - Rd"" + R^cP . Since the resistance If we now represent the outside diameter of the copper winding.R^X\ R^jy. RX^ . and consequently the internal diameter of the high-resistance wire winding total resistance and the i?i. as the turns. therefore. and consequently the fall ampere-turns. the usual method is to wind part of the magnet with copper wire. and let p equal the value for the high-resistance wire winding by the formula becomes ^= ^= X' R{X^-d-^-\. R by X. than copper.R^X^ = ^ + Rd^- ^ + Rd^.1 V Ri-R \:ff f.

40 S.590 29. amount of No. ^' Am. (outside diameter).900 V. for 18%.8 times the resistance of copper. '356. </ = L= 1.000 + 2. is to contain 10.43.976. with the greatest wire.6. Resistance Wires. and . 28.C. The commercial German silver wdres are of two grades The 18% wire has about viz.qo -^3 .1 = ( 356. are German silver and Climax.D.690 356.000 ohms. 40—30% — S. will be just enough room left for the German silver wire to bring the total resistance up to 10.S. 40 30% German limiting silver wire to g^ve the resistance within the O. The resistance wires most commonly used in connection with electromagnet windings to increase the resistance may be used on a circuit of high voltage. R for Xo. and the 30% wire The temperature .i.590. — X ^ R for No. 18'^ and 30% nickel. Therefore.0001185 per degree .1 times the resistance of copper.S.00017 P^'" coefBcient for German silver wire is degree F.000 ohms. Example.av 1 ^.690 / 28.015 I ^ — — o ^ V 343.690.348 7\ ~ = and there ' t / /^. Solution.976 " with copper wire. .C..590 — 740.9525 ^^ ^ = . 40 copper and just enough No. 34. German silver wire = 12. WINDING CALCULATIONS. wind to a diameter of . 55 — A bobbin with dimensions Z> = i. so that they 18.1 .5. coppier wire = 12.

the carrying capacity of two wires of equal diameter but of different materials varies inversely as the square root of their specific resistances. for THE ELECTROMAGNET. total number of turns. of Climax Its its wire has about 48 times the resistance copper.137. 148 is based on made by a well-known manufacturer the ohms per . the may be is calculated. is .5 for both 18% and 30%. As the resistance of German silver varies in the same specimen. and Under similar conditions. 30%. temperature coefficient specific gravity 8. pound are based on an average specific gravity of 8. One Coil Wound Directly Over the Other. The latter method necessary when different sizes of wires are used on successive windings. tests The German silver wire table on p. using the D of the first coil plus paper.00042 per degree F.56 F. total resistance can then be calculated by formula " = i is This is not absolutely correct. 35. as paper usually re- wrapped between the two windings.5. Specific gravity approximately 8. but not absolutely correct. for the d of the outer coil. . the table is to be considered as commercially correct. sistance of each coil Therefore. Simply figure for the formula (79). using D = 2Ng' L ' The (66).

5/ In certain types of electromagnetic apparatus. there will effect of be no magnetic action whatever. if Again. coils thus wound are used on and either act separately. . calculate the resistance for a insulated wire. so that the inductive effect is electrostatic as well as electromagnetic. the coils consist of two parallel wires coiled simultaneously. but the fact of having the two windings in parallel gives the condenser effect also. when flowing through one coil only. thus really forming but one coil. but the winding referred to above for telephone is classed under the heading of Repeating Coils. coils simultaneously. the will magnet have approximately twice the strength. each being insulated from the other. Parallel Windings. and when the same amount flows through both coils in the same direction. To find the resistance of each wire in parallel windsingle ings. it acts with of current a certain strength. with each other. principle is employed in the making of noncur- inductive resistance coils. as the magnetic one coil is neutralized The latter by the effect of the other. especially those used in telephone and telegraph work. in conjunction . thus forming two separate and distinct circuits. The work differential relay is also used in telephone switch- boards. 36.WINDING CALCULATIONS. or in opposition to each other the current is thus. The telephone it repeating coil is really an induction coil. only in this case the same rent passes through both coils. the same strength of current flows through both but in opposite directions. In telegraph work the poljirized relays.

8 and Fig. = n^Jr. or the resistance of any number of wires connected in series is equal to the square of the two wires in series is just number of wires times the resistance in multiple. . and then apply formula = KMN. or = ^. 2. The total resistance of the wire to the resistance of all the wires connected in is Likewise. 10. p. as several finer ones will have the same cross-section and still be flexible. Another form of winding which may be classed under Parallel Windings is where two or more insulated wires are wound in parallel and the respective ends electrically (77) p connected together so as to act as one conductor. or p. A good method of finding the respective resistances of two or more wires wound simultaneously and in parallel is to calculate the number of turns. the resistance 4 times their resistance when connected in multiple. in 9.used is (104) of course equal series. number (103) of wires in mul- Likewise.58 THE ELECTROMAGNET. Referring to Fig. This is sometimes necessary where a wire of large cross-section is to be wound upon a very small core. the resistance of any tiple is equal to the resistance of the wires in series divided of the by the square number Jr of wires. the resistance of each wire total resistance divided equal to the by the number of wires. and divide by since it is really but one complete coil with half the resistance in each branch. to each wire separately.

. For any size of wire. To resistance find the resistance of each wire. 38. 2. equal resistance in a divide the resistance of each wire by the number of wires in the Thus. number of turns. The current at any given voltage varies inversely as the square of the resistance. Sg To find the joint resistance of coil. 3. any number of wires of coil. (105) Jr=^. Joint Resistance of Parallel Windings. 37. or inversely as the square of the cross-section of the wire. Ps= n^Jr. or inversely as the The weight of wire constant for any size. If the ratio between wire and insulation was constant for all sizes of wire. multiply the joint by the number of wires. and conse- quently the the wire. number is of turns. The total resistance is (106) equal to the joint resistance multiplied by the square of the number of wires. varies as the cross-section of The resistance varies as the square of the number of turns. the length of wire. the following laws would hold for a given winding volume 1. (103) Size of Relations Holding for Any Wire and Winding Volume. 4. or inversely as the fourth power of the diameter of the wire.: WINDING CALCULATIONS. p=/rn„.

36 is angle of divergence is 6°-36'is W. 39. as in Fig. 27. however. THE ELECTROMAGNET.005" diameter.6o 5. or. in such a manner that the circles will just touch one another and the bounding lines. For every two half as approximately doubled. In practice. 0000 .) Wire gauges are arranged series. and No. or as the square of the diameter of the wire. The magnetic efiEect varies as the current muItipUed by the square root of the resistance. there large is a wide variation between and small insulated wires. and increases approximately 25% for half-sizes. 27.46" diameter. . in the (B. 33 I J* I « !« Ij?ImY3j1W) Fig. as may be seen by consizes of insulated wire the resistance is it is sulting the insulated wire tables. 40". and for each consecutive size much again . & S. which may be placed between two lines at a given angle.* The * . form of a geometrical The sizes are determined by the diameter of the circles. J. in other words. The American Wire Gauge. the resistance in- creases approximately 501^ for each consecutive size of insulated wire with the same insulation. Varley. The American wire gauge series in is based on the geometrical which No.

0503535.005 = V Q2 = 1. — (33 1. 1220^2.6627578.-. Example.46 1. to find the diame. Log Log . Thus. proceed as follows Since log A ="1.6627578 1. — the diameter of No. — What Solution. The exact diameter of half or quarter sizes rule.-. the factorial diiference (or progression ratio) between any two sizes is .122932] (108) (109) 1.0503535).0010923. . .6627578 is - lis + 3) .0503535]. Log A Log A = = A= £.6627578 -log •0503535 (no) ' ^ .46 — [(j- + 3) log 1. most conveniently worked out by means of logarithms. X .i22932('^3) ' (i°7) where This is j = the desired gauge number.0100252. Ans.6627578 . = = 122932 log A= 1. 36. 30 wire? . 0000 6 and No. ^= i. 6616655 = 2.ter of any wire.6627578 J - [(j + 3) •0503535]3. may be found by the same To find the gauge number corresponding : to any diam- eter of wire. = log . As there are just 39 sizes between No.A 1 WINDING CALCULATIONS. (109) 1.

400 A*.000 ohms of No. the following relations hold Pounds per foot Pounds per ohm = = 3.0269 A^ (i 1 1) 292.9294189 _ •°S°3S35 or approximately No. as found very con- venient in estimating mentally the size of wire to have a certain resistance when the resistance and length of another size of wire are known." on : page 136. in the ratio of 2 for every be less length of From the data given in the " Explanation of Table. In the American Wire Gauge the ratio of diameters for every six sizes that is. . 36 wire.0085" in diameter Solution. since there heavy wire in a given volume than there would be of finer wire in the same volume.4.62 Example. is nearly 2. 40. will vary nearly two sizes of wire. 37 has twice it is the cross-sectional area of No. a bobbin containing 500 ohms of No. ^ — 1. the exact ratio being 2. The will resistance of a bobbin. 24. 30 is twice that of No. No. This is important to remember. i}^'^) .6627578 ^ - 3. etc. 31. the diameter of No.0050 is +. Ans. 34 wire would contain approximately 1. The cross-sectional areas of the wires vary in the ratio of nearly 2 for every three sizes. 18 twice the diameter of No. THE ELECTROMAGNET. — What size in the ? American Wire Gauge is a wire . 36 No. Thus. etc. however. Thus.

63 = "^^°^ Feet per ohm = 96. 40. (46). ^. specific gravity of cotton is 1. . on a when the exact resistance has been calculated for : heating or other conditions.-- ^ - ("7) t= in ^_^_^_A. specific gravity of The The The copper is 8. 41. /.377. v/. -.WINDING CALCULATIONS. proceed as follows From (63)..585 A^. and from Now ^= J(65) =A+ = ^.(^(73). (119) which the value of R from (69) has been substituted.000010^1:41 tt^ " ("^) . To wire find the thickness of insulation permissible.89. Thickness of Insulation. Ratio of Weight of Copper to Weight of Insulation. Ohms per foot r = .03. specific gravity of silk is 1. K= ^ i5. Ohms per pound = —^ Feet per pound ' (113) (114) (i is) .

values for cotton and silk being taken The tightly when wound specific around the wire. and 1.89 A^+ 1. S=^'8. — What — . = S>473 X = 4. . proportional to their 8. to find the 8. g'' A^ 8. (120) The percentage of copper in a cotton-insulated wire is .03S From the table •• ^ fi = "T^H^Iif = 9°% 36 bare wire . first find the percentage of copper in the insulated wire. S is the relative weight of cotton in 2 representing the cross-sectional area .89 A^ = = S= .-.•.473. with two-mil increase for insulation Solution.89 A"" A2. .90 is .89A2-h 1.377 wire.89 A^- is the relative weight of copper. 5.926. per cent of copper ^"'^ _ Therefore. — ohms per pound for insulated wires. 36 ? silk-covered wire.89A^-H.000025 8. the insulated of the cotton.000024 .035' ohms per pound for (IZ2) any insulated wire. O for No. Am.64 THE ELECTROMAGNET.0002223 copper. Example.377 S' and for silk-insulated wire.000049 . and then compare with the weight for bare wire.89 A" "'~8. "= 8. is the ohms per pound for No. B = ohms per pound for bare wires. are Since the weights gravities.

138 and 147 are calculated on is this principle. to be 90 "fo of the gross weight insulated very The percentage of weight of German silver wire will be 8.377 S % G. The weight therefore. (123) ^^^^-^^'^^ 8.5A'+t. WINDING CALCULATIONS.5 A= -I- much in error. and the com- parison of the tables so deduced. found by dividing the combined resistance and space tor by the ohms per pound Thus. The tables on pp.o3S ==^°^-^- (''^) The ohms per pound for any grade of cotton or silk may then be found after the manner of solving for copper wire. since the percentage the reciprocal of the weight of copper. we or.. . will that the show a great discrepancy in the latter method of assuming the weight of copper is .5 A^ 8. 148. The above the only sure method of computing the relative weights of copper and insulation. German silver in a cotton- 1. and then may be found by multiplying the weight of the insulated wire by the percentage of by subtracting the weight of copper from the weight of the insulated wire get the weight of the insulation of weight of insulation is . with other insulated-wire tables. it may be found after the same manner as finding the weight of copper. the of insulated wire in a winding is obviously equal to the resistance divided by the ohms per pound fac- combined weight and space factor may be of the insulated wire. The weight of 6$ copper in the insulated wire copper.S. by consulting the German silver insulated wire wire table on p. also.

pounds. (90) 42.89 A^ A" Therefore.1549 S A^ . . 1-03 S 2 8. 66 THE ELECTROMAGNET. and weight of a bare copper it wire. Thus.. The weight of cotton that will insulate one is pound of bare copper wire equal to 1.89 A^ ^ _ " . any weight of copper wire to a given mil increase For For cotton. — Given the A= A. to find the weight of silk necessary to insulate to . = No.1159 ' and for silk.377s 8. when the size of wire and the insulation are known.. Weight of Insulation to Insulate Any Wire. & S. in Weight pounds = wMLT. C^='—^-~ i'^ — in (125) (126) silk. the weight of insulation in pounds that will insulate is. multiply the MLT of the winding by the combined weight and space factor w.005 500. where X = weight of bare wire size Example.002" increase. 36 B. = lLl^^. to find the weight of wire in a winding. (91) '^=^J- Therefore. Let = .

Solution. 67 — ^ = A + « = . The Fig. and cast Cast wrought iron. cores. .005 + -002 = . owing it costs more per pound. is veiy important in some not so forms of apparatus also. Ans. which .WINDING CALCULATIONS. General Construction of Electromagnets.1159 SA. for small electromagnets. .007. usual form of electromagnet is that shown in 1 Fig. yoke. iron. 2Z — ^ ^^ = . The steel. A magnet of cast steel is often actufirst cheaper as to cost than one of cast iron. steel is namo ally field used extensively in the construction of dymagnets. From From TFrom (46). or cast steel for large ones. 28. % =^^ — A^ = 000049 —.000025 =. although Besides the of space first cost is to and weight.000024. 43. (120) / (126) ^ /-s S^ = c^ <" . be considered the economy to the saving in weight.0013908 . the cost of the core is . and armature are made of iron or usually soft Swedish iron.000025 iH_ = „ ^ 1-^63 lbs. 28.

thus causing a large proportion of the total voltage to exist between these turns. fiber. The washers ber. thus avoiding shortcircuits. If the wire is wound on carelessly. Insulation of Bobbin for High Voltage. or or flanges are usually made of hard rub- wood. a puncture or " breakdown " The result is when comparatively high voltages are used on the coils. the core is insulated with paper. rnica. insu- lating material. be thoroughly insulated with paper shellacked to the brass for When bobbins are made of brass. layers that it is necessary to distribute the electrical stresses uniformly throughout the winding." as it is sometimes called. according to the voltage to be applied to the winding. some of the first turns later may lie adjacent to others which were wound on much in the operation. such as paper or linen impregnated with Sterling varnish. especially in fine wire windings. or the insulated linen mentioned above. or " hap- hazard. 44.68 THB ELECTROMAGNET. is placed over the brass tube and against silk the washers. The reason why the wire should be wound evenly in is. is Before the wire wound on to the bobbin. important as the decrease in the cost of wire where a good quaUty of iron or steel is used. The about wire it is usually insulated by winding cotton or spirally. The wire is then wound on evenly in layers by revolv- ing the bobbin on a spindle and guiding the wire by hand. Where brass spools are used. they should . so that adjacent turns in the winding may not come into electrical contact with one another. fiber.

the size varying with the size of the wire in the winding. 69 low voltages. but for high voltages special precautions must be taken. there should be several The terminals should consist of flexible rubber-covered conductor. and then baked linen until the varnish is dry. . so that there It is better to can be no leak- age at these points. and the end flanges should slits also be covered with several layers of the same material. The winding should also be covered with insulating and treated with Sterling varnish. as then the linen washers do not have to be cut. of the winding. The tube should fringed at the ends first be covered with several wraps of the Pittsburgh Insulating . The Unen washers should be placed over the wrapping of linen on the tube. Company's insulating linen.WINDING CALCULATIONS. The coil should be thoroughly baked out and dipped in the Sterling Varnish Company's "Extra Insulating Varnish " until it is thoroughly permeated by it. If the inside terminal is to be brought out at the top more insulating washers between the terminal and the end of the winding. Press board and Fuller board are also used for low voltages as insulating washers and covers for the winding. with the fringe between the metal washer and the linen washer. assemble the linen washers before the brass washers. Large windings consisting of fine wire are usually covered with heavy cotton cord for mechanical protection. care being taken to have the at least or cuts in the linen washers 90 degrees apart.

the direction of the turns being alternately right and of the turns left . but diametrically opposite on the winding the turns of the upper layer sink into the groove between the turns of the layer beneath Fig. ELECTROMAGNET. At the point where adjacent helices cross one another they appear as in Fig. The winding when evenly wound to say. the direction in layers. 29. 29. that is on one layer. in the next layer. 31): . whereas. of an electromagnet. 31. then gradually leave the it. 30. Where the imbedding occurs the following relations hold (see Fig. the inclination will be to the right. as in Fig. Fig. 30. instead of being at right angles to the core.70 TtlE 45. will incline slightly to the left. 29. consists of helices. Fig. Theory of Magnet Windings. as in groove until they reach the highest point again. Fig.


and the tables on pp.72 THE ELECTR0MAGNE7\ of loss The percentage due to this is equal to the loss in turns per layer divided by the turns per layer. but more layers than calculated. the turns and resistance the same as calculated. coil. were this fact not taken into consideration. little due to the unevenness of the insulation. 138 this principle. based on 46. or per cent =— m • The lateral value of g is greater than the vertical value is as just explained. the value of g^ of the diameter of the wire is equivalent to the square with a ratchet-stop to 147 are and insulation as measured micrometer. it found necessary to insert stout pieces of paper occasion- ally between the layers form a bridge to keep the grooves appear which are winding smooth. and the flattening of the insulation vertically laterally . In winding a is and especially to if fine wire is used. When tension the wire is wound on is much greater than the lateral tension. the vertical compression of the insulation. disadvantageous. and 5n a short all semblance of being wound While paper it is almost absolutely necessary to insert this it is in the winding. However. which has to be considered. makes it spread out thus there are less turns per layer than calculated. otherwise time the winding will lose in layers. as the available . will be approximately In practice. but there another variation due to the to the bobbin. Paper inserted into the Winding.

in this turns are obtained with the same length of form of winding. In the covered wire windings. its This winding derives wire silk. the insulation ratio of insulation to wire varies. Paper inserted in the winding thus decreases the ampere-turns by increasing the outside diameter.WINDING CALCULATIONS. thus forming a new this d. while the . strong new d value. Many more wire. a very marked Hence. and consequently the resistance of the average turn. paper should be used. Magnets. is constant for nearly all sizes of single-covered fine wire. and then as sparingly as possible. they are also called Machine-wound erally. as the insulating materials occupy less space. is name from the fact that bare coiled into the winding together with a strand of which insulates adjacent turns from each other latThe layers are insulated from each other by As these windings are made by autosuitable paper. 47. howradiating surface is ever. By increasing the outside diameter of the winding. the volume of the winding be calculated with difference will be noted in thin. This is 73 reduced in exact ratio to the volume of may be and if appreciated if the paper be removed from the winding and wrapped about the core. winding volume paper inserted. than with the common form. although the increased thickness of the winding may offset this in most cases. matic machinery. Duplex "Windings. only very the volume. the increased for the same resistance.

gi where P= paper allowance. The the if silk lies between the wires as shown in Fig. 3a. Fig. From i . and very much closer than the silk were wrapped about the wire. 32 . the ratio variable.74 THE ELECTROMAGNET. and sawed into sections after removal from the automatic machines. inch.= ttMLPh. = C^ + S. as desired. obvious that there is ^^=(A + 5)(A+/'). In the case of the duplex winding. The windings their (131) are wound in multiple on a tube of paper to 12 or other insulating material. the paper is (130) and the volume consumed by the silk space is V. thus the wires may be much closer than if the silk lay on common center line AB. but all other relations hold as given for covered wire windings. (127) (128) (129) It is no imbedding of the wires in this case. The winding volume consumed by Vj. may be constant or In the duplex winding. by the adjustment of the turns per mMzmmmMMMm. ^„=A + /'. S = silk allowance.= irMLSmn.

34). Since the round form of winding all the most common. sections are n wound simultaneously. elliptical cores (Fig. 33. is 48. the cross-section of square or rectangular with rounded ends. high The principal features of this winding are efficiency and cheapness of production. in the terms are made to apply to that type. in terms of It is to MLT. and windings on which is cores. as in Fig. the one point to accurately determine . 35. and when other forms are used. The sections are slipped on to cores and the washers its forced on to the bobbin as in the common method. 35- windings on Windings on square or rectangular cores (Fig. that is all necessary is to express the case. the formulae so arranged as to read same terms as those applied in the calculation of the round winding. be observed also that the winding thickness T and the winding length L are constant. Fig. Fig. winding volume in each for any form of winding. 33). according to the length of the winding. It is evident that since the wire constants are fixed. no matter what the form of the winding. Other Forms of Windings than Round. 34.: WINDING CALCULATIONS. The other forms for which formulse are here given are as follows Fig.

M. 49. The four sections formed by the corners would therefore form a circle. Square or Rectangular Windings. of the core. but the thickness of the winding. mean perimeter when will in the form of a This ter. which is being the mean perimeter factor of the the diameter circle. the corners of the winding are not sharp like the corners which are equal to 36 shows this principle. be referred to in all cases as the mean diame- regardless of the form of the winding. .76 THE ELECTROMAGNET. the radii of or rectangular core. When wire is wound upon a square form arcs. Fig.

^ ^Z[(AA-'/i4)--8584 3^] (^^8^ = jrp Z[(AA-'^4)--8s84^ ^[(AA-'^i4)--8s84:7^]' (^39) (140) z= / r .'^O . _A_ A _ (A A :.WINDING CALCULATIONS.8584^° (135) (136) r= 2 ^_ From (67). A—4 (137) p ^ i? = RMLT. 77 (132) (133) and MT=IT (A . . 'iid^ .-8584 T^.-8584^ (134) M: (A A -'d^d^ - .

d. etc. nearly all ^]- ^'''^ cores of square or rectangular . + 4) + 7. (141) (142) (143) (144) then 2T+di (136).78 Therefore THE ELECTROMAGNET. M=. -kM = J/ = £>i= 2 {d^ + and also . use (i4S) (146) For calculations of turns. ^^=X[.5708 (A - '^i)]- (147) (135) in (80). ^^^^^ ^^" X[(AA-44)--8584nOr by substituting value of J/ from (141) in (80). applied to round windings.) and Since ^' r = B.637(^f+4) + In practice. same formulse as Fig. + Substituting value of M from 4) + 1.637 (4 d^ + ttT. 39- Radiating surface Sr=2Z [{d.63j{d.+ or + (^^^^y.-d..

more or is less rounded edges.5. irM. follows: Let 4. (^5°) any case under this heading.5 also. M— 1.274 Now by formula di=^ d^.637 in M= — 2r) (<ii .d = 1. which is Here we have the case of the Applying formula (150) to d^. cross-section have 79 in Fig. T= Then -h -S (52). = Ij ^4 = 'i ''= -Sj ^^^d and Tzs . subtract . To prove the foregoing.274 —. 39 it will 2 r) be seen that -I- j^_ cr Clearing.. 2 (a^ (r/i 2 (4 IT 2 r) +it{T+ 2 r) M= . becomes J/"= 1.274^ + T. WIXDIKG CALCULA TIONS. and formula i. but this need not be considered unless the radius of sufficient to the arc at the edge make a noticeable in- crease in the length of the mean perimeter. When formula (141) when the cross-section is square. By in- specting Fig. = I-5- M= T-\. Fig. i. as 39 . Fig.547 r from the value of J/ in formula (141) for the true value of M. . 40.e.. 40 and assigning the values for d^. assume r.637 -F 4) + ^— -547 + . r. the extreme value for d^— zr = o. circular cross-section again.637 (4 — 2r) '' + T+ 2 r.e..

274^1+ T— . formula (141) being correct correct when r = o.-d^\ IDJD^— d^d\ then j/r=-(i33)=:^5A::i^^ — T = D^Dt d^d^ A . (M = T+ d).. Windings with Elliptical Cross-Sections.574^. but with different values for d. d^. T Fig. being Formula (150) may be considered as the modulus for converting a square or rectangular winding into a round winding with the same number of turns and resistance. M&nd 7" re- maining constant. and formula when 2 r = d^ = d^. M~ 1. (52). 50. (150). applicable to both square and round cross-sections. 41.8o (150) becomes THE ELECTROMAGNET. d^. is a general formula. Since the area here I is simply D^D. etc. The latter formula.

: rectangles and two semicircular of the areas is The sum as follows -f 2 A = irMT^ T{H - d^).B.) (161) ^ = R{D.. consisting of two areas. ^^D^n^^ _ AA — ^i^i "37 4) - (iS6) (iS7) (158) A+ Since 2 '^'s 0S9) ° M= (67).. - (165) Windings Whose Cross-Sections have and Rounded Ends. . as in Fig. (166) . RL {D.Dl-d. WINDING CALCULATIONS.^ 51. - d. ^ m . IN= ^/J'f.d. 42 it is evident that the cross-section of this may be resolved into four parts. (164) Substituting values of (156) in (80). also (A J/=^?l±^ 2 .)Sr (^^3) = ^L y/^Z±A! j^ from .d.. 43. either case. Parallel Sides From winding Fig. (160) ^ ' 2 From p P= Radiating surface = RMLT.




MT=-, MT= T[M, + .637 (JI~



Fig. 42.

Dividing by 7]






Fig. 43.

J/ =^^^^^





Winding calculations.




Jf +

.274 d^



71) 72)



.274 .274 //j— Z>5


173) 174)

^r = r r(^^^') + .637 (^ P


176) 177)


= ^zr[(^^±^) +





78) 79)






1.274 75r+




182) .274



Radiating surface





Substituting value of

M from

(170) in (80),


How many

feet of wire

may be




winding volume of

cubic inches

the cross-sectional
1,852 feet.



367 feet of wire will just fill a bobbin whose able winding volume is .42 cubic inches. What
cross-sectional factor of the wire?





What must be

the winding volume of a bobbin to

contain 1,000 feet of No. 30
sectional factor 36.

S.C.C. wire whose cross-






many ohms

per foot in a copper wire 123

cular mils in cross-section





or average diameter of a windi ?

ing whose ZJ


and </=



What would be

the thickness of the winding in

7^= .5. Problem 37? what would be the volume of the 39. In Problem 37, F= 7.069. winding if the length of the winding L = ^l = 2, {a) what is the value of J/? When .6, 40.




= s..^, {a) What is the value of </? would be obtained in 41. What resistance





a winding

space of 3.1416 cubic inches with a wire .0142" diameter insulated with cotton which increases its total diameter




3 and


2.5, {a)



p 40-Sthe value




Of dl



.5, (b)




5 and d = and . When J/= ? T= (a) what is the value D 45. and 2|". 1. K = .000 turns of No.49 ? = Z? 1. 43.5 above wire was insulated with mil in- crease of what would be the value oi Rt R= 49.024" <o" diameter? 46.306. in What ? wire should be used to obtain 250 ohms a bobbin where insulation MLT = . {a) what the value of D of ? Of M-> 2. the wire . the resistance of a winding containing . How many ohms What is per inch in a copper wire . using single (2-mil) silk No.9 ? 2. In the above.002" = diameter? 48. 1. 55. What would be the true outside diameter of the above winding ii d = .43.5 (a) D= . is the value of ^ i. 36 wire.5. What would be What is the resistance of the average turn Problem 50 53.641. if i/ = = 12. 50. 24 wire. the average diameter J/"= p 54.43. . 51. what would be the outside diameter .002" ? 47. (5) ^= 2.9S°P in a copper wire . (b) M= . the outside is diameter of the insulating sleeve over the core the length of the winding eter insulated with silk is .93.0065" diamits which increases diameter . = . how many turns of wire would there be 52.322. What If the silk. In Problem 50. the resistance of a winding where the true is outside diameter of the winding 2 inches. 85 is When (J)) T= //? . (J>) Of (a) Z> = 3.08. in ? iV = ? 4.001498. 44.43 and Z = 2 ? £> = . •0581 ohm.55".31.i^j.6777.WINDING CALCULATIONS.

(F) d= 1. 00833? 63. if ? of turns in a bobbin where d= .12. Z= wound (6) wire.S. ? 64.01216. 57. In the above two problems. 39 = 1.C. {a) what is the outside {F) What the inner diam- eter of the winding will ? (a) D= 2.570. wire? 59.7. In Problem 58. What is the thickness of a winding 3" long wound with 3. 1. what would be the internal diameter = 4? d if = 1. 35 With . wire with 4 mil insulation. A winding where d= Z= 2 contains ohms of No.C.43.490.4.S.740 .000 turns of No. 500 61.253. in the how many turns would be contained 65. THE ELECTROMAGNET. 24 S.43. d= .S. if IN = 10. « =6. bobbin ifZ=2? iV=i.68.6%.004" cotton ? (b) (a) N= 8. N= 7.5 D Z= ? p = 238. 36 D. (a) with . What per cent more turns could be obtained with the same size of wire and the same resistance but by using 2-mil 13.58.S6 55.002" silk to 500 ohms with No. if diameter of the winding? 7^= is M= .C. 60.427. What be the number 2.000 ampere-turns with 220 volts diameter of the winding is 4"? 58. G. turns per inch where gi How many = .S. In the above. .00958 m = 104.5 and ^„=. What would be the ampere-turns in a winding of if iy Z' average diameter wound with No. What should be the diameter of a copper wire to the average produce 3. wire in a bobbin where resistance What 2. layers in a winding silk insulation? 62.28. How many where T= .C. 30% and would be obtained with No. 22 wire and placed in a no-volt circuit? 56.43. A = .

C. 8/ What is the intermediate diameter of a winding consisting of No. wire.593.88). = D= 30% %. 74.C. What will be the resistance of 2\ pounds of S. 69.S. is A= number .000 still ohms and have the maximum number of turns of jr=.C.0072" diameter insulated with 4-mil cotton . wire bin where //=.= .878. wire would be required in a winding consisting of four parallel wires whose joint resistance is 70. What weight of No.00252. it being necessary to have a resistance of 4. ? if the wires were p = 180.C. 24 S. in order to have two parallel windings of 19 ohms each? No.0081" diameter insulated to a diameter of . 40 ohms? 32-57 lbs. must be used in a boband Z = if.S.0083"? = 1. and Z = i^ i ? = . What would be What ? the diameter of a No. 66. ameter What will ohms 73. be the permissible insulation on a wire . p wire . 40 S. A winding consisting of three parallel wires con- nected in multiple has a resistance of 20 ohms.S. D = f^. 39 G.55. What size of S. copper wire and No. D = . in a bobbin where d . 32 S.36.C. What will be the total weight of 200 ohms of cop? per wire .WINDING CALCULATIONS.01897.S.S. in a bobbin where d.001" in di- No.648. I.43. What would be the resistance of the winding connected in series 68.C. 2\\ wire in the American wire gauge? 71.0074" diameter in order to wind to a resistance of 100 72. .C.192 lb. Z= wire? 67. the gauge of a wire .C.C. 50 (49.

2i\ copper wire to a 3-mil 5. In the above. How many pounds of No.57. late How many 9>3S°' pounds of silk will be required to insuin- = 100 pounds of No. = 5. A round winding where d = Z> =5 is wound on to a square core.322. 79. Z'2 = to 5. In Problem 80. 20 wire at 12 volts? 84. 24 18% G. of silk. L 2.C. ? at 1 10 volts (B) what would be the ampere-turns What would be the number of turns ? {a) {a) IN — 2. What is the ohms per pound ? of No. 26 S. being constant in both cases ? <^ = 1. 5.5 ? What the value of P 80.57. In a bobbin where //j = 2. what will be the value of ZJ^ and D^ in order to obtain 1. wire insulated with 2^mil silk 76. What is is the mean diameter Z'j of a rectangular 2.185. (^=3. what would be the radiating sur- face ? ^ I3-9S- 83.5. //j = 4» radius at cor- ners of core ^". wire L= .C. be reand the winding on the square core is to contain the same number of turns and resistance as the round winding.S. Sr 82.S.824.78 crease? 77. wire will 25 pounds of cotton insulate to a s-mil increase? 264. = 72-S7- What must be 5. What is the value of d^ and D^. 30 30% B G. Z?! = 3. wire would the winding contain when Z = 1.5) r= i.5. lbs. d^= and d^ = 2>^- r? (a) Jlf = 4.724.010.2 78. winding where Z>i = 4. (.000 ampere-turns with No. (p) In the above. how many ohms of No.88 75.C. ij)) N= 1. . {a) lbs. 24 S. the length of a winding where d^ D^ = D^ = 81.C. D-^ = 4. THE ELECTROMAGNET. and = 2)-h in order to obtain a resist? ance of 100 ohms with No.822.

WINDING CALCULATIONS. (a) what wUl be the radiating sur(6) What will be the amp>ere-tums at 50 volts ? N= = (a) Sr= 19. {b) p In Problem 85.958.C.000 ttuns of wire 88. quired to obtain 2.75. A= Sr L= 2.C. what would be the ampere-tums at =^ i)4S3volts with Xo. turns of No. 27 S.1 ? {V) What will be the resistance of the winding 86. //j elliptical 1.5. 87. what size wire with 4-mil insulation ? and would be re.43. winding where D^ = 1.02395. no In Problem 87. (3) d^ IN^= 2. face ? (a) 53. 85. = .124. 89. 30 wire? IN . wire will be contained in a In the above. -Z?4 = = d^ = and L = 2.5. In a winding where D^ = 2. id) 89 How many I. 2. ir= 3. what would be the radiating surface ? = 26.

The amount flowing through of heat produced is proportional to the of the current resistance of the winding it. thus heating the entire winding. in other words. but the heat from the inner layers has to pass through to the outer layer. Thererequires considerably more time for a " thick " to winding one. COILS. CHAPTER III.go THE ELECTROMAGNET. When a current of electricity flows through the windis ing of an electromagnet. heat produced due to the current acting against the resistance of the winding. when under similar electrical conditions. and may properly be called the heat produced by electrical friction. then. and the square or. HEATING OF MAGNET 52. core. or washers before sipated. to the watts lost in the winding. it can be dis- The at coil. From this it is evident that the heating of a winding its and the time required to reach maximum is propor- . as a whole. The heat from the outside layer is radiated rapidly. reach this point than it does for a thinner and a thick winding will therefore get hotter inside than a thin one for the same reasons. it heat radiated and equilibrium established. radiates the heat gradually is first. fore. but faster and faster as the heat finally the conducted is through the outside layer. Effect of Heating. until as fast as generated.





tional to the thickness of the winding, the square of the


and the




inversely proportional

to the radiating surface.

In practice the radiation from the ends of the wind
ing and

not considered, but the total radiation


be from the top or outer layer of the winding.

In the average winding about 65


of the heat is radiated

from the outer

add the other 35%, and thus shorten the calculation. In practice this method has been found to give as satisfactory results as any, and hence is commonly used.
layer, so
it is

safe to


heat generated in the coil has the property of

increasing the electrical resistance of the winding in a


each degree of




This ratio

called the Temperature Coefficient,

and varies

for different metals.

Of course any change


temperature will vary the

resistance of the coil, whether due to internal or external

The temperature

coefficient for

copper wire



the resistance of a coil of copper wire will vary


for each degree F. of change in temperature.




4-.oo2 2^°)p,



rise in

temperature in degrees F.
coil of


—A —

copper wire has a resistance of

100 ohms at 75° F. {a) 100° F.? {b) At 32° F. ? Solution.





resistance at




25° rise ;=


(i+(.oo22 X25)) X 100=1.055


= i°S-S ohms. Am.






43° drop.

+ .0022 t°




~ + =




Q1.36 ohms.




The radiation of heat from a winding depends upon many things that in practice it is assumed that the
the winding

average rise in temperature in the winding will be 100° F.


radiating a certain


of watts

per square inch continuously, the rate of radiation de-

pending on the thickness of the winding.
Thus, when an ordinary telephone ringer magnet



watts per square inch con-

tinuously, the rise in temperature will

be approximately

while a winding 4J" in diameter, 7" long, and lyV' thick will rise in temperature 100° F. when the winding is radiating .33 watts per square inch con-





rise in

temperature in a winding


directly pro-

portional to the rate of continuous radiation.

Thus, a

winding that


temperature 100° F. when radiatwatts continuously will rise 200° F. when radiating
will rise in

watt per square inch.

The permissible rise in temperature depends entirely on the temperature of the place where the winding is to be used. In any case, the temperature of the surrounding air must be deducted from the limiting temperature. When several coils of the same dimensions, but for use with different voltages, are to be made, it is best

to test





and ascertain the

rise in

temperature and

the watts per square inch for different periods of time.


data thus obtained the proper wire

may be



other windings


voltages, to obtain the


ampere-turns without





94 To make The source Fig. 45 THE ELECTROMAGNET.2 tem- p voir f^ereK. By Ohm's law E rise in and from formula (186) transposed. current must be of constant voltage to give good results. shows the connections for the (3) test. n w| Q . use a mil-ammeter and voltmeter. AHL-AMMBreti.002. the of test. the perature .

outside layers may be determined by the above and method by connecting wires to both ends of each layer to be tested.HEATING OF MAGNET which for a COILS. . 95 round magnet is r^==-^.itDL (192) for a round winding. as in Fig. 46.^- EI nBL (190) The is resistance of a winding to be used on any voltage then Pi- £? W. may be found by means between the The also. middle. If the current is to be kept constant in in the winding the voltage will vary. but the rise temperature for any of the test as ex- period of time plained above. ratio of heating inside.

0022 1. THE ELECTROMAGNET. Hence the watts and ampere-turns will fall off in the same ratio until the heat is radiated as fast as generated. Pi i . the ampere-turns vary directly as the watts.96 53.22 Thus the cold resistance for 150° rise Pi I -f- would be.0022 (° (194) = for 100° rise. Ampere-turns = amperes watts = amperes between X X turns. Relation between Magnetomotive Force and Heating. since the current varies directly with the resistance. Where and constant voltage is used. when they will become constant. its how many watts the coil will radiate from surface for the required rise in temperature. since voltage and turns are constant. therefore. from the dimensions of the winding. First determine. volts. For this reason magnets which are to work continuously should be calculated to do the work at the limiting temperature. 1. the ratio magnetomotive force and is heating due to the current in the winding constant. Then the resistance at the limiting temperature will be ^ and the resistance at the air ( s temperature Pi ^ I + Pi .33 .

0022 t (194) A winding number of fixed dimensions will contain the same of ampere-turns at a given rise in temperature. sistance iricreases as the heat increases.HEATING OP MAGNET With constant COILS. In practice the ratio between diameter and thickness of insulation is not exactly constant.) A = ^^ . _ I Pi -I-. From ture. The above is of course on the assumption that the relation between diameter of wire and thickness of insulation is constant. . permissible watts per square inch at limiting temperature calculate the resistance at limiting tempera- then the cold resistance . will same number of ampere-turns if be obtained with any other wire. so the above rule is only approximate. it is also very important that the ampere-turns should be calculated at the limiting temperature. ampere-turns and voltage and Since the re- watts vary directly -with the resistance. thus increasing the generation of heat. same ratio as the square of the diameter From which is (8. the voltage varies in the of the wire. the diameter of copper wire for the given num- ber of ampere-turns. 97 current. Therefore. no matter what the resistance or voltage may be. approximately the. if a certain coil will contain a certain num- ber of ampere-turns with a certain wire at a certain voltage.

2832 4!z^-Z.= watts per square KO^ 2. at the temperature of the surrounding Now MZT = '" From (68). 1. does not take into consideration the heating effect of the coil. the resistance must have a certain value..Q ^^' ^ ohms. Example. of find the exact diameter of wire to use with given insulation that will give the number that ampere-turns without overheating the coil.2832 square inches. and the resist- ance changes with the thickness of the insulation on the wire. .022. i watt per square a rise of ioo° and the dimensions are Core I". This. T-^ —= = -TT— 6. if -^ = ^ = 8. •?Q7. In order to control the heating. and the voltage = 50 = 6.98 THE ELECTROMAGNET. the volume of the bobbin.5 —= ^ '" and p = ohms air. however. .43. is £> irDL of = L = 2. and the thickness of the insulation must be known. ' where •'• Wi. greatest — Given bobbin. The resistance the winding at the limiting tem- perature will be Pi = ^ 095) inch. Assume inch for as follows : a coil will radiate F. SCO "= Pi 6.2832 326. d then the area = . Therefore. the radiating surface.

V V 4J 2 (199) 40 (192) 4 (200) 2 = W. i? = (197) (See (72).) AV' Since = Ri (46).7rZ)Z(l+-oo22/°) (201) any rise in temperature. Ans. and c K = ^.002. = p (6s).00826 — .2 2 -oo^ s = V. substitute MLT for i .ff. since p^ I cMLT p i^. . / 00000271 .•.00726.001 = .HEATING OF MAGNET Assume Since that i? / COILS.'kDL P for = fr. then A= A= Now.00004 002 To shorten the calculation. (63).OOOOS8I9 + . A' g=^+ + A/ = \J^ . 99 = . completing the square. andA^=y/^. ]*=[V^ 802.00001 A = . ^ + ^' + 'j-V^S + 7 and (198) .

d^ = [V^ qi_ I 4J 2 4P for elliptical windings.Zr[(^±^j + 2 (205) for windings with parallel sides and rounded ends. _l_ i_ (^^3) for square or rectangular windings. ^^^^^ 'cL{D.637(^-</a)' I A= /. . same example as above then . . _ A= r.001.000 + .001 ]' =[v^ = 0000^^86 •'•' 1. Substituting value of (152) in (199).000058I9 + .1416 X I X4X .00001 V. Now. written -\ The complete formula may be =[V^ 4^ — 4J 2 '(202) which gives the exact diameter of bare copper wire. which will give the maximmn number of ampere-turns within the limiting heating conditions.00000271 X I X 3. which is the same result as obtained before.500 + . take the .00826 — .B. to prove the last formula.00726.d. Substituting value of MT from (175) in (199).too THE ELECTROMAGNET.. Ans.001 = . Substituting value of ^7" from (134) in (199).A = .815 =[v/^^^ 4 X 2.00001 — . . Az[(AA-'^4)--8584y'] ^ qi_ MTlxom.00001 — . /.

. 2 L + 4) + 1. (. use formula (80). current. with given insulation and at the limiting temperature. lOI number of ampere-turns. resist- The general relations between watts. the (206) of ampere-turns that maximum number in may be obtained continuously.HEATING OF MAGNET To find the COILS. and is equal to irDL for round windings. . voltage.L^W±£l for elliptical windings. and radiating surface are expressed by the following formulae. = watts per square total watts . or the temperature of the surrounding atmosphere. temperature.64) and (184) Z[2(^-4) + xA] for windings with parallel sides and rounded ends. any winding volume with any voltage. Let W= W.0022 f)cW. or IN^-^. inch. the values being taken at the normal ance.5708 (A - ^0] (147) for square or rectangular windings. Therefore. . SrMLT i^ " r cM (207) = radiating [(^1 surface. is IN= — Here ^SV E / (i ~ + .


the ampere- meant to be the number of turns in the coil by the current which would pass through the bare wire when suspended in air. (I . and therefore. self-starting motor rheo- If E represents • the attracting voltage. If a Advantage of Thin Insulating Material. IO3 Since the magnet requires less current to sustain the it from a distance. 0022 n E^i^ If the attracting voltage *^"^^ and the sustaining voltage are equal. the ampere-turns would reach a maximum when the watts were at their maximum.0022 /°) ('222^ ^ ' -^= JKSrTLE {i+. orxZ(i -{-. F W = SrTLE ^ TlV>r- ^ " -1- . the winding is designed to carry the sustaining current continuously.0022/ 54. the weight than to attract heating due to the attracting current not being considered unless the attracting current is very is much greater than the sustaining current. as the former This principle stats. and E^ the sus- taining voltage. turns are multiplied In this. In practice the wire is insulated. is employed in on only momentarily. bobbin was wound with bare wire with no insulation. in order to obtain .) ' HEATIKG OF ^rAGXET COILS. which increases the total volume considerably. of course.

of course. in a given bobbin. the resistance of the average turn increased. the be connected at the end winding of the magnet should have slightly less resistance than the line. Again. 55. the ampere-turns will be reduced and will and therefore not be at their maximum when wire. For this reason. providing. in order to do the most work. is however. silk-covered wire is its much more cost is efficient than cotton-covered wire. although greater. It is therefore obvious that the efficiency of a winding increases as the thickness of the insulation decreases. it for this is.I04 the THE ELECTROMAGNET. a shorter length of insulated wire with a smaller cross-section of copper must be used. the watts are maximum. will absorb more voltage than the with the same current. as would be obtained with bare wire. as with the bare The ampere-turns will therefore reach a maximum when the voltage divided by the resistance of the average turn produces a maximum. that if the line has the greater coil. that the winding volume is great enough to prevent the winding from becoming overheated. . same resistance with the insulated wire. if the coil contains more resistance than the line. The reason resistance. Work at End is of Circuit. When an electromagnet to of a line of considerable resistance. thus absorbing more watts. Whatever is saved in is first cost of winding with any fixed insulation. at exactly the paid for in the cost of operating and rate as the saving in first cost if same is con- stant voltage used. When this is done.





average turn

have been so

increased by the use of finer wire that the ampere-turns

be greatly decreased, the dimensions of the winding
voltage across the terminals of the electromagnet

being the same in both cases.



E = -^^

+ Pi




£ = voltage


= voltage of line, p = resistance of coil, Pi = resistance of line.
that an electromagnet

As an example, assume


operate at the end of a 220-volt

the resistance of

the line being 250 ohms, and the dimensions of the magnet winding as follows




Watts per
single silk-

square inch permissible.



shown calculated

for both bare

insulated wire.


difference in ampere-turns between

the bare and insulated wire will be noted, also the fact
that the ampere-turns are at a


with the watts

for bare wire, but not for insulated wire.

Bare Wire.






— .0541


— — —


- 135.8 - 77. s — 1,805 — — 216 — 102 — 1,880 — — 343 —127 —1,860 —

44.2 48.1


Here the maximum falls between No. 33 and No. 34 both ampere-turns and watts.


Single Silk-Covered Wire.










- J^ - E - IN -W p — 589-117-8- 70.5-1,320 — 42 — 880 — 176 — 91 — I1330 — 47 —1,307 — 261.4—112 —1,305-48

Here the ampere-tums
while the watts are


with No. 34 wire,

with No. 35 wire. Therefore, calculate the size of wire to use assuming


the resistance of the coil to be equal to the resistance of the line and battery, or source of energy, and then try the

next larger size of wire, selecting the wire which gives the


of ampere-tums.

(See 62.)



—i^, +


cMLT = _^___.


Substituting value of p from (227) in (236),

^ = MA-(A+\7N


cMLT ) ^
maximum when

The ampere-turns mum.


— cM





/„ fx / ft (A

^ +

,-vx iy \


TAir cM


If the





to carry the current continuously, the

bobbin must be made large enough to radiate the heat.





magnet should always be so designed that


stand the total voltage of the line without overheating.
It is

a mistake to place a resistance in series with a
lost in the

magnet, for the power

dead resistance



in direct proportion to the relative resistances of the

net and the dead-resistance


same total energy the magnet will when designed to have the full voltage without

magand therefore for the be much weaker than


this practice is



the cost of operating varies as /^, so

seen that the

higher the resistance, the more economical will be the
operating of the magnet.

The resistance of a winding is 87.5 ohms at 70° F. What will be its resistance at 1 60° F. ? {b) At - 1 0° F.
{a) pi



104.815, {b) p



91. What would be the temperature coefficient of a wire which changed from 320 ohms at 130° F. to 310 ohms

at 70° F. 92.


resistance of a copper wire winding at 80° F.


25 ohms, At 100° F. ?





resistance at 0° F.



{d) p


21.26, (b) pi





What would be
no, /"=

the watts per square inch where

W,= .$. .3, and 6'r= 66? What would be the permissible resistance in a 94. windingwhere D^ = 4, Z>2 = 4.5, d^ = 2.5, (^ = 3, Z = 2, = 500, and fF^ = .6 ? p = 13,260. In the above, (a) what would be the proper size of 95.
wire to use


What would be

the ampere-turns


No. 35 S.S.C, (-5)7^^=1365.

917. (a) where p = Sr = 19 ? (ff) Where 1= (a) . //j 4. (^) E = 500. What would be the safe current at 68° F. p = = 100.5. Sr 7= . /iV^= 2.5 . attract its An electromagnet is designed to armature and load on a 220-volt maintain the load at 140 volts. 220.5. assuming radiating surface to be 40 square inches. with 500 assuming the radiating surface to be 93 square inches? 97. circuit. insulation 4-mil cotton.5S7P the theoretically exact diameter of = wire to use with 4-mil insulation at 68° F. p = JV. 100. ^/- 40 ? W 100. . £>i 3.5. loi..I08 96.'j. = where p 90? 102. allow- ing (a) . and then to The required ampere-turns . Sr = 15 ? E = 30.5.. to radiate volts.5.8 watt per square inch at the limiting temperature. watts per square inch at the limiting How many temperature (a) where /= . D^ 5.5. /= . ^8. in a maximum ampere-turns at 150° = . during continuous service on a iio-volt circuit. THE ELECTROMAGNET..= . W. voltage A the ^1 = .Sy=5o? Where £ = (<r) (H) 50.625.410. a.01036.82.=.5 the resistance of a winding at 68° F.2. 6'r = 25 ? Where (a) 7= . W.316. F. (b) (6) E= 37. allowing watt per square inch at limiting temperature. in order that the average temperature of the coil will not rise above 150° F. and the = = = watts per square inch = assuming normal temperature be 68° F? 99. watt per square inch at 150° F. Sr = 60} .144. and to Z= no. (c) Where £= = 110. What would be 4. = .nd MZT= ^? What would be winding where 4. = 200.5.. What must be . 2.5. What would be the safe voltage. (S) W.

00041? An electromagnet with /^= 4. dimensions ^= . is to be placed in a 24-volt circuit a line resistance of 10 ohms.= . and the space factor ^= . In Problem 102.03.100. L = 4^.HEATING OF MAGNET are found to be 5.000323.147.872. Z= 3. Z* = which has 1. D = 2^.55. 40 volts were increased to 104. 2 2 o volts how many ampere-turns would if be obtained at 1 the watts per square inch at . to give the What wire should be used maximum ? ampere-turns. assuming the insula- tion to be 4-mil cotton No. 24.9. ? square inch at the limiting temperature 103. COILS. I09 are as follows : space factor g^ = The dimensions of the winding d = i^. . W. and the What will be the watts per .

but it is not the best form of electromagnet on account of the space lost in the winding. but the coil of wire. 47. . the turns will be crowded or bunched on the inner side. core of soft iron and is surrounded by a Fig. 56.47- Again. thus increasing the length of the mean turn. there will be considerable space between the turns on the outside of the Fig. and decreasing the ampere-turns. 49. ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. Fig. The Bar Electromagnet. is The as it best form of magnetic circuit has the minimum if magnetic leakage the wire .no THE ELECTROMAGNET. for is wound evenly ring. Fig. 48. in layers on the inside of the ring. if the turns are wound evenly and close together on the outside of the ring. CHAPTER IV. the ring. Forms of Electromagnets. i. has the same permanent bar magnet is gen- eral field as the in Fig.

ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. The Horseshoe efficient Electromagnet.. If only one pole attracts the armature. the magnet will be very weak on Fig. unless they are very short. however. The bar electromagnet the armature is is II I not efficient. Even theti there will be much leak- Fig. i.e. 48. 50. unless bent into the form of U so as to complete the magnetic circuit. age between the parallel legs of the armature. is the most type for a short range of action. Fig. is near and the other pole distant. but as this form . 49- account of the high reluctance of the air through which the magnetic flux has to pass.

or " back it is often called. 51. make and therefore expensive." as is wound directly on to the cores. . made of three Fig.112 is THE ELECTROMAGNET. 513. Fig. there is a loss due to the joints between the cores and yoke. and they are then fastened to the yoke. While this form is very efficient. 51. is rather inconvenient to the practical horseshoe electromagnet pieces besides the armature. In this form. Fig. the wire iron.

great deal of the heat is air inside the Of course a conducted through the core to the is outside. and consists of a solid piece of iron or steel with a deep groove turned inside to receive the winding. but this would increase the reluctance of the magnetic circuit by decreas- ing the amount of iron.ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. is 113 really a form is of horseshoe electromagnet with one of its poles in the form of a shell surrounding the other pole. little also from has the decided disadvantage of having or no ventilation. 52. The external iron-clad electromagnet has but the is it advantage of free being mechanically protected. depending Fig. This type is used extensively in telephone switchboard is apparatus where the current of short duration and the .. The magnetic leakage is is also great when the armature a comparatively short distance from the poles. but entangled air a very poor conductor of heat for the outside of the winding. The Iron-clad Electromagnet. This may be largely overof the shell so as to allow come by cutting away a portion a circulation of air next to the winding. This type usually round. upon the heat being conducted through the shell before it can be radiated by the iron. and inductive influences. 52. Fig.

Another form 53. 10 was shown the relation of direction of current in a wire to direction of lines of force about a wire. north-seeking one of its faces is and the other south- the ones described are Fig. 55. excited. is also very short. rules to aid in remembering but probably the simplest one is the analogue of the corkscrew or ordinary right-hand screw. 54- Fig. 55- There are a great many this law. In Fig. Fig. Fig. This consists simply of a ring of iron or soft steel with a groove cut in its periphery to receive the winding. . Direction of Flux in Core. used in magnetic clutches. the same relation holds as in Fig. 54 and Fig.114 range of action THE ELECTROMAGNET. 57. but more commonly used. it is Its principal feature in this case is that not affected by external magnetic influences. is In the electromagnet where the wire coiled about the core. 53. is of electromagnet called the Circular Electromagnet. There are many other types. When seeking.

. as otherwise the two windings would be acting in opposition to one another.ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. or for use on less voltage than for which they were series). and the direction of ours/oe. 56. Simply consider the cork as the north-seeking pole. IlJ As a corkscrew is turned to the right it enters the cork. 51. 57- the coils are in multiple (to reduce the time con- stant. the inside terminal of designed to work in other for the each winding must be connected to the outside terminal of the same reasons as explained above. ings of both bob- bins in the same direction. When connected Fig. the two inside minals must be connected. When they are fastened to ter- the yoke and connected. however. convenient the windFig. rotation as the direction of the current. the direction of the winding is immaterial. Intwo-polemagnets of the type shown it is in Fig. of connecting the Fig. 57 shows the method two windings of an electromagnet in multiple. to make ouTsioe. Fig. 56 shows this principle. In electromagnets and solenoids having but one bobbin.

6 1 1 THE ELECTROMA GNE T. as A increases. the reluctance gap between the armature and the poles may magnetic flux will pass equal or exceed the reluctance between the two poles. If the at a considerable distance of the air from the poles. since the pull is proportional to the above is WA. Action of an Electromagnet.. and practically no poles. and the magnet armature is an Attractive Electromagnet.F. is when the armature touches the poles. As the armature approaches the poles. and cross-section of core. 58.M. attracted by the poles. R de- creases. for comparatively long air gaps. and the attraction becomes and there is also less leakage between the poles. increasing the area of the poles of a magnet also increases the pull of the magnet. nearly correct While not strictly correct. concentrate our attention on the effect in the air gap alone. leakage between the The magnet is then said to be a Portative Elec- tromagnet. and if equal. reluctance. . Since the flux density is constant for any also. / remaining constant air If the reluctance of the gap very great as compared with the reluctance of the rest of the magnetic circuit. only half of the total through the armature. with constant M. there reluctance between the poles and comparatively little the armature. the reluctance of the air gap becomes less stronger. we may neglect the latter by assuming that the leakage ratio is constant. until finally. Therefore. is When is called the armature it is separated from the poles of an electromagnet. The since reluctance in air between two surfaces is i? =A -5 > /i = is i in air.

.134. to find the pull when the value of B and the area of .ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS..000 50... select from the table the pull in pounds per square inch opposite the working density.000 80.. to find the size of core to use...000 Ordinary cast iron Therefore. are approximately as follows The iron : Wrought Cast steel iron Mitis iron . When it is desired to construct an electromagnet... Calculation of Traction. or pull. a conical pole piece of 120° which will give a approximately 250. and that there is no magnetic leakage.. 59.000 lines per square inch over an extent of several square millimeters. practical working densities for different grades of and steel.000 (230) The table on p. The radius of the pole face should be about \". The field of liy is best form of pole for producing strong fields aperture.000 85. and dividing the required pull by the pounds per square inch gives the area of the pole.. Likewise. 150 is calculated from this formula upon the assumption that there is a uniform distribution of lines of force over the area considered. in the making the pole nearly form of a parabola. the is principle data given the Traction. providing the permeability does not fall below 200—300. .. is The formula for the pull P= 72.. 50.

P = therefore the area of the core = 112. A magnet is to be designed that will susa weight of lo pounds. In table. for while the ampere-turns off as the core increases in diameter. providing the cross-sections of the armature and yoke vary in the same ratio as the crosssection of the cores. as the magnetic flux is utilized twice and there twice the pole area. a diminished area of contact will increase the traction providing the total flux passes through the joint. the armature and pole must be accurately faced. or a core . The will larger the cores of an electromagnet the greater be the strength.o8q square inches. the core material being cast What — Solution.000. — The A= should be the area of the core at the poles practical ? working density for cast B= 90. when B = 90. steel is 1 1 2.3.3 . and the length of the magnetic circuit will fall remaining constant. the outside diameter of the winding. In order to obtain fair results. for is so-called the same intensity of induction.000. A two-pole magnet will sustain twice the weight of a single-pole magnet. find the pull in pounds per square inch from the table and divide by the area of the core. the cross-section of the core and & increase faster than the ampere-turns decrease. tain steel. the resistance.336" in diameter. On the other hand. known. Example. as a non-uniform distribution of the lines and increased reluctance may diminish the traction.Il8 the pole are THE ELECTROMAGNET. .

where weakest on account of the demagne- tizing effect of the poles. but The magnetic is field of a solenoid is not perfectly uni- nearly so at the center. 58. the force greatly and the core is of the winding. 59. acts This is based upon the tendency of the lines of force to take the shortest path and as the Fig. it is the least efficient form. 60. Its efficiency may be rated with that of the bar electromagnet only one pole to attract when is used the arma- ture. although commonly used. decreasing towards it is the ends.ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. as the only re- turn circuit for the lines of force air. drawn or pulled into the center The solenoid is commonly used where a is long range of action required. iron offers less reluctance than the increases. Fig. II9 The solenoid or coil and plunger magnet consists of an electromagnet with the core free to as the armature. which react as in Fig. . is the surrounding form. 58. move and which . Solenoids. is The simple solenoid. air.

120 THE ELECTROMAGNET. feathered The arrows represent the direction of the lines of force produced by the solenoid. of sufficient cross-section low.^'' Fig. but it demagnetizing action decreases as the ratio of length to diameter increases. Action of Solenoids. The most efficient and generally useful form dad Solenoid. or " Plunger Electromagnet. thus decreasing the reluctance of the magnetic circuit and in- Fig. greatly increased. to the Iron- 60. In this form the magnetic return circuit consists of iron make the reluctance very . the the end of the plunger is reaches the center of the solenoid. When an iron core is is placed inside of a solenoid the. creasing the flux attraction being maximum when and consequently the attraction. 6i. 60. and the plain arrows the direction of the lines of force due to the reaction of the poles. In the case of the simple solenoid. the pole induced at the lower end of the plunger as it approaches and enters the solenoid is attracted and drawn farther in.

as the reluctance of the air where the is is gap so great that the reluctance of the cast-iron frame very low by comparison. XXXVI. In some solenoids of this type the plunger passes clear through the frame at both ends. 1900. while the tube much reluctance into the circuit at < FiE. especially if the stop and plunger are V-shaped. E. and the attraction between the iron stop and the plunger.. and as a tractive magnet it is also much stronger. Goldsborough. although cast iron serves very well great. Vol. . the one with the stop will hold many times the weight held by the other form. as in Fig. 6l. the tube of the spool extending clear through the upper end of the iron frame too thin to introduce that point. As a portative magnet. instead of between the walls of the hole through the frame and the plunger. July 28. ( . as there is no extra air gap. The frame gap is is 121 steel air usually a wrought-iron forging or casting. 62.* * W. The spool or bobbin is usually made of brass. 6i .ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. as in Fig. this keeps the core or is still plunger from sticking to the iron. but the is form with the iron stop is the strongest. Electrical World.

Goldsborough. July 28. the action is a combination of the simple solenoid and electromagnet.. . 62.* 63 shows the best condition for the V-shaped gap. » W. Fig. In the case of the iron-clad solenoid. XXXVI. 65 show two forms where the armatures are permanent magnets made from hardened steel.122 THE ELECTROMAGNET. Fig. is This form of electromagnet the its same as the comarmature is mon form with the exception that a per- manent magnet. 62. 1900. Polarized Magnets. the Fig. 64 and Fig. attraction reaching a pletely closes the maximum when circuit. Vol. 63. or else the entire electromagnet is influenced by a permanent magnet. Electrical World. E. the plunger com- magnetic Fig.

ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS. 64. the armature will be attracted to the right. 65 the armature is pivoted in the center. If now the current be passed through the winding results will in the opposite direction. 64. direction of the movement of the armature corresponds to the direction of the current in the winding. 65. and Fig. In Fig. Thus. 65 the armature will be attracted to the left. is One great advantage of this form of electromagnet that the Fig. The same be obtained with the magnet in Fig. 64 the armature in is 123 pivoted at one end. Fig. if the current flows through the winding in the direction of the arrows in Fig. .

are illustrated in Fig. another form has the winding upon the armature oscillates which between permanent magnets. so that the least . 67. the former being used principally on telegraph instruments. while unlike poles are attracted. one The principle lies in the fact that like poles repel another. therefore the is simultaneously attracted by one pole and by the other. are Polarized magnets very sensitive and may be may be worked with great rapidity. including the armature.124 ^-^^ ELECTROMAGNET. 66 and Fig. the synchronous action depending upon the Still inertia of the armature. Both respond to alternating cur- armature repelled Fig. Where just direct currents are used. which is soft iron in this case. and the latter on telephone signal bells. the armature balanced by means of a spring. The methods of polarizing the entire magnet. rents of low frequency. 66.

000 = 5 lines per square inch.025. The on the diaphragm before the current flowed would be proportional to B^ = 5. a polarized electromagnet flux density to in a telephone lines per assuming the be 5.025 for a change in flux density .000. pull B^ = 5. square inch due to the permanent magnet alone. whereas.ELECTROMAGNETS AND SOLENOIDS.000 Fig.050.000. Consider receiver.005. an increase in — 25. and that the current in the winding increased pull it to 5.050.000 =50. The reason why is polarized magnets are so much more sensitive than the non-polarized magnets is because there a greater change in the flux density in the former than in the latter. 67.025 due to the current of 5.000.005^ =25.005 — 5. and after the current flowed. if the magnet had not been polarized the increase in pull would only proportional to 25.000^= 25. change 12$ in the strength of the field will disturb the bal- ance and move the armature.

126 have been ity.001 times stronger than the electromagnet alone.. the polar- 5 lines per square inch.5 square inches each. 5^ —o= 25 for the same change in flux densTherefore. THE ELECTROMAGNET.e.3. Problems. i.e.. and the total useful flux is 140. assuming the continually 107. had a continuous flux through its magnetic circuit. if . there is not so great a change in the flux in the steel as in the iron. i. ized magnet in this case would be -^^/-^ = 2. Since the permeability of the permanent magnet is very much less than that of a soft iron core. it If the magnet in Problem 105 was polarized. How many pounds will a two-pole magnet lift whose pole areas are 1. what would be the per cent increase in traction if the total useful flux was increased to 160. 105. but nevertheless the polarized sitive magnet is many times more sen- than one that is not polarized.000 lines by means of the magnetizing coil ? 156%. and the total useful flux due to the polarization was 100. What would be ? the effect of increasing the area total useful flux to of each pole.000 lines.000 lines ? P= 362. be the same 106.

an angle if a wire be passed through a magnetic field at to the lines of force. called Mutual Induction. Self-induction. 12/ CHAPTER V. a current of electricity will be generated in the wire.ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA. and thus in turn generates another current in the wire. if it A current will also be generin the ated in the wire. The induction between separate coils 64. lines of magnetic induction are established the case of the coil of wire. The principle as induction of Self-induction or Inductance is the same between a wire conducting a current and a wire placed near it. Thus. When a current of electricity flows through a wire or a coil of wire. about the wire. and the field then disturbed or entirely destroyed. or. ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA. be placed magnetic field. 63. in through the center and about the Now. with the exception that the wire conducting the current is acted upon by the field produced in the wiie by that changes current. or suddenly increased from zero to maximum. This is the principle of all dynamo electric machines. field This action of a magnetic Induction. they pass coil. Induction. whenever the current magnetic field also in intensity. and is utilized in induction upon a wire is coils and is called trans- formers. the changes. .

128 THE ELECTROMAGNET.M. in- suddenly stopped.000.F. divided and . of one volt when the is current varies at the rate of one ampere per second. for lines of force increase or de- The henry is is the unit of induction or self-induction. also by 10* to bring it all by under the practical system thus. acts in the opposite direction. thus tending to retard or hold back the original current. induced E. and represented by the symbol L. If the current in the wire increases.F. An inductance of one henry gives rise to an E. when the current is switched on to the wire.. The effect is greatly in- creased when there is iron in the field. hot spark. and an enormous amount of current flows through the wire producing a large spark at the point of rupture.F. when the current is instantly. This efEect only lasts.M. in the same direction as the current. The inductance the current. Thus.M.F.e.M. the will be in the opposite direction. the i. so that as soon as the current constant the self-induction ceases.M.000 per second. induced in a coil of wire is one volt each turn of wire when the crease at the rate of 100.F. duced E. This principle is taken advantage of in electric gasis lighting apparatus where the self-induction purposely made high in order to produce a strong. and the current reaches its maximum. The E. equal to the product of the number of turns of wire times the strength of the field. produced in the wire. and therefore does not reach a maximum Again. however. it is retarded by an opposing E. . while the current is is changing in intensity.

by Helmholtz's law. it may be expressed at the end of any short time. grees of magnetization.• ELECTROMACNETlC I'HENOMENA. consider the effects due to inductance. /=— P does not hold in this case. 12$ Z. is it is necessary to the circuit When closed the current does not immediately reach a maxi- mum. —E /= — Vi — . law. is a constant in a coil without iron. and Ohm's (i). which is the base of the Napierian logarithms. = •634-— p (234) From the above it is seen that the time constant of a magnet is the time it of its Ohm's-law value. (232) p where ^ = 2. t. substituting — for / in (232). In the design of quick-acting magnets.7182818. constant or may be decreased by decreasing the resistance. by increasing the electrical . { _f\ I? i</ . The By ratio — 9 is called the time constant of the magnet. but requires a certain length of time. but iron is is not a con- on account of the variable permeability of the iron under different destant in the when magnetic circuit.634 The time inductance. However. takes for the current to reach .

an alternating-current electromagnet should contain less resistance than one for use with direct currents. thus increasing the Effective Resistance. With alternating currents the inductance retards the current. one cycle being two alterations or reversals of current.M. For bar electromagnets. The ef- and is equal to (23s) Z=Vp='-|-(2. but if a curve be plotted showing the magnetic flux for each current strength. will remain therefore it is a small percentage of the total obstruction to the passage of the current. the core may consist of fine .F. of in- Eddy Currents. unchanged . These currents are called Eddy Currents. Another loss is due to the currents set up in the iron by induction. The exact value obtained.130 THE ELECTROMAGNET. 66. and the current reaches a given percentage of its final value sooner. an accurate value of the current strength may be calculated. fective resistance is called the Impedence. On account of the inductance. and are largely overcome by subdividing the core in the direction of the lines of force. where L is the inductance in henries and / is the num- ber of complete cycles per second. 65. since the E. Alternating Currents. An alternating-current-electro- magnet should also be worked with lower densities duction on account of the hysteresis losses.rZ/7. of the current strength can not be easily due to the variable inductance.

In the design of these cores. the wires be too small in cross-section. but for 131 magnets of the horseshoe type. the magnetic reluctance be so great as to currents. for if the wire or laminae be too large in cross-section the will loss due to eddy currents if be too great . great care must be exercised in the selection of the proper size of wire or laminse. on the other will hand. which should be insulated of shellac or other insulating from one another by a coat material. the cores are usually iron stampings. more than offset the evil effects of the eddy . wires.ELECTROMAGNETIC PHENOMENA. or the in- sulation be too thick.




and Resistances of Wires Matthiessen's Standard Conductivity. for A. Lengths.) 20° C.STANDARD COPPER WIRE TABLE..W. . W. or 68° F. of Giving Weights. (Copied from tbe "Supplement to Transactions of American Institute of Electrical Engineers. (Brown Sharpe). ® & A.G. 1893. G." October.

1. W. The last digit is therefore correct to within half a unit. The diameters of the B. the neaiest fourth significant retained in the areas and diameters so deduced. Ratio of resistivity hard to soft copper 1. the computations have been carried to at least five figures. Resistance in terms of the international ohm. squared. Pounds per ohm varies directly as the area squared. Matthiessen's temper- ature coefficients. Hamilton. @ 0° C. 0. B. i Matthiessen's standard metre-gramme of soft drawn copper = 0. Crocker. 1.141729 international ohm @ o'^ C.U. 0000 = 0.y 136 THE ELECTROMAGNET.. and 8o°C. E.89. Feet per ohm varies directly as the area. EXPLANATION OF TABLE. andi. specific gravity of copper =: 8. The data from which lows : this table has been computed are as fol- — Matthiessen's % 0° C.33681 respectively.20625. Feet per pound varies inversely as the area.A. & S. j and Standards A. 36 = 0. wires are ob- tained from the geometrical series in which No.07968.U.U. . may in future undergo slight revision.59256 grammes. Although the entries in the table are carried to the fourth significant digit.4600 digit and No. resistance for 20° i Temperature metre. the temperature coefficient of variation which he introduced. One B. Ohms per pound varies inversely as the area Ohms per foot varies inversely as the area. and which is here used. Geyer. Matthiessen's standard i metre-gramme soft drawn copper= = 0. i foot = 0. G. E.14365 B.. 50° C. standard resistivity. I G. It is to tivity its being maybe permanently be observed that while Mathiessen's standard of resisrecognized.0226. repre- senting an arithmetical degree of accuracy of at least one part in two inch thousand. Kennelly. or A.005 inch. coefficients of C. F. A.A.9866 international ohms. [ Committee on " Units W. J Pounds per foot varies directly as the area.3048028 pounds 453.A. Chairman. Matthiessen's standard i metre-gramme of hard drawn copper = 0..1469 B.















ISt 8ths. .APPENDIX.



27 1778 1782 1820 1824 1862 1866 1905 1910 1950 1954 1995 2042 2089 2138 2188 1786 1828 1871 1914 1959 1795 1837 1879 1923 1968 1799 1841 1884 1928 1972 1807 1816 1845 1849 1854 1858 1888 1897 1901 1932 1941 1945 1977 1986 1991 W . ANTILOGAHITHMS.30 .35 JJ6 .13 .10 . Proportional Fartt.OS .!S4 THE ELECTROMAGNET.03 /)i .37 2000 2046 2094 2143 2193 2244 2296 2350 2404 2460 2004 2051 2056 2061 2099 2104 2109 2148 2153 2158 2198 2249 2301 2355 2410 2466 2254 2307 2360 2415 2472 2014 2018 2065 2113 2163 2213 2023 2070 2118 2168 2218 2028 2037 2075 2080 2084 2123 2128 2133.34 .31 32 33 .09 .08 .12 .18 . 2173 2178 2183 2234 .17 .07 1000 1023 1047 1072 1096 1122 1148 1175 1202 1230 1002 1005 1007 1009 1026 1028 1030 1033 1050 1052 1054 1057 1074 1076 1079 1081 1099 1102 1104 1107 1125 1151 1012 1035 1059 1084 1109 1014 1038 1062 1086 1112 1016 1040 1064 1089 1114 1019 1042 1067 1091 1117 1021 1045 1069 1094 1110 .19 1416 1449 1483 1517 1552 1589 1626 1663 1702 1742 1419 1422 1426 1452 1455 1459 1466 1489 1493 1521 1524 1538 1556 1560 1563 1592 1629 1667 1706 1746 1596 1600 1633 1637 1671 1675 1710 1714 1429 1432 1435 1439 1462 1466 1469 1472 1496 1500 1503 1507 1531 1535 1538 1542 1567 1570 1574 1578 1603 1641 1679 1718 1758 1607 1644 1683 1722 1762 1611 . 1 S S 4 S 6 7 .05 .22 23 .15 1259 1262 1288 1291 1318 1321 1349 1352 1380 1384 1413 1445 1479 1514 1549 1585 1622 1660 1268 1297 1327 1358 1390 1271 1300 1330 1361 1393 1285 1315 1346 1377 1409 1442 1476 1510 1545 1581 16 .01 m .24 .38 2239 2291 2344 2399 2455 2'5I2 2259 23E5 2270 2275 2286 2339 2312 2317 2323 2328 2393 2366 2371 2377 2382 2421 2427 2432 2438 2443 2449 2477 2495 2500 2506 2547 2606 2667 2729 2793 2858 2924 2992 3062 3133 2518 2570 2576 2630 2693 2754 2523 S535 2541 2582 2594 2600 2642 2649 2655 2661 2704 2710 2716 2723 2767 2773 2780 2786 2553 2612 2673 2735 2799 2864 2931 2999 3069 3141 2559 2564 2624 261 2679 2665 2742 2748 2805 2812 2871 2877 2938 2944 3006 3013 3076 3083 81481 31S5 2818 2825 2838 2844 2851 2884 2891 2904 2911 2917 2951 2958 2965 2972 2979 2985 3027 3034 3041 304813055 8097 3105 3112 81191 3126 .11 1178 1205 1233 1127 1130 1132 1153 use 1159 1180 1183 1186 1208 1211 1213 1239 1242 1265 1294 1324 1355 1387 1135 1138 1161 1164 1189 1191 1216 1219 1245 1247 1274 1303 1334 1365 1396 1276 1306 1337 1368 1400 1140 1167 1194 1222 1250 1279 1309 1340 1371 1403 1143 1146 1169 1172 1197 1199 1225 1227 1253 1256 1282 1312 1343 1374 1406 .14 .21 .25 1750 1754 1791 1832 1875 1919 1963 1648 1C87 1726 1766 1614 1652 1690 1730 1770 1618 1656 1694 1734 1774 26 .




.69 . .. 126 Magnet Magnetic Circuit Magnetic Field 4.. . . 36.. . Press Board . . . Oersted Insulating Materials Insulating Varnish Insulation of Bobbin Insulation of 150 Ohm . 63. . Windings 82 Parallel Windings 57. . Iron Clad Solenoid . 148 Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic Magnetic Induction 6 29 Leakage Poles .. .. Magnetism .127 127 .1 .. Neutral Line Notation . .. 68 .. Linen. . . R. . 76 . . • . . . Loop . .. .. . .. .. ... . Problems Pull . Ohm's Law P. Wire . . ... . 59 Permanent Magnets i . . Practical Working Densities Lines of Induction . 84. Hysteresis Loss •34 -35 -35 130 Mil Mutual Induction 127 N. Polarized Electromagnets ... Magnetization Heating of Magnet Coils Henry . . . 53>55 . . . . Leakage Coefficient Polarized Bell Polarized Relay Portative Electromagnet 124 124 . .12 149 .. 6g. 63. .. Hysteresis .. Permeability Table Plunger Electromagnet 120 122 L.. Intensity of Magnetization 11 Iron Clad Electromagnet 113 . 116 117 . 15a .. 90 11 Magnetizing Force Magneto Generator .. 120 J- Paper in Winding -72 Parallel Sides and Rounded Ends.. . 107. FAGS Gauss German German Gilbert Silver Silver Wire Wire Table . 23 3 Radiation Ratio of Wire to Insulation Rectangular Windings . 158 INDEX.. M.. Insulating Lines of Force . Limits of Magnetization .. 90 . 66 .128 4 Magnetomotive Force.. Units . . 66 . .. 69 117 Lodestone Logarithms . . Horseshoe Electromagnet Horseshoe Permanent Magnet Hysteresis Mean Perimeter 76 4^ .. Impedence Inductance Induction Insulating Linen . Joint in Magnetic Circuit Joint Resistance Permeability . .

.. between M. 127 Weber Weight Copper lie Silk Insulated Wire Tables . 3g.. ..... 7 94 11 .. Units. 138. of Saturation Point Self Induction Watts per Square Inch ... 6. . 140 Winding Calculations 39 Winding Space 39 . . .....INDEX. 139 Solenoids . T. ... . ... 45. . 144-147 in Cotton Cov63.. . . Varnish.. .. .F.. 112 . Retentiveness . Rise in Temperature 91 69 6 S. and Heating Relation between Wire and WindRelation ing IS9 FAGB Time Constant 96 129 117 Traction Traction Table 150 Volume . Work .119 .M. 57 35 6 55 45 35 .. Electric Units. .. Magnetic Repeating Coils Residual Magnetization Resistance . . .. . . T Yoke 27. 139. .56. Watt 33 . 76 69 Weight of Copper in Silk Covered Wire 63. 7 11 Useful Flux 30 Resistance Factor Resistance Wires . ered Vv 45 . ... 59 12 Reluctance U. Sterling Volt "W. V.. Space Factor Square Windings Sterling Varnish . .. at End of Circuit . 104 Temperature Coefftcient 55.....91 Theory of Magnet Windings 70 .


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