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Herzbergs two factors theory:In 1966 fredrick herzbergs attempted to find out what people motivated at work.

He asked a group of 203 professionals engineers and accountants from different industries of America because of there growing importance in business world. To describe incidents in their jobs which gave them strong feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction .he used the critical incident method . subjects were asked to relate times when they felt exceptionally good bad about there present job or any previous job. They were asked to give reasons and description of the sequence of events giving rise to that feelings . he then asked them to describe the causes in each case. This led to the two factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction. Results : Herzberg divided the causes into two categories or factors. Motivators or growth factors :These are the factors which give workers job satisfaction , such as recognition for there effort. Increasing these motivators is needed to give job satisfaction . this , it could be argued , will make workers more productive . a business that reward its workers for, say , achieving a target is likely to motivate them to be more productive . however , this is not guaranteed , as other factors can also effect productivity. These factors motivate the individual to superior effort and performance . these factors are related to job content of the work itself . the strength of these factors will effect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction , but no dissatisfaction. The opposite of dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but , simply , no dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors :These are factors that can lead to workers being dissatisfied , such as pay or conditions . improving hygiene factors should remove dissatisfaction . for example better canteen facilities may make workers less dissatisfied about there environment . an improvement in hygiene factors alone is not likely to motivate an individual ,but if they are not met , there could be a fall in productivity . there is some similarity between Herzbergs and Maslow,s ideas . they both point to needs that have to be satisfied for the employees to be motivated . Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of Maslow s hierarchy motivate workers . Herzberg s ideas are often linked with the job enrichment . this is where workers have their job expand , so that they can experience more of the production process . this allows workers to be more involved and motivated , and have a greater sense of achievement . Herzberg used his ideas in the development of clerical work . he selected a group clerical work . performance and job attitudes were low . Herzberg redesigned these jobs so that they were given more responsible and recognition . Problems:-

Herzberg s theory seems to have some merits . improving pay or conditions , for example , may remove dissatisfaction at first . often however , these things become taken for granted . it is likely that better conditions will be asked in following years . evidence of this can be seen in wage claims which aim to be above the rate of inflation in some business ever year . job enrichment may expensive for many firms . in addition , it is likely that any benefit from job improvement s will not be seen for a long time and that business will not be able to continue with such a policy in period recession . also there is a problem in relying on too much on what people say they find satisfying or dissatisfying at work as this is subjective . for example , if things go wrong at work place individual have tendency to blame it on others or factors outside there control . on the other hand if individual feel happy at work then they tend to see it as there on doing.