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MEDICAL FACTS

Beta 1 receptors:
Increased heart rate, increased contractility.

Beta 2 receptors:
Vasodilation, bronchodilation.

Patent foramen ovale:


Produces atrial fibrillation and stroke in young people.

Phenytoin effects on kidney:


Tubulointerstitial nephritis.

Delirium:
May be caused by infection, electrolyte abnormalities, metabolic disturbances, alcohol intoxication or withdrawal, hypoperfusion, drug intoxication, and adverse effects due to medication.

Budd-Chiari syndrome:
Sudden hepatomegaly, pain, ascites, and jaundice. Hypercoagulability is a risk factor for Budd-Chiari syndrome.

Metabolism of Cyclophosphamide:
Produces acrolein, which causes hemorrhagic cystitis.(treat with mesna or N-acetylcysteine).

Turcot syndrome:
Polyposis and glioblastoma multiforme.

Kawasaki's Syndrome:
Anti-endothelial cell (and anti-smooth muscle cell) autoantibodies.

Renal clearance of weak acids:


(Eg., aspirin) is greatly increased when urine pH is alkalinized.

Minimal Change Disease:


Proteinuria: plasma protein concentration will go down, thus decreasing the oncotic pressure in the glomerular capillary.

Carcinoid Tumors:
Most likely occur in the midgut-derived small bowel, which begins at the ligament of Treitz and ends at the mid transverse colon.

Interstitial Nephritis:
Medications that cause interstitial nephritis include penicillins (eg., methicillin and nafcillin), sulfonamides, cephalosporins, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome:
Tachycardia, hypotension, petechial skin lesions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and coma.

Pain in Myocardial Infarction:


Is felt near the neck and shoulder because afferent pain fibers of the heart enter the posterior horn of the spinal cord at the same level as the brachial plexus, hence, leading to pain that is felt in the neck and shoulder region.

Fever and Headache in AIDS patients:


In AIDS patients, diseases that cause fever and headache in these patients are toxoplasmosis, Cryptococcus, and central nervous system lymphoma.

Childhood Brain Tumors:


That can result in hydrocephalus by obstructing the fourth ventricle: medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and hemangioblastomas.

Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome:


Hemangioblastomas, or cavernous hemangiomas of the retina, cerebellum, and medulla; renal cell carcinoma; adenomas and cysts of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas.

"Coin" lesion in the lung:


Smoking and "coin" lesion in the lung: PTH-related-peptide-producing lung tumor.