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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, on the situation in Libya, is a measure that was adopted on 17 March 2011. The Security Council resolution was proposed by France, Lebanon, and the United Kingdom. Ten Security Council members voted in the affirmative (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Gabon, Lebanon, Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa, and permanent members France, the United Kingdom, and the United States). Five (Brazil, Germany, and India, and permanent members China and Russia) abstained, with none opposed.
UN Security Council Resolution 1973
Date: 17 March 2011 Meeting no.: 6,498 S/RES/1973 (Document Code: (http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2011/sc10200.doc.htm#Resolution) ) Vote: For: 10 Abs.: 5 Against: 0 Subject: Libyan civil war Result: Adopted Security Council composition in 2011: permanent members: CHN FRA RUS UK USA
non-permanent members: BIH BRA COL IND LBN NGA
The resolution formed the legal basis for military States enforcing no-fly zone intervention in the Libyan Libya civil war, demanding "an immediate ceasefire" and authorizing the international community to establish a no-fly zone and to use all means necessary short of foreign occupation to protect civilians.
1 Resolution 1.1 Key points 1.2 Arming anti-Gaddafi forces 2 Voting 3 Libyan response 4 Implementation 5 See also
1/15/13 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 . it would be legal to do so. and reaffirms that such assets should be used for the benefit of the Libyan people. the free encyclopedia 6 References 7 External links Resolution Key points The resolution. establishes a panel of experts to monitor and promote sanctions implementation. authorizes all necessary means to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas. by allowing for forcible inspections of ships and planes.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1973 2/5 . strengthens the arms embargo and particularly action against mercenaries. imposes an asset freeze on assets owned by the Libyan authorities.wikipedia. and abuses of. though arming anti-Gaddafi forces was not being proposed at present. However. Hillary Clinton has argued that. Voting Approved (10) Bosnia and Herzegovina Colombia France Gabon Lebanon Nigeria Portugal South Africa United Kingdom United States Abstained (5) Brazil China Germany India Russia Opposed (0) en. civilians. imposes a ban on all Libyan-designated flights. imposes a no-fly zone over Libya. the arms embargo imposed by paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 would prevent arms being supplied to anyone in Libya. the resolution qualifies resolution 1970 with the wording "all necessary measures. Arming anti-Gaddafi forces On the face of it. extends the travel ban and assets freeze of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 to a number of additional individuals and Libyan entities.Wikipedia. notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970" if there in so doing it would protect civilians. adopted under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter: demands the immediate establishment of a ceasefire and a complete end to violence and all attacks against. except for a "foreign occupation force".
Viotti further observed that ". NATO assumed command of the operation.an important aspect of the popular movement in North Africa and the Middle East is their spontaneous. The Brazilian Ambassador Mrs. However. as fighter jets of the 0:00 MENU French Air Force destroyed several pro-Gaddafi vehicles advancing US Air Force Lockheed EC-130J on rebel stronghold Benghazi. could change that narrative in ways that may have serious repercussions for the situation in Libya and beyond. later expanding to 17. A few hours before issuing the resolution. warning message to Libyan ports severely disabling the regime's air defense capability and allowing a during Operation Odyssey Dawn on wider enforcement of the no-fly zone to begin.wikipedia. We are also concerned about the possibility that the use of military force.. "We are coming tonight. A coalition of 10 states 20 March 2011. it was acknowledged for the first time that special forces troops from Britain." India abstained because it perceived the resolution as being based on uncertain information (lack of "credible information on the situation on the ground in Libya") and as being too open-ended (lacking "clarity about details of enforcement measures. as called for in paragraph 4 of today’s resolution. Our abstention should not be confused with neutrality. including who and with what assets will participate and how these measures will be exactly carried out"). including the practicalities of enforcing such a zone and concerns about the use of force when other means had not been exhausted. Gaddafi warned the opposition with a speech saying.S. They believed that the use of force "may have the unintended effect of exacerbating tensions on the ground and causing more harm than good to the very same civilians we are committed to protecting". African members of the Security Council condemned the actions of the Libyan regime and supported the text. en. On 24 August. from Europe and the Middle East initially participated in the intervention.1/15/13 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 . and there will be no mercy". Chancellor Angela Merkel said that Germany would not take part in the military operation. Permanent members China and Russia had reservations about the no-fly zone. and British submarines then fired aircraft broadcasts a naval blockade over 110 Tomahawk cruise missiles at targets throughout Libya. but added: "We unreservedly share the aims of this resolution. On 31 March. France. the free encyclopedia * Permanent members of the Security Council are in bold.Wikipedia."  Libyan response On 18 March.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1973 3/5 . homegrown nature. but had noted requests by the Arab League and the "special situation" in Libya and therefore abstained. Muammar Gaddafi's government announced that they would comply with the resolution and implement a ceasefire. Implementation See also: 2011 military intervention in Libya Military intervention in Libya began on 19 March. it quickly became clear that no ceasefire had in fact been implemented. Brazil too abstained noting the fundamental contradiction in using force to achieve an "immediate end to violence and the protection of civilians". The intervention succeeded in preventing pro-Gaddafi forces from capturing Benghazi. Libyan opposition forces in Benghazi cheered and fired guns and fireworks into the air as the resolution was adopted. U.. The following day. Italy.
4.uk/news/world-africa-12781009) .org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. 5-6.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. 16.co. Times of India. BBC News.uk/standard/article-23980885-hunt-is-on-for-safe-houses-where-dictator-can-lie.com/articles/37599) .com/2011/WORLD/africa/03/17/libya. 9.civil.net/live/africa/libya-live-blog-march-19 17.afrol.Wikipedia. ^ "UNSC 6498th Meeting" (http://www.com/articles/37599.asp?NewsID=37808&Cr=libya&Cr1=) . the free encyclopedia Jordan.war/index. 17 March 2011. ^ "Africa defies AU chief's support for Ghaddafi" (http://www. United Nations News Centre.co. 3.co.un. 17 March 2011. August 24 2011 18. 17 March 2011.asp?m=S/PV. http://en. http://timesofindia.msn. pp. http://globalspin.cms) .ru/world/20110318/163067336.com/id/42164455/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/?gt1=43001.vanguardngr.newstatesman. MSNBC.6498. 5.asp?m=S/PV. Security Council approve no-fly zone in Libya" (http://edition.cms. Vanguard (Nigeria). Afrol News. Retrieved 22 October 2011.bbc. ^ Time. ^ http://www.6498) . ^ "UN backs action against Colonel Gaddafi" (http://www.com/world/china/China-opposed-UNresolution-on-Libya/articleshow/7736989.bbc. 14.html) .com/blogs/the-staggers/2011/03/fly-zone-ceasefirelibya) . 12. http://edition.thisislondon.ru/world/20110318/163067336.html?hpt=T2.cnn.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8721291/Libya-SAS-leads-hunt-forGaddafi. 18 March 2011. ^ "China opposed UN resolution on Libya" (http://timesofindia. http://www. ^ "Libya declares ceasefire" (http://www.war/index. 8.blogs.N.co. "U.msnbc.com/world/china/China-opposed-UN-resolution-onLibya/articleshow/7736989. ^ "UN Security Council adopts resolution on Libya" (http://en. Gordon Rayner and Damien McElroy Libya: SAS leads hunt for Gaddafi (http://www.civil.co. http://www. New Statesman. BBC News. This has been questioned as a possible violation of Resolution 1973 although the use of special forces is not prohibited by the resolution.un.com/2011/WORLD/africa/03/17/libya.time.vanguardngr. ^ "Libya: UN backs action against Colonel Gaddafi" (http://www.bbc.bbc. CNN.asp?NewsID=37808&Cr=libya&Cr1=.6498. ^ BBC (retrieved 18 March 2011) (http://www.uk/news/world-middle-east-12776418) 10.indiatimes.co. ^ "Security Council authorizes ‘all necessary measures’ to protect civilians in Libya" (http://www. 11. http://www.1/15/13 United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 .un. http://www.com/2011/03/libya-nigeria-votes-in-favour-of-no-fly-resolution/.telegraph.newstatesman. 7.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. http://www. 2.asp?m=S/PV. 18 March 2011.co.html) .uk/news/world-africa-12781009. ^ a b Hunt is on for safe houses where dictator can lie low | News (http://www.indiatimes.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1973 .asp?m=S/PV. http://www. http://www. ^ http://blogs.com/2011/03/17/gaddafi-warns-benghazi-rebel-city-weare-coming-and-therell-be-no-mercy/. 18 March 2011. 17 March 2011. ^ Roth.html.cnn.un.org/apps/news/story.com/id/42164455/ns/world_news-mideastn_africa/?gt1=43001) . ^ "UNSC 6498th Meeting" (http://www. ^ "Libya: Nigeria votes in favour of no-fly resolution" (http://www.un.4/5 en.msn.wikipedia.aljazeera.rian. RIA Novosti.uk/news/world-africa-12781009) .rian.6498) .msnbc. stepping up operations in Tripoli and other cities. pp.html?hpt=T2) .bbc. 13. and the UAE had intervened on the ground in Libyan territory. http://www.com/2011/03/libya-nigeriavotes-in-favour-of-no-fly-resolution/) .un. ^ Thomas Harding. 18 March 2011. 15. Richard (18 March 2011).org/apps/news/story. UNSC.com/blogs/the-staggers/2011/03/fly-zone-ceasefire-libya. 5-6. http://www.bbc.uk/news/world-africa-12900706 Obama not ruling out arming Libya rebels 6.org/Docs/journal/asp/ws. 18 March 2011. UNSC.afrol. Qatar. 18 March 2011. ^ "Gadhafi blasts 'crusader' aggression after strikes" (http://www.co. See also Foreign relations of Libya List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1901 to 2000 (2009 – 2011) United Nations Security Council Resolution 678 References 1.uk/news/world-africa-12781009. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
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