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**Mathematical modelling of 3D woven fabrics for CAD/CAM software
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Xiaogang Chen Textile Research Journal 2011 81: 42 originally published online 3 November 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0040517510385168 The online version of this article can be found at: http://trj.sagepub.com/content/81/1/42

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diﬀerent methods have been used to create 3D textile assemblies. It has been demonstrated that the conventional weaving technology has the potential to produce textile assemblies which have many different types of 3D shaped fabrics. warp knitting. and this approach has obvious advantages in the provision of a sizeable quantity of 3D shaped fabric and in cost reduction. automotive and many other applications.sagepub.ac. School of Materials. various 3D textile structures have received serious attention for composite and many other applications.4 Another approach for making 3D woven architectures is based on the conventional weaving technology. the design of such 3D shaped woven fabrics may be complicated especially when the shape and micro structures are complex.com Abstract Weaving is one of the key technologies that are used in organising unidirectional fibrous materials into 2D sheet and 3D shaped geometrical architectures for applications such as textile composites. The ﬁrst is based on the development of new weaving machines for making 3D fabrics. the design and manufacture of the 3D fabrics can be complicated. and nonwoven.co. CAD/CAM Introduction Textile assemblies already play an important role in technical applications. 3D angle interlock. 2012 . Examples of this include technologies developed by 3Tex3 and Biteam. 3D orthogonal. UK Email: xiaogang. UK and TexEng Software Ltd. cellular. two general approaches are used for making the 3D textile structures.Original article Mathematical modelling of 3D woven fabrics for CAD/CAM software Xiaogang Chen Textile Research Journal 81(1) 42–50 ! The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub. Manchester. This paper presents the work and progress made in the mathematical modelling of woven structures and in establishing CAD/CAM tools for 3D woven architectures based on the use of the conventional weaving technology. The types of weaves described here include single-layer. Sackville Street. orthogonal.chen@manchester. M13 9PL. including weaving. mathematical modelling. Keywords 3D woven fabrics. most notably as reinforcements and preforms to advanced ﬁbre composites for aerospace.nav DOI: 10. Textiles and Paper. However.uk Downloaded from trj. University of Manchester. UK. As an eﬀort to eliminate composite delamination and to increase structural integrity. The advantages of the latter include readily available manufacturing technology and the ﬂexibility of the 3D structures that can be produced. This paper reviews the mathematical modelling of different types of 3D weaves which have been successfully used in developing CAD/CAM software for 3D fabrics.2 In weaving. University of Manchester.com by fiaz jutt on March 24. Results from different CAD programmes are also demonstrated. Corresponding author: Xiaogang Chen.uk/journalsPermissions.sagepub. PO Box 88. The University of Manchester5 has been working in this area for many years and has developed techniques and tools for creating diﬀerent categories of 3D woven fabrics. Northern Campus. It is also claimed that the technology route using the conventional weaving leads to the low cost of 3D architectures. Manchester.1177/0040517510385168 trj. Whilst the conventional weaving technology has the capability of making a large variety of 3D textile architectures. Textiles and Paper.1 Unidirectional and 2D woven textiles have been widely used in creating composite components and they have demonstrated clear advantages over the traditional metallic materials in the performance to weight ratio. School of Materials. angle-interlock. In response to the demand of 3D textile structures. braiding. and 3D cellular.

The third way for making 3D architectures is with the use of the angleinterlock principle.8 This structure generally leads to more ﬂexible 3D structures because of the reduced number of cross-over contact points.7 The structural features of these types of fabric are that (i) all yarns in the three principal directions are laid straight. Figure 2 shows the two types of hollow architectures. 3D hollow architectures in this context refer to those having tunnels running in warp. The second method for making 3D solid woven architecture is the orthogonal principle. Downloaded from trj.Chen 43 can be altered easily within the same preform. the lengths of some inner fabric layers are made longer than the surface layers. each having its own structural features and mechanical properties. or any diagonal directions in the thickness of the 3D architecture. Cross-sectional views of 3D solid architectures. According to the geometrical details. In the case of the uneven-surface hollow fabrics.10 one with ﬂat surfaces and the other with uneven surfaces. The creation of the 3D hollow architectures is based on the multi-layer weaving principle to join and separate fabric layers in places as needed. Figure 1 illustrates the cross-sectional views of these solid architectures. For the ﬂatsurface hollow fabrics. There are two diﬀerent types of 3D hollow architectures. a 3D solid architecture can be made based on the multi-layer principle. There are a number of diﬀerent ways to form 3D solid architectures. Wadding warp yarns can be introduced into the angle interlock fabric during weaving to increase the structural rigidity.sagepub. The cell size determines the maximum opening thickness of the fabric. where there are multiple layers of distinctive woven fabrics being stitched during the weaving process. and (iv) the architecture can be further strengthened up by adding straight wadding yarns in any adjacent fabric layer in either warp or weft or both directions. (a) (b) Figure 2. 2012 . 3D dome architecture can be achieved by weave combination. therefore they are able to take on the load directly and most eﬀectively. Figure 3 shows examples of domed and nodal architectures. 3D domes and 3D nodal.13 Smooth opening-up of all joining tubes must be achieved. 3D hollow. and (iii) the interlinking depth (a) (b) (c) Figure 1. The features of this type of 3D architecture are that (i) each fabric layer can be given a diﬀerent weave to facilitate a ‘hybrid’ of properties through the thickness of the composite. leading to variable preform thickness. (ii) required amount of vertical yarns can be arranged by the binding weave speciﬁcation. (iii) the required amount of vertical stitching can be arranged between any layers of fabrics in the preform to enhance the through-the-thickness property.8 Firstly. weft. Classification of 3D woven architectures 3D woven architectures may be classiﬁed according to many diﬀerent criteria. discrete take-up.9.12 Nodal architectures basically refer to woven tubes which are joined together. where the weft yarns are laid straight whereas the warp yarns are travelling diagonally. (ii) all warp and weft yarns in the 3D solid textile architectures can be crimped to speciﬁed extents to suit the property requirements of the composite. 3D hollow structures with uneven and flat surfaces. the fabric layers in the same region in the cross-section are made to have the same length.7.com by fiaz jutt on March 24.6 3D solids refer to those woven architectures that have solid cross-sections either in a broad panel or in a net shaped preform. 3D woven architectures can be classiﬁed into 3D solid.11 and moulding with fabrics which have a low shear rigidity.

y is the element of this matrix at co-ordinate (x. Downloaded from trj. . The positive step number indicates the ‘Z’ direction of the twill lines. Let us discuss the mathematical description of the regular weaves. ﬂoat length Fi (where i is an integer such that 1 i Nf). The parameters needed for the construction of a regular weave are the number of ﬂoats. 2. by the following: Sp ¼ Rp þ Sn ð3Þ where Sp is the positive step number. and the step number S A weave matrix. This operation returns only the remainder as the result. weaves are classiﬁed into regular and irregular. W. Sn is the negative step number. A step number can be speciﬁed as either a positive or a negative integer. is used to represent the weave. Weave and weave matrix.sagepub. Sn. Based on the nature of the weaves. weaves need to be parameterised. where 1 x Re and 1 y Rp. namely: jSj 5 Rp ð2Þ The operator ‘mod’ in the above equation is the remainder operator. .com by fiaz jutt on March 24. A 2D binary matrix has been used to represent these patterns. If i is an odd number. diﬀerent weave patterns can be obtained. The warp repeat Re of a regular weave can be calculated by & Re ¼ Rp =jSj Rp if Rp modjSj ¼ 0 if Rp modjSj 6¼ 0 ð4Þ Fi ð1Þ The step numbers. However. and S – the step number of the weave. The parameters should be the ones that are commonly used by the weave designer and engineers. and Wx. the input parameters are as follows: Nf – the number of ﬂoats. In order for the computer to create weaves. this work presumes that step numbers are speciﬁed in the warp direction only. denoted by S. may be speciﬁed either in the warp or the weft direction. By arranging interlacement between warp and weft yarns. Many commonly used weaves are regular weaves. The negative step number Sn will give the same eﬀect to the weave as the positive step number Sp.44 Textile Research Journal 81(1) Figure 3. A negative step number. Nf) – the lengths of the ith ﬂoat. it represents a warp-down ﬂoat.14 Figure 4 shows a 2D binary matrix and the weave it represents. Fi represents a warp-up ﬂoat. and the negative step number indicates the ‘S’ direction of the twill lines. 2012 . and the rest are called irregular weaves. Mathematical descriptions of 2D and 3D woven structures 2D weaves Single-layer woven fabric is made from one set of warp yarns and one set of weft yarns. Fi (i ¼ 1. . . and Rp is the weft repeat. jSj must be the smaller one between Sp andjSn j. and if i is an even number. For creating regular weaves. can be converted to a positive equivalence. Sp. The weft repeat Rp of a regular weave can be obtained using the following equation: Rp ¼ Nf X i¼1 1 0 Warp 0 1 0 0 1 1 Weft 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 Figure 4. The absolute value of step number should be smaller than the weft repeat. The former refers to weaves with constant ﬂoat arrangement and step number within one complete repeat. y). 3. Domed and nodal 3D architectures.

È : y þ ½S Â ðx À 1Þ À Rp if y þ ½S Â ðx À 1Þ 4 Rp . Based on the provision of these parameters. y ¼ Wx. y ¼ where y ¼ ð Pi j¼1 45 ni 1 x Nw Â Be and 1 y Rp. y ¼ 0. Nf. j for 1 x Be and 1 y Rp ð11Þ ie where Wx. The binding weave is introduced to integrate the non-interlaced body structure. j 1 if i is an odd integer 0 if i is an even integer Pi j¼1 ð5Þ i Nf. 8 > W ni a. y Where 8 È É < y þ ½S Â ðx À 1Þ þ Rp if y þ ½S Â ðx À 1Þ 5 1. a is equal to 5. Wx. the extended binding weave will be inserted into the non-interlaced body structure. 2012 . in order to generate an orthogonal weave. Nw. and 1 y Rp. y < ¼ W be b. The result is rounded down and the operation returns an integer. y for every 1 Re and 1 where a ¼ [{(x À 1)\(Nw + 2)} Â Nw] + {(x À 2) mod(Nw + 2)}. For the inverse binding weave. If (x À 1) mod Nw < (y À 1) mod Nf and ð8Þ ð9Þ Then. Equation (12) and (13) are used for ordinary and enhanced orthogonal structures. Weft repeats of the binding weave and the inverse binding weave must be expanded to suit the straight weft repeat before the introduction using equation: be b Wx.e. and b ¼ [(x À 1)\(Nw + 1)] + 1. the binding weave. Wx. È É j ¼ ð y À 1ÞÞnNf þ 1: 3D weaves – orthogonal15 In any orthogonal architecture. Wx. È É z ¼ y þ ½S Â ðx À 1Þ if 1 y þ ½ S Â ð x À 1Þ É R p . y if ðx À 1Þmodðnw þ 1Þ 4 0 Wx. Fj À Fi þ 1Þ to Fj and 1 The values of the rest of the matrix elements are determined as follows. i Wx. and the type of orthogonal structure. the relationship between the number of layers of straight warp. j is the inverse binding weave matrix. For example. can be explained as follows: Nf ¼ Nw þ 1 ð7Þ ‘\’ is the integral division operator used for dividing two numbers.sagepub. otherwise ni ni Wx. i. Re ¼ ðNw þ tÞ Â Be Rp ¼ Nf Â Bp where Re ¼ warp repeat of the orthogonal structure Rp ¼ weft repeat of the orthogonal structure Be ¼ warp repeat of the binding weave Bp ¼ weft repeat of the binding weave & 1 in the case of an ordinary orthogonal structure t¼ 2 in the case of an enhanced orthogonal structure Therefore. in the expression of a ¼ 17\3. È É c ¼ ðx À 2ÞnðNw þ 2Þ þ 1: Downloaded from trj. ordinary or enhanced. respectively.. and number of layers of straight weft.com by fiaz jutt on March 24. y is the extended inverse binding weave matrix. y is the extended binding weave matrix. it is necessary to provide the number of the straight warp layers (Nw) or straight weft layers (Nf). j is the binding weave matrix. È É b ¼ ðx À 1ÞnðNw þ 2Þ þ 1. y ¼ 1. y if ðx À 1Þmodðnw þ 1Þ ¼ 0 ð12Þ for every 1 x Re and 1 y Rp where a ¼ {[(x À 1)\(Nw+1)] Â Nw} + [(x À 1) mod(Nw + 1)].Chen The ﬁrst column of the weave matrix is to be created ﬁrst using the following equation: & W1. ie i Wx. the matrix for the non-interlaced body structure is generated as follows. y is the element of ni th matrix W at the x warp and the yth weft. b Wx. y ¼ W be b. where W is the weave matrix for the ni non-interlaced body structure. È É j ¼ ð y À 1ÞÞnNf þ 1: Warp and weft repeats of an orthogonal structure can be calculated according to the numbers of layers of straight warp and weft and the binding weave repeat. y x if ðx À 1Þmodðnw þ 2Þ 4 0 if ðx À 1Þmodðnw þ 2Þ ¼ 0 if ðx À 1Þmodðnw þ 2Þ ¼ 1 y Rp ð13Þ Wx. y ¼ Wx. y > : ie W b. & ni W a. and 2 x Re. ð6Þ for 1 x Be and 1 y Rp ð10Þ be where Wx. z ¼ W1.

2. of which the middle layer is longer. . Naturally. and Nwn respectively. Nft] has been used for the identiﬁcation of angle-interlock structures. the repeat unit must be determined. In general. as there are four nodes with diﬀerent x coordinates. d2). 2. The numbers of overall. The weft yarn distribution for the three layers must be arranged appropriately to reach the predeﬁned cell geometry. j ¼ 1. Let d1 be the dimension of M1 and d2 that of M2. j=2Þ if i %2 ¼¼ 1 and j %2 ¼¼ 1 ð21Þ Note that % is integer divisions.j Þ ¼ if i %2 ¼¼ 1 and j %2 ¼¼ 0 >0 > : ME2ði=2. Nf is always larger than or equal to Nft. . and then assign a weave to each of the single and linked layers before the weaves are combined into a single weave. 3. 3. are woven simultaneously during weaving. the interlocking warp ends and the non-interlocking warp ends. If lcm(d1. where k ¼ (Nf + 1)\(Nft + 1) The warp and weft repeats Re and Rp of angleinterlock weaves are given below. returning only the value of the integer part of the result. . Re and y ¼ 1. . Let M1 and M2 be the matrices for two single-layer weaves. The notation [Nf. Nwi. where Nf is the number of weft layers and Nft is the number of weft layers interlocked by the warp ends. Nf and Nft. the single repeat unit is subdivided into four areas. Re ¼ Nw À Á Rp ¼ Nf Â Nft þ 1 ð17Þ ð18Þ 3D trapezoid weaves10 Prior to generating the weave for the 3D trapezoid structure. The matrix representing the angle-interlock weave structure. Rp Downloaded from trj.e. 2012 . deﬁned by the node coordinates. d2). whilst non-interlocking warp ends cover the ones that don’t. warp yarns are interlocked through several weft yarns on the thickness direction. Let the enlarged matrix be ME The elements of this matrix are assigned as follows: MEkði. . x ð19Þ for x ¼ 1. 2. 0. jÞ ¼ Mkði %dk . .com by fiaz jutt on March 24. y ¼ 1. The interlocking warp ends refer to those that interlock through Nft weft layers. two single-layer weaves need to be speciﬁed. denoted by Nw.y. y) coordinate system with n nodes in the repeat unit. as shown in Figure 5. . The lowest common multiple (lcm) is found ﬁrst between the dimensions of these two matrices. k ¼ 1. Â Ã ð y À 1ÞnNf M½ðyÀ1Þmod Nf . . . These single-layer weaves will be converted into the form of a 2D binary matrix once the parameters of the weaves are speciﬁed. Wx.sagepub. interlocking and non-interlocking warp ends. 2 In order to combine the two enlarged matrices into the ﬁnal weave matrix MF. j %dk Þ ð20Þ À Á 8 1 > k Â Nft þ ÂÀ > Á À ÁÃ > > > > > if k 6¼ Nf þ 1 = Nft þ 1 > > > < k À 1 Â À N þ 1Á ft 2 Nwi ¼ ÂÀ Á À ÁÃ > > > if k ¼ Nf þ 1 = Nft þ 1 and Nf 6¼ Nft > > > >N > w > > ÂÀ Á À ÁÃ : if k ¼ Nf þ 1 = Nft þ 1 and Nf ¼ Nft ð15Þ Nwn ¼ Nf À Nwi þ 1 ð16Þ where i. All three layers. M1 will be enlarged so that M1 has the dimension of lcm(d1. . To generate a combined weave. j=2Þ if i %2 ¼¼ 0 and j %2 ¼¼ 0 > < 0 ifi %2 ¼¼ 0 and j %2 ¼¼ 1 MFði. d2) is not equal to d1. For a cross-section of a repeat unit in the 2-dimensional (x. The element at the xth warp and the yth weft. the number of areas is the number of nodes with diﬀerent x coordinates. For the 3D trapezoid structure shown in Figure 5. . The structure within a single repeat is quite complex and therefore one repeat unit has to be subdivided into several ‘areas’. Then these two binary matrices will be combined together to generate the larger matrix representing the combined weave. and the aforementioned calculated parameters. . the following equation is used: 8 > ME1ði=2. the warp ends in the angle-interlock structures can be divided into two groups. can be generated from the structural parameters. Variations in the geometry of angle-interlock structures can be achieved by varying the number of the weft yarn layers and varying the way the weft yarns are interlocked by the warp ends. i. The structure subdivision is based on the structural features. W. is assigned using the following equation: ( Wx. x Â Ã ð y À 1ÞnNf 4 M½ðyÀ1Þmod Nf .46 Textile Research Journal 81(1) 3D weaves – angle-interlock15 In an angle-interlock structure. The basic idea is to create the cross-sectional view. can be calculated as follows: Nw ¼ Nf þ 1 ð14Þ 3D cellular weaves9 This type of weave is created by linking and separating the fabric layer during the course of weaving. lcm(d1.

2. the following relation holds: k X i¼1 calculating the lowest common multiple of the warp repeats of all constituent weave matrices. . . . picks of weft yarns must be distributed as evenly as possible into the three fabric layers in area 1. 2. 1 y rip) where rie is the number of warp ends in Mi. . li is the length of section i. . and rip the number of weft picks in Mi. y mod rip w1i : k X i¼1 w2i : k X i¼1 w3i : k X i¼1 w4i : . yÞ ¼ i¼mÀ1 i¼mÀ1 P 00 P 00 > > M00 x À rie . yÞ ¼ Mi ðx mod rie . . . y 4 P r00 . The weave for section i is recorded in matrix Mi (i ¼ 1.Chen 47 One repeat I Layers I II a 1 2 3 Areas 4 Figure 5. All constituent weave matrices Mi00 in this area will be merged together to generate the overall weave matrix W for this area. The warp dimension of all constituent matrices. > ie ie ie > > > i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 > > > > 05 m 5n þ 1 > > > i¼mÀ1 i¼m i¼mÀ1 > > > 1. : k X i¼1 wmi ¼ l1 : l2 : l1 : l2 . Suppose there are n fabric sections in one area. Subdivision of a repeat of a hollow structure. rlcm. :wmi where all wqi (q ¼ 1. and its weft repeats rip are still rip. However. n). when P r00 5x 5 P r00 . . yÞ ¼ Mi0 x. the warp dimensions of the constituent weave matrices are enlarged to match rlcm. group i of weft yarn distribution is recorded as w1i:w2i:w3i: .y) (1 x rie. can be found by where rlcm and li are the warp and weft repeats of the 00 00 enlarged matrix Mi00 . . 2012 . Accordingly. rie ¼ rlcm . W(x. 2. Considering the fact that all weft yarns from the upper layers go over the warp yarns from the lower layers and that all warp yarns from the upper layer go over the lower layer weft. Generally. For a 3D trapezoid structure with m layers.y). m and i ¼ 1. the number of such groups is denoted by k. . . k) must be expressed as integers as they represent the number picks. . when x 4 P r00 . yÞ 0 The warp repeats rie of the enlarged matrix Mi0 are 0 rlcm. When the weft density is taken into consideration. and it is calculated as follows: 8 >1 ! if q is odd < iÀ1 P wqi ¼ ð22Þ l if q is even > round i Â l2 À wqj : 1 j¼1 In the overall weave for an area. . > ie ie ie > > > i¼1 i¼1 i¼1 > > < 05 m 5n þ 1 Wðx. and the element of this matrix at the xth warp and the yth weft is Mi(x. P r00 5y 5 P r00 . . rip ¼ li . .e. are assigned by the following expression: 8 i¼m i¼mÀ1 i¼m > > 0. . It is necessary to divide the number of picks (weft yarns) for each section into the same number of groups so that the picks are introduced into diﬀerent sections of fabrics evenly. A convenient way to measure the fabric section lengths is to use the number of picks inserted into the fabric section when the fabric weft density is known.com by fiaz jutt on March 24. > > > i¼1 i¼1 > > > > i¼mÀ1 i¼m > P 00 P 00 > > rie 5y 5 rie . y À rip > i > > i¼1 i¼1 > > > > i¼mÀ1 i¼m > P 00 P 00 > > when rie 5x 5 rie . The weave matrix for fabric section i will be changed from Mi0 to Mi00 by repeating the rows of Mi0 until its weft dimension is equal to the section length li: À Á Mi00 ðx. . The enlarged weave matrix for the constituent section i is denoted by Mi0 and its elements can be calculated by repeating the weave of a single section rlcm/rie times: M0i ðx. Diﬀerent fabric sections in the same area may have diﬀerent weaves. 0 5m 5n þ 1 : i¼1 i¼1 ð23Þ Downloaded from trj. the elements of matrix W. and each fabric section may have a diﬀerent number of warp ends. The length ratio of these three sides in area 1 is deﬁned as l1:l2:l1. i.sagepub. . a repeat unit must contain the smallest number of complete repeats for all constituent weaves. : l1 The value of each wri is determined by using the length ratio among the fabric layers involved in area 1.

backed.48 The warp repeat of matrix W is Re ¼ rlcm Â n. i¼1 Textile Research Journal 81(1) manufacture of 3D woven fabrics. Weaves created using Weave EngineerÕ : (a) Single layer. 2012 . All designs are carried out based on the mathematical models described above. Downloaded from trj. For each category of 3D fabrics. Hollow CADÕ . Its modules include the multi-layer. a suite of CAD software has been created to support the design and (a) (b) (c) Figure 6. Based on the mathematical modelling and description of diﬀerent types of 3D woven architectures. Weave EngineerÕ is basically designed to support the design and manufacture of 3D solid fabrics.sagepub. as well as the single layer fabrics. and its P weft repeat is Rp ¼ i¼n li . angle-interlock. (b) Warp backed. (c) Orthogonal. orthogonal. in order to guide the user through an easy input of instructions.com by fiaz jutt on March 24. but it can be incorporated within software. GeoModellerÕ . (d) Angle interlock. Therefore the design of 3D fabrics is speedy and accurate. UniverWeaveÕ . CAD/CAM software and demonstration The above mathematics is complicated. The CAD suite established at the University of Manchester includes Weave EngineerÕ . and StructraÕ .

(e) 8 single layers.Chen there are a number of varieties which can be accommodated by the conventional weaving technology. The former is specialised for 3D solid fabrics and the latter is for 3D hollow fabrics. Figure 6 shows the design of some of the 3D solid fabrics. Design of 3D hollow architecture using Hollow CADÕ : (a) The opened cellular structure.com by fiaz jutt on March 24.sagepub. and are able to provide visualisation of the designed 3D Discussions and conclusions Mathematical models of various 2D and 3D fabrics have been established through the years and the (b) (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) Figure 7. Both software programmes generate weaves using both the parametric approach and the free-hand editing approach aiming to maximise the ﬂexibility for the software users.19 49 resulting algorithms are used in the development of CAD/CAM software for the design and manufacture of 2D and 3D fabrics. (d) The weave used for double layer sections. Downloaded from trj.18. Hollow CADÕ is dedicated for the design of 3D hollow woven architectures with uneven or ﬂat surfaces when opened up. As for the other CAD programmes based on the mathematically modelling. 2012 . (f) single-(3 Â double)-single layers. The software is being expanded to cover more types of 3D structures for various applications. the Hollow CADÕ has been used in the investigation of lightweight textile composites. (b) The overall weave. (c) The weave used for the single layer sections. The software programmes are able to create the ﬁnal weave and weaving instruction.16 Figures 6 and 7 show some of the designs created by the use of Weave EngineerÕ and Hollow CADÕ . The suite of software is now marketed by TexEng Software Ltd. Figure 7 illustrates a design using the software tool.

J Textile Inst 1997. J Textile Inst 1999. J Inform Computing Sci 2007. SAMPE J 2001. 78(11): 1011–1021. 18.co. Textile structural composites. Manchester. 19. CAD/CAM of the orthogonal and angle-interlock woven structures for industrial applications. Sun Y and Gong X. Chen X and Zanini I. 10. Chen X. 1989. or not-for-proﬁt sectors. A new generation of 3D woven fabric preforms and composites. Downloaded from trj. 4. 9. Ma Y and Zhang H. Design. Spola M. Design. Experimental studies on structure and mechanical 13. Chen X and Tayyar AE. 87(1): 97–106.sagepub. Taylor LW. J Textile Inst 1996. Miravete A (ed. Textile Res J 2008. MSTI Textile Trends – Innovations and Market Insights. 7. Berlin: 2006. Chen X. 87(2): 356–370. manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. ﬂuid and other properties.50 textile architectures. 3. 20(3): 150–160. 3D weaving and 3D woven fabrics. 8.texeng. Roedel C and Chen X. Knox RT. Mohamed MH. Polymer Fibres 2004. 95(1–6): 229–241. 2007. 1999. Modelling and simulation of filtration through woven media. Chen X and Potiyaraj P. References 1. 6. Chen X. Part I Design and manufacture. and experimental analysis of 3D honeycomb textile composites. 2012 . manufacture. Engineering. Textile Res J 1999. 2. The University of Manchester. Part II Experimental analysis. CD-ROM. PhD Thesis. 5. 2004. Innovation and analysis of police riot helmets with continuous textile reinforcement for improved protection. Chen X. MSTI. Ko FK. 90(1): 91–99. McKenna DF and Mather RR. Automatic generation of weaves for the CAM of 2D and 3D woven textile structures.17 Funding This research received no speciﬁc grant from any funding agency in the public. Textile Research Journal 81(1) properties of multi-layer and angle-interlock woven structures. An experimental investigation into the structure and mechanical properties of 3D woven orthogonal structures. Bogdanovich AE. www. 15. Textile Res J 2003. J Textile Inst 2004. UMIST. Modelling and computer aided design of 3D hollow woven fabrics. Gisbert Paya J and Molist Sellabona P. commercial. 37(3): 8–17. 17. Chen X. 11. J Textile Inst 2006.de. TexEng Software Ltd. Chen X. 3D-weaving and unspecified noninterlacing process. 88(4): 449–464.) 3D textile reinforcements in composite materials. 78(9): 771–781. Chen X.com by fiaz jutt on March 24.msti-aktuell. 14. 97(1): 79–87.uk. 16. Lydon R and Moss M. Engineering and manufacture of 3D textiles with computerised technology. Chen X. 12. Hearle JWS. Sun Y and Gong X. Chen X and Wang H. can be used to create FE models for the analysis of mechanical. and experimental analysis of 3D honeycomb textile composites. Khokar N. 2(2): 127–136. Textile Res J 2008. 3D fabric-forming processes: distinguishing between 2D-weaving. Singletary JN and Lienhart RB. if exported in suitable format. UK. 73(5): 375–380. J Textile Inst 1996. Dickinson LC. Nazarboland MA. 69(9): 648–655. http://www. manufacture and measurement of 3d domed woven fabrics. The software programmes have been used in creating many 3D fabrics with diﬀerent structural features and the 3D graphical models. Int J Cloth Sci Technol 2008. Amsterdam: Elsevier. CAD/CAM for cellular woven structures. Design and manufacture of 3D nodal structures for advanced textile composites.

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