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Name: ________________________________________ Chapters 1-4 Take Home Test

This take-home test is due on Monday, September 17, 2012, at the beginning of class, whether youre at school or not. If youre late to class, the test is late. We will accept late tests through the beginning of class on Tuesday, September 18, 2012, with a deduction of 50%. No tests will be accepted after class on Tuesday. _____ 1. Prior to the arrival of Columbus, the peoples of the present United States had A) few developed social structures. B) less elaborate political systems than the peoples in Central and South America. C) larger empires than the peoples in Central and South America. D) a larger population than the peoples of Central and South America. E) a larger reliance on written language than the peoples of Central America and South America.

_____ 2. Before the coming of Europeans, civilizations in Central and South America had developed all of the following cultural achievements except A) organized religion. B) a written language. C) an accurate calendar. D) wheeled vehicles. E) advanced agriculture.

_____ 3. Before the coming of Europeans, the peoples who lived in what is now the United States had not developed A) large, permanent settlements. B) a common language. C) division of labor. D) complex agricultural systems. E) elaborate religious practices.

_____ 4. By 1500, the incentives for Europeans to engage in overseas exploration included all of the following except A) a belief in fulfilling a divine mission. B) a significant growth in their population. C) more powerful and united governments. D) an increased prosperity and desire for commerce. E) the return of the bubonic plague.

_____ 5. Between 1500 and 1600, the reasons that the Spanish traveled to the Americas included all of the following motives except A) getting rich by finding gold and silver. B) replacing Portugal as the leading seafaring nation. C) spreading the Christian religion. D) destroying large English colonies in South America. E) creating a profitable agricultural economy.

_____ 6. One result of the contact between the Spanish and the Pueblos from 1550 to 1650 was A) the empowerment of Pueblo warlords. B) a loss of Spanish power in Mexico. C) a vast decline in the Pueblo population. D) the popes decision to stop sending missionaries. E) a treaty of cooperation between England and Spain.

_____ 7. The European nation that, unlike other colonizers, did not people its colonies but instead imposed over them a European ruling class was A) England B) Spain C) France D) Holland E) Italy

_____ 8. When the Europeans arrived in the Americas, they brought with them all of the following things except A) diseases to which that the Native Americans had little immunity. B) the practice of human sacrifice for religious practices that the natives had not known before. C) a strong yearning for silver and gold. D) new crops that the natives had not seen before. E) new domestic livestock that the natives had never seen.

_____ 9. In an effort to subjugate the Native Americans, the Spanish engaged in all of the following practices except A) prohibiting marriage between Spanish men and Indian women. B) installing Spaniards in positions of political power. C) destroying records and documents of the native political systems. D) killing Indian leaders, including warriors and priests. E) forcing natives to work for Spaniards for little or no pay.

_____ 10. Before Europeans settled in the New World, western and southern Africans A) did not tolerate the institution of slavery in their society. B) were unable to use natural resources wisely. C) had no widespread religions, just local ones based on nature worship or ancestor worship. D) did not have the extreme degree of sexual inequality found in most European countries. E) had no trade with the outside world and relied on hunting and fishing for their livelihood.

_____ 11. According to the principles of mercantilism, A) the individual is the key to economic progress. B) the worlds supply of wealth is almost unlimited. C) free trade is good for a country because it maximizes both imports and exports. D) a successful nation should export its own goods in exchange for gold and silver. E) wealth should be shared by all social classes.

_____ 12. The majority of English Puritans were religious dissenters who A) wanted to leave the Church of England. B) wished to purify Anglican forms of worship. C) desired an end to the English civil war. D) were content with the reformed Church of England. E) hoped to return the English Church to the Roman Catholic Church.

_____ 13. Because of their experiences in Ireland, most English colonists came to believe that they should A) try to rule the native population. B) civilize the native population. C) establish an English society separate from the native population. D) brutally conquer the eastern half of North America. E) attempt to convert the native population to Christianity.

_____ 14. All of the following statements are true of the French colonists in North America except A) their numbers grew rapidly because of their success in building industries B) they included Jesuit missionaries who established contacts far into the wilderness C) they depended on fur traders who dealt with the Indians of the interior D) they developed seignuries along the St. Lawrence River E) they made enemies of one of the most powerful of the Indian tribes

_____ 15. Over the past century, when historians have estimated the population of Indians in North America before Columbus, they A) often have neglected to study Indian populations in the North. B) have come to realize that Tenochtitlan was not so large. C) regularly have estimated the population at just under 1 million. D) have generally increased the estimates of the native population. E) have relied on written records left by the Aztecs.

_____ 16. In the early 1600s, the common characteristics of the English colonies included all of the following except A) they were business enterprises designed to produce a profit. B) they made efforts to blend English society with native societies. C) they were part of a complex and changing society. D) they could not get things to work as they had planned. E) they were tied only indirectly to the British crown.

_____ 17. During its first few years, Jamestown suffered from A) a lack of aristocratic gentlemen. B) a location that was too dry. C) insufficient reinforcements. D) the debilitating effects of malaria. E) the total absence of leadership.

_____ 18. Virginia began to prosper when the governor changed from A) reliance on goods from Britain to trade with France. B) a communal system of labor to private ownership of land. C) military assaults on the Indians to a program of peaceful cooperation with the natives. D) harsh and rigid discipline of the colonists to gentle but determined persuasion. E) private farming to communal sharing of land.

_____ 19. The survival and expansion of Virginia were due, in part, to A) finding gold reserves in the James River. B) the discovery that tobacco would grow well there. C) the resistance of the settlers to the cruelty of the English governors. D) peaceful relations between the English and the Indians. E) the resistance to native diseases developed by the settlers.

_____20. All of the following statements are true of the Maryland colony except A) it was established as a retreat for English Catholics. B) it experienced no starving time like the colony in Virginia. C) it drew both Catholic and Protestant immigrants. D) it was attacked early and often by neighboring Indians. E) it copied part of Virginias economic and social system.

_____ 21. Bacons Rebellion began as A) a revolt by easterners against western control of the government. B) a democratic movement in the tidewater region. C) a fight between Indians and frontiersmen over western lands. D) a struggle over what faction would dominate the slave trade. E) an effort by landowners to force former indentured servants to leave the settled areas.

_____ 22. Relationships between early Plymouth settlers and local Indians were A) violent, with frequent warfare. B) nonexistent due to geographic isolation. C) openly hostile, with severe dislike on both sides. D) guarded, because the settlers attacked the Indians. E) peaceful, since the local Indians were weaker than the settlers.

_____ 23. The Massachusetts Bay colony exhibited all of the following characteristics except A) it was granted less local autonomy than other colonial experiments. B) it was more Puritan than Separatist. C) it included family groups from the onset. D) it quickly produced several settlements. E) it developed a small fur trade with local Indians.

_____ 24. Anne Hutchinson ran afoul of the Massachusetts clergy for all of the following dissenting views except A) those who were not among Gods elect had no right to spiritual office B) her local minister was uninspiring C) women should have a more important role in religion D) the church and the government should be completely separate E) sainted individuals of her day could communicate directly with the Holy Spirit

_____ 25. The longest and bloodiest war between whites and Indians in the 1600s was A) King Philips War. B) the Pequot War. C) the Tobacco War. D) King Johns War. E) the Mohawk War.

_____ 26. The Carolinas exhibited all of the following characteristics except A) they prohibited slavery B) they had a written constitution that almost everyone ignored C) the settlement was formed in part from the original Virginia grant D) the proprietors had extensive powers from the king E) they welcomed settlers from any Christian faith

_____ 27. The Quakers rejected all of the following religious and philosophic concepts except A) predestination. B) church government. C) original sin. D) a wealthy clergy. E) sexual equality.

_____ 28. In its early years, Pennsylvania was characterized by having A) only the Anglican church. B) only English settlers. C) a representative government. D) good relations with the Indians. E) a liberal frame of government.

_____ 29. By the late 1690s, conflict had arisen in Pennsylvania A) over the nearly absolute power of the proprietor. B) between the Quakers and the Indians. C) between the two houses of the representative assembly. D) over the wealth extracted from the colony by William Penn. E) over differences between Anglicans and Puritans.

_____ 30. For the English colonists in North America, the major problem with mercantile policy was that A) other nations could not settle in North America. B) it crippled the American shipbuilding industry. C) England did not want or need all colonial goods. D) the English could not supply the manufactured goods that the colonists wanted. E) it stopped immigration opportunities.

_____ 31. The English colonization of North America A) succeeded due to large gold reserves in Virginia. B) established trading centers in cities on the eastern seaboard. C) resulted in the empowerment of Native Americans. D) failed to establish a significant cash crop. E) resolved economic differences with European rivals.

_____ 32. The system of temporary servitude in the New World A) was appealing to North American property-holders in the mid-1600s. B) included a labor force that never volunteered to come to the colonies. C) was not widely used in the British colonies. D) led to a lack of social unrest in the Chesapeake region. E) did not compose a significant percentage of the colonial labor force.

_____ 33. During the late 1600s, the system of indentured servitude became less popular because A) English orphans and paupers were shipped to Australia instead. B) large plantations became less common, thus decreasing the need for indentured servants. C) there was a lack of African-American laborers. D) the English birth rate declined. E) the English economy fell on hard times.

_____ 34. In the late 1600s, the element of society in the English colonies that caused the greatest social unrest was A) the middle class. B) African slaves. C) dissatisfied Puritans. D) indentured servants. E) aristocratic landowners.

_____ 35. In the 1600s, Puritan New England family structure A) was more stable than that of southern colonies. B) produced children who soon grew independent of their parents. C) experienced a decline in stability. D) encouraged the equality of men and women. E) eliminated most premarital pregnancy.

_____ 36. All of the following groups were active in the slave trade in large numbers except A) Portuguese seamen B) Dutch navigators C) African chieftains D) English seamen E) Italian seamen

_____ 37. During the entire time of the Atlantic slave trade, European and colonial slavers transported from Africa to the Americas about A) 3 million Africans. B) 7 million Africans. C) 11 million Africans. D) 15 million Africans. E) 23 million Africans.

_____ 38. During the 1600s and 1700s, the southern economy was characterized by all of the following conditions except A) boom-and-bust economic cycles. B) the development of a merchant class. C) the dominance of cash crop agriculture. D) expansion of planters landholdings. E) a reliance on tobacco in the Chesapeake region.

_____ 39. In South Carolina during the early 1740s, a new staple crop was A) tobacco. B) rice. C) barley. D) wheat. E) indigo.

_____ 40. The economy of the northern colonies exhibited all of the following characteristics except A) they had a more diverse agriculture than that of the southern colonies B) they had a wide range of industrial activities of modest scale C) they had several thriving extractive industries D) they had highly successful manufacturing concerns protected by English law E) they often engaged in a certain amount of industry at home

_____ 41. One problem with early American industries was A) there was no commonly accepted currency. B) the lack of an elaborate coastal trade. C) a tendency to enforce too many rules of trade. D) a failure of small companies to compete. E) Englands lack of concern for making a profit

_____ 42. The basic unit of social life in colonial New England was the A) church. B) farm. C) city. D) plantation. E) town.

_____ 43. The witchcraft hysteria in Salem and other New England towns was A) the result of an economic downturn. B) aimed solely at West Indian immigrants. C) the result of a belief thought to be merely superstition. D) focused mainly on young girls in the towns. E) a reflection of the highly religious character of these societies.

_____ 44. The Great Awakening of the 1700s A) came in response to a decline in religious piety. B) depended exclusively on powerful evangelists from England. C) healed the divisions that had grown up between existing congregations. D) achieved its greatest success in northern cities. E) had little impact in the colonies.

_____ 45. The Enlightenment encouraged people to seek guidance in their lives and to shape society by looking to A) themselves. B) the Puritan Elect. C) government leaders. D) leading educators. E) the clergy.


_____ 46. In the 1750s, the relationship between the British Empire and the American colonies was characterized by A) most Americans believing that the benefits of the empire far outweigh the costs. B) the British strictly enforcing colonial trade regulations. C) most Americans objecting to their membership in the British Empire. D) the British constantly intervening in American affairs. E) most cities experiencing anti-British demonstrations.

_____ 47. During the reigns of George I and George II, A) the prime minister and the cabinet became virtually powerless. B) the executive power of the king increased markedly. C) the prime minister and the cabinet became the true executives. D) English-born kings regained the monarchy. E) Americans called for armed rebellion.

_____ 48. In spite of the differences among the colonies, all of these factors encouraged them to work together except A) a continuous line of settlements along the seacoast. B) the belief that they were all Americans rather than loyal British subjects. C) the construction of roads and the development of trade. D) the creation of the colonial postal service. E) a belief that trade with England was beneficial.

_____ 49. One of the developments that led to the French and Indian War was A) the decision of the Iroquois to abandon their alliance with the British. B) continued expansion of French and English settlements. C) George Washingtons attack on and victory over the French at Ft. Necessity. D) the alliances between the British and the Hurons and the French and the Iroquois. E) land disputes over the cultivation of tobacco.

_____ 50. During the French and Indian War, colonial forces were engaged in A) preventing a French invasion of northeastern cities. B) protecting western settlements against Indian raids. C) defeating the Iroquois in the north. D) attacking Spanish forts to the south. E) defending Tidewater Virginia from the French navy.


_____ 51. By agreeing to the Peace of Paris, the French did all of the following except A) transferring Canada to Great Britain. B) ceding New Orleans to the Spanish. C) gaining territory in India. D) giving up all claims in mainland North America. E) accepting large territorial gains for Britain.

_____ 52. After the French and Indian War, the British Empire faced all of the following problems except A) huge new lands that it had to decide how to use. B) huge war debts that it had to find a way to pay. C) conflict with the colonists over westward expansion. D) a new king whose personality made governing the empire very difficult. E) wartime government leaders who remained in power despite knowing little about peacetime governing.

_____ 53. In its attempts to stop the flow of colonists into the Ohio valley, the Proclamation of 1763 was A) totally successful until withdrawn by the British. B) supported by colonists on the frontier. C) successful for a few years, but then gradually lost its impact. D) almost completely without impact. E) ignored for a few years until the British rigidly enforced it.

_____ 54. Although the financial burden imposed by the Stamp Act of 1765 was small, it antagonized and unified the colonies against the British government more so than had the Sugar Act of 1764 because A) people bought more stamps than sugar. B) the new tax was blatantly designed to produce revenue, and it fell on all the colonists regardless of colony or class. C) the postage rates were already extremely high. D) the New York Resolves created the impression that the most populous colony was more militant than it really was. E) the revenue would be collected in the form of a duty tax.


_____ 55. The Stamp Act crisis brought the colonies to the brink of war with the British, but the crisis subsided largely because A) colonial leaders were unable to organize significant protests. B) England could not afford another costly war. C) English merchants, hurt by the colonial boycott, asked Parliament to repeal the act. D) the colonies were militarily too powerful for Britain to fight. E) the colonial petitions persuaded Britain to rethink its position.

_____ 56. The Mutiny (Quartering) Act of 1765 was resented by the colonists because A) they could now be prosecuted on mutiny charges for refusing to provide quarters for troops. B) they were required to quarter troops who served no purpose other than to oppress them. C) some colonies were exempt from the laws provisions. D) colonial contributions of lodging and supplies for British troops were made mandatory. E) they had never quartered troops in the past.

_____ 57. Americans of the 1770s based their opposition to the British on all of the following ideas except A) government should be distributed among several elements of society, not concentrated in a single center. B) taxes should be levied on people only if they participated in the process. C) sovereignty should be indivisible, with only a single, ultimate authority in a country. D) people should resist the government if it oppressed them, and they had the right to overthrow the government if necessary. E) a belief that people needed safeguards against abusive power.

_____ 58. In response to the Coercive Acts, the colonists took all of the following actions except A) organizing bands of vigilantes to make sure colonists cooperated with the resistance to the British. B) passing a plan for a colonial union under British authority. C) gathering delegates from most of the colonies in an assembly to consider common action against the British. D) preparing for military defense against possible British attack. E) womens groups extending their organized boycotts.


_____ 59. In response to the suspension of their colonial legislatures, many colonies convened new assemblies, and a collective assembly met in September 1774, under the name of the A) First Continental Congress. B) United States Congress. C) Committee of Safety. D) Colonial Congress. E) United Continental Assembly.

_____ 60. After the first day of fighting in the American Revolution, A) the British army had gained two easy victories. B) John Hancock called for peace talks. C) George Washington accepted the surrender of Major Pitcairn. D) France voted to send troops to aid the colonists. E) Britain had lost over twice as many men as the colonists had