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Hugh Piggot t - Scoraig Wind Electric - February 2001 comment s welcome at email@example.com
Contents 1. Introduction 2. List of materials and tools 3. Jigs and Moulds 4. Stator construction 5. Rotor construction 6. Assembly 7. Testing and connecting 8. Additional information
This manual was commissione d by
Dr Smail Khennas Senior Energy Specialist Intermediat e Technology The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development Bourton Hall Bourton on Dunsmore Warwickshire Tel +44-1788-66 1 100 Fax: +44 -178 8 44-(0)1788-66 1 101 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Url: http://www.oneworld.org/itdg Url:http://www.itdg.org.pe Compan y Reg No 871954 , England Charity No 247257 with funding from the UK governmen t DFID
page 2 6 8 23 29 34 39 47
On site assembly in Peru
February 2001 2
This manual describes how to build a 'permanen t magnet generator ' (PMG). We can also call it an 'alternator' , because it generates alternatin g curren t (AC). It will not generate 'mains voltage ' or 'utilit y power' AC. It generates low voltage , 'three phase' AC, and then changes it into 'direc t current ' (DC) for charging a 12 volt battery. What this P M G is made of SPINE
REAR ROTO R
FRONT ROTOR R E C T IF IE R 12V BATTERY
The PMG (see diagram 1) consists of:• A steel spin e and shaft . • A stato r containin g coils of wire • Two magnet rotors • A rectifie r The stato r contains six coils of copper wire, cast in fibreglass resin. This stator casting is mounte d onto the spine; it does not move. Wires from the coils take electricit y to the rectifie r, which change s the AC to DC for charging the battery . The rectifie r is mounte d on an aluminium 'heatsink ' to keep it cool. The magnet rotors are mounte d on bearings, which turn on the shaft. The rear rotor is behind the stator , and enclosed within it. The fron t one is on the outside, fixed to the rear one by long studs which pass through a hole in the stator . The wind turbine rotor blades will be mounte d on the same studs. They will turn the magnet rotors , and move the magnets past the coils. Magnetic flux passes from one rotor to the other through the stator . This moving magnetic flux is what produces the electric power.
Building the P M G This manual describes how to build the PMG. Read right through it before starting. Section 2. is a list of materials and tools for the job. Section 3 explains how to build the special tools (called jigs) and the moulds which are needed. You can build more than one PMG with them. There are many possible ways to make these jigs and moulds, but there is only room in this manual to describe one way to do it. Section 4 is about the stator . It describes how to wind the coils of enamelled copper wire, and cas t them in resin, using the jigs and moulds. Section 5 shows how to build the magnet rotors , using magnet blocks and steel disks, set in anothe r resin casting. Section 6 shows how to assemble the parts into a whole PMG. It explains how to build the mechanical parts, how to balance the rotors , and what is required to connect the wiring from the stator. Section 7 is about testin g the PMG. It contains procedures for checking that it is correctl y balanced and ready to use. It describes the options for connectin g up the electrica l output . It also explains how to connect the PMG to the battery. Section 8 contains additional informatio n about the use of polyeste r resins, and about using the PMG for hydro power. What this P M G can do This PMG is made for small wind generator s (see diagram 2). To build a complete win d generator , you also need • a tower : perhaps a steel pipe, supporte d with guy ropes, • a 'yaw head' swivelling on the tower top, • a tail, to keep it facing towards the wind, • a set of blades, to turn it. The spine of the PMG bolts on to the yaw head. The blade assembly fits on to the fron t of the PMG. The yaw head and tail need to be so constructe d that the wind generato r will turn from stron g winds, to protec t itself. (This manual does not describe the blades, tower, or yaw head.)
2. WIND TURBINE
On test at Scoraig
The PMG works at low rotationa l speed. The chart shows the power outpu t of the PMG, charging a 12 volt battery . At 420 rpm it generates 180 watts , which is 15 amps at 12 volts (15A x 12V = 180W). At higher speed, the PMG can generate more power. But high current s cause the coils to heat up, and so the efficienc y gets worse as the outpu t curren t gets higher. For higher speed it is bette r to chang e the stato r coils, either by using differen t size wire, or by changing the way they are connected. If the PMG is always used at higher speeds, it is bette r to use thicker wire, which can carry mor e curren t withou t gettin g so hot. Using thicker wire means there are fewer turns on the coils, whic h means that the PMG would not work at low speed. To use the same PMG for both low and high speeds, it is possible to change the connections . Ther e are two ways to connect the stato r wires to the rectifier . They can be connecte d 'star ' or 'delta' . See Section 7 for a detailed descriptio n of the star and delta connections. See diagram 3 for the graph of power vs. speed. Star begins to work at low speed (170 rpm). Delt a gives more power, but only at higher speed. Star is good in very low windspeeds, and delta is bette r in higher winds. A bigger version of this PMG would be able to give higher power at lower speed.
3.GRAPH OF POW ERVS. SPEED
200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 Speed in revs./minut e (rpm) 400 500 star delta
Caution Take care when building and assembling the PMG so that the magnets cannot come loose. This can happen under extreme circumstances . Loose magnets rubbing on the stato r can then destro y the PMG. • Follow all the instruction s for casting the magnet rotors - do not simply glue the magnets to the steel disks. • Do not hit the magnet rotors with hammers during assembly. • Take care that there is at least 1mm gap clearance between the magnets and the stator , on bot h sides. (For heavy duty, or high speed, use a larger gap.) • Do not run the PMG at speeds faster than 800 rpm on a wind turbine . (When the wind turbin e yaws , large gyroscopi c forces will flex the shaft, and the magnets may touch.) • Do not mount the rotor blade assembly directl y onto the fron t magnet rotor disk, at any poin t away from the studs. Mount it only onto the studs and nuts themselves , which come through the disk. • When mountin g the PMG on the wind turbine yaw mount, keep the box section 'spine' of the PMG verticall y upright , and not horizontall y cross-wise.
see p.44) same size x 6 metres 200 4000 3000 2 25A 200V single phase 250 1 380 x 50 x25 x 4mm 2 6mm x 305mm Outer Diameter 1000mm 32 16 400mm 8 2 5mm x 20mm 25mm x 150mm 1 1100 6000 500 300 125 50 500 1250 Spine.7mm (or 17AWG . grams 1 sq metre 2700 50 1200 300 50 2mm x10metres 16 20 x 50 x 50mm 14AWG or 1. hub and magnet rotor . per PMG size Total wt. List of Materials and tools Materials for PMGs FIBREGLAS SUPPLIES S Polyester resin (premixe d with accelerator) Catalyst (peroxide) Talcum filler powder Fibreglass mat (1oz/sqfoot) Colouring pigment resin (if required) plasticene or putty STAINLESS STEEL stainless steel wire MAGNETS Grade 3 ferrit e magnet blocks (premagnetised) ELECTRICAL Enamelled winding wire flexible wire (abou t 14AWG size) solder and sleeving for connections 1/2 inch masking tape Bridge rectifiers Heatsink for rectifiers STEEL Box section tube ('RHS') for spine Magnet disk (or octagonal ) plates 10mm threaded rod ('studding') 10mm nuts 10mm washers 8mm threaded rod 8mm nuts 5mm nuts and bolts for rectifiers Shaft MECHANICAL Bearing hub to fi t shaft. shaft.2. as described in Section 6 No.
hammer. Dispenser for catalyst . Brass wir e to gauge the heights of magnets Pi lla r Dril l P re ss Drill bits 6. etc. Soldering iron.Materials for moulds and jigs Composit e floorboard s (othe r ideas are possible) and wood glue Sand paper. wax polish (Polyurethan e varnish. chisel Compasses. as required Workbench with vice Welder Angle grinder Hacksaw. if available. or pipe. resin-cored solder. gloves. 65mm Wood lathe. punch. 17.10. for coil winding machine Small pieces of steel plate or thick sheet metal Bolts (with nuts and washers) 2 with butterfl y nuts 4 1 diameter 6mm 10mm 12mm length 60mm 25mm 150mm For coi l winde r balancing with jig stato r mould Tools Safety goggles. Spanners: 8. scissors. Tap wrench and M10 taps for outer holes in magnet rotors. and PVA release agent. sharp knife. 19mm : two of each. face mask.12mm Holesaws 25mm . 10. or a substitut e as in Section 3 Chisel for wood lathe Jigsaw to cut wood Scales to weigh resin. . tap e measure.) Pain t brushes. and thinners to clean them 13mm Plywood for jigs and formers and stato r mould centre Steel rod. wire cutters . plastic buckets. angle gauge. 13.8.
the y can be used again. COIL 100 TURNS OF ENAMELLED COPPER WIRE 110mm 110mm The coils will be wound on a plywood coil-former. turned by a handle (see diagram 5). Coil winding machine Some coils for the stator The PMG stato r contains six coils of copper wire (see diagram 4). CRANKSHAFT SIMPLE BEARING S . The former is mounte d on the end of a crankshaft . Once you have made them . between cheek pieces. Jigs and Moulds This section describes how to make the jigs and moulds for building a PMG. HANDLE 5. • Make a crankshaft . 4. to build mor e PMGs.3.
7. 6mm diameter and 40mm apart. The notches are for puttin g masking tape under the coil. and drill holes for the mountin g bolts. Use a drill press to drill the holes exactly square to the plywood. • Stack the pieces with the notches in line (diagram 8). 6. The holes are 6mm diameter and 40mm apart. • Drill 2 holes. There are 20mm wide notches top and botto m in each. STEEL PLATE 60 30 • Cut out 3 pieces of 13mm plywood as in diagram 7. It has rounded corners. . centred on the shaft.• Cut a small flat steel plate 60 x 30 x 6 mm (suggeste d sizes) and fix it securely or weld it to the end of the crankshaf t as shown in diagram 6. The two 'cheek pieces' are 125mm by 125mm . COIL-FORMER AND CHEEK PIECES 125 125 20 50 20 20 125 50 The coil former is 50mm by 50mm by 13 thick. so that it can be taped up before removing it fro m the former.
DRILLING THE 2 HOLES STACK THE THREE PIECES LIKE THIS:- DRILL P R E S S 40mm • Pass two bolts through the holes in the flat plate. Use butterfl y nuts if possible. FITTING THE COIL FO RMERAND CHEEK PIECES BUTTERFLY NUTS WINDING WIRE . (diagram 9. with the coil-forme r between them.) 9.8. and bolt on the cheekpieces .
) • Drill four holes exactly 72 mm apart on the circle.) • • • • • • Cut a square piece of steel plate 125mm by 125mm. Punch both places where one line meets the circle. The hub has a flange with holes in it. 10. This will depend on wha t kind of hub it is. Draw a circle. Draw diagonal lines between the corners and mark the exact centre with a punch. Find the size by trial and error.Jigs for the rotors PCD jig for drilling holes The magnet rotors are mounte d on a bearing hub (see diagram 10). For example there may be four holes on a 102mm (4 inch) 'pitc h circle diameter ' (PCD). . Or you may have some other arrangement . Use a small drill first and then a larger one. Set your compasses at 51mm radius (or to suit whateve r PCD). (If you have a differen t PCD. It will also be used to balance the rotors. (See diagram 11. on the circle. Here we shall say 102mm PCD. THE BEARINGHUB PCD SPINE PCD SHAFT HUB REAR ROTOR FRONT ROTOR The PCD jig will be used to drill holes in the rotors etc. The diameter of the circle is the PCD of the holes in the hub. Set your compasses at 72mm . The holes must be marked and drilled very precisely. Mark two points exactly this distance from the firs t two. this size would not be 72mm.
as tangent s to the 50mm circle as shown. with diameters 50mm .11. 102mm and 200mm . 12. • Draw a pair of parallel straigh t lines. Only one jig is needed. THE MAGNET POSITIONINGJIG 102 • Mark the centre of the workpiece. Make the jig from 250x25 0 mm plywood or aluminium sheet (not steel). . MARKING AND DRILLING THE PCD JIG 72 102 PCD 125 Magnet positionin g jig (See diagram 12) This jig is for puttin g the magnet blocks into the correc t places on the steel disks. • Draw three circles. on this centre.
The moulds need to be strong and smooth. Then make a fibreglass mould on the plug. They can be turned from wood or aluminium . using wood-turning. aligned with the magnet centres. Here is one way to make the moulds. 13. DISKS 500 20 . and cut out the jig along the bold lines as show n in the diagram. This coil shoul d fi t neatly in the mould. Making the moulds Make moulds for the stato r and rotor castings.• Draw 3 more pairs of straigh t lines at 45 and 90 degree angles to the first pair. • Place the PCD jig on top of the 102mm circle. approximatel y 500mm diameter. Stato r Outer mould • Cut out several disks of flooring sheet (see diagram 13). The surface of each mould must be perfectl y flat. mark the magnet positions . It is not easy to separate the stator casting fro m the moulds. Anothe r method is to make plaster or clay plugs on a wheel. • Draw a line connectin g two opposite magnet centres. • Using these lines. like a pot. It is a good idea to wind one coil (see section 4) before making the stato r mould. from composit e wooden floorboar d sheets. Hammer blows are usually needed. and drill fou r holes to match the four holes in the steel disks. The shape of the plug woul d be the shape of the outside of the stator .
to help with centring. • Check that the face of the mould runs true. You can do this by holding a pencil close to it while it spins. Hold the drill parallel to the shaft. and drill a 12 mm hole at its centre. the face is 'high'. a motor or the wheel hub of a small vehicle (fo r example a 3-wheel taxi). 14. This is a the faceplat e (see diagram 16). Use plenty of glue at the edge of the disk. Tighten the screws and check again. • Placing a 12 mm bolt through both holes. • Spin the faceplat e and use a pencil to make a very small circle at the centre. glue the small disk into the exact centre of the hollow . Loosen the screws and insert pieces of paper between the faceplat e and the stack. Where the pencil makes marks. • Screw the glued stack onto the faceplate . • Drill a 12mm hole precisely at this centre. 140 mm in diameter .• Take all but one of the disks. • Cut out a small disk of 15 mm plywood. • Glue the rings on top of the remaining disk. . Use plenty of glue at the insides of the rings. using a 12mm bolt to centre it. and cut circular hole in each. 15. STACK 60 DEEP 140 • Mount another piece of wood or board onto a lathe. with a hole 60mm deep (diagra m 15). on the opposite side from the penci l marks. RINGS 360 • Draw a circle 360 mm diameter on the remaining disk • Drill a 12 mm hole at the centre of this disk. to form a stack. 360mm diameter to form rings (see diagram 14). Use four woodscrew s through the disk and into the faceplate.
TURNING A MOULD MOULD FACEPLATE TOOL REST MOTOR CHISEL STURDY BENCH Now it is possible to shape the mould with a chisel. Wear a mask over your mouth to avoid inhalin g the dust. Beware of loose clothing . Turning a stator mould on an electric motor . which may become caught in the rotating mould.16.
The surface tapers at about seven degrees. THE SHAPE OF THE STATOR MOULD SECTION 7 degrees 380 380 360 • Turn the inner disk down to 130 mm diameter on the face (see diagram 18). with a taper. 17. The corner s are rounded as before. The overall diameter at the outer edge is 380mm The diameter of the flat face is 360 mm. The corner inside is smooth (sligh t radius) not sharp. .• • • • • Cut a smooth surface on the inner edges of the stack (diagram 17).
Screw some small pieces of plywood onto the underside of the mould to make 'feet'. CENTREDISK SECTION 140 130 HOLE CHECK THAT THE COIL FITS COMFORTABLY 60 • Place a coil against the face of the mould and check that it fits comfortabl y . then the hollow must be made a little larger.HOLES IN THE MOULD Drill four holes in the central part which are used to separate the two moulds (diagram 19).18. In the end. • Remove the mould from the lathe or motor.if not. . the coil's centr e must be at 250 mm from the mould centre. or the centre disk a little smaller. 19.
so that the diameter reduces from 368mm to 325mm. and round off the corner. Then remove the inner mould from the faceplate. as shown in diagram 21 . • The stack is at least 45 mm thick.Stato r Inner mould • Cut disks with diameter 370mm 20 degrees SECTION 20deg 20. • Draw 2 lines on the larger face of the mould. • Turn a 20 degree taper on the rim. bette r 50 mm. using a 12mm bolt to centr e them. with a 6mm gap all around the edge. INNER MOULD 325 368 HOLE 45 • Drill a 12mm hole at the centre of each • Glue them into a stack (diagram 20). • Check that the outer mod fits over the inner mould. 340mm apart (diagram 21) Sawing flat faces on the inner mould • Cut two flat faces.
but simpler 22. but productio n is easier if there are two moulds. CUTTING FACES ON THE INNER MOULD 340 FLAT FACE These two faces will create a thicker casting around the mountin g studs. ROTOR MOULD 7 deg 315 20 102mm . Magnet rotor moulds The PMG needs two magnet rotors . The outer mould (diagram 22) is similar to the stato r outer mould. so that two rotors can be produced at one time. Only one mould is needed.21.
Rotor mould being made and used .Use the PCD jig to drill four holes to match the holes in the magnet disks. The heat of the resin process will cause the paint to wrinkle and spoil the appearance of the casting. with the same pattern of four holes. and finished with polyurethane varnish and wax polish. 23 MAGNET ROTOR INNER DISK 7 deg 140 15 All moulds are sanded down to a very smooth surface. Each magnet rotor also needs an inner disk mould (diagram 23). Do not use ordinary paint on the moulds.
• Make a punch mark at the exact centre of the largest face (see diagram 24). • Drill through with an 8mm drill (using a smaller size first to be accurate) . • Punch four marks on these arcs. so as to prevent contac t with the fibreglass resin. Use a drill press. 30 mm apart and 10mm from the edge. • Use dividers or compasses to mark arcs at a radius of 178 mm from this mark. until the resin is set. This jig is made from wood 380 x 50 x 25mm . 24. to dril l the holes truly square. It must be made precisely. These studs need a jig to hold them in place. or the studs will not fi t the spine later. • Remove some of the underside of the ends of the piece of wood. STATOR STUDS JIG 25 190 380 178 10 DRILL HOLES WITH A PILLAR DRILL FOR ACCURATE ALIGNMENT Ø8 Ø12 30 50 355 380 30 320 30 .Jigs for the stator Stato r studs jig (see diagram 24) The stato r needs four 8 mm supportin g studs cast into it.
draw aroun d the m with a felt pen and then cut the pieces out. 25. Make some paper template s for cuttin g out the pieces of CSM. Later you can lay the template s on the sheet of CSM. PAPER TEMPLATES FOR GLASSFIBRECSM 380mm 140mm MAKE THIS TEMPLATE BY LAYING PAPER AROUND THE WALL OF THE MOULD AND MARKING THE EDGES. 75mm .Paper template s (see diagram 25) Fibreglass 'chopped strand mat' (CSM) is to be used in the stator .
so that the mould can be checked for correc t fit. Count the numbe r of turns carefully . • Wind the handle of the crankshaft. The first turn lies against the cheek piece on the side where the tail comes out. writing on the masking tape. or the coil will spring out. • Number the coils 1-6. withou t crossing over. . • Remove the coil from the former. • Grip the wire between the reel and the winder in a piece of rag to keep it tight. Cut the tail of wire 100mm away from the coil. so that the tail hangs out. Bent wire does not make a compac t coil. Winding the coils • Mount the reel of winding wire on an axle behind you. CORRECTW IRE FEED REEL (CORRECT) COIL FORMER REEL (INCORRECT) • Bend the tail of the wire 90 degrees. Do not handle the bend any other part of the wire. and wind five more coils in exactly the same way. The other turns lie against each other neatly. • When the coil is complete . at a point 100mm from the end. 26. It is a good idea to wind a coil before making the stato r moulds. Build the coil up in even layers. • Place the coils on a table (so that they are all exactly the same way u p (diagram 27) Check that the startin g tail is on the upper surface. Stator construction This section tells how to make a stator . • Twist the tail loosely around one of the butterfl y bolts. using the jigs and moulds from section 3.4. pass a piece of sticky tape under the coil on both sides and bind it tightly . in line with the coil former. Normally there will be 100 turns. and not hidden under the coil. and loosen . Do not cut off the winding wire until this is done. • Place this bend in the notch. leave it straight . The wire shoul d form an 'S' bend as it winds onto the coil (diagram 26).
) • Solder on tails of flexible wire (diagram 28). 28. when the edge has been sharpened with a grinder. (A hacksaw blade makes a very good scraper. until it is all bright copper.27. SOLDERINGON TAILS OF FLEX SOLDER JOINTS 100mm FLEXIBLE WIRE MASKING TAPE 1 1B 1A . THE COILS MUST ALL BE THE SAME WAY UP RIGHT WAY UP WRONG WAY UP STARTING TAIL HIDDEN UNDER • Scrape the enamel off the last 20mm of each tail of enamelled wire.
• Lay the coils out in the outer mould. seal them.Suggeste d lengths coil s 1 and 6 coils 2 and 5 coils 3 and 4 of flexible . and that the tails are long enough to remain within the moul d until the exit point between coils 3 and 4. Leave no bare copper showing. • Label the tails with the coil number and the lette r A or B.600 mm . B is for the finish. Sand them. It is importan t to lay all the coils the same way up. If PVA release agent can be got. .800 mm .40 0 mm tails: flex flex flex • Cover the soldered joints with sleeving. A is for the star t of the coil. polish them. be sure to have the mould s prepared properly. Or use two colours: black flex for the starts and white for the finishes. THE COILS IN THE MOULD 2 1 3 Holes shown black 6 4 5 Preparations for stator casting The stato r casting will contain:• six coil s • polyeste r resin and talcum powder (and perhaps pigment) • fibreglass mat (CSM) • four studs of 8mm x 100mm threaded rod Also. Do not mix them up. 29. • Check that they will fi t comfortably . then use it.
and begin to set. to prevent overheating . using the templates . to find out the correc t amoun t of catalyst. Casting thick layers of resin. Use exactly the right amount of catalyst . Add any talcu m powde r only after the catalys t is mixed. When the resin is mixed. There are notes on polyeste r resins in section 8. Differen t mixes use differen t weights . put in less catalyst . Apply the resin with a 'prodding ' action. Diagram 31 show s all the parts coming together. Afte r a few minutes in the mixing bucket. put in less catalyst . There will be 2 circular disks for laying flat in the outer mould. Resin casting needs less catalys t than normal fibreglas s work (abou t half the time) . You also need enough curved strip pieces to cover the inside wall of the outer moul d in a double thickness of CSM. and check that you understan d it all before you start . The stator casting procedure Diagram 30 shows the procedure for weighing out the resin and the talcum powder. star t the resin casting process. it will heat up. .follow the step by step instruction s below. If there is no PVA 'release agent' . and to thicken the mix . then take care not to wipe the polish off the mould with brus h strokes .Cut out pieces of fibreglass CSM. MIXING POLYESTERRESIN CATALYST 3CC R ES IN TALCUM POW DER 200g 200g 400g Mix resin with catalys t thoroughl y but slowly to avoid churning in air bubbles. When you are sure that you have everythin g to hand. It is a good idea to read through the procedure first. use it at once. The talcum powde r is only used for bulk mixes (not thin layers with CSM). When the workshop is hot. make some trial mixes of resin. Overlap 25mm between pieces. If in doubt. 30.
and fi t the 12 mm bolt though the centre of both . between coils 3 and 4. Put the second CSM disk over the coils and paint it with this mix. Work the resin into the CSM. The resin will rise up the sides. • Mix another 600g of resin with 9cc catalys t and 600g of talcum powder. The wire tails all come out in one place. Some resin may spill out.5cc of catalys t to do this. Use no talcum powder in the first two mixes. Avoid making 'pools ' of resin. • Mix another 100 g of resin with 2cc catalyst . Tuck the wiring neatly into the space between the moulds. pour resin gently into the gap between the moulds until it rises to near the top of the female mould. • Put the inner mould down inside the outer mould.• Place the outer mould on some newspaper on a workbench. • Shake the mould vigorously . with 3cc of catalys t (and 15-30c c of pigment for colour. Pour this mix into the spaces between the coils. • Apply a second layer of CSM to the wall. if required) . You may need to mix another 100g of resin with 1. Six stages of the rotor casting procedure .diagram 24) over the inner mould. Keep notes of the amounts of resin used. with a poking motion to remove bubbles. One flat spot on the inner mould sits over the part where the wires come out of the stator . The studs should be immersed in resin for about half of their length. and paint more resin over it again. Pour this over the wires of the coils so that it soaks in. • Mix another 200g resin with 3cc catalys t and only 100g of talc. with nuts on top . • Place the jig (for the studs . Do not paint it on top of the island in the centre. with one end over the wire tails . Insert the four 8mm studs into the holes. • Apply one layer of fibreglass mat (CSM). for next time. The resin should fill the outer mould until it is level with the island at th e centre. to remove air bubbles. Rotary motion and vibration will help the resin to settle . Tighten the 12mm bolt with a nut. but keep one disk for later. and help any air bubbles to rise . • Paint this resin all over the inside of the outer mould. • Mix 200g of resin. • If necessary. Thoroughl y wash out the paint brush with thinners. • Put the coils into the mould.
If it does not begin to set within a few hours. It should become slightly warm. remove the casting from the mould. using a bolt in each of the holes around the central hole. When the resin is fully hard. STATOR CASTING ELEMENTS M12 bolt studs ji g inner mould CSM disk coil s CSM strips CSM disk outer mould The casting is now complete . . Knock the casting out of the outer mould by turning it over and knocking the edge of the mould gently against the floor. and harden within hours.31. Remove the jig from the studs. Tap the two moulds apart. then put it in a warm place to speed up the process. Be patien t and gentle if possible .
stainless wire rope. The magnets will be placed on the corners of the octagon. Rotor construction The magnet rotor is also a casting. The disk has holes to mount it to the hub . There is also a procedure later for assembling the parts. not warped. etc. each 10mm diameter . See diagram 32. It is not easy to cut the outer circle withou t warping the plate. These will bond to the resin and help to secure the casting onto the disk.in this manual the hub has four holes. withou t warping the plate . Do not use aluminium or stainless steel for this disk! The disks have to be made of magnetic material. 32. 20mm long. Screw four pieces of M10 rod . as described next. Firs t collect togethe r the magnet plates. At the centre of the disk is a 65mm diameter hole. draw a circle on it. A guillotin e can cut steel plate into an octagon (see diagram 33). into these holes. 6mm thick. magnet blocks. Magnet plates Each magnet rotor is built on a steel disk. This is an alternativ e way to make the rotor disk. on a circle at 4 inches (102mm ) PCD.5. then all the jigs and moulds must match this hub. If a differen t hub is chosen. at 220mm PCD. . and then cu t off the corners at 45 degrees. MAGNET ROTOR DISK 305mm The magnet plates must be flat. There should also be four holes drilled and tappe d (threaded ) for M10 rod between the magnet positions . The length of each edge is 116 mm. First cut a square.
just before puttin g them in the mould for resi n casting. There is a method to chec k that you are doing this correctly . When they are all in. Each time a magnet block is placed. You may break a magnet or break the resin holding it. Take care not to let them fly togethe r .. . Never use a hamme r to assemble the PMG. repelled . as follows. music tapes. Then place it withou t turning it over. hold it so that it repels the one before (see diagram 35). by each magnet in the circle. attracted . Each block has a north pole and a south pole (see diagram 34). 34. The top faces of the magnet blocks on the disk must alternat e N-S-N-S-. Magnet blocks There are 8 magnet blocks on each rotor .they may break.. Magnets can damage floppy discs. POLES ON THE MAGNET BLOCKS EACH BLOCK HAS A 'N' AND A 'S' POLE POLES WHICH ARE THE SAME REPELEACH OTHER N AND S POLES ATTRACT EACH OTHER Take care when handling the magnets. ALTERNATIVE SHAPE : AN OCTAGON 116 280mm 280mm 280mm The central hole is made with a hole-saw or it can be cut out on a lathe. They attrac t each other with strong forces. Grind the steel disks until they are bright and clean. repelled. Remove any grease with spirits.33. check with another magnet: it will be attracted . credit cards and other magnetic media. Separate them from each other by sliding them sideways.
and the win d generator s were destroyed. Tape it in several places so that it is in a coil. the magnet block s wer e simply glued to the steel disks. and cut it off with a grinder or chisel. . When the PMG s turned fast. CHECK THAT THE BLOCK IS REPELLED 2. It should be reinforced . Now we embed the magnets in a resin casting. 1.35. the magnets will try to fly off the rotors . PLACING THE MAGNET BLOCKS N S N S N The two magnet rotors must attrac t each other when the mountin g holes are aligned. Stee l wire is strong enough. Wrap wire around the outside of the magnet rotors to hold the magnets in. Check that the magnets next to the holes on one rotor are differen t from the ones next to the holes on the other roto r (see diagram 36). ready to drop into place later. When we starte d building these PMGs. but steel would take the magnetism from the magnet blocks. S N S 36. DROP IT INTO PLACE WITHOUT TURNING IT OVER. the magnets flew off. Resin alone is not strong enough to hold the magnets . Stainles s steel wire cable is used on fishing boats. Put the stainless steel rope around outside the magnets five times. THE TWO ROTORSARE NOT THE SAME N S N S S N S S N S N N S N S N Stainles s Stee l wir e When the PMG is turning . Before using any resin assemble the parts dry. We use stainless steel because it is not magnetic and it does not spoil the effec t of the magnets. There is a large centrifuga l forc e pulling the magnet blocks to fly away.
check that everythin g is ready: • the moulds are prepared with polish or release agent. • 16 strips of CSM are ready to fi t between the magnets • the stainless steel wire is cut to length and taped • the magnet positionin g jig is ready The amounts of resin mentione d in this procedure are enough for two magnet rotors. so that it can be easily removed after casting. 37. from below (see diagram 37) . Place the inner mould on top. and plac e the smaller face down.Rotor casting procedure Before starting . Add 20g of pigment for colour if required. • Mix 200g of resin with 3cc catalyst . • the magnets and the magnet disks are clean and bright (no grease). MAGNET ROTOR MOULD ASSEMBLY STAINLESS STEEL W IR E MAGNETS J IG MOULD STEEL DISK MOULD FOUR BOLTS • Place four bolts through the holes in the outer mould. Mix 100g talcum powder with the remains of the . Lay a steel disk in the outer mould. Paint it all over the steel disk. Check the taper.
Add resin until the CSM is soaked. remove the positionin g jig.north. • Fit nuts to the four bolts and tighte n the central disk down onto the steel disk. Four stages of the rotor casting procedure . Let it sit on the CSM. withi n the positionin g jig. Place the magnet blocks on the steel disk. Poke it. • Place the magnet positionin g jig onto the bolts. • Mix 500g of resin with 7cc of catalyst . Take care not to mov e the magnets around. • Mix 500g of resin with 7cc of catalyst . or vibrate it. • Lay the coil of stainless steel wire loosely around the outside of the magnets. Lay small strips of CSM between the magnets and into the gap at the edge. and use it for the next magnet rotor . When all the magnets are in. Do not let the wire fall below the magnets. or they will slide togethe r under the magneti c attraction. check that the undersid e of the magnet is repelle d by the one next to it (diagram 35) . Hit the mould. north . Fill the spaces between the magnets until the resin mix reaches the top of the mould. level with the top of the steel disk. Before you place a magnet on the disk. Add 300g talcum powder.resin. south. so that the two rotors attrac t each other. Take care not to knock the magnets out of place. south. and not the rotor. Take care that the poles of the magnets alternat e . Be patien t when removing the rotors from the moulds. Add 300g talcum powder. Do not use violent hammer blows which may damag e them. below the top of the mould. to remove bubbles.. Pour this mix around the edge of the disk until it fills the gap. Remember : position the magnet blocks differently . Leave the rotor castings to set hard (several hours) before you remove them from the moulds.
The hole at the centre is 25mm (or to suit the shaft used). P M G spine and bearing hub (see diagram 39) Make the spine of the PMG from a 380mm length of 'box section ' steel tube 50x25x4m m (sometime s called RHS). Assembly Rotor balancing Each rotor should be balanced. A differen t procedure is used for the final balancing in Section 6. ASSEMBLY OF THE BALANCING JIG AND SPIKE PCD JIG MAGNET ROTOR SMALL W EIGHT S P IK E If the rotor will sit level. because the rotors may not be mounted exactly centrally . Mark the exact centre of one large face. or the PMG will shake when it is turning . It could also be possible to use the stato r studs jig to help drill the holes. Then balance the rotor on a spike as shown: 38. If it will not sit level. Replace any weights with pieces of M10 threaded rod. then it is balanced. Drill this with a holesaw. in the same way as for the 'stato r studs jig'. or drill out some of the resin between magnets. until it will sit level. The whole PMG needs to be balanced again at the end.6. and then mark fou r 8mm holes. using four bolts. To balance a magnet rotor (see diagram 38). Turn the PCD jig around on the rotor . then add small weight s to it . screwed int o holes in the resin between the magnets. and check it again. first attach the PCD jig (from diagram 11) . . or bore it on a lathe.
It needs a plastic cap over the end to keep dirt out of the bearings. with a spacer between them. THE BEARINGHUB Ø10 Ø120 PCD102 Ø65 8 63 Ø32 Ø25 25 35 20 25 . THE BOX SECTION SPINE DRILL HOLES WITH A PILLAR DRILL FOR ACCURATE ALIGNMENT Ø8 Ø25 30 50 355 380 Weld the shaft in the 25mm hole. Do not forge t to grease the bearings. Pack them with grease around half of their circumferenc e only. 40. Do not fill them entirely or they will become stif f to turn. Take care to hold the shaft as square as possible (90 degrees) to the spine. It has two 50x2 5 mm deep-groove ballraces in it . The bearing hub (diagram 40) fits on the shaft.39. when welding it.
STUDS othe r nuts down. • Take the stator . because it is attracte d to the magnets. Fit one 8 mm nut onto each suppor t stud. The wind turbin e blades will also mount onto these studs. Fit a dust cover over the end of the bearing hub. The magnet faces should all be at the same height +/ . and tighte n the 41. to adjust the rotor. Do not over tighte n the nut. The outer end nut should be sealed with paint or thread.5mm. • Fit the studs through the holes in the bearin g hub. adjust the spine in the vice unti l the magnet rotor is level. Do not use steel wire. Screw them right down. Do not hammer the magnet rotor whil e fitting .sealant. If not. THREADEDROD 10mm 200mm • Rotate the magnet rotor past a piece of brass wire. • Place the spine in a vice with the shaf t upward. • Put 6 nuts onto each stud) see diagram 41). from the front • Put the rear magnet rotor onto the ends of the studs. Place the hub onto the shaft. use very thin shims between hubflang e and rotor-disk .0.Photos show the rear magnet rotor being fitted PMG assembly • Cut 4 pieces of M10 threaded rod. Check both ways : north-sout h and east-west. each 200 long. so that the rear magnet rotor is attache d to the back of the hub flange . They are used as studs to hold the magnet rotors to the hub. • Using a spirit level. • Put a nut on the end of each stud. • Place the stato r over the rear magnet rotor . Fasten the hub to the shaft with a nut and split pin.
Then fi t the fron t magnet rotor. and tighte n them securely. and rotate the rear magnet rotor . Fitting the front magnet rotor Fitting the stator Electrica l Part s The next section (Section 7) will describe how to connect the rectifie r to the stator. • Use the nuts to raise the stator equall y 1mm on all four studs. If it is much more than 1mm fro m the stato r then remove washers. • If the fron t magnet rotor is less than 1mm from the stato r at any point. Then add 1mm. then fi t more nuts on top. You will probably only need to use three of these. The remaining fou r terminals are for AC connectio n to the stator . Keep the stato r level in bot h directions . • When the fron t rotor is 1mm from the stator . • Fit some washers to the 10 mm stud s which hold the rotors.and fi t its suppor t studs into the holes in the spine. To fin d the correc t number it is necessary to remove washers until it begins to rub the stator . The positive terminals are both connecte d to the battery positive terminal. • Slowly lower the stator . . Always the same number of nuts and washers on each stud . A total of six nuts and two washers may be enough. You will hear a sound when the highest magnet touches the stator. They come in blocks 30 x 30 mm. I recommen d using two 'single phase bridge rectifiers ' (see diagram 42). Fit more 8 mm nuts to the ends of the studs. (They are often at right angles to the other three. connected as desired to suit the speed (see Section 7). ) Both negative terminals are connect to the batter y negative . then add more washer s under it .
Two bridge rectifiers . RECTIFIERS ETC. BLOCK CONNECTOR HEATSINK BRIDGE RECTIFIERS FIXING HOLES + + RECEPTACLE CONNECTOR NEGATIVE TERMINALS 'Block connectors ' are useful for connectin g the wires from the stator . Use solder. Alternatively soldering or crimping would be fine. Keep all the connection s under a weatherproo f cover. Bolt the rectifier s onto the heatsink. to connect wires to the rectifiers.42. Take care not to overhea t the rectifier s while soldering. which will probably loo k like the one in the diagram. but can be any piece of aluminium approximatel y 250 grams or more in weight. or crimped 'receptacle ' connectors .
This is necessary because the rotor disk may not be perfectl y central on the PMG shaft. If it slows down rapidl y then there may be an electrica l fault. Check that the wires are not touching each other. It will be much easier to correc t the faults now. . then it may be necessary to disassemble the PMG and assemble it more carefully . The wind turbine blades must also be balanced in the same way. creating a short circui t which makes the PMG harder to turn. Spin the rotor and listen for sounds. The rotor should begin to turn clockwise. 43. as it turns. The shaft is horizontal . then the bearings may be over-grease d or too tight. The magnet rotors are free to move. Or it may be possible to correc t the problem by making mino r adjustment s to the stato r mountin g studs. Hang an objec t weighing 10 0 grams on this stud. with mor e space between the rotor and the stator . you should check the balance again using the new procedure below. Push one side backward while pulling the other side forward . It must not touch the rotor . than to return the unit to the workshop later. Testing and connecting Check that the PMG has no faults before it is put into use. There should not be any scuffing or brushing of the rotor . If it will not turn. or the bearings may be over-tightened. Mechanical testing Mount the spine verticall y in a vice. as it will be in a wind generator . Check that the rotor will spin freely. Grasp the stato r with both hands. It should spin freely for several seconds and gradually come to a halt. whil e the rotor is spinning. HANG A WEIGHT ON ONE OF THE STUDS S P IN E STATOR ROTOR 100 g WEIGHT Checking the balance The rotors have already been balanced in section 6. Stop the rotor with one of the studs in the 3 o'clock position (diagram 43).7. If there is a rubbin g sound. When the unit is assembled.
then the rotor is not balanced. (Series connection s of pairs of coils which are in the same phase. and find the lightes t weight which will start the rotor turning .) • Set the multimete r to '10VAC ' or similar (if you have one).Repeat the startin g test (diagram 43) with each of the four rotor studs in the 3 o'clock position . • Connect the meter. 44. but it is possible to do some basi c tests with a 3 volt torch bulb. . Electrical testing Coil connectio n test It would be helpful to have a multimete r when testin g the PMG. about one revolutio n per second. In each case the result should be the same. or a bulb. 2B to 5A. If one stud needs much more weight than another. or the bulb should flicker. See diagram 44. 3A and 6B. • Repeat the test with two more pairs of wires: 2A and 5B. and 3B to 6A. TESTING THE COILS W IRING CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 1B BLOCK CONNECTOR SERIES CONNECTIONS BULB OR M ETE R 4A 2B 5A 3B 6A 1A 4B 2A 5B 3A 6B BULB ACV 100 10 TEST THESE NEXT 1 MULTIMETER • Rotate the PMG slowly by hand. Tr y differen t weights . • Connect the wires 1B to 4A. • The meter should give a reading of about two volts. Fix small weights to the rotor until the balance is correct. between the wires marked 1A and 4B.
If there is no reading. Connect each of 4B. then it is necessary to do another test (see diagram 45) . Connect a bulb to the output . then it should be possible in future to make a bette r stato r by placing the coils at exactly equal distances apart in the mould. or a very low reading. When the faulty coil has been found. If all these connection s are good. If there is a voltage . label the tails again. then reverse the connections (swap A for B) on the coils until the voltage drops to a very low level. also . Connect the tails 1A. If possible. 45. 2A and 3A together . 5B and 6B to any thre e of the rectifie r AC terminals (marked with 'S' symbol) . This is the 'star ' connection . then it is possible that one coil has been reversed (placed upside-down). If any coils have been reversed. CHECKINGFOR A REVERSEDCOIL WIRING DIAGRAM 1B BLOCK CONNECTOR SERIES CONNECTIONS BULB OR ME TER CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 4A 2B 5A 3B 6A 1A 4B 2A 5B 3A 6B BULB ACV 100 10 1 MULTIMETER There will always be a small voltage in this test. There should NOT be more than a very small voltage . with A and B at the correct ends. then connect the rectifier . to find out which one is at fault. DC outpu t test When these tests have been complete d and the results are correct . or the bulb lights up. Connect 4B-2A and 5B-3A as shown in the diagram. 2B-5A . then check that the series connections (1B-4A . 3B-6A ) are correct . Now tes t between 1A and 6B. because the coils are not perfectly positione d in the mould. If the test gives more than one volt. as show n in diagram 46.
a multimete r on 10 VDC (or similar). .
connect the coils 'delta' . The mete r shoul d show a steady reading around 4 volts DC (or 3 volts with the bulb present) . not flickering as before. It should be stif f bu t smooth to turn. and higher curren t output . You can also test the PMG withou t a bulb or a meter. Check the connection s carefully . Try another rectifier. as in diagram 47. DC TEST 1B 4A 2B BLOCK CONNECTOR COILS CONNECTE STAR D CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM S E R IE S CONNECTIONS V 5A 3B 6A 1A 2A 3A + BULB 4B 5B 6B + DCV 10 R E C T IF IE R S MULTIMETER Rotate the rotor by hand as before. .46. Connecting the P M G to the 12 volt battery Star and Delta connections For low windspeeds. then there is a faulty connectio n or a faulty rectifier . If there is no reading. Simply connect the positive and negative wire s from the rectifier s togethe r (all four) in a 'shor t circuit' . The bulb shoul d glow with a steady light. connect the coils 'star ' as above. approximatel y one revolutio n per second (60 rpm). or the bulb flickers. If it tremble s as you turn it then there is a fault. Now try to turn the PMG. For high winds.
48.47. DELTA CONNECTION 1B BLOCK CONNECTOR CIRCUIT SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM BATTERY + 4A 2B 5A 3B BATTERY 6A 1A 6B 2A 4B 3A 5B TO BATTERY BLOCK CONNECTOR + TO BATTERY + DELTA CONNECTIO GIVES N MORE CURREN WITH T BETTER EFFICIENC AT Y HIGHER SPEEDS. USING A RELAY TO CHANGE BETWEEN STAR AND DELTA 1B 4A 2B 5A 3B 6A BLOCK CONNECTOR SERIES CONNECTIONS 3 POLE C/O RELAY (3P2T) SWITCH 1A 2A 3A + 4B 5B 6B - + 12 VOLT BATTERY . It is also possible to wire a relay (see diagram 48) which will switch the connection s from star to delta and back as desired.
an electroni c contro l circuit will be available to automat e the changeover. However. Note that you need six AC terminals on the rectifier s so you will need thre e rectifie r blocks.2 mm diameter ) to win d coils with 200 turns each. If you do not wish to have to change the connection s between low and high windspeeds. . STAR/DELTA CONNECTION 4A 5A 6A 4B 5B + BLOCK CONNECTOR USE 200 TURNS PER COIL 6B 1A 3B 2A 1B 3A 2B + BLOCK CONNECTOR + BATTERY POSITIVE BATTERY NEGATIVE PMG-to-Batter y Cable size The cable from the PMG to the batter y can be either three-phase-A C or DC. If the rectifier is mounte d at the wind generator . Three are two options:• If you expect mainly low windspeeds. then it will be DC. This is only slightly more efficien t than thre e phase AC. the efficienc y will be slightly less. you can use a 17AWG wire (1. then th e PMG will still work.Yet another option for connectin g the stator At the time of writing this document . and it so it can go wrong. the above arrangemen t (using a relay to change the connections ) is still under development . 49. Later. Then you can connect one group in delta and one group in star as show n in diagram 49. • If you also need higher power in higher winds. then you can simply use the star connection shown in diagra m 46. This is all very complex.
See diagram 50. The diameter (thickness ) of each copper wire is about 3mm. If the cable is longer. in direct proportion. The batter y contains stored electrica l energy. then the voltage will be higher than 12 volts. CONNECTINGTHE BATTERY CABLE FROM WIND GENERATOR FUSES OR C IR C U IT BREAKER S CABLE TO LOADS 12 VOLT BATTERY + DO NOT USE 'CROCODILE CLIPS' FOR PERMANENT CONNECTIONS . and running fast. this energy is release d in a very high current . Electrical Safety There is no danger of electric shock from a 12 volt battery . it is advisable to use a heavy cable. the size of the cable must be large. The cable will heat up and burn. A 15 amps curren t flowing in this cable wil l lose 15% of the power from the wind generato r as heat in the cable. maybe as high as 50 volts. When there is a short-circui t fault in the wiring fro m the battery . for example the positive and negative wires touching each other. the recommended size is 6 mm 2 (10AWG) . But if the wind generator is disconnecte d from the battery . Use one fuse for the win d generato r and a separate one for the cable to the load (the lights.At 12 volts. Do not run the PMG at high speed withou t a batter y connected. For a distance of 20 metres. or whateve r uses the power) . it shoul d be heavier. 50. Even if the curren t is only 15 amps. Therefore it is necessary to use a fuse or a circuit breaker on every wire which attache s to the batter y positive terminal.
At first. Use more electricity! A good way to use more electricit y is too charge more batterie s in windy weather. In the case of a wind powered system. If the batter y voltage is below 11. Use less curren t or more curren t in the loads to correc t these problems. and throw acid in the eyes! Batter y Charging Lead acid batterie s should be kept in a charged condition . But be careful not to discharge the batter y too deeply. There are simple electroni c circuits which can regulate the batter y voltage automatically . or to keep it too long in a discharged state. it is saf e to use a high current . then it is necessary to fi t a disconnec t and a regulator. Do not splash it. Stop using a battery before it is fully discharged. then it is being discharged too much. when the batter y is discharged. If there is an accident . Do not make sparks near a batter y or it may explode. you may have to wait for a wind to charge the battery . Use less electricity! • Very bright lights mean too much windpower . Charging the batter y too hard will also damage it. Batterie s produce hydrogen gas. perhap s chargin g batterie s from neighbours ' houses. Be especially careful of the eyes . Watch the batter y voltage . the n the user should watch the brightnes s of the lights and follow these rules:• Dim lights. If the user is not willing to watch the batter y voltage .5 volts.Batter y acid is bad for the clothes and the skin. the best cure is to flush with plenty of water. The best way to fully charge a batter y is to use a small curren t for a long time. then charge the batter y from another source within two weeks. If there is no voltmete r available. mean low battery . If the voltage is high (over 14 volts ) then the batter y charging curren t is too high. which is very explosive. If there is a problem with the win d generator . . or it will be damaged (sulphated ) and becom e useless. They are called 'low voltage disconnects ' and 'shunt regulators' . but later the curren t must be reduced or the batter y will overhea t and the plates will be damaged.
or it will harden. which will be on the outside of the casting. so that it is easie r to spread it with a paint brush. Various things are added to it to make it work bette r for various jobs.8. Pigment Pigment is used to colour the casting. This is used for thinning the resin. where the resin is going to be built up in stages. Store in a PVC container. ('Body filler pastes' use the other system. Afte r it is mixed. it does no harm. This powder is not needed for casting resin . or bette r still 'casting resin'. below 25 degrees C. Additional information Using polyester resin Polyester is the plastic substance used in fibreglass work for building boats. It is no t necessary to add pigment to the resin. Wax-free 'Air inhibited ' resin 'B' This type of resin is used for 'gel-coats ' on boat moulds. Any exposed surface will remain tack y indefinitely .) Cobalt is a purple fluid. the resin must be stored in the dark. Hardeners There are two systems used to harden polyeste r resin. . For resin casting and most fibreglass work we use peroxide and cobalt. If it is alread y added . car body parts. the casting is transparen t and the coils are visible. We do not recommend using this resin for the PMG. Ask the supplier to mix the right amount of cobalt into the resin. and each system uses two chemicals. Thixotropi c additive A special powder of very light silica is often added to resin to make it thicker . Your supplier should be able to help you. or it wil l explode. if a coloured finish is desired. Avoid contac t with skin. Never mix it with cobalt (excep t for the cobalt already in the resin). etc . in the dark . Add pigment to the first mix . It causes the smell. Mix very small quantitie s (abou t 1-2%) of peroxide with resin or it will overheat. Peroxide is a hazardous chemical. Styrene monomer Approximatel y 35% of the resin as supplied is styrene monomer. Ask for resin 'A'. It is possible to add a little more styrene monomer (10% ) to make it more liquid. Talk to your supplier and explai n what the resin is to be used for. Withou t pigment. Add no more than 10% pigment to the mix.
use polyurethan e varnish. Add a little resin to the fibreglass.Fibreglass The resin has almost no strengt h withou t fibreglass. Better to use nothing. If possible. and pres s out all the air bubbles. It makes the resin mixture much cheaper. Resin can be mixed with up to twice its own weight of talcum powder. plaster or clay. and to mix them wit h the resin. Talcum powder Talcum powder is a cheap filler which can be mixed with the resin after the peroxide has been added . Mould preparation Polyurethane varnish Ordinary paint should not be used on moulds. It forms a shee t of PVA. Using painted moulds in Peru . Use wax polish. It is also possible to buy just chopped strands. Silicone polish is not compatibl e wit h PVA release agent. Smooth the varnish off with sandpaper befor e polishing it. The powder also helps to reduce the heat build-up in large resi n castings. This is useful for the magnet rotor castings. before adding more resin. Rub all the polish off with a rag and then leave it some hour s and do it again. It is available in sheets of 'choppe d strand mat' (CSM). and a little thicker . which greatly helps to separate the casting fro m the mould. Polis h Polish the mould several times before using it first time . PVA Release agent Paint this over the mould and let it dry. This wil l preven t moisture coming out of a mould made from wood .
It will be ideal for low head. It can also be used for higher head higher power sites. so it may be bette r to keep the curren t the same. It woul d be risky to run a wind turbine at high speeds. Do not use the star/delt a connectio n (diagram 49) for hydro power where the speed is constant . because it is efficien t even when producing only a few watts .Using the P M G for hydro power The PMG can also be used for charging batterie s from small hydro turbines . low power sites. It would need a simple 'impulse ' runner mounte d on the fron t magnet rotor. This is bette r still. and have bette r efficiency . Doubling the speed can also double the outpu t voltage and the current . high power At higher rpm. The PMG may overhea t under these conditions . higher power is available from the PMG. increasing the speed improves the PMG's power handling abilities considerably . but deliver higher curren t withou t overheating. Head (metres) 10 10 5 Flow (litres/second) 1 5 5 Net Power(watts) 40 200 100 pcd runner (cm) 37 27 23 speed (rpm) 325 440 360 High head. because it is capable of high power output s at high rpm. because the shaft axis is fixed. In any case. There is a danger of rust damage to the magnet rotors in a very humid or wet environmen t such as in a hydro application . offerin g four times as much power with the same efficienc y as before . but this problem does not arise with hydro power. Low head sites Here are some examples of condition s where the PMG could work without modificatio n (connecte d delta). . then the stato r winding can be changed to give 12 volts (as before ) at the higher speed. Much will depend on whether the water is used for cooling. because of the problem of gyroscopi c forces on the rotors . This is done by connectin g the coil s of each phase in parallel instead of in series. If higher voltage is not required. because parallel and delta connection s can suffer from parasitic interna l currents. Ther e is no advantage. Or the coils can be wound with fewer turns of thicke r wire . It is advisable to galvanise or plate the steel component s with zinc.
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