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preecntefc to

Gfoe Olibrars
ottbe

University of Toronto

.^.

T).l)."p.

A SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGN LIST

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS SALES AGENTS


NEW YORK

LEMCKE & BUECHNER


30-32

WEST 27TH STREET


LONDON

HUMPHREY MILFORD
AMEN CORNER,
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E.G.

EDWARD EVANS AND SON, LTD.


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COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ORIENTAL STUDIES

VOLUME

XIV

A SUMERO- BABYLONIAN
SIGN LIST
TO WHICH
IS

ADDED

AN ASSYRIAN SIGN

LIST

AND A CATALOGUE OF THE

NUMERALS, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES USED AT VARIOUS PERIODS


COMPILED BY

SAMUEL A.

B.

MERCER, PH.D., D.D.


Hebrew and Old Testament

Professor of

Western Theological Seminary Chicago

J^teto

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 1918


All rights reserved

Copyright, 1918

By COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS


Printed from type and plates, June, 1918

UNIVERSITY PRINTING OFFICE COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

HUNC LIBRUM

HUGHELL

E.

W. FOSBROKE

MAGISTRO SUO ILLUSTRISSIMO


DEDICAT AUCTOR

CONTENTS
PAGE

Preface
Select Bibliography

ix

xi
I

Guide to the Order of Signs

Notes
Sumero-Babylonian Signs Sumero-Babylonian
lonian Period

Archaic

3
to

Signs

From Ur-Nina

Neo-Baby13
.

Sumero-Babylonian Numerals, Weights and Measures


Assyrian Signs Assyrian Numerals, Weights and Measures

225

229 244

PREFACE
a very practical one, namely, to arrange all Sumerian and Babylonian signs in such a manner as to enable the student to find them with comparative ease. Assyrian signs have long ago been excellently classified. Beginnings have been made in the classification of Sumero-Babylonian signs. Scheil, ThureauAmiaud and Mechineau, and Toscanne have done excellent Dangin, work. Their lists, however, were not compiled with a view to pracThe most recent work on the subject is one by George ticability. A. Barton, whose chief object was to discuss the origin and development of Babylonian writing. His sign list is, accordingly, incidental, and not arranged with the practical needs of the translator primarily in
object of this Sign List
is

The

view.

In the present
all

work an attempt has been made to collect and arrange

independent Cuneiform signs. Cuneiform writing is of such a nature as to have allowed much latitude in the writing of many signs. For example, a sign with parallel wedges may have two or more such parallel wedges. No attempt has been made to record all such variants; first, because variations are necessarily almost endless, without being important, and, secondly, because of a desire to keep the List within reasonable bounds. Hence, only independent signs, and those signs whose variations would place them in a different order in the
List,

have been

collected.

has been made as simple as possible; and all signs have been arranged in a definite order, as set forth in a subsequent table entitled, 'A Guide to the Order of Signs'. First, the Archaic are classified, and are to be read from top to bottom; Assyrian signs equivalents are given and a translation, usually syllabic, sometimes idiographic, is added. It should be noticed that Archaic signs are some-

The

classification

times found on seals on late tablets.

Then, the Sumero-Babylonian

signs are arranged with their Assyrian equivalents and transliterations, followed by Arabic numerals indicating the period to which the sign

belongs.

The

periods outlined

by Barton
is

have been adopted. The student


of the script in dating his text.

in his 'Babylonian Writing' thus assisted by means of the nature

Next, the Sumero-Babylonian numer-

weights and measures are arranged in the same order (not in tabular form) with a view to facilitating the identification of individual signs. Finally, for convenience, a list of Assyrian signs is given with
als,

transliterations;

and that is followed by the Assyrian numerals, and measures, arranged in the same order. weights

raison d'etre of this Sign List is in one great group, of all independent
:

The

first,

a practical arrangement,

and irregular-variant SumeroBabylonian signs with their Assyrian equivalents; and secondly, an insertion on the same page, for practical purposes, of the most important transliterations of the Sumero-Babylonian signs. The more unusual equivalents can easily be found in Briinnow, Barton, and else-

where.

No

English translations have been supplied, as that belongs

which there are several good ones. No cross references have been given, despite the fact that the same sign sometimes, though not often, is recorded in more places than one. It seemed that no purpose would be served by such references, and the plates would be
to glossaries, of

The Sumero-Babylonian space has purcomparatively crowded. been made wide to allow for the insertion of variants by the posely student. Space has been left at the end of the 'Archaic' and 'SumeroBabylonian' sections for the addition of ing as the student finds them.

new and

variant signs, accord-

In acknowledging obligations to my predecessors in this field, I should like to single out Professor Barton whose splendid book, 'The
Origin and Development of Babylonian Writing', I have had continuIn fact, his work anticipated, in a way, what I ally by my side.

myself had begun to do in the year 1910. For many years I have felt the need of a Sumero-Babylonian sign list, as complete as possible,

with Assyrian equivalents and the most important transliterations, and I have now ventured to put forth this compilation with the feeling that It would be superfluous it will be useful to others as well as to myself.

have used, directly or indirectly, in the preparation of this Sign List. This is especially true of the numerous publications of texts, all of which I have constantly used. I shall content myself with giving, as a select bibliography, a list of those works, other than publications of texts, which I have had as my continual companions in my work, and to whose distinguished authors I render due homage. Finally, I take pleasure in acknowledging the kindness of my two friends, Dr. Stephen Langdon and Dr.
to record the titles of
all
I

the works which

J.

A. Maynard, in allowing

me often

to consult their expert knowledge.

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
AMIAUD,
A., et

MECHINEAU,
E.,

L.,

Tableau Compar6,

2 e id., Paris, 1902

BRUNNOW, R.

Classified List, Leiden, 1887

BARTON, G. A., Babylonian Writing, I-II, Leipzig, 1913 CLAY, A. T., Documents from the Temple Archives of Nippur, Philadelphia, 1906

CLAY, A. T., Business Documents of Murashu Sons


delphia, 1904

of

Nippur, Phila-

DELITZSCH, DELITZSCH,

F., F.,

Assyrisches Handworterbuch, Leipzig, 1896


te

Assyrische Lesestiicke, 5 Auflage, Leipzig, 1912 DELITZSCH, F., Die Entstehung des altesten Schriftsystems, Leipzig, 1897

DELITZSCH,

F.,

Sumerisches Glossar, Leipzig, 1914

HINKE, W. J., Kudurriu Inscriptions, Leiden, 1911 HARPER, R. F., The Code of Hammurabi, Chicago, 1904 HAUPT, P., Akkadische und Sumerische Keilschrifttexte, Leipzig, 1881-1882 LANGDON, S., A Sumerian Grammar, Paris, 1911 LAU, R. J., Old Babylonian Temple Records, New York, 1906 LEGRAIN, L., Le Temps des Rois d'Ur (Planches), Paris, 1912

MEISSNER, B., Assyrisch-Babylonische Chrestomathie, Leiden, 1895 MEISSNER, B., Seltene assyrische Idiogramme, Leipzig, I9o6ff. MEISSNER, B., Supplement zu den assyrischen Worterbiichern, Leiden, 1898 MENANT, Le syllabaire assyrien, Tom. I et II, Paris, 1869-1873

MUSS-ARNOLT, W.,

Concise

Dictionary of

the

Assyrian Language,

vols. I-II, Berlin, 1905

MYHRMAN, D. W., Sumerian Administrative Documents, Philadelphia, 1910 NESBIT, W. M., Sumerian Records from Drehem, New York, 1914 PINCHES, T. G., An Outline of Assyrian Grammar, London, 1910 PRICE, I. M., The Great Cylinder Inscription of Gudea, Leipzig, 1899
PRINCE,
J. D.,

RANKE,

H., Legal

Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, Leipzig, 1905-1908 and Business Documents, Philadelphia, 1906

REISNER, G. A., Sumerisch-babylonische Hymnen, Berlin, 1896 REISNER, G. A., Tempelurkunden aus Telloh, Berlin, 1901
SCHEIL, V., Signes Archai'ques, Paris, 1898

STRASSMAIER, J.N.,AlphabetischesVerzeichnisder assyrischen und akkadischen Worter, Leipzig, i882ff. TOSCANNE, P., Les Ideogrammes Cuneiformes, Paris, 1908 THUREAU-DANGIN. F., Recherches sur 1'origine de 1'Ecriture Cuneiforme,
Paris,

1898-1899

UNGNAD, A., Selected Business Documents, Leiden, 1908 WINCKLER, H., Liste ausgewahlter Keilschriftzeichen, Leipzig, 1893

A GUIDE TO THE ORDER OF SIGNS

Y
H
1

Mr
>-rcr

IT

jr

Hr
H-

Hf

Nf

NOTES

Trig SOMI.

Si^x,

1.4

S*w*fc>w^

euA.

i/n.

TumHitn.

nu Woct ^. J jS^Ci. LS

"
'

if

'

1fTUU.IJUM.ts

3.

Si^xA dju OAA4ul>i

UrdkiM.'~t*4tA.

ciSS<i/A

r
i 9- >

,\

-^

4
'

T
'

iTru^S Uw-dvJLu*.t.dL Un. "Ml A/lT(iS <IA

&HMj&h,

5.

OaA^/uUntu/L ^cOwuS
u

/wiJUcaiti.

%tktfuunL

4T)uj3* TSa

tLu^tjttu

~f~J

IS :
,

VCIS^ WtAi&nujm ckf+JMtu

~f-

VJ.*y

s-

jitMiOjuJi Hj^tnajutuiJlfj

ike.

jltuS St^ic

tetutem. SuLtLJUes indicate* ~tkaX ~fh traJhu ttmi

w^l St^

rt

fh &*n. -Muni, ouwn^,

I.

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS
i.

ARCHAIC

o
D
,

w
ET
fuOfM

U.U

V
P-

\UL.tJL

P*

R
e
81
yuJk.

rr

f'

5
Jt:

Tf

.,t

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

,/iacfuuc

a
Cr
Ob
fl
^fcf

a
ySi
1

.,

"In
1 1

,145

cwr

4M

m
/TT\\

W
7*

u.
'

Ctvfru.

rm

o^

^.
HI
^n.

&
StWfd

MTF

.,>.

U</1

ARCHAIC

V**'"* jar
HIT*

a*.

&
SO,

HTT
it

^
1

wur

Cu, *;.

/V

.,N

lOT
fcair

la.

tfrf

iy

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

\
t
O.I

J.

/*

'fT

q*A,

<$s

*,'

UMK

V V

if

ft

Se

jfT-r
TU^n. nwvrt tint
,

if

<

ARCHAIC

A
i'sV
,

fct's"

.,,.
A\

^
ii
j a

Ai.tl'.SWL

UH 'hu\

ftlA.
(
(

^
l/m,

mf^

ff

a.,

ml
.Half,

kas

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

Jl/icluuc

Jindu

OS

0-

U.tl

frl*-

>uc

So,

J*

II

It I

if

V ^
U.
,

ttl/m.

10 ,Su.

ARCHAIC
o
o

ft

irrr

id ft.

cc
If

<sr

-utwt.
,

ui

N"
ti

wcc

if

a.W

.0

a, So.

A
t

IO

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

SWUMsn.
^'

&

AM

t,|

a
no.
luat.twt,
.

b
OMU
I

L
h

t
WL
,

a
At ct
ji j/ a/ OA. 4X
,

n
(sfflbr

^rrr

oiun.

TT

ARCHAIC

II

JT
Jlichojui

TT
Ssyua/n

TTT

TTT

ff
TTT.&fe.

7-r
fl.H
tt ^
IXI.NC]

KijtC^W*^

t
-ii-

^>n

^i

frc'
,

JLL

Ml*
[U|
IMI

uJl

9.
tnst^t

tl.JL^

um.
i

u*

fi

DD

u
f

DO

fctt+tli.tf

12

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS
TIT
TTTf

SWuaai

P
ra

orw.

WL

2.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-BABYLONIAN PERIOD

OU/mc/

a-6

5.

,w*n

3-6

Set,

si,

no/s

5-6

5-

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

ain,

Mf

&
flL*na*nM*l/

%
t

J*

$4,

r ^.

-VLWx

TT7

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

15

So/M/cn-u

*<n$cytuMc

ODD

'

"Tii
<

><#<.
t>

<44

>na^.

16

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SKINS

Owtnwf-

wnssi/AMi/

T&uati

ti.

s.

tf

tf

(o

TUfl,

^nau. \Ucum.

1
(

Ku.

nj}

'

&CSU/m/WV(X/tCL' . StZtf,

**,

-Lim- K&**', dJ
,

wv

(T

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B A B YLON AN PERIOD


I

17

H-

KJ

w, Kem
;

<*/
(

TtuS

am.

2-3

KuJrlk/
1

/r-

T*

r*

18

SUM KRO- BABYLONIAN SIGNS

St

&

A-3
K/

(Cu,

JL

a.

4-3

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B A B YLONI AN PERIOD


At-

ny-

OA,

tf-

TruM/

If

-to

JL

>+-

W,

(OSU/

5
3

<Jt

S Mfr-f
3

20

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

Tvuurdi

MS-*"

J.-3

Jr^-p,

3,3.

i^
l*

ptr-"T fff-1

'

aU
um-cun.

>N.

Ki!

tafutx

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

21

O/m4/ur-

ijJru/onuvrv

-as

Iff

"

yum,

2-3

"*

<

la

ft.

22

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

v/lS
(f

UKKl*t

***'

'rr

<MUL

MIC

Ko^.

fttt^i

-frOA-

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B A B YLONI AN PERIOD

Ou/mAto--

Sat

4^

**>*

**'*
*!*'

HR
3

If-

Hrr

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

/3ofru/C7ua/v
(7

an, \ffiuod.

OAJM,

Nf

1-S

Id, 5

5
5"

l/

a*

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

25

T&iurrii
(7

, '

K/as Kas
IK

cum,

fcaf

hi
"t/jun. l ~tun.

^rrr

Sttn,,

it

Si

UAULK

5"

aJi

26

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

ou/mc
<f

.OAA,
Q

.
,

tf

/a

K/

MI,

N*

rLati.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

27

Cm/Wie/cd"- BoXru/iTM-Ua/K.
a

Tluiod.

cr
A.l^-to

I]

fcff

28

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

<f

Nff
TUJrt/ui.

ac*aAx

MIT

Hax-

Down-

s'

W*., Lvn,

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B A B YLONI AN PERIOD

29

(7

-vtt-

5
5"

5"

ST

s
if

?'
tan.

(T

aa

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

(7

Hi

NT

e.

VIM.

5
3

Z.

L>

TWA.

i*aa*jiu^ fo*w.
,

-ut/

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

3!

7*,'

L
*,*

4
If.*

h*Jkw-

5-6

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

A*.

UA-

tn,

\iall

-V&nsSun.

/ci, fu.,

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

33

Otwtu/ur-

K-

O2
i

>vuun<.,a(/ il

,1

*+*

34

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

its/

S(S

tHM.

fit,

TIU/

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

35

Gu/w &ur(7

4m*

as,m*.

RRf
3.5"

n,

uA

5-6

TK-aA.
l

rnj^h

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

\QJnA\6YV&/Ks

Teuict

iff

t-

dim.

4-

v-

-f

Mf

OM,

.
(

wsnqAA

ssf

w
JfHMi

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

27

_/l5

*$>,

Uutn.

-4

,*&

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

O/m.e/

*{.

/'."--

UL-

ut

5"

5"

Ss.

FROM UR : NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

39

oo/me
<7

*Lum- Kern,

dj

Tttit/Hx

-TV

Zl iJL

HT
KA,
S'-d,

lu. <jnl"
'

OfnnJUU.

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

<7

777

1-3

tlil

2*

i-a.

tit

na ncui

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

ttC

TIM,

3-5-

Xo.

feff

f
I

A
3
v /

Stt

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

"

tf

HH

-74-

-^/^

VM.

Stl/
r*

2.4

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

43

ry,

THOL,

m^

^[

&L
Xtt*u

O2T

44

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS
^~T
TvuadL
a

1-

5-6

fri/i
, ,

ma?

SiAtu.

wa

null

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

45

Ou/w e/ura

I-

fri/t
,

ma./

X,

ft

5-6

-M

4
2-3

**%
2

5"

iffe

46

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

Ha

Tlu,

VW.

+
4

Wt

4vL +

i)

6
1

5"

2.

Kj

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-BAB YLONI AN PERIOD

47

->r

KLuWL.

-ujtwdu.

If-

ntud/

48

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

r-

fcoJnjJLtrniamj

Is

(a.S

'

tu

st^ZL

LJ

ftu/ -*-S<^

tf.tr,

t/i

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD


Hf(7

49

HP-

HMt
,

* K'

5-6

HS

f
P*

Stin.
i

nam.

(<vnj

S</m.

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

MFuruuianuun/
a

Klim ^em. ,di/

i-3

a/Sia/L

UWWJiC
5-6

Hff

a/
i,u,

4, ~

quu/m.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

5!

^>wm.i*4-- &oJnJumjLa/n/
tf

TiuW.

t,

Kan,
I

u
Iq

HUT

'K J

f-4

(o

s.

H8T

3L

-WM.

JL.
r

OA.

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

i/

tJL

it-

s'

aJfflb

tOz,

si

tr

JL

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB VLONI AN PERIOD

53

>oJnJt<rrujamj
tf

r&ulotk

U.lf'ffl

i!A

KJ

u.
i

aLL t^,ul/ ^J:


l

ma,

Ut

>f

'

/*

"?

~^'

K/

'

-nJJi

nn

TUtLvn.

54

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

\J

-unl
felfer

So/

(/U/W.

tu/nt,

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

55

Uc
"nx/w.
(

Ttu^n tu/m.

'

1-

H-

aa.
l

KJ. i ru>. "m.e.,


:

NP-

f//*',/*'

r-f

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

~'y<

wa.

SL

S.-3

li t t/

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B A B YLONI AN PERIOD

57

e/txr~

l^aJru^jcmjuJunj

i
3.SL

U-S

K/O

jj

3.

tU

,nuh

>

*$*

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

HT
Swm V
f
KCMn,

Ki

a l

JU

yna.

4-s3

n,

le

.uJL
t

f-WL
!

^l

3.

SO.

5-

"f
,

Hfff

Ttu/n.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO-B AB YLONI AN PERIOD


HTTT
OU/m^ur</

59

6*.

t3-(o

vun.
,

*<^,

juJu*

5-(a
K.,1:

6o

SI

MEKO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

tJ

"7

^frrf

4t &w^tuvuix S<w
,

7*
^frf

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

6l

IM.

/tec-

ffK/tM.

<3tMV

uc

m&t,

&%,*.
.

tuff

UUn. ~tu*SL

la.

ru.

Ou^

62

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

sO

^CJ
KM.
,
'
.

nuzt/n

g/ls

/U.
(

UUi.

frfcff

JH

ik,

'

SCOJ

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

63

OWm.t/10-- I
ff

,
I

&,&,&,&,&,
fc
.
|

.,

tu

StX

,Ku., dun,

tu^/<

at*vnA/u*. ,5^4

rw

V-

64

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS
c

(7

It-

%.,
3

3.3.

<r

Zu,
f

nutA.

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLON AN PERIOD


I

65

Oo/wt e/urQ

^n
a

H
Sc

'*

ko/ia/nu-

i^

UMUia.

6.5

t'/.UJl.

tlM.

a/

66

SUMERO-BABYLONIAN SIGNS

"-

iMJuv/ianui/n/

^nSSu/u

Jtlf,

JW,
ou/A
(

&tif

JHT

4</K^

IB

KcJr rl,, Ka

5
<u

H-

IM,

FROM UR-NINA TO NEO- B AB YLONI AN PERIOD

67

Ou/nu/i/r-

aJnjJjnua/n,
<

c,
f

lu/,

-,,

3.5

t.3-tf

Jfcf

S-lo

CMH

3.5

JST
tdf,

>uiA.
,

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