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1 Introduction

The aim of this laboratory is to study active ﬁlter circuits. You will analyse, build and test second order Sallen-Key ﬁlters. The laboratory exercise consists of two parts. In the ﬁrst part of the laboratory, you will analyse the ﬁlter circuits and will carry out simulations using PSpice. This part of the lab is to be carried out outside class/lab hours as a pre-laboratory exercise. The second part of the laboratory will be held in the Electrical Engineering Teaching Labs. In this experimental part, you will build low-pass and band-pass ﬁlters and verify their frequency response properties.

2 Active Filters

Active ﬁlters are ﬁlters that include operational ampliﬁers. The use of operational ampliﬁers allows one to achieve a desired level of attenuation/ampliﬁcation in the ﬁlter. Therefore one of the drawbacks of RLC passive ﬁlters, which is the lack of possibility to vary the maximum gain, is overcome. In this laboratory, we will study one family of popular active second order ﬁlters called the SallenKey ﬁlter. The output stage of the Sallen-Key ﬁlter includes a noninverting ampliﬁer. Hence, the maximum gain of a Sallen-Key ﬁlter is always greater than 1. Gains less then 1 can easily be obtained by cascading the Sallen-Key ﬁlter with an inverting ampliﬁer or using a potentiometer. As an example, consider the Sallen-Key band-stop (band-reject) ﬁlter. The schematic of the ﬁlter is shown in Figure 1. In the ﬁgure, A denotes the gain of the noninverting ampliﬁer stage. Indeed, using the relation between the input voltage v 2 of the noninverting ampliﬁer and the output voltage vout , we obtain: (A − 1)R0 v2 = Av2 . (1) vout = 1 + R0 The designer usually designs a ﬁlter aiming to achieve desired bandwidth and ampliﬁcation/attenuation level. These speciﬁcations are ﬁrst expressed in terms of the coefﬁcients of the ﬁlter transfer function; these relationships were explained in the lecture notes. Then, circuit components are chosen to match those coefﬁcients. Recall that the transfer function of the second order band-stop ﬁlter is H(s) =

2 k(s2 + ω0 ) 2; s 2 + ω0 s + ω 0 Q

(2)

it includes three parameters, the ﬁlter centre frequency ω 0 , the maximum gain k and the quality factor Q. To be able to choose circuit components to match the ﬁlter parameters, we need to ﬁnd the relationship between the parameters of the ﬁlter transfer function ω 0 , k and Q and the circuit components. For this, the transfer function of the circuit in Figure 1 must be ﬁrst derived. 1

For each of these ﬁlters. 4 − 2A k = A. we use the noninverting ampliﬁer equation (1) to relate V out (s) and V2 : Vout (s) = AV2 . Q and k to desired values. In this particular case. 3 Laboratory exercise Two ﬁlters to be studied are shown in Figures 2 and 3. Components of the circuit in Figure 1 can now be chosen to set the values of ω 0 . 2 + vout − v2 . This gives us 4 simultaneous equations from which the relationship between V out (s) and Vin (s) can be found1 : A(s2 + 21 2 ) Vout (s) = 2 4−2A R C 1 . we will use the node voltage method to derive the transfer function. Assuming zero initial conditions for each capacitor and using the Laplace transform approach. the magnitude Bode plot of the frequency response in a frequency region of interest is to be obtained by simulation and 1 An example Maple script to solve these simultaneous equations is given on page 9. H(s) = Vin (s) s + RC s + R2 C 2 We now compare the obtained transfer function with the transfer function (2) and obtain the expressions for the parameters of the transfer function (2): ω0 = 1 . RC Q= 1 .2C R vin C R/2 v3 v1 R C (A-1)R0 R0 Figure 1: A Sallen-Key band-stop ﬁlter. R Vin (s) − V3 V2 − V3 2Cs(Vout (s) − V3 ) + + = 0. we write three KCL equations relating voltages at nodes 1.2 and 3: KCL @ node 1: KCL @ node 2: KCL @ node 3: 2V1 + Cs(V1 − Vin (s)) + Cs(V1 − V2 ) = 0. R R (3) (4) (5) Also. R V3 − V 2 Cs(V1 − V2 ) + = 0.

Simulations should help you to determine the region of interest. 6. choose the AC Sweep. frequencies that one or two decades higher than the corner frequencies or cutoff frequencies. This region of interest should include centre and cutoff frequencies of the ﬁlter and should be sufﬁciently large so that the essential properties of the ﬁlter such as the gain in the pass or stop band. Which of the circuits is the best candidate for using as a low-pass ﬁlter? The process of obtaining magnitude Bode plots in PSpice is summarised below 1. In each case assume an ideal op-amp. and 4. express the parameters ω 0 .from experiments. Show the cutoff frequency on each plot. Simultaneous equations can be solved using Maple/Matlab or hand calculations.7 kΩ. Such a plot shows the ratio of the magnitude of the output and input voltages versus frequency of the input sinusoidal voltage. 3 . such as uA741. can be easily seen. If the library does not have TLO71. Comment on the differences between these three ﬁlters. A good idea is to set the start frequency one or two decades below the lowest corner frequency. Also. frequencies that are one or two decade below the corner frequencies or cutoff frequencies. Start Schematics. obtain frequency plots with the values of resistor R1 equal to 3. 3.6 kΩ. Choose AC Sweep Type as decade and then choose the start frequency. The output node has the ’voltage marker’ connected to it. obtain an accurate graph of the magnitude of the frequency response for each circuit. 4. etc. you can use any other similar opamp part. Draw the ﬁlter schematic. For the obtained plot. Q and k of the corresponding transfer function in terms of the circuit components. An example of such derivation is given above in Section 2. 1. 3. These expression are given in the lecture notes. Experiment with these until you can clearly see the stop-band and pass-band of the ﬁlter. To match the coefﬁcients. 2. 2. Sketch an asymptotic logarithmic gain Bode plot for each of the ﬁlters. For the low-pass Sallen-Key ﬁlter of Figure 2. All the input voltage sources are VAC. The prelab report must include a derivation of circut equations. To measure the frequency response experimentally you will use the signal generator in the laboratory. Using the transfer function found. 1. 4. Derive the transfer function for each of the two ﬁlters. In Analysis Setup. show corner (cutoff) frequencies and specify slopes. 5. On each graph. Set the appropriate magnitude. stop frequency.8 kΩ. For each frequency chosen in the previous question. check its validity by performing hand calculations for at least three frequencies and include the results in the report (use the table on page 7). Using PSpice. you need to use the prototype expression for the transfer function of a corresponding second order ﬁlter. and points per decade (10 is a good choice). the stop frequency can be chosen to be one or two decades greater than the highest corner frequency. the bandwidth. Suggested frequencies are the corner and cutoff frequencies. measure the magnitude of the frequency response (use the cross-hair) and include in the table on page 7. 4 Pre-Laboratory Work In this laboratory we will concern with magnitude Bode plots only.

4. Experimentally the frequency response can be measured by performing the following steps. Run the simulation and if all goes well. The inverting ampliﬁer is the same for all circuits. Note that we draw a magnitude Bode plot rather than a logarithmic gain Bode plot. The magnitude of 1 V pk-pk is a good choice if everything works well at this voltage level. Probe window will show a graph of the amplitude of the output voltage vs frequency of the input. The correspondence between the pins of the integrated circuit and the nodes of the operational ampliﬁer TLO71 is shown in Figure 4. 2. then the output channel pk-pk measurements will give that ratio. 1 Inverting input 2 Noninverting input 3 -12 V 4 Figure 4: 8 + 7 6 5 +12 V output Note that each circuit consists of an RC sub-circuit connected to the input of an inverting ampliﬁer. a high-pass ﬁlter shown on Figure 5 and a band-stop ﬁlter of Figure 6. If you have enough time you are welcome to experiment with two other Sallen-Key ﬁlters. Since the input voltage is chosen to have 1 V amplitude. the very same plot will also represent the magnitude Bode plot of the ﬁlter. Set the signal generator to the lowest frequency for which you want to record the frequency response. Hint: if you maintain the input sinusoid at the level of 1 V pk-pk. This gives you one point on the magnitude plot. Connect the circuit with the signal generator as the input voltage source. Measure the ratio of output and input sinusoid amplitudes. Repeat the above steps until you have recorded frequency response at all of the desired points.5. 1. Set the signal generator frequency to the next frequency for which you want to record the frequency response. you will verify the frequency response properties of the low-pass ﬁlter of Figure 2 and the band-pass ﬁlter of Figure 3. Simulations carried out at home should give you an idea about a frequency interval and about a required number of points. Probe will start automatically. 4 . 5 Experimental Frequency Response In this part of the laboratory. you do not need to re-connect it every time you change the circuit. 5. 3. check the input voltage of 1 V time to time. This is because magnitude Bode plots are easier to measure experimentally. As you vary the frequency. Display both input and output sinusoids on the oscilloscope. Choose a convenient voltage level.

Figure 2: A Sallen-Key low-pass ﬁlter Figure 3: A Sallen-Key band-pass Filter 5 .

and the values of ω 0 . dc and high-frequency gains. comment on the quality of the physical ﬁlter circuits (for example. The prelab must be completed prior the laboratory part.01µF to make a capacitor of 0. stop-bands. (b) (1 mark) Sketches of the logarithmic magnitude Bode plots with shown corner (cutoff) frequencies and slopes.3 and 4 of the tables on page 7 must include the results of the prelab exercise. Preferably. dc and high-frequency gains as well as comment on the quality of the ﬁlter circuits. Failure to complete any part of the prelab will be considered as an indication of unsatisfactory performance in the laboratory in which case you may be given zero mark for the prelab. mark measured frequency response magnitudes on the plots obtained using PSpice. (b) (2 marks) A brief comment on the quality of the ﬁlters.022µF capacitor.1 kΩ resistor and 0. The experimental part should include: (a) (3 marks) Tabulated data from the experiments must be included in the tables on page 7. Demonstrator will check and sign the prelab report during the lab. Fore example.02µF. and k computed using circuit components. You can however employ Maple/Matlab to solve the circuit equations. stop-bands. you can try using a 5. Alternatively. Also. the list of frequencies should include those that you used for hand calculations. The prelab report must include: (a) (2 marks) The derivation of transfer functions. what. This should include a detailed derivation of circuit equations. do you think. (c) (bonus 2 marks) Measure frequency responses of the high-pass and band-stop ﬁlters shown in Figure 5 and 6 and comment on their pass-bands. In the circuit shown in Figure 6. Also. obtained using PSpice. (c) (1 mark) Simulated frequency plots for the two ﬁlters. Also. the prelab report and the report on laboratory experiments. The complete lab report must be submitted in the end of the laboratory. you can use a pair of capacitors of 0. bandwidth. comment on their passbands. 6 . you can use a pair of 10 kΩ resistors to make the resistor of 5 kΩ. etc.6 Laboratory Report The report will consist of two parts. Q. can be done to improve ﬁlter characteristics). (d) (1 mark) Columns 2. bandwidth.

Hz Magnitude of frequency response.Low-pass ﬁlter: Frequency. measured experimentally 7 . hand calculation Magnitude of frequency response. measured experimentally Band-pass ﬁlter: Frequency. hand calculation Magnitude of frequency response. measured from the sketch Magnitude of frequency response. Hz Magnitude of frequency response. measured using PSpice Magnitude of frequency response. measured from the sketch Magnitude of frequency response. measured using PSpice Magnitude of frequency response.

Figure 5: A Sallen-Key high-pass ﬁlter Figure 6: A Sallen-Key band-stop ﬁlter 8 .

v[3].V[out]}: Solve equations sol := solve(eqneqn. A (R2 C 2 s2 + 1) 2 C 2 s2 − 2 R C s A + 4 R C s + 1 R > 9 . Vin − 2 v3 + v2 + 2 R C s (Vout − v3 ) = 0. > Vin-v[3]+v[2]-v[3]+2*R*C*s*(V[out]-v[3])=0. Vout − A v2 = 0} Deﬁne variables: > voltages := {v[1]. eqneqn := {2 v1 + R C s (v1 − Vin) + R C s (v1 − v2 ) = 0. > V[out]-A*v[2]=0 }. voltages): > assign(sol): Determine the transfer function > V[out]/Vin. R C s (v1 − v2 ) − v2 + v3 = 0. > R*C*s*(v[1]-v[2])-v[2]+v[3]=0. Deﬁne equations: > eqneqn := {2*v[1]+R*C*s*(v[1]-Vin)+R*C*s*(v[1]-v[2])=0.Example Maple script for computing the transfer function of a ﬁlter Derivation of the transfer function of band-stop ﬁlter Valeri Ougrinovski 5 Oct 2002 > restart.v[2].

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