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GVHD: Th.

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CHOCOPIE

Mc lc
TM HIU QUY TRNH SN XUT CHOCOPIE....................................................5
I. GII THIU BNH CHOCOPIE:...........................................................................5
1.1. nh ngha: .............................................................................................................5
1.2. Cc hng sn xut chnh: .......................................................................................5
II. NGUYN LIU: ......................................................................................................9
2.1. Bt m (v cc nguyn liu khc nho bt lm bnh) ...........................................9
2.1.1. Nguyn liu sn xut bt m: cy la m ...............................................................9
2.1.2. Tnh hnh sn xut v tiu th: [ food chemistry + wiki]....................................12
2.1.3. Cu to v thnh phn ht: ................................................................................13
2.1.4. Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m:........................................................................14
Glucid bt m:..............................................................................................................14
Tinh bt:....................................................................................................................... 15
Dextrin: ........................................................................................................................ 16
Pentosan:......................................................................................................................16
Cellulose v hemicellulose: .......................................................................................... 17
Protein bt m:.............................................................................................................17
Lipid bt m .................................................................................................................18
Cht khong: ...............................................................................................................19
Cc vitamin: ................................................................................................................19
Enzym: ......................................................................................................................... 19
Tp cht trong bt m: ................................................................................................ 20
Ch tiu cht lng bt m: ......................................................................................... 20
2.2. Chocolate (v cc nguyn liu khc to chocolate) ............................................20
2.2.1. B cacao:.............................................................................................................20
2.2.2. Bt ca cao : .........................................................................................................21
2.2.3. Cht to ngt: .....................................................................................................22
2.2.4. Sa : ....................................................................................................................25
2.2.5. Cht bo:.............................................................................................................26
2.2.6.Cc nguyn liu khc :.......................................................................................... 28
2.3. Cc nguyn liu sn xut marshmallow: ............................................................. 30
2.3.1. Glucose syrup.....................................................................................................30
2.3.2. Gelatine ..............................................................................................................30
2.4. Ngun nguyn liu khc ....................................................................................... 30
2.4.1. Nc ...................................................................................................................30
Thnh phn ca nc: ................................................................................................ 31
Yu cu cht lng nc: ........................................................................................... 31
2.4.2. Trng..................................................................................................................31
Thnh phn ha hc ca trng g:.............................................................................32
Cht lng ca trng:.................................................................................................32
2.4.3. Cht bo qun.....................................................................................................33
2.4.4. Cht to xp........................................................................................................33
2.4.5. Cht iu v .......................................................................................................33
2.4.6. Mch nha .........................................................................................................34
2.4.7. Cht to mu......................................................................................................35

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III. QUY TRNH SN XUT: ...................................................................................35


3.1. S khi .............................................................................................................35
3.2. Quy trnh sn xut marshmallow: .......................................................................36
3.2.1. S quy trnh ...................................................................................................36
Cng thc phi trn ....................................................................................................37
3.2.2. Gii thch quy trnh............................................................................................. 37
3.2.2.1. Nu ..................................................................................................................38
Mc ch ......................................................................................................................38
Cc bin i .................................................................................................................38
Thit b......................................................................................................................... 38
3.2.2.2. Nho trn ........................................................................................................39
Mc ch ......................................................................................................................39
Cc bin i .................................................................................................................39
Thit b......................................................................................................................... 40
3.3. Quy trnh sn xut chocolate................................................................................40
3.3.1. S khi:..........................................................................................................40
3.3.2. Gii thch quy trnh cng ngh ...........................................................................42
3.3.2.1. Phi trn : .........................................................................................................42
a, Mc ch : .................................................................................................................42
Chun b ......................................................................................................................42
b, Cc bin i xy ra : ..................................................................................................42
Vt l :.......................................................................................................................... 42
Ha hc:....................................................................................................................... 42
Ha l:.......................................................................................................................... 42
c, Phng php thc hin: ............................................................................................. 42
d, Thit b :....................................................................................................................42
My phi trn (nng sut: 30 - 40 kg/m) ..................................................................42
Cu to:........................................................................................................................ 42
Thng s: .....................................................................................................................42
Cch thc hin: ...........................................................................................................42
3.3.2.2. Nghin mn: ......................................................................................................43
a, Mc ch : .................................................................................................................43
b, Cc bin i xy ra : ..................................................................................................43
Vt l :.......................................................................................................................... 43
c, Phng php thc hin : ............................................................................................ 43
d, Thit b :....................................................................................................................44
Cu to: ....................................................................................................................... 44
Thng s k thut:.......................................................................................................44
Cch thc hin: ...........................................................................................................44
My nghin tinh 2 trc................................................................................................ 45
Nguyn l hot ng ca my nghin 2 trc .............................................................. 45
3.3.2.3. o trn nhit : .................................................................................................46
a, Mc ch : .................................................................................................................46
b, Cc bin i xy ra : ..................................................................................................46
Vt l: .......................................................................................................................... 46
Ha hc:....................................................................................................................... 46

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Ha l:.......................................................................................................................... 46
Cm quan: ...................................................................................................................46
c, Phng php thc hin : ............................................................................................ 47
d, Thit b :....................................................................................................................47
Thng s k thut:.........................................................................................................48
3.3.2.4. X l nhit :......................................................................................................50
a, Mc ch : .................................................................................................................50
Hon thin: ..................................................................................................................50
Chun b: .....................................................................................................................50
b, Cc bin i xy ra : ..................................................................................................50
Vt l :.......................................................................................................................... 50
Ha l :......................................................................................................................... 50
Nhit nng chy ca cc dng tinh th b ca cao..................................................50
Ha hc:....................................................................................................................... 51
c, Phng php thc hin : ............................................................................................ 51
d, Thit b :....................................................................................................................52
3.4. Gii thch quy trnh sn xut chocopie ................................................................ 52
3.4.1. Qu trnh phi trn nguyn liu ph v ph gia ................................................52
Thnh phn phi trn .................................................................................................53
3.4.2. Qu trnh nho: ..................................................................................................54
Hnh 15: Thit b nho trn t nm ngang ..................................................................57
u im ca my nho trn tc cao t nm ngang.............................................57
Nhc im ca my nho trn tc cao t nm ngang.......................................57
Nng sut ca my nho trn hot ng gin on...................................................58
3.4.3. To hnh: ............................................................................................................58
Cc yu t nh hng: ................................................................................................ 59
Cu to:........................................................................................................................ 59
Nguyn l hot ng: ...................................................................................................59
c im: .....................................................................................................................60
Thng s thit b:..........................................................................................................60
3.4.4. Nng:................................................................................................................62
Cc bin i vt l: .......................................................................................................62
Cc bin i ha l:......................................................................................................62
Cc bin i ha hc:...................................................................................................63
Cc bin i cm quan:................................................................................................ 63
Cu to:........................................................................................................................ 63
u im:....................................................................................................................... 63
Nhc im:.................................................................................................................64
Nguyn tc: ..................................................................................................................64
Thng s cng ngh: ....................................................................................................65
3.4.5. Lm ngui...........................................................................................................66
3.4.6. Ph nhn:...........................................................................................................66
Nguyn tc:..................................................................................................................66
Nhc im:.................................................................................................................66
u im:....................................................................................................................... 67
Nhc im:.................................................................................................................67

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Yu cu khi ph nhn: ................................................................................................ 67


3.4.7. Kp nhn: ...........................................................................................................68
3.4.8. Ph Chocolate: ...................................................................................................69
Bin i:....................................................................................................................... 69
3.4.9. Lm ngui: .........................................................................................................71
3.4.10. Bao gi..............................................................................................................72
Thit b:......................................................................................................................... 73
TI LIU THAM KHO: ............................................................................................ 74

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TM HIU QUY TRNH SN XUT CHOCOPIE

I. GII THIU BNH CHOCOPIE:


1.1. nh ngha:
Chocopie l tn mt loi bnh c pht minh v sn xut bi tp on bnh ko Orion
Hn Quc vo nm 1974.
Chocopie l sn phm c to thnh bi lp marshmallow chnh gia hai lp bnh m
xp v ton b bnh c bao ph bi mt lp chocolate.
Thnh phn bnh: bt m, ng, mch nha, shortening, du thc vt b oxyha, sa
bt nguyn kem, natri bicarbonat ( E500ii), amonium bicarbonat ( E503ii), monocanxi
phosphate (E341i), cht nh ha (E322),vani , protein sa, gm xanthan (E415), mui,
gelatin, bt cacao, trng g.
Chocopie c xem nh l tinh hoa ca nn vn ho m thc Hn Quc. Ban u, Orion
cung cp chocopie cho qun i dng pht cho binh lnh sau tun hun luyn c bn
u tin. Nhng by gi n rt quen thuc vi tt c mi ngi, n ni nhc ti Hn
Quc l nhc ti Chocopie, ging nh Kim Chi vy.
Hin nay, chocopie c sn xut ti nhiu ni trn th gii. Orion s dng chocopie
nh mt sn phm chin lc nhm tm mt v tr chc chn ti th trng thc phm
nc ngoi v t c nhiu thnh cng. Cng vi chocopie, Orion chim 2/3 th
trng bnh ngt ca Trung Quc. Bn th trng tiu th chocopie ln l Hn Quc,
Trung Quc, Vit Nam v Nga.
1.2. Cc hng sn xut chnh:
Th trng bnh ko chocopie rt a dng nhiu chng loi. Cng mt phng php sn
xut nhng cng thc khc nhau cho ra nhiu loi bnh vi gi r cht lng khc nhau.
Sau y l mt s sn phm trn th trng.
- Sn phm ca ORION :

- Sn phm ca LOTTE:

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CHOCOPIE

- Sn phm ca cng ty c phn bnh ko Phm Nguyn:

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CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Gi tr dinh dng ca SoSot


Bo tng
Bo no
Bo dng Trans
Cholesterol
Na
Carbohydrate tng
X
ng
Protein
Ca
St

4g
2g
1.6g
0.3mg
49mg
14g
0.3g
9g
1g
10mg
0.3mg

Gi tr dinh dng ca Coffee pie


Bo tng
Bo no
Cholesterol
Na
Carbohydrate tng
X
ng
Protein
Ca
St

5g
2g
2mg
67mg
18g
0.4g
9g
1g
10mg
0.3mg

- Sn phm ca cng ty c phn bnh ko Hi H:

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CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Bo tng
Cholesterol
Na
Carbohydrate tng
X
ng
Protein

4.5g
2mg
65mg
12g
0.5g
7.2g
1.5g

- Sn phm ca cng ty Kinh :

- Sn phm ca cng ty ng Qung Ngi:

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CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Bo tng
Carbohydrate tng
ng
Protein

70g
18g
9g
4g

II. NGUYN LIU:


2.1. Bt m (v cc nguyn liu khc nho bt lm bnh)
2.1.1. Nguyn liu sn xut bt m: cy la m
Lch s v phn loi, phn bit vi cc loi cng h [food chemistry + wiki]
La m hay tiu mch (Triticum spp.) l mt nhm cc loi c thun dng t khu vc
Levant v c gieo trng rng khp th gii. V tng th, la m l thc phm quan
trng cho loi ngi, sn lng ca n ch ng sau ng v la go trong s cc loi cy
lng thc. Ht la m l mt loi lng thc chung c s dng lm bt m trong
sn xut cc loi bnh m; m si, bnh, ko v.v cng nh c ln men sn xut bia
ru hay nhin liu sinh hc. La m cng c gieo trng quy m hn hp lm c kh
cho gia sc v rm cng c th dng lm c kh cho gia sc hay vt liu xy dng lp
mi.

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Hnh 1: Gii thiu hnh nh cy la m


Chng ta bt u vi ngun gc cy lng thc trc tin, chng c ngun gc t cy
thn c di, nh ch hnh di

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CHOCOPIE

Hnh 2: Cc nhnh pht trin ca cy lng thc


La m c ngun gc t Ty Nam trong khu vc c bit di tn gi Li lim Mu
m (khu vc Trung ng ngy nay). Cc mi quan h di truyn gia la m einkorn v
la m emmer ch ra rng khu vc thun dng la m rt c th l nm gn Diyarbakr
Th Nh K. Cc loi la m hoang di ny c thun dng nh l mt phn ca
ngun gc nng nghip ti khu vc Li lim Mu m ny. Vic trng trt v thu hoch
cng nh gieo ht lp i lp li cc loi c hoang di ny dn ti s thun dng la
m thng qua chn lc v cc dng t bin vi tai thc dai, cn nguyn vn khi thu
hoch, ht ln, v xu hng cc bng con cn nm li trn thn cy cho n khi thu
hoch . Do mt i c ch pht tn ht nn la m thun dng ch cn kh nng hn
ch trong vic nhn ging mt cch hoang d.
Vic trng trt la m bt u lan rng ra ngoi khu vc Li lim Mu m trong thi
i mi. Vo khong nm 3000 TCN, la m xut hin ti Ethiopia, n ,
Ireland v Ty Ban Nha. Khong 1 thin nin k sau n ti Trung Quc. Khong nm
1000 TCN vic trng trt nng nghip vi s dng sc nga, tru, b cy ba lm gia
tng sn lng la m, ging nh vic s dng cc my gieo ht thay th cho vic gieo
ht bng cch ri ht trong th k 18. Sn lng la m tip tc tng ln, do cc vng t
mi c a vo khai thc, cng nh do k thut canh tc ca ngh nng tip tc c
ci tin vi vic s dng cc loi phn bn, my gt, my p la (my gt p), cc loi
my cy t, my xi t, my trng cy dng sc ko ca my ko, cng tc thy li v
phng tr su bnh dch hi hon thin hn cng nh vic to ra cc ging mi tt hn
(xem thm Cch mng xanh v La m Norin 10). Vi t l gia tng dn s trong khu vc
s dng la m nh l loi lng thc chnh ang suy gim, trong khi nng sut vn tip
tc tng, nn din tch gieo trng la m hin ti bt u xu hng gim v n l ln
u tin din ra xu hng ny trong lch s loi ngi hin i. Vo nm 2007, sn lng
la m gim ti mc thp nht k t nm 1981, v nm 2006 l ln u tin lng tiu
th la m trn ton th gii nhiu hn l sn lng mt khong trng s c tip tc
dn rng do nhu cu tiu dng la m hin nay tng nhanh hn mc tng ca sn xut.
C rt nhiu h thng phn loi thc vt c dng cho loi la m, c trnh by kh
chi tit trong bi bo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheat_taxonomy . Tn ca mt loi la

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CHOCOPIE

m t mt ngun thng tin c th khc vi tn ca n ngun khc. Theo tng loi, cy


la m c c im ring bi ging v theo ma trng trt, nh la m ma ng v la
m ma xun;bi lng gluten nh la m cng (lng protein cao) v la m mm
(lng tinh bt cao); hay mu sc (, trng hay c).
Cch phn loi chnh ca la m ( theo USA)

tai sao moi sp khac nhau lai s dung cac loai lua m ac
hieu khac nhau?

Durum: la m cng, trong c, mu sng c dng lm bt m sn xut m ng.


Hard Red Spring: cng, hi nu, nhiu protein thng dng cho bnh m hoc bnh
nng. Bt m bnh m v bt m giu gluten c lm t loi ny, sn phm thng mi
u tin bi Minneapolis Grain Exchange.
Hard Red Winter: cng, hi nu, cng cha nhiu protein dng cho bnh m, bnh nng
cng v c b sung trong cc loi bt m khc tng hm lng protein cho bt m
lm bnh kh. Mt vi nhn hiu bt m cha ty trng thng lm t mi hard red
winter. c thng mi u tin bi Kansas City Board of Trade.
Soft Red Winter: mm, protein thp dng cho lm ko, bnh kh, biscuits v bnh xp.
Bt m lm ko, bt m lm m ng v mt vi loi bt m nng c thm mui th
c lm t loi ny. c thng mi u tin bi Chicago Board of Trade.
Hard White: cng, mu sng, m c, hm lng protein trung bnh thch hp trng ma
kh nng. c dng cho bnh m v lm bia.
Soft White: mm, mu sng, protein rt thp pht trin khu vc m nng. Dng cho
bnh cng v m ng. Bt pastry thnh thong cng c lm t loi ny.
2.1.2. Tnh hnh sn xut v tiu th: [ food chemistry + wiki]
Cy la m l mt trong nhng cy lng thc quan trng cng vi go v ng. Ding
dng cung cp t bnh m c dng trong khu phn n cc nc cng nghip chim
50% nhu cu carbohydrates hng ngy, mt phn lng protein v 50-60% lng vitamin
B, ngoi ra cn cung cp khong v vi cht.
Nm 2003, tnh theo bnh qun trn ton th gii la m c tiu th 67 kg/nm, nc
tiu th bnh qun cao nht l Kyrgyzstan vi 239 kg/nm. Khng nh go, la m ph
bin rng trn ton th gii hn v Trung Quc cung cp sn lng chim 1/6 sn lng
la m trn th gii v ng u danh sch quc gia sn xut nhiu la m nht nh hnh

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Hnh 3: Top 10 nc sn lng la m cao nht, 2007


2.1.3. Cu to v thnh phn ht:
Ht la m c cu to gm ba phn: v cm, ni nh v phi.

Hnh 4: Cu trc ht la m

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GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

1-ru ht, 2-ni nh, 3-t bo cha y tinh bt c bao bi mng protein, 4-thnh
cellulose ca t bo, 5-lp aleurone (thuc ni nh nhng s b tch ra cng vi cm, 6v la, 7-v mm, 8-lp t bo ng, 9-lp t bo ngang, 10- lp di v, 11-v ht, 12lp vy, 13-v chi, 14-v th, 15-chi, 16-chi nguyn th, 17-vy r, 18-mm r
V cm: lp v cm chim khong 14.5% khi lng ht la m. V cm c cha mt
lng nh protein, cellulose, vitamin B v cht khong.
Ni nh: chim khong 83% khi lng ht la m, gm hai thnh phn chnh l tinh
bt v protein. Cc cht bo, ng, cellulose, cht khong trong ni nh rt t. Ni nh
l thnh phn c gi tr dinh dng nht trong ht la m. Bt m c xay t phn ni
nh ny.
Phi: phi ht chim khong 2.5% khi lng ht la m. Phi cha khong 15 25%
ng, 15 33% cht bo, 35 40% protein. Ngoi ra cn c enzyme v vitamin.
Lp v cm lm nh hng xu n mu sc ca bt m v lm gim gi tr thc phm
ca bt m. Phi c cha enzyme v cht bo nn lm gim thi gian bo qun bt. V
vy hai thnh phn ny phi c loi ra ti a trong qu trnh sn xut bt m.
2.1.4. Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m:
Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m ph thuc vo thnh phn ha hc ca ht la m v ph
thuc vo hng bt. Cc cht dinh dng trong bt c hng cao th c c th tiu ha
d hn, nhng bt m hng thp li giu vitamin v cht khong hn. Thnh phn bt
m ch yu gm glucid v protid, c th v thnh phn c trnh by bng sau:
Bng 1. Thnh phn ha hc ca bt m

Tn sn phm

T l
ly bt

Tro
%

Cellulose
%

Pentosan
%

Tinh
bt
%

Cht
bo
%

Ht

100

1,74

1,51

6,42

62,99

2,06

Bt thng
hng

10,14

0,47

0,13

1,57

80,1

0,99

Bt hng 1

22,4

0,53

0,22

1,84

77,84

1,2

Bt hng 2

47,5

1,2

0,48

3,44

72,52

2,02

Gluten, %
t

Kh

Protein

42,7
4

15,16

12,51

11,58

10,33

12,9

11,15

16,95

14,8

39,1
6
43,2
1
48,4
2

Glucid bt m:
Glucid l thnh phn ch yu trong bt m, chim ti 70 90% theo cht kh ty theo
loi bt m v ging la m dng sn xut loi bt .
Glucid l thnh phn to nn cu trc xp, to ngt, to mu sc, v to mi thm.
Bng 2. Thnh phn cc loi glucid trong bt m

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CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Glucid
T l (%)

ng
0,6-1,8

Dextrin
1-5

Tinh bt
80

Cellulose
0,1 2,3

Hemicellulose
28

Pentosan
1,2 3,5

Tinh bt:
Tinh bt chim khong 80% glucid bt m. Tinh bt la m c cu trc ht trn, kch
thc ht t 5 50 m.

Hnh 5: Tinh bt la m
Tinh bt l thnh phn quan trng nht ca bt m, c nh hng ln n cht lng bt
nho sau ny. ln v nguyn ca ht tinh bt c nh hng n tnh rn chc, kh
nng ht nc v hm lng ng trong bt nho. Ht tinh bt nh v ht tinh bt v s
b ng ha nhanh hn trong qu trnh sn xut. Tinh bt bao gm hai cu t l amylose
v amylopectin.

Hnh 6: Phn t amylose v amylopectin


Amylose l polysaccharide c cu to t cc phn t -D-glucose gn vi nhau bng
lin kt -1, 4 glucoside to thnh mch thng. Hm lng amylose trong tinh bt bt

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m khong 20%, khi lng phn t ca amylose trong tinh bt m khong 350.000 vC,
mc polimer ha l khong 2000 2200 gc glucose. Bt cha nhiu amylose th
bnh s gin hn v d v.
Amylopectin c cu to t cc gc glucose lin kt -1,4 v -1,6 glucoside v vy m
amylopectin c cu trc mch nhnh. Phn t amylopectin ca tinh bt m c hn 10.000
gc glucose lin kt vi nhau, khi lng phn t amylopectin ca tinh bt la m khong
90.000.000 vC, trong cc mch nhnh cha khong 19 20 gc glucose. Phn t
amylose c cu to nh nhng chm nho trong xen k hai loi vng: vng 1 c cu to
cht, sp xp c trt t v c tinh th do kh b thy phn; vng th hai sp xp
km trt t, c nhiu im phn nhnh v khng c tinh th nn d dng b thy phn.
Amylopectin ch ho tan trong nc nng, to dung dch c nht cao, rt bn vng v
chnh amylopectin to cho sn phm c tnh dai, n hi.

Hnh 7: Nhit h ha ca tinh bt la m bt u t 530 v kt thc 650C


Dextrin:
Dextrin chim khong 1-5% glucid bt m. Dextrin l sn phm to thnh khi tinh bt b
thy phn di tc dng ca h enzym amylase ca la m. Khi lng phn t v tnh
cht ca dextrin ph thuc vo mc thy phn ca tinh bt. Dextrin ht vi nc
nhiu hn so vi tinh bt, nu hm lng dextrin cao, bt bnh dnh, t dai, t n hi, bt
c khuynh hng chy lng ra.
Pentosan:
Chim khong 1,2 - 3,5% glucid bt m. Pentosan l cc polysaccharide ca cc ng
c cha 5 cacbon. Cc pentosan c tnh ho nc, khi trng n to huyn ph c nh
hng ti tnh cht vt l ca bt nho. Pentosan trong bt m gm 2 loi: pentosan tan

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GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

trong nc v pentosan khng tan trong nc, chng ch khc nhau mc phn
nhnh, pentosan khng tan c mc phn nhnh ln hn.
Cellulose v hemicellulose:
Cellulose chim khong 0,1 2,3%, hemicellulose chim 2 8% thnh phn glucid ca
bt m. Cellulose khng c ngha v mt dinh dng v c th ngi khng th tiu
ha, nhng c tc dng gip tng nhu ng rut, gip tiu ha tt.
Cc loi ng:
Gm cc loi nh glucose, fructose, maltose, saccharose chim khong 0,1 1%
glucid bt m. Chng tham gia phn ng Maillard to mu cho sn phm.
Bng 3. Thnh phn cc loi ng c trong bt m
Loi ng
Fructose
Glucose
Maltose
Saccharose
Raffinose
Glucodifructose
Oligosacchride

Hm lng
0,02 0,08
0,01 0,09
0,05 0,10
0,10 0,40
0,05 0,17
0,20 0,30
1,20 1,30

Protein bt m:
Protein l thnh phn c bit quan trng trong bt m v protein ng vai tr chnh trong
vic to nn cu trc cho sn phm. Protein ca bt m chim hm lng khong 8 - 25%
cht kh. Cu trc ca protein nh hng ti cht lng gluten, m cht lng gluten li
nh hng quyt nh tnh cht ca bnh Chocopie. Phn t protein c 4 bc cu trc,
nu t l cu trc bc 3 v bc 4 nhiu hn th gluten ca bt cht hn sc cng t ln
hn th cht lng bnh tt hn.
Protein ca bt m gm bn nhm chnh: albumin, globulin, prolamin v glutelin. Trong
ch yu l prolamin v glutelin, chim ti 70 80%. Hai protein ny ca gluten bt
m c kh nng to hnh, c bit l c kh nng to ra bt nho c tnh c kt, do v
gi kh, cui cng khi gia nhit to thnh cu trc xp cho sn phm.
Albumin: albumin ca bt m cn gi l: leukosin. Chim 5 - 15% protein bt m. Khi
lng phn t 12.000 60.000 vC. Albumin tan c trong nc. B kt ta nng
mui (NH4)2SO4 kh cao (70 - 100% bo ho).
Globulin: globulin ca bt m cn gi l edestin, chim khong 5 10% protein bt m.
Globulin khng tan hay tan rt t trong nc, tan trong dung dch long ca mui trung
ha (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4), b kt ta nng (NH4)2SO4 bn bo ha.
Prolamin: (gliadin) chim khong 40 50% protein ca bt m. Gliadin khng tan trong
nc v dung dch mui, ch tan trong dung dch ethanol hoc isopropanol 70 80%. Bt
m c khong 20 30 loi glyadin khc nhau c khi lng phn t trong khong 30.000
80.000 vC, cc protein ca la m thng dng n chui. Gliadin c trng cho
co gin ca bt nho, c tnh a hnh rt ln.
Glutelin: (glutenin) chim khong 30 45% protein ca bt m, glutenin ch tan trong
dung dch kim hoc acid long. Glutenin c cu trc bc 4 phc tp, c xu hng lin
kt vi nhau bng cc tng tc a bo, bng lin kt hydro v bng cu disunfua ln hn

- 17 -

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

so vi gliadin. Glutenin c trng cho n hi ca bt nho, khi ngm nc c kh


nng to khun hay mng mng chc, n hi, c tnh c kt cao v chu c ko cng.
Do glutenin c tnh c tnh a bo b mt cao v c kh nng lin hp vi cc hp phn
lipid nn to ra mng mng khng thm kh i vi kh CO2.
Khi em bt m nho vi nc, hai nhm protein ca bt m l glutenin v gliadin s hp
th nc, nh hng v sp xp li thnh hng v gin mch tng phn nn s lm pht
sinh cc tng tc a bo v hnh thnh cc cu disunfua mi. Mt mng protein 3 chiu
c tnh nht, n hi c thit lp, dn dn nhng tiu phn glutenin ban u bin thnh
nhng mng mng bao ly xung quanh cc ht tinh bt v nhng hp phn khc c trong
bt m to thnh bt nho. Ra bt nho cho tinh bt tri i cn li khi do gi l gluten
t. Gluten t cha 65 70% nc, cn li 90% cht kh l protein, 10% glucid, lipid,
cht khong v enzym.
Gluten t l cht to hnh, to b khung, to hnh dng, trng thi cng vi cng,
dai v n hi cho cc sn phm thc phm.
Hm lng v cht lng gluten bt m ph thuc vo ging la m, iu kin trng trt,
ch sy ht, ch gia cng nc nhit, ch bo qun Hm lng gluten t
trong bt m khong 15 35% ty thuc vo hm lng protein ca bt. C mt khuynh
hng l bt m c hm lng protein cao th cht lng gluten cao v ngc li. Vi cc
loi bt m sn xut t ht b hng, su bnh, ny mm, ht b sy nhit qu cao,
hm lng gluten t gim do tnh ht nc ca protein b thay i.
Cht lng gluten c nh gi bng cc ch s vt l sau: mu sc, n hi, dai
v dn. Bt c cht lng gluten cao th n hi tt, dai cao, v dn trung bnh
bnh s n v ngon. Trng hp gluten yu ngha l dn ln, dai thp, t n hi,
bt nho dnh, bnh t n v b ra.
Trong qu trnh ch bin c th vn dng cc yu t ca nhit , nng mui n,
cng nho ci thin nhng tnh cht vt l ca gluten.
Gim nhit nho th gluten tr nn cht hn, tng nhit nho th gluten n nhanh
nhng kh nng gi kh km v bnh t n hn.
Mui n c tc dng lm cho gluten cht li v tng kh nng ht nc ln, cng
thy phn protein gim i r rt. Mui n phn ly thnh cc ion. Cc ion lm tng hng
s in mi ca nc, lm gim dy v in tch ca lp ion kp bao quanh cc
protein, lm cho cc phn t protein n gn nhau hn, hnh thnh cc tng tc a nc
v k nc, to nn nhng phn t protein c khi lng phn t ln, tng cht ca
khung gluten.
Cng nho lm tng qu trnh to hnh gluten nhng lm gim kh nng gi kh ca
gluten.
Axit ascorbic, kali bromat, peroxyt v mt s cht oxi ha khc c tc dng lm cho
gluten cht hn cn cc cht kh th c tc dng ngc li.
S lng gluten khng nh hng ln n cht lng bnh, tuy nhin hm lng gluten
tng th m ca bt nho tng, do thi gian nng b ko di. V vy, ta cn hn
ch s lng gluten trong khong 27 - 30%.
Lipid bt m
Lipid bt m chim khong 2 - 3% cht kh. Trong cht bo trung tnh chim khong
, cn li l cc phosphatide, sterin, cc sc t v cc vitamin tan trong cht bo. Cht
bo c tc dng gip cho khung gluten n hi hn v gip gi kh tt hn. Tuy nhin

- 18 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

trong qu trnh bo qun, cc lipid c th b thy phn to ra cc acid bo lm tng


chua ca bt, cc acid bo cng c th b oxy ha lm bt c mi kh chu.
Bng 4. Phn b lipid trong bt m (%)
Dng lipid

Hm lng

Lipid lin kt vi tinh bt


Lipid khng lin kt vi tinh bt
Lipid t do
Lipid kt hp

0,38 0,72
1,12 1,188
0,60 1,00
0,52 0,88

Cht khong:
Cht khong ch tp trung nhiu trong phn v v phi ht la m, v th bt m cht
lng cao l bt m c hm lng cht khong thp.
Cc vitamin:
Trong bt m c cha rt nhiu vitamin nh B1, B6, PP, EVitamin cha nhiu lp
aleurone. Ty theo hng bt m th hm lng vitamin cng khc nhau. Hng bt cng
cao th vitamin cng thp v ngc li.
Bng 5. Hm lng cht khong v vitamin trong cc loi bt m

Bt thng hng
Bt loi I
Bt loi II

Vitamin (mg/kg)
B1
B2
PP
0,5
0,4
10
1,0
0,5
20
2,8
0,8
60

Chat khoang (mg/kg)


CaO
P2O5
FeO
10
70
1,0
30
200
4,0
60
400
0,9

Enzym:
Trong bt m cng c h enzyme nh trong ht la m nhng hm lng v hot
khc nhau ty theo loi bt, bt loi thp th c hot cao v ngc li.
Hai loi enzym c ngha quan trng nht trong sn xut l: h enzym amylase v h
enzym protease.
H enzym amylase trong bt m gm amylase v amylase.
- amylase thy phn tinh bt thnh dextrin, pH ti thch hot ng l 5,6 6,3, nhit
thch hp l 630C.
- amylase thy phn tinh bt thnh ng maltose v cc dextrin gii hn, pH ti
thch hat ng l 4,8 v nhit thch hp l 50 - 520C.
H enzym protease: Protease phn gii cc phn t protein c cu trc bc ba, bc bn do
gluten b vn nt lm gim kh nng lin kt vi nc. Tuy nhin trong giai on u
qu trnh thy phn ny rt cn thit cho s dm chn bt nho v lm bt nho do hn.
Protease bt m c hot mnh nhit 45 - 470C v pH = 4,5 5,6.
Ngoi hai loi enzyme trn, trong bt m cn c lipase, lipoxidase, tyrosinase cng nh
hng n cht lng bt m. Lipase thy phn lipid thnh glycerine v acid bo cn
lipoxidase oxy ha cht bo khng no thnh peroxyde, y l mt cht oxy ha mnh c
nh hng ti gluten v trng thi ca protease.

- 19 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

nh gi cht lng bt m ngi ta da vo tnh cht nng bnh ca bt. Bt m c


tnh cht nng bnh cao s lm cho bnh sn xut ra c xp cao, b mt bnh p,
rut bnh ro, sng v n hi. Tnh cht nng bnh ph thuc vo trng thi h protein
protease v glucid amylase. H protein protease ca bt gm s lng v trng thi
protein, trng thi enzyme thy phn protein, lng cht hot ho. Trng thi protein
protease c trng cho mnh hay kh nng gi nc ca bt. Cn h glucid amylase c trng cho kh nng sinh ng v to kh CO2 .
Tp cht trong bt m:
Trong bt m c cha rt nhiu tp cht nh bi, su, mt v tng nhiu trong qu trnh
bo qun. Khi ch bin phi x l loi b nhng tp cht trong bt m m bo cht
lng sn phm.
Ch tiu cht lng bt m:
Bng 6. Ch tiu cht lng ca bt m (TCVN 4359:1996)
Ch tiu

Cm quan

Vt l

Ha hc

Vi sinh

Tn tiu chun
Mu sc
Mi
V
Tp cht v c
mn:
Cn trn ry 420 m
Qua ry 118 m
m
Hm lng gluten kh
Hm lng tro
chua
Tp cht Fe
D lng ha cht tr su
Nm c
Vi nm

Yu cu
Trng hoc trng ng c trng
Mi ca bt t nhin, khng c
mi v l.
Khng c v chua.
Khng ln ct, t, st
Khng ln hn 20%
Khng nh hn 80%
Khng ln hn 13,5%
8 - 10%
Khng ln hn 0,75%
Khng ln hn 3,5 (s ml
NaOH 1N trung ha cc acid
c trong 100g bt)
Khng ln hn 30 mg/kg
Nm trong gii hn cho php
Khng c
Khng c

2.2. Chocolate (v cc nguyn liu khc to chocolate)


- B v shorterning
- Sa
- ng
2.2.1. B cacao:
B cacao l nguyn liu quan trng nht trong cng ngh sn xut chocolate, c nh
hng trc tip n cht lng chocolate thnh phm. B cacao l sn phm trung gian
ca quy trnh sn xut bt cacao ha tan, c to thnh sau cng on p tch cht bo
ra khi bt cacao.

- 20 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Ngoi ra, b cacao cn c chit trc tip t ht cacao xay v loi mm. Mt s dung
mi thng dng chit b cacao nh: tricloethylen, cyclohexan, ru etylic,
isopropylic
y l ngun nguyn liu khng ch cung cp cht dinh dng cho c th, c cha mt
lng ln cht polyphenol chng oxy ha t nhin; m trong qu trnh ch bin, b cacao
s gip to ra hng v thm ngon c trng cho chocolate. Do n c kh nng kt tinh
a hnh ty theo nhit , dng b kt tinh c cu trc tinh th mn, bng, v thm c
trng, tan chy nhanh di iu kin thn nhit.
T lu, ngi ta c gng nghin cu ng dng mt s cht c kh nng thay th b
cacao gim gi thnh sn phm; va khc phc nhng kh khn trong qu trnh x l
nhit chocolate, va lm tng thi gian s dng, mc chu nhit, cng, c tnh
cm quan Tuy nhin, cc cht thay th ch tng t b cacao v tnh cht vt l, ha
l, nhng li khng to c hng v c trng cho sn phm chocolate nh b cacao.
Bng 7: Mt s ch tiu i vi b cacao lm nguyn liu sn xut chocolate
STT
Tn ch tiu cht lng
Tiu chun
1
Ch s acid
<4
2
Ch s x phng ha
188 - 195
3
Ch s Iod
32 - 42
4
Ch s kt tinh
45 - 50
o
o
5
T trng (95 C / 30 C)
0,898 - 0,904
2.2.2. Bt ca cao :
Nguyn liu bt cacao c lm t ht cacao th ( c ln men, nghin ra v tin hnh
p b). Yu cu l trong bt cacao, hm lng mm v mnh v vn (do tch cha ht
trong qu trnh sn xut bt cacao) phi thp hn 5% tng lng cht kh.
C hai loi bt ca cao thng c sn xut :
Bt giu b: cha 18 - 22% b, thng dng ch bin nc gii kht, bt sa cacao (
Milo, Ovaltine )
Bt kit b: cha 10 - 12% b, thng dng ch bin bnh, ko, kem v cc sn phm
khc. tng t l cht bo, ngi ta c th thm B thc vt thay th CBS (Cocoa
Butter Subtitute). Tuy nhin, chocolate sn xut hon ton t b ca cao s c v thm
ngon hn loi chocolate dng b thc vt thay th. Chocolate Chu u cho php dng
5% CBS, cn Hoa K khng cho php s dng CBS trong cc sn phm mang tn
chocolate.
Di y l thng s tham kho v thnh phn cu to ca bt ca cao. Lu rng cc con
s ny thay i theo iu kin rang, kim ha v qu trnh p s dng trong sn xut
Bng 8: Thnh phn bt ca cao
m (% )

3.0

B (%)

11.0

- 21 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


pH (10% suspension)

5.7

Tro (%)

5.5

Tro ha tan trong nc (%)

2.2

Tro tan trong nc c tnh kim (nh K2O trong ht ca


cao ban u) (%)

0.8

Phosphate (tnh theo P2O5) (%)

1.9

Chloride (tnh theo NaCl) (%)

0.04

Tro khng ha tan trong 50% HCl

0.08

V (tnh theo lng ht nhn khng b kim ha) (%)

1.4

Nit tng

4.3

Nit (hiu chnh theo alkaloid) (%)

3.4

Protein
Nit (hiu chnh theo alkaloid) x 6.25 (%)

21.2

Theobromine (%)

2.8

2.2.3. Cht to ngt:


a, ng knh
Thnh phn ha hc:
Saccharose l thnh phn chim t l ln nht trong ng knh. Ngoi ra, trong ng
knh cn c mt s thnh phn khc: glucose, fructose, cht mu, cht khong, nc v
cc tp cht khc.
Saccharose do mt phn t - D - Glucopiranoside (12) - D - Glucofuranoside Glucose dng piranose lin kt vi mt phn t dng furanose bng lin kt
glucoside xy ra C1 ca gc - Glucose v C2 ca gc - Fructose, loi i mt phn
t H2O. Do vy saccharose cn c gi l (c quay cc bng + 66,50).
6
CH2 OH

H
H
4
OH

5
H

OH
3

2
OH

1
HOH 2 C

2
O

O
H
3
OH

OH C 5
4 CH OH
2
H
6

Hnh 8: Cu to phn t saccharose

- 22 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Saccharose (cn gi l sucrose) l tinh th khng mu, khng mi, c v ngt, tan nhiu
trong nc, nht l nc nng, nng chy 1850C, t trng: 1,5879 g/cm3.
Hm lng saccharose cng ln cng chng t ng knh c cht lng cng cao v
do ng se b ket tinh trong qua trnh nng
cng tinh khit.
Vai tr ca ng trong sn xut bnh Chocopie l to ngt cn thit theo yu cu sn
phm, iu v cho bnh. Nu ta dng nhiu ng qu lm s bnh cng. Tuy nhin, v
ngt ca bnh Chocopie c th thay i ty thuc vo s thch ca ngi tiu dng. Do
vy t l dng ng trong sn xut bnh c th thay i.
Yu cu cht lng ng:
Trong sn xut bnh Chocopie, ngi ta thng s dng ng tinh luyn vi cht lng
theo tiu chun TCVN 1695-87.
Cc ch tiu cm quan:
- Hnh dng: dng tinh th tng i u, ti kh, khng vn cc.
- Mi, v: tinh th cng nh dung dch ng trong nc ct c v ngt, khng c mi v
l.
- Mu sc: tt c cc tinh th u sng, to dung dch trong sut vi nc ct.
Ch tiu ha l:
Bng 9: Ch tiu ha l ca ng saccharose
m
0,14%

ng kh
0,15%

axit (pH)
7

tinh khit
99,75%

T l tro
0,15%

b, ng nghch o
Cu to ha hc
?
nhit cao, vi xc tc l enzyme invertase hoc HCl, saccharose b thy phn to
thnh ng nghch o. Phn ng nghch o ng nh sau:
-tang ham lng chat kho
E.invertase
;HCl;To

-ngan nga hien tng ket tinh lai ng

C12H22O11 + H2O
C6H12O6
+ C6H12O6 (ket tinh cua saccharose)
Saccharose
Glucose
Fructose -tang v ngot
-tang o hoa tan
(+66.50)
(+52.50)
(-92.40)
Nh vy phn ng lm thay i gc quay cc t phi sang tri nn gi l ng
nghch o.
Li ch ca phn ng ny l tng lng cht kh 5,26%, tng v ngt, tng ha tan ca
ng, trnh hin tng kt tinh li nh tnh ha tan cao ca fructose v tnh kh kt tinh
ca glucose.
Tnh ha tan ca ng chung khng nhng c th c tng ln nh thm ng nghch
o m c khi thm glucose hay syrup glucose. iu cn cho php iu chnh nht
ca cc dung dch ng. Khi lm lnh cc dung dch ng bo ha saccharose (thu
c nhit cao) s to nn cc dung dch qu bo ha ca saccharose. Vn tc kt
tinh t saccharose ca cc dung dch ny cng nh kch thc cc tinh th to thnh c
th gim ng k nh thm vo dung dch glucose, ng nghch o, syrup glucose.
Tnh cht ny c ng dng trong k ngh mt ko to nn cc sn phm trong c
saccharose d nng rt cao nhng vn khng kt tinh.
c, Sorbitol
Sorbitol c xem l glucitol, trong nhm aldehyde (- CHO ) ca glucose c thay
th bng nhm CH2OH.

- 23 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

glucose

sorbitol

Hnh 9: Phn ng chuyn t glucose sang sorbitol


S thay i ny trong phn t ch lm cho sorbitol kh b c th hp th v hp th rt
chm, ch khng gim mnh ngt. Do sorbitol c xp vo nhm cht to ngt
km dinh dng.
Khi lng phn t ca sorbitol l 182,17 g/mol, nng chy 950C, si 2960C.
C th c th t tng hp sorbitol, ngoi ra sorbitol cn c trong cc loi qu ht cng v
cc loi rau.
Lng calories c trong sorbitol ch bng khong 2/3 lng calories ca ng: 1g
sorbitol to ra 2,6 calories (11kJ) trong khi 1g ng cung cp 4 calories (17kJ). ngt
ca sorbitol bng 60% ng saccharose. Do c th hp thu sorbitol km nn n khng
lm tng lng insulin trong mu nh ng v c bit l sorbitol khng gy su rng.
Do nhng tnh cht v cm quan, dinh dng nh trn nn sorbitol c dng nh 1 loi
ng thay th, thng dng trong thc phm n king, ko t ngt, chewing gum khng
ng, nc ngt,
Vi vai tr l nguyn liu trong sn phm thc phm, sorbitol c 2 tc dng: cht to
ngt v cht gi m.
Ngi ta ch yu dng ng saccharose trong sn xut chocolate dng ng mn. Do
, ng saccharose dng tinh th c c ht khng u cn phi c nghin nhuyn
kch thc phn t ng a vo sn xut ch cn khong 25 - 30 m.

- 24 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

2.2.4. Sa :
Thnh phn chnh ca protein sa bao gm: Casein, lactoalbumin, v lactoglobulin.
Sa b, sa tru, sa d thuc loi sa Casein v lng Casein chim > 75% tng s
protein. Sa c kh nng to gel, to nh tt.
Trong sn xut bnh Chocopie s dng sa bt nguyn kem l loi sa cha 26 42% cht bo.
Bng 10: Ch tiu cht lng ca sa bt nguyn kem (TCVN 5538:2002)
Ch tiu
Ho hc

Ho l
Cm
quan

Vi sinh

m (%)
chua (oT)
Hm lng cht bo (%)
Hm lng m (%)
Ch s khng ho tan 50oC
mn
Mu sc
Mi
V
Tp cht

Sa bt nguyn kem
5
20
26 - 42
34
1/50
Ht mn, kt dnh tt
Vng nht
Mi thm c trng
V bo, khng c v l.
Khng c

Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh, cfu/g sp


Nhm Colifom, vk/g sp
E.coli, vk/g sp
Salmonella, vk/g sp
Nm men v nm mc, vk/g sp

5.104
10
0
0
10

Sa cung cp rt nhiu cht dinh dng cho c th v trong qu trnh sn xut (trong khi
gia nhit), cc acid amin trong sa s tham gia vo cc phn ng to mu lm tng
mu cho chocolate thnh phm (phn ng Mailard).

- 25 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Ta c th dng nguyn liu sa dng bt hoc dng lng (sa ti). Tuy nhin, ngi
ta thng dng sa bt hn do sa ti c hm lng nc cao (trn 87%) li cha rt
nhiu cht dinh dng, nn rt d b bin cht v h hng di tc dng ca vi sinh vt.
Ngoi ra, sa bt cn c mt s u im nh: d bo qun v bo qun c lu, dung
tch nh, chuyn ch thun li Do , sa bt l dng l tng nht thun tin cho qu
trnh sn xut chocolate. Nhng cn phi lu n ch bo qun i vi sa bt. V
n c tnh ht m mnh nn phi bao gi tht kn, bo qun ni kh ro, mt m, m
tng i trong kho khng qu 70 - 75%, nhit khng qu 15oC.

Hnh 11: Thnh phn ca sa bt (tnh cho 100g cht kh)


Nc
Lipid
Protein
Lactose
Tro
2%

28%

26,5%

38%

5,5%

2.2.5. Cht bo:


Cht bo thng c dung trong sn xut bnh l shortening. Shortening l cht bo
khan ( khng ging margarine, n c cha nc), c nhit nng chy cao hn b v
margarine, cha 100% du m so vi 80% trong b v margarine, c s dng ph bin
trong cng ngh lm bnh. C mu ph thuc vo nguyn liu, thng c mu trng hoc
mu ng ty t l. Bng vic la chn chnh xc nhng thnh phn v bin i c trng,
chng ta c th to ra cc sn phm c SFI (Solid Fat Index, l 1 n v ch s lng cht
bo rn trong cht bo ti nhng iu kin thay i) mong mun.
Ty thuc vo s lin kt i b ph nh hidro ha m shortening c dng rn hay bn
rn, khng c mi thm(c th c mi nh, khng r rt). Cc sn phm shortening trn
th gii c thnh phn trong cng thc khc nhau, nh sn xut phi ch n rn ca
sn phm.

- 26 -

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

Shortening c th c lm lnh hay ng cng( c bit l trong kh hu m) nhng


nhit phng trc khi s dng.
Shortening thng c dng nu, nng, lm bnh khi mi to mi thm.
Shortening l nguyn liu ca nhiu mn n, sn phm, khi thm vo n to ra cu trc
sng v mn.
Mt l do bn c th s dng shortening trong cng thc nu n l n c nhit nng
chy cao, ng dng tt trong qu trnh nng bnh.
Khi cho bo vo trn vi bt trc, bo lin kt vi protein trc, to thnh mt lp
mng bn ngoi ngn khng cho nc lin kt vi protein, lm gim lng gluten t,
tng kh nng gi kh, lm bnh c cu trc mm xp.
Shortening nu c bo qun c th gi c 1 nm sau khi m, v 2 nm nu khng
m.
Shortening c nhng u im sau:
V tnh cht:
Nhit nng chy cao (42 - 500C).
C m thp.
C bn nhit, nhit trng hp sn phm cao, l cht ti nhit tt.
C rn cn thit nhng do thch hp.
C n nh.
Gi c mt s lng glucid cu to bi acid bo cn thit theo quy nh.
t b hi, tr mi, c kh nng nh ha nhiu, nht l thm vo 4 - 6% mono v
diglycerid.
t b oxy ha hn cc loi du khc.
V kinh t:
Gi thnh thp.
Bo qun c lu.
Thi gian s dng lu do c hydro ha.
Bng 12: Mt s ch tiu cht lng i vi du shortening (TCVN 4359)
Tn ch tiu
Mu sc b mt
Mi v
Nhit nng chy ( oC)
m (%)
Ch s acid (ml NaOH 1N/ g mu)
Ch s peroxyt (ml Na2S2O3 0.002 N/ g mu)
Phn ng Cracking
Tp cht
Ch tiu vi sinh

Yu cu
Trng hoc trng ng
Thm c trng, khng c mi hi,
chua
48 51
0,1 0,15
0,2 0,3
0,6 1,25
Khng c
Khng c
Theo tiu chun B Y T

- 27 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


2.2.6.Cc nguyn liu khc :

1. Cht nh ha
a, Lecithin
Lecithin l t c miu t cho c phosphatidylcholin v hn hp ca phospholipid.
Lecithin sn xut cng nghip cha cc phospholipit khc nhau nh phosphatidylcholin,
photphatidylethanollamin v phosphatidylinositol. Cu trc ho hc ca chng nh sau:
O
O

R1

R1

CH2

CH

CH2

O
O

R2

R2

CH

O
O
H2C

H 2C
O

CH2 NH2

OH

OH
OH

OH

OH

Phophatidylethanollamin

OH

O
OH

Phophatidylinositol

Hnh 10: CTCT ca photphatidylethanollamin v phosphatidylinositol


Ghi ch: R1 v R2 l cc axit bo.
Trn 90% phospholipids trong lecithin ca u l 3 dng trn
Lecithin l cht hot ng b mt, dng to nh trong cng ngh thc phm do n c
nhng tnh cht sau:
Lm tng kh nng hp th nc
Tng kh nng to hnh ca bt.
Gim thi gian trn.
Lm tng kh nng hot ng ca my mc.
Lm tng thi gian bo qun.
b, Mono- diglyceride
Momo - diglyceride c ng dng rng ri nh tng ho thc phm. Cu trc ho
hc ca chng nh sau:
O
HO CH2

HO

CH2

HO

CH
H2C

O
O

R1

HC

R1

H2C

R2

Monoglyceride
Diglyceride
Hnh 11: CTCT ca monoglyceride v diglyceride
Vi R1 v R2 l cc acid bo.
Chng cha ester tng hp bng cch xc tc chuyn ho ca glycerol vi triglyceride.

- 28 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Chng cng c chuyn trc tip t glycerol v acid bo trong iu kin mi trng
kim. Bng cch ny ta thu nhn c sn phm chim ti 90% l monoglyceride.
c, Ester polyglycerol ca acid bo
Ester polyglycerol ca acid bo c s dng trong cng ngh lm bnh. Chng c cu
trc ho hc nh sau:
OR2

OCH2 C
CH2 O R3
n
H
Trong R l cc acid bo
Ester polyglycerol ca acid bo. y R1, R2 v R3 l cc acid bo, n >1.

R1

Lecithin dng tinh khit l mt khi kt dnh, c mu sng, khi gia nhit th tr nn
mm v ha tan tt trong cht bo. N c kh nng to ra nhng lp mng trn b mt
phn chia gia pha a nc v pha a bo, trnh s tch pha. Ngoi ra, vic b sung
lecithin (dng dng bt) cn gip gim nht ca khi hn hp chocolate sau qu trnh
nghin. Do m lecithin c s dng nh mt cht nh ha trong cng ngh thc
phm.
Trong ht cacao c t 0,3 - 0,4% lecithin so vi trng lng ca ht v chim 0,1% trong
v trng thi lin kt.
Ngoi ra, ta c th s dng mt s cht to nh khc nh: mono - v di - glycerides, mui
amonium ca acid phosphatidic, polyglycerol polyrecinoleate, sorbitan monostearate,
sorbitan tristearate, polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate.
Bng 13: Hm lng cho php ca cc cht ph gia (Codex 87 1981)
Cht to nh
Hm lng ti a trong
sn phm (g/kg)
Mono - v di glycerides ca acid bo
GMP
Lecithin
GMP
Mui ammonium ca acid phosphatidic
10 g/kg
Polyglycerol polyrecinoleate
5 g/kg
Sorbitan monostearate
10 g/kg
Sorbitan tristearate
10 g/kg
Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate
10 g/kg
Tng hm lng cht nh ha
15 g/kg (dng lin kt )
2. Vani :
C dng tinh th hnh kim, dng bt, khng mu, c mi thm c trng, tan trong
ru etylic. Va-ni thng c cho thm vo lm cho sn phm dy mi thm.
Mt s tiu chun v va-ni
Tn ch tiu
Nhit nng chy
Nc

Tiu chun
81 - 83oC
< 0,5%

- 29 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


Tro
Kim loi nng
3. Cc cht khc :

< 0,05%
<10 ppm

Ngoi ra: mui (sodium chloride), cc vitamin, cc cht mu, ph gia bo qun cng
c dng ci thin tnh cht ca sn phm, ko di thi gian bo qun v tng gi tr
cm quan ca sn phm. Cc cht ph gia trn gp phn rt ln vo vic a dng ho cc
dng sn phm chocolate.
2.3. Cc nguyn liu sn xut marshmallow:
- Gellatin
- ng
- Syrup t tinh bt ng
- Mui
2.3.1. Glucose syrup
Glucose syrup hay ng nha l sn phm ca qu trnh thy phn tinh bt. Thnh phn
ch yu trong ng nha l maltose, ngoi ra cn c D-glucose v cc dextrin. Ngy nay
ngi ta hay dng enzyme lm cht xc tc thy phn tinh bt khng nhng nng cao
c cht lng sn phm m cn hn ch c s nhim mi trng.
ng nha d b ln men to ra v chua v mi ru. V th ng nha c chn phi
c nng cht kh trn 80%
2.3.2. Gelatine
-nh gi cht lng gelatine: bn ca gel khi ng
-c trng bi Bloom: l khi lng tnh bng gam cn thit tc dng ln b mt mu
gel th nghim khi gel ln xung 4mm
-Khi gel th nghim: hm lng gelatine 6.67%, khun c chiu cao 10mm, gi n
nh 10oC trong 16-18h, sau to hnh bi ng c ng knh 14.7mm
-Gelatine trn th trng c bloom trong khong 50-300 Bloom (gam)
-To ra dng gel mm do, trong sut, nghch o nhit khi lm ngui di 35oC
-Gelatine tan trong nc, to ra cm gic sn phm tan trong ming. Gelatine c bn
gel cao(>200g bloom) c kh nng hp th nc tt hn v c nhit tan chy cao hn
gelatine c bn gel thp. Gelatine c bn gel thp cn dng vi liu lng cao, to
ra sn phm c nht cao v dai hn
-Trong cng ngh sn xut Marshmallows, gelatine ng dng phi tha mt s tnh
cht sau y: Bloom: 200-260, nht: trung bnh-cao, liu lng(%): 2-5%
2.4. Ngun nguyn liu khc
- Nc
- Vanni
- Cht bo qun
2.4.1. Nc
Nc l nguyn liu khng th thay th trong cng thc lm bnh Chocopie. Vi s c
mt ca nc, khi bt nho mi c cu trc v nhng tnh cht cng ngh c trng.
Ngoi ra, nc cn c tc dng ha tan cc nguyn liu cn thit khc: ng, mui
to thnh hn hp ng nht, gp phn to bng, mn, do, c tnh cht quyt nh
n cht lng cho sn phm.

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GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

Ngoi ra, t l nc s dng cn ty thuc vo m ca bt m; nu bt m qu kh th


lng nc phi dng nhiu t cht lng bt nho theo yu cu.
Thnh phn ca nc:
Trong nc ngoi thnh phn chnh l H2O, cn c cc cht sau y:
Bng 14: Thnh phn ho hc ca nc
Cc cht c trong nc
Hm lng mg/l
Can kho
200-500
CaO
80-160
MgO
20-40
SO3
20-80
Cht lng Cl (dng chit)
10-40
SiO2
5-10
N2O
10
Cc cht hu c
2 mg oxy/l
Ngoi ra cn c hm lng Ca, Mg, tn ti trong nc di dng
Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2, s gy nh hng xu n qu trnh
ch bin.
Yu cu cht lng nc:
Nc s dng phi tha mn yu cu cht lng nc dng ch bin thc phm. C
th l cc ch tiu cht lng sau:
Bng 15: Cc ch tiu cht lng nc (TCVN 2653-78)
Mc cht lng
Tn ch tiu
Ch tiu ho hc
trong
> 100 cm
c
< 1,5 g/l
mu ( Coban)
<5
Mi v xc nh bng cm quan 200C v 600C
khng pht hin thy
Hm lng cn khng tan
< 10 mg/l
Hm lng cn ho tan
< 500 mg/l
pH
6 8,5
cng ton phn
< 300 mg CaCO3/l
Hm lng Clorua
< 0,1 mg/l
Hm lng Nitrit
< 0,3 mg/l
Hm lng st tng s
< 0,01 mg/l
Hm lng thy ngn
khng c c
Ch tiu sinh hc:
Tng s vi khun hiu kh
< 200 khun lc /1ml
Tng s Coliforms, khun lc/100ml
khng c c
Coliforms phn, khun lc/100ml
khng c c
2.4.2. Trng
Trng gia cm l mt loi thc phm giu dinh dng. Trong thnh phn ca n c nhiu
protein, cht bo, mui khong, vitamin,l nhng cht rt cn thit v d hp th i
vi c th ngi ( ng ha ca lng trng trng l 97%, ca lng trng l 100%).
- 31 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


Thnh phn ha hc ca trng g:
Bng 16: Thnh phn ha hc ca trng g
Nc
85,5 - 86,55%

Protid
12,5%

Lipid
0,3%

Glucid
0,5 - 0,9%

Protein lng trng : ch yu tn ti dng Lipoprotein ch tch c khi lm bin tnh.


Lng trng c lecithin nhm nh tng ha c tc dng lm chm s thoi ha ca
tinh bt. V mt dinh dng lng trng kh hon chnh i vi vic cung cp cc cht
cn thit cho nhu cu ca c th ngi.
Lng trng trng l cht to bt rt tt nn c tc dng gip bt nho tr nn ti xp. Nu
lng trng kh ln th khng cn dung n thuc n ha hc.
Thnh phn ha hc ca lng :
Lng chim 30% khi lng trng vi thnh phn ha hc nh sau:
Bng 17: Thnh phn ha hc ca lng
Nc
Protein
Khong
Lipid
Glucid
Vitamin

47 54%
15 17%
0,7 1,6%
27 36%
0,7 1%
Rt phong ph tr vitamin C

Lng khng ha tan trong nc nhng khi ha ln vi nc s to thnh mt h nh


tng, l do trong lng c cha 10% lecithin l cht to nh. Cht bo trong lng
tn ti trng thi nh tng ha vi cc phc hp ca lecithin c b mt hot ng
ln. Lecithin cng ng vai tr quan trng trong qu trnh ng ha cht bo. Trong phn
t lecithin c cha lng ln acid bo cha no. Baz nit ca lecithin l cholin. Lecithin
c kh nng to nh tng v cng l cht n nh nh tng rt tt.
Cht lng ca trng:
Cht lng ca trng c biu th bng nhng ch tiu cm quan v nhng ch tiu ha
l.
xc nh cht lng ca trng c th cn c vo trng thi v, hnh dng, khi lng,
t trng, bung kh, lng trng, lng , mi, v ca trng.
V trng: Sch s, nguyn vn khng b dp v, mu sc v bnh thng, khng bng
qu. Trng ti mi l trng tt nht, trn b mt v c bi phn.
Trng lng: nhc qu trng ln thy nng tay, khi lng ca trng qu ln hoc qu b
u khng tt v nhng qu c t l lng trng v hm lng nc cao, trng d b
gim khi lng trong qu trnh bo qun.
T trng: trng ti c t trng 1,078 1,069. Thi gian bo qun cng di, t trng ca
trng cng gim.
Bung kh: nm u t ca trng, bung kh cng nh th trng cng ti. Trng cn
tt th khi soi trng bng nh sng n, bung hi u trng c kch thc t 7 9 mm.
Lng trng: trng ti tt, lng lng trng c nhiu, dy lng to, r v gn lin
vi lng . Nu lng di ng nhiu chng t lng trng b long hoc dy b
va.

- 32 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Mi v: trng ti tt khng c mi. V ca trng c xc nh ngay sau khi luc chn,


trng ti tt c mi v c trng, khng c v l.
Bng 18: Thnh phn ca trng ti
Nc
Cht bo
Lecithin
protein

74.8
10.9
1.5
12.3

2.4.3. Cht bo qun


Trong sn xut bnh Chocopie s dng cht bo qun l Calcium propionate. N c tc
trc tip n nm mc, v trn mt s nm men v vi khun. Hot tnh ca n cng ph
thuc rt ln vo pH ca mi trng c bo qun, pH ti u ca n l 5,0 5,5.
pH = 6: c ch cc vi khun to thnh bo t.
Propyonate v propyonic 8 12% lm c ch s pht trin ca nm mc b mt
phmai v b.
C ch tc ng: Acid propionic tch ly trong t bo v c ch s trao i cht. N c
ch s pht trin ca t bo bng cch cnh tranh vi alanin v cc acid amine khc m
chng rt cn thit cho s pht trin ca c th vi sinh vt.
Liu lng s dng theo tiu chun Vit Nam: ML = 2.000 ppm.
2.4.4. Cht to xp
Bt n cho vo c tc dng lm cho bnh xp. Khi nng, bt n trong iu kin
nhit cao s phn hy sinh ra kh, to nn nhng l hng trong bnh, lm bnh
thm xp mn.
Trong sn xut bnh, ngi ta thng dng hai loi bt n sau:
- Bicacbonat natri (NaHCO 3): khi phn gii to ra kh CO2. Loi ny c u im
khng li mi trong bnh, nhng kh nng to kh km v nu s dng khng
thch hp th trong sn phm s tha nhiu Na 2 CO3 lm cho bnh c mu sm.
- Cacbonat amon ((NH4)2 CO3): khi phn gii to ra kh NH3, CO2. Loi ny c kh
nng to kh nhiu, nhng li mi khai trong bnh.
Thng thng, ngi ta thng s dng kt hp hai loi trn. Nh vy va tng cht
lng bnh v cn khc phc c nhng nhc im do hai loi dng ring gy ra.
Yu cu ca bt n: tinh khit: 85 90%, ht mn, ng nht, mu trng, khng
ln tp cht.
Cn bo qun thuc n trong kho thong mt, kh ro, cch nhit, cch m tt.
2.4.5. Cht iu v
a. Acid Malic:(E 296)
CTCT: HOOC CHOH CH2 COOH
Tnh cht vt l:
+ PK1 = 3,4; PK2 = 5,05.
Nng chy 100o C, hn hp racemic nng chy 128oC.
Tan tt trong H2O, alcol, km trong ete.
Acid Malic c trong qu (to xanh, thanh lng tr, mm xi...), trong ru vang.
Bng 19: Tiu chun acid malic

- 33 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


Ch tiu
Kim loi nng
Tro
Mu sc
b. Acid citric:
- CTCT: HOOC C(OH) (CH2COOH)2

Yu cu
0.0014%
0.5%
Trng hoc vng nht

Hnh 12: CTCT ca acid citric


-Tnh cht vt l:
L acid ph bin trong thc vt, c nhiu trong chanh, lu, da.
Acid citric khan nng chy 135oC. Tinh th ngm 1 phn t H2O nng chy 100oC.
Acid citric tan trong H2O (khong 133g trong 100ml H2O to phng), tan trong alcol. C
PK1 = 3,09; PK2 = 4,74; PK3 = 5,41.
Bng 20. Tiu chun acid citric
Ch tiu
Hm lng acid citric
Kim loi nng
Tro
Tp cht
Mu sc

Yu cu
99%
50 ppm
0.4%
Khng c
Trng tinh

2.4.6. Mch nha


- Mch nha lm cho bt nho thm mm, ti, v tng tnh ho nc, c bit lm
cho bnh c mu vng ti do s phn hy to ra monosaccharide

Ch tiu
Cm quan

Ha hc

Bng 21: Ch tiu cht lng mch nha


(ngun: cng ty c phn bnh ko Bibica)
Tn tiu chun
Yu cu
Mu sc
Trong sut, khng mu hoc vng
nht
Mi
Khng c mi v l.
V
Ngt nh, c trng
Tp cht
Khng c tp cht
DE(hm lng ng kh tnh trn %
50-75
cht kh)
Bx(hm lng cht kh 200C)
74-82
pH(dung dch mu 50% mu)
4.5-6

- 34 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Vi sinh

Tro sunfat(%)
Ch
Asen
Tng s vi khun hiu kh
Tng s nm men, nm mc
Coliforms

< 0.1-0.5
0.5 mg/kg
0.5 mg/kg
104 khun lc/g
100 khun lc/g
10 khun lc/g

2.4.7. Cht to mu
Khi chn mu, trc ht phi m bo cht mu khng c hi i vi c th ngi,
sau mi ch n mu sc, tan, bn mu v cc phn ng bin mu khc.
Cc cht mu thng dng trong sn xut bnh Chocopie l: tartrazin (vng chanh),
ponceau 4R ( ti)
Bng 22: Ch tiu cht lng ca cht mu thc phm
Hm lng cht bay hi ( 1350C)
Hm lng cht khng tan trong nc
Hm lng kim loi nng
Asen (tnh ra As2O3)
Ch

10 %
0,5 %
1,4 ppm
10 ppm

III. QUY TRNH SN XUT:


3.1. S khi

- 35 -

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

Bt m

Chun b bt

Nho v phi trn

Cc nguyn
liu khc

To hnh

Marshmalow

Tri marshmallow

Ghp bnh

chocolate

Nhng chocolate

ngui

Np v ng gi

Sn phm

3.2. Quy trnh sn xut marshmallow:


3.2.1. S quy trnh

- 36 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

Nc

Gelatine

Saccharose
Ngm

Nu
Glucose syrup
syrup
Nho trn

Marshmallow

Cng thc phi trn


Gelatine(260 Bloom):
Nc:
Sacchorose:
Glucose syrup:

2%
21.8%
45.72%
30.48%

3.2.2. Gii thch quy trnh

- 37 -

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

Saccharose, glucose syrup, nc ln lt c cho vo thit b nu c cnh khuy v gia


nhit n khi t 115 C, ngng gia nhit cho gelatine qua qu trnh ngm vo
khuy trn s b. Khi hn hp c bm qua thit b nho nh bng nhm hnh
thnh cu trc sn phm marshmallow. Trong qu trnh nho ta c th b sung thm ph
gia to hng to, v nu cn. Marshmallow c lm ngui nh khng nh hng
n bnh biscuit, n lp chocolate ph bn ngoi
3.2.2.1. Nu
Mc ch
-Chun b: to thnh hn hp dng lng, ng nht ca cc cht khc nhau
-Bo qun: gp phn lm tng thi gian bo qun sn phm do nhit cao s tiu dit
mt phn vi sinh vt
Cc bin i
-Vt l: nhit tng, nng dung dch tng do nc bc hi, nht v t trng ca
dung dch cng tng, th tch v khi lng ca dung dch s gim
-Ha hc: phn ng nghch o ng, phn ng caramel. Phi hn ch nu khng s nh
hng n mu sc sn phm
Thit b

- 38 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

-Ni nu dng hi nc lm ngun nhit thc hin qu trnh nu


-Thng s hi lm vic: Thng s hi bo ha 2,5bar; 135 C
-Nhit ti a ca qu trnh nu l 115-118 C
-Thi gian: dng khi t nhit 115 C
- C cu khuy trn c tc khuy 20-30 vng/ph. Cnh khuy c kh nng tho ri
nhanh chng d dng v sinh.
M hiu

ng knh
trong (mm)

Dung tch
cha (lt)

Nng sut
nu
(kg/m)

Cng sut
khuy (kW)

NK0,15/6

750

150

60

0,75

NK0,3/6

900

300

120

2,2

3.2.2.2. Nho trn


Mc ch
-Ch bin: to dai, xp, kh nng gi kh, hnh thnh nn cu trc t trng ca sn
phm
-Hon thin: trong giai on ny ta c th phi ch thm mt s ph gia mu mi (nu
cn) nhm tng tnh cm quan ca sn phm
Cc bin i

- 39 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

-Vt l: nguyn liu dng lng sau nho tr thnh dng st, khi ko sau nhi ny ng
nht v c xp nht nh
-Ha hc: khng ng k do nhit nho thp ch yu l phn ng to gel ca gelatine

Thit b

Model
Capacity Ltr

CNM 20
20

CNM 40
40

CNM 60
60

CNM 80
80

Motor HP 220v

0.5

1.5

Khi lng Kg

125

170

195

220

Rng

400

600

650

700

Di

650

800

900

1000

cao

900

1100

1200

1300

3.3. Quy trnh sn xut chocolate


3.3.1. S khi:

- 40 -

CHOCOPIE

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

B cacao,
sa,ng mn

Phi trn

Nghin tinh

Lecithin

o trn nhit

X l nhit

Chocolate

- 41 -

GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr

CHOCOPIE

3.3.2. Gii thch quy trnh cng ngh


3.3.2.1. Phi trn :
a, Mc ch :
Chun b
Trn cc nguyn liu (b cacao, ng, sa) li vi nhau theo mt t l thch hp hnh
thnh nn hn hp huyn ph ng nht s dng cho cc qu trnh tip theo.
b, Cc bin i xy ra :
Vt l :
Trong qu trnh nho trn, nhit hn hp tng, nht gim v kch thc cc phn t
pha rn gim.
Ha hc:
m ca hn hp gim xung cn 1 2%
Ha l:
Hn hp nguyn liu sau khi trn s chuyn thnh dng paste kh
c, Phng php thc hin:
Ban u cho b cacao vo thng phi trn to mi trng lin tc, sau cho t t bt
cacao, sa, ng dng bt vo to thnh pha phn tn. Cho cnh khuy hot ng trong
sut qu trnh.
Thi gian nho trn: 20 - 30 pht.
Nhit : 40oC - 45oC.
Nu nhit nho trn vt qu 60oC s gy nh hng xu n cht lng sn phm
(do cc cht bo trong sa rt d b oxy ha trong iu kin o trn nhit cao v
thi gian ko di).
m trong bt cacao cng cao th qu trnh to ra cc phn t c kch thc ln cng
mnh, qu trnh nghin sau s phc tp hn. m thch hp cho vic nho trn ca
khi chocolate l 1 - 2%, khi khi chocolate cn gi c tnh linh ng, nn khng
gy kh khn cho qu trnh nho. Cc cht thm c cho thm vo cui giai on nho.
d, Thit b :
My phi trn (nng sut: 30 - 40 kg/m)
Cu to:
Thit b c cu to bng thp khng r. Nguyn liu gm b cacao, ng v sa s
c a vo my phi trn qua phu nhp liu (1). Mi cylon nhp liu u c b phn
iu chnh lu lng. Nguyn tc phi trn bng trc vt (3). B phn tho liu (4) nm
pha di my.
Thng s:
Tc trc vt: 60 vng/pht
Thi gian: 30 pht
Cch thc hin:

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Khi ng my, cho b cacao vo trc, sau cho t t ng, sa vo. Sau thi gian
o trn, ta tho sn phm cho vo thng cha, chun b cho giai on nghin.

3.3.2.2. Nghin mn:


a, Mc ch :
Gim kch thc cc cu t, to thun li cho cc qu trnh x l nhit tip theo sau.
b, Cc bin i xy ra :
Vt l :
Bin i quan trng ca qu trnh l kch thc cc ht gim xung thp hn 30m.
Nhit hn hp tng do ma st; nht hn hp gim n thp nht, do cc ht mn v
m hn hp gim.
c, Phng php thc hin :
Hn hp chocolate sau khi nho trn c nhiu phn t c kch thc ln s c a vo
thit b nghin 5 trc - nhp liu t ng - nghin bt n kch thc khong 30 m,
to ra hn hp rt mn, ng u cao. Cc trc quay vi tc tng dn t trc y
ln trc nh, cc tinh th ng c nghin mn; sau c tch ra khi trc nh
bng mt dao co sc.

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Nhit ca hn hp trong thit b phi gi khong 45 - 48oC. Trong qu trnh nghin,


ma st gia cc trc s sinh nhit lm cc trc nng ln rt nhiu. n nh nhit , ta
cn cho nc lun chuyn trong ng lm ngui cc trc.
mt s nh my, ngi ta tin hnh qu trnh ny 2 ln nhm t c yu cu cao hn
v mn.
d, Thit b :
Cu to:
Thit b nghin trc gm 5 trc bng thp khng r, c t nm ngang v xp chng ln
nhau. Nhp liu t trc cui to thnh dng lin tc, b phn tho liu pha trn v c 1
dao co st co sn phm ra khi trc.
Trong qu trnh nghin, do ma st gia cc trc v gia trc vi nguyn liu s sinh nhit
lm cc trc nng ln rt nhiu, gy nh hng n cng sut nghin. Do , ta cn phi
lm ngui thit b bng cch cho nc lun chuyn trong lng cc trc.
Thng s k thut:
Vn tc trc: cc trc ny quay vi vn tc tng dn t di ln nh. Trc cui cng c
th quay 200 vng/pht
Kch thc trc: D x L 40 cm x 140 - 180 cm
Cch thc hin:
Khi chocolate lng c cho vo phu phn phi thnh mt mng mng chy vo khe
hp gia hai trc. Tc dng nghin c to ra do sc p ca hai trc; kt qu khi
chocolate c nghin mn v chy vo mng hng .

Loi HFS 140 HFS 180


Cng sut cc i: 1200 1500 kg/h

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My nghin tinh 2 trc


(The K & Kurt 2 Roll Refiner)
My c thit k d s dng, dung tch sn phm ln, cht lng t yu cu. Qu trnh
nghin nt cc thnh phn ca chocolate gia 2 trc nghin to ra kh nng s dng
ng tinh th thay cho ng bt. Bng cch ny, ngi ta cng c th lm gim bt m
bn trong chocolate.
My c th gip nng cao ng nht nhng khng lm h hng sn phm, bi v s
qu nhit l c im tiu biu ca qu trnh nghin tinh. Cc phn t to thnh sau khi
nghin tinh c kch thc nh khong 25 m.
Vng ni kt gia 2 trc c gii hn v 50% b mt ca cc trc c s dng nh
vng lm mt.
Cc kt qu c th t c nh s dng 2 trc nghin l: cht lng, hng v v cc
c tnh k thut ca sn phm cui cng v nhng c im ny khng th t c khi
s dng nhng h thng khc. Bi v c cc qu trnh khc cng din ra ng thi trong
sut qu trnh nghin tinh, v y l c s to thnh cc c tnh ring cho sn phm
sau cng.
Nguyn l hot ng ca my nghin 2 trc

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3.3.2.3. o trn nhit :


a, Mc ch :
Ch bin : Lm chn hn hp sau khi nghin mn, to kt cu v hng v c trng cho
chocolate.
b, Cc bin i xy ra :
Vt l:
Nhit khi chocolate tng cao do ma st gia khi chocolate vi thnh thit b v gia
cc phn t vi nhau, nht gim.
Ha hc:
Qu trnh xy ra nhit cao v trong khong thi gian di nn c nhiu phn ng xy
ra. c bit l phn ng Maillard gia acid amin v ng kh to mu, mi, v c
trng cho sn phm.
Loi cc acid d bay hi c mi kh chu nh acid acetic.
Cc cht mu b oxy ha to mu c trng cho chocolate.
m hn hp gim.
Ha l:
Lecithin c thm vo (< 0.5 %) trc khi kt thc qu trnh o trn 1 gi vi cc mc
ch:
+ Lm gim nht, gip khi chocolate t c lng cn thit.
+ Ci thin cu trc bn nh chocolate.
+ Lm gim nguy c xut hin hin tng n hoa cht bo.
Cm quan:

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C s bin i su sc v mi v v mu sc, do nng cao cht lng ca chocolate


thnh phm.
c, Phng php thc hin :
Nhit ca qu trnh: c gi 45oC - 60oC.
Thi gian: ko di t 48 - 72 gi.
Ngoi ra, ta c th cho thm cc cht to nh tng nc trong du, c gc phosphatid
nhm lm gim nht ca chocolate.
d, Thit b :

Thit b: The Frisse Conche (Nng sut: 100 - 2000 kg/m).


Cu to: Thit b gm cc cnh khy c tc dng nho trn v cc dao no c tc dng
trt trn thnh thit b to ma st v tng nhit . Bn ngoi l lp v o thun tin cho
vic iu khin nhit .

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Thng s k thut:
Cc cnh khuy quay vi vn tc v chiu khc nhau.

MY O TRN NHIT FRISSE


(1) ng hi lu. (2) Bng iu khin. (3) ng thi kh. (4) Phu nhp liu.
(5) Cnh khuy. (6) Trc vt. (7) Bm hi lu

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Thit b: Longitudinal Conche (Nng sut: 100 1000 kg/m).


Cu to: Thit b gm mt mng (5) c y (6) lm bng granite. Trong c mt trc
ln (4) bng granite nm ngang di chuyn qua li trn mt y c tc dng o trn
khi hn hp, trc ln ny c iu khin bi b truyn ng (1) v (2) thng qua tay
quay (3). B phn (7) gia nhit v np (8) che y.
Thng s k thut:
Tn s b truyn ng: 20 - 40 vng/ pht
Kch thc trc ln ph thuc vo nng sut ca my
Thi gian o trn: 48 - 72 gi (c khi ln n 96 gi)
Nguyn l: Qu trnh trt gia tr trn v y mng to ma st lm tng nhit . Thit
b ny thch hp vi nguyn liu dng nho hoc nguyn liu c hm lng bo cao.

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gip cho qu trnh bay hi m hiu qu hn, trong qu trnh o trn ta cn gia nhit
thm cho khi nguyn liu.

Hnh 12: Old longitudinal conche


(Source: H. Mikle, Chocolats Halba 2004)
3.3.2.4. X l nhit :
a, Mc ch :
Hon thin:
n nh tinh th b cacao t dng khng bn sang dng bn hn, trnh hin tng b mt
sn phm chocolate b xm hoc n hoa. Ngoi ra, cc tinh th b ca cao phn phi ng
u s gip cho chocolate d dng kt rn trong qu trnh lm mt.
Chun b:
Sau khi tinh th chocolate hnh thnh, nng nhit ln 28oC - 30oC to iu kin thun
li cho vic rt khun.
b, Cc bin i xy ra :
Vt l :
S thay i nhit lm kt tinh hon ton cc dng tinh th bn v khng bn.
Ha l :
B cacao c rt nhiu dng tinh th v cc dng khng bn s t t chuyn sang dng bn
hn.
S tan chy hon ton khi chocolate, khi chocolate chuyn sang dng lng
Nhit nng chy ca cc dng tinh th b ca cao

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Dng tinh th

Nhit nng chy (OC)


18
23.5- 25.5 28
30
Ba dng cu hnh u khng bn nn s chuyn sang dng cu hnh bn hn (bt thun
nghch). Cc dng khng bn s lm chocolate b xm mu do cht bo ti kt tinh, nht
l thnh nhng tinh th ln; cc git glyceride lng di chuyn ln b mt v kt tinh lm
cho b mt chocolate m v khng mn, gy hin tng n hoa cht bo. Do cn to
iu kin to ra nhiu tinh th dng khi ng rn b mt chocolate c mn
p.
Ha hc:
C nhng bin i tng t nh trong qu trnh o trn nhit (s bin i cc cht mu,
gii phng cht d bay hi gy mi kh chu ).
c, Phng php thc hin :
X l nhit chocolate l to ra dng tinh th bn vng ca b ca cao trong chocolate. Hu
ht cc phng php x l nhit u c thc hin theo 4 bc:
+ Lm tan chy hon ton khi chocolate.
+ H nhit n im kt tinh v c th gieo mt t mm tinh th, b cacao s tinh th
ha nhanh.
+ Qu trnh kt tinh.
+ Lm tan chy cc tinh th khng bn v cc tinh th bn kt tinh li di dng ht.
u tin nng nhit khi chocolate ln khong 44oC - 45oC v gi trong 10 pht
cc khi cacao tan chy hon ton.
Sau h nhit khi chocolate nng chy xung khong 27oC v gi nhit n nh,
to iu kin cho cc tinh th b cacao c hnh thnh (cn gi la giai on mm tinh
th) v kt hp vi s khuy trn cc tinh th phn b u trong khi chocolate. Trong
giai on ny, ta c th b sung vo mt s mm tinh th gip giai on ny din ra
nhanh v tt hn.
Sau cng, nng nhit ca khi chocolate ln khong 28oC - 30oC lm tan chy cc
tinh th km bn cn st li, trong khi cc tinh th bn khng b tan chy. Ngoi ra, ln
gia nhit ny cn to cho khi chocolate mt lng thch hp cho qu trnh rt khun
tip theo.
Chocolate c x l nhit c th lu tr trong vi thng m khng b hin tng n
hoa trong iu kin nhit phng khng i trong khong 15 - 18 oC

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d, Thit b :
Cu to: Thit b gm 3 khu vc c
gn cc b phn trao i nhit ring.
Chocolate s c bm vo v di chuyn
theo dng xon c xuyn qua cc phn
trao i nhit. Nhit lm mt v mc
dng chy chocolate c th c ci
t chnh xc t c lng nhit trao
i theo yu cu. Cc u d nhit
c t sau mi khu vc trong thit b
c th o nhit ca c khi
chocolate v nc lnh.

Hnh 13:Thit b x l nhit chocolate 3 giai on


3.4. Gii thch quy trnh sn xut chocopie
3.4.1. Qu trnh phi trn nguyn liu ph v ph gia
a, Mc ch:

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Chun b: phi trn cc nguyn liu ph thnh nh tng chun b cho qu trnh nho
trn c tt (chc nng quan trng ca h nh tng l lm bn h bt xp, gip bnh
thnh phm c xp t yu cu v phn tn cc ht cu bo).
Nguyn liu ph phi trn bao gm:
Cht nh ha: mono v diglyceride (471), polycerol ester (475), lecithin (322).
Cht bo qun: calcium propionate (282).
Cht iu v: acid malic (296), acid citric (330).
Hng tng hp: trng, sa, b.
Mu thc phm tng hp: ponceau 4r (124), tartrazin.
Thnh phn phi trn
Thnh phn nguyn liu tham kho theo bnh Jaffa cake t biscuit, cracker and cookie
recipes for food industry
Thnh phn
Jaffa cake
Bt m
100
ng knh
86.59
Glucose syrup 80%
6.95
Du
2.57
Trng ti
69.52
Amm. Bic.
0.64
Soda
0.5
ACP
0.5
Glycerin
3.09
Mu thc phm
0.1
Nc
3

b, Cc bin i:
Bin i vt l: nhit tng nh.
Bin i ha l: nc, du v cc hp cht tan trong nc du to thnh h nh tng
ng u. C s ha tan cc cht kh: CO2, O2
c, Thit b phi trn:

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Hnh 14: Thit b phi trn


Cc nguyn liu ph, ngoi tr cht to xp, c cho vo thit b phi trn (nc
v cc cht tan trong nc i mt ng, cc cht cn li khng tan trong nc i ng
ring), ri nh trn u trong thi gian khong 10 pht to thnh hn hp nh
tng ng u th t yu cu.
H thng c cnh khuy. Trc cnh khuy mt u gn vi ng c, u cn li c
gn vi mt bi trnh cnh khuy b lng khi quay vi vn tc ln. Bn khuy c gn
tm chn gim xoy phu, chng tro, tng din tch s dng.
Hnh dng: tr trn, th tch 7500 lt.
p sut lm vic: -0.8 +0.1bar.
Nhit lm vic: 0 100oC.
Tc khuy: 60 120 vng/pht.
Thi gian: 10 pht.
3.4.2. Qu trnh nho:
a, Mc ch
Chun b: qu trnh nho trn nh tng vi bt m to khi bt ng nht, thun li cho
qu trnh to hnh.
Hon thin: cc ch tiu cht lng cho sn phm nh xp, kh nng gi kh ca khi
bt nho (kh nng ny to tnh cht c trng ca bnh l c xp).
b, Tin hnh:
Qu trnh nho trn c chia thnh hai giai on.
Giai on 1: tt c cc thnh phn bo, ng v cc thnh phn ph to kem trc, sau
trn bt vo v nho s b, nc c b sung trong qu trnh nho. Khi khng kh
i vo bn trong khi bt, lm gim khi lng ring ca n.

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Giai on 2: Khi bt sau c i qua thit b nho trn tc cao vi h thng lm


lnh bng nc bn ngoi. Khng kh c a vo khi bt vi tc v p sut hp l
to khi bt c khi lng ring khong 0.88 g/cc nhit 19oC. p sut trong sut
qu trnh nho trn c iu chnh nh mt van kh u ra ca thit b nho.
c, Cc bin i
Bin i vt l:
Lc u, khi mi nho, bt tng i dnh do lng nc t do nhiu, khi cc nguyn
liu lin kt cht ch vi nhau th dnh gim, ng thi th tch ca khi bt cng
gim, dai tng. Nhng sau mt thi gian nho, c s thm nhp v tch ly kh trong
khi bt nho, nn th tch khi bt tng.
Trong qu trnh nho trn, nhit ca khi bt nho s tng do ma st v do cc phn
ng ha hc xy ra trong bt nho.
Bin i ha l:
T hn hp cc thnh phn nguyn liu ban u vi cc pha khc nhau chuyn thnh mt
pha nho bt nho dng paste, ng nht khng tch ri.
-

Protein ht nc ht tinh bt trng n, to trng thi do.

Nhng cu t ri rc lin kt vi nhau to khi ng nht.

Hai protein gliadin v glutenin khng tan trong nc s hp th nc, dui mch, nh
hng sp xp li thnh hng v lm pht sinh cc tng tc a bo v hnh thnh cc
cu disulfua mi, kt qu hnh thnh mng protein 3 chiu c tnh nht, do, dnh, n
hi, bao xung quanh cc ht tinh bt v nhng hp phn khc. Hn hp gi l bt
nho.
- Tinh bt c trong bt m khong 70%, cng nhit bt nho ni trn, n lin kt
khong 30% nc nh amilose v amilopectin (do hai cht ny nu trng thi kh th
lin kt vi nhau bng lin kt hidro, nu cho nc vo th lin kt hidro ngoi gia tinh
bt - nc c hnh thnh lng nc t do gim).
- Mui n phn ly thnh cc ion. Cc ion lm tng hng s in mi ca nc, lm gim
dy v in tch ca lp ion kp bao quanh cc protein, lm cho cc phn t protein
n gn nhau hn, hnh thnh cc tng tc a nc v k nc, to nn nhng phn t
protein c khi lng phn t ln, tng cht ca khung gluten.
-

C s ha tan ca nguyn liu ng.

Bin i ha hc:
S oxy ha cht bo di tc dng ca oxy.

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S bin tnh ca protein di tc ng c hc.


Phn ng ha hc to xp cho sn phm.
To nn nhng lin kt ho hc mi do trong qu trnh hnh thnh mng li gluten cc
gliadin, glutenin s kin kt vi nhau bng lin kt hidro, bng cu disulfua v bng
tng tc a bo.
Bin i ho sinh:
Enzym protease v amylase trong bt thy phn protein v tinh bt lm gim tnh n hi
ca khi bt.
Nhng nhit khi bt nho thng nh hn 400C, y khng phi l nhit ti thch
ca 2 enzym trn, nn qu trnh thy phn din ra t.
Bin i sinh hc:
C th nhim vi sinh vt do s nho trn lm tng lng O2 ha tan, t to iu kin
cho vi sinh vt pht trin.
d, Thit b:
S dng thit b nho trn lin tc tc cao:
Thit b gm c:
Mt thng hnh tr t nm c nh (bowl) c ca pha bn hng hay di y tho
liu, nhng thng thng th n s quay xung quanh mt trc khuy nm ngang tho
liu d dng hn.
Cc trc khuy c lp theo phng nm ngang pha trong thng hnh tr, mi trc c
mt hay hai cnh khuy.
Khi ch c mt cnh khuy th cc trc thng c t nghing trn bt khng ch
theo hng t di ln m cn t pha bn ny sang bn kia thng. Cc cnh khuy c
th c thit k gn st hay vn c mt khong cch no vi thng hnh tr. Nu
cnh khuy st vi thng th s m bo khuy trn c tt c bt nm di y thng,
cn nu c khong cch th qu trnh nho, cun v ko dn bt s tt hn. Tc v
hnh dng ca cnh khuy s nh hng quyt nh n vic ct x bt, i khi ngi ta
c th dng thm mt cnh chn gn vo thng nng cao hiu qu, gip bt t c
ng nht cao.

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Hnh 15: Thit b nho trn t nm ngang


Khi c hai cnh khuy th y ca thng thng c dng ch W v cc cnh khuy s
quay theo hai hng ngc nhau. Cc thit b ny c gi l thit b nho trn c cnh
khuy dng ch Z.
Tc trc khuy c th t n 60 vng/pht, khi bt cng s c nho trn trong
thi gian tng i ngn khong 12-15 pht.
u im ca my nho trn tc cao t nm ngang
y l nhng thit b rt mnh v hiu qu v cnh khuy c cc gi m hai u nn
c kh nng nho bt tt v nhanh hn so vi my nho trn t ng.
Ta c th t cc phu ca thit b chia bt ngay bn di my nho trn, nh c th
khng cn dng n cc thng cha bt trung gian hoc ch dng n chng khi mun
vn chuyn bt n mt ni khc.
C th d dng iu khin nhit ca thng trn mt cch hiu qu v chnh xc thng
qua lp v o c nc tun hon.
C th thm nguyn liu vo t pha trn ca thng hnh tr trong lc trc khuy ang
hot ng, tc l gia qu trnh khuy trn, do vic nho trn s linh ng hn t
c cht lng sn phm mong mun.
Nhc im ca my nho trn tc cao t nm ngang
Vic nhp liu chim mt khong thi gian ng k trong chu k nho bt, nguyn liu
phi c cho vo t pha trn thit b.
Cc trc khuy c khuynh hng thy tung vt liu ln pha trn do bt c th b dnh
trn thnh.
Np thng hnh tr hon ton che kn bn trong nn ta khng th theo di qu trnh nho
bt ang xy ra.
V sinh thit b cn c ch trng nhiu hn do c vi vng kh ty ra.

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Khi mun ti nho trn bt th phi bt t thng cha vo thit b cho nn s kh khn
hn thit b t ng.
Hnh dng trc khuy thng c thit k thc hin ng thi c 3 chc nng l
khuy trn, phn tn v nho nn s khng c chc nng no l ti u.
Do c cc cnh khuy nm tm ca thng cha bt nn khi bt ra s t nhiu gp cn
tr, ngoi ra s c mt phn bt b kt vo trc v cnh khuy nn ch b quay trn ch
khng c nho trn.
Thit b thng nng v gy nhiu rung ng nn phi ch thit k sn nh, nht l khi
thit b khng t tng trt.
Nng sut ca my nho trn hot ng gin on
Ngi ta c 2 cch ni v nng sut my nho trn, l tnh theo th tch thng cha
bt hay tnh theo khi lng bt nho / m. Nhng yu t cn quan tm chnh l khi
lng bt ti a trong tng m c nho trn hiu qu, n ph thuc vo cng sut
motor v th tch vng khng gian m trc khuy v cnh khuy hot ng hiu qu,
ngoi ra c cn ph thuc vo bn cht ca loi bt nguyn liu.
Nng sut thng thng ca my nho trn l 500-1000kg.

Hnh 16: Khi bt nho sau khi qua thit b nho trn
3.4.3. To hnh:
Loi bt nho ny rt t bo v giu ng, c xu hng dnh cng vo b mt bng ti
trong qu trnh nng. V th b mt bng ti cn c trng du trc khi bt c t
ln chun b nng. V c tnh khi bt nho khng c mng gluten dai nn rt d b
chy ra khi nng nhit cao, ngi ta thng dung bng ti c bit va chng dnh,
va hn ch c s chy ra khi nng ca bt. Loi du thng s dng l loi du c

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bit, hoc hn hp ca du v bt ng cc c tri thnh mt lp rt mng v u trn


bng ti.
y ta dung phng php to hnh bng cch p ct. p n l phng php nn khi
bt nho qua l khun. p sut nn c to bi nhng con ln cho bt nho xp v
mm, sau bt c ct bng dy kim loi.
Hnh dng ca bnh ph thuc s n khp ca tc ca u phun v bng ti. Vi loi
bnh Choco pie, hnh dng bnh trn l do u phun v bng ti chy cng tc ngay
sau khi u phun c m ra.
Cc yu t nh hng:
Nhit : Nhit nh hng ti nht ca bt nho. Nhit cao lm bt nho c
nht thp, d p ct nhng to iu kin cho cc phn ng caramel, mailard v mt s
phn ng khc xy ra mnh m, gy mu khng mong mun cho sn phm. Nhit cao
lm bay hi nc, nh hng ti cc thng s ca qu trnh nng sau . Nhit qu
thp lm bt nho c nht cao, kh p ct.
Lng bt: va theo tiu chun ca nh my, thng th lng bt c dung l
7.3gx2/bnh.
Thit b: my p ct to hnh (khng qua giai on cn).
Cu to:
Phu nhp liu.
H thng hai con ln: nn khi bt nho vo khoang p sut bn di. Con ln c th
hot ng lin tc hoc gin on, n cng c th chuyn ng ngc li gii phng
p sut v to ra lc ht tr li ti khun rp hoc vi phun ti y ca khoang p sut.
Do bt nho c th nn lin tc hay gin on ra khi khoang p sut.
Khun rp: to hnh cho sn phm.
Li ct: c dy kim loi hoc li dao phng hay rng ca bn ct to hnh.
Thit b p thng t trn dy l nng hoc trn bng ti (i vi loi bnh cn nh
chiu di): khun rp cch dy l nc hoc bng ti khong 70mm.
Kch thc ca thit b p thng c quyt nh thng qua kch thc ca khun rp.
iu chnh tc p bng cch iu chnh tc ca con ln p.
Yu t nh hng n tc p: trng thi ca khi bt nho, p sut ca khoang bn
trn khun rp, lng bt nho nhp vo.
Nguyn l hot ng:

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Bt nho c p qua mt dy cc khun rp (c hnh dng v kch thc nh mong


mun) v mt khung gn dy cng hoc li dao gt i qua i li bn di ca l khun
ct bt nho p. Dy ct c th rung theo phng ngang tng hiu qu ct. Mu
bt nho sau ri xung dy l hoc bng ti.
Dy ct c th ct khi chuyn ng ti hoc thng theo hng ngc li. Khi nht
ct gn vi khun rp v nht quay li s thp hn, tch xa khun rp khng b dnh
vi khi bt nho ang c p.
c im:
Nhng ming bt nho c th ri thng hoc quay vng trc khi ri xung dy l,
nhng iu khng nh hng ln nhng cc ming bt phi ging nhau. Ch khi bt
nho c cu trc th, dnh th c th ri khng theo mun. C th iu chnh s ri bng
cch iu chnh khong cch gia l khun v dy l hoc v tr ca dy ct. iu mong
mun l cc ming bt nho c khi lng kch thc ng u.
Tc ca dy ct khng cao, t khi ln n 100 nht/pht. Tuy nhin c th tng s dy
bnh ln bng cch:
S dng l khun dy i nu mu cn kch thc nh.
S dng hai my cng mt lc nn to hnh lun phin tng dy bnh.
Bt nho p n t l khun hnh trn c th bin dng khi ct. c bit nu bt nho c
cha nhng phn t th nh tri cy sy do n ko tri trn dy ct. iu s nh
hng n hnh dng ca bnh nng, c th khc phc bng cch cho bnh chy qua con
ln t pha trn to lc p cho bnh c hnh dng phng trc khi nng.
Ming bt nho ct thng cc b mt x x, vng trung tm dy hn ra. C th gim
hin tng ny bng cch gim kch thc l khun.
Chng ta c th s dng khun c nhiu hnh dng khc nhau trn cng mt dy l, hoc
c th s dng hai hay nhiu khi bt nho cng mt ln. T ta c th sn xut mt l
bnh loi, nhng cng thc bt v trng lng bnh nn c tnh ton cn than ti
u cho vic nng bnh loi.
Thng s thit b:
Tc dao ct: 100 ln/pht
Tc con ln: 150 ln/pht

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Hnh 17: My p ct

Hot ng my to hnh bng dy ct

Hnh dng l khun v bnh cho trng hp ct bng dy

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Bnh ct bng dy c nhn


3.4.4. Nng:
a, Mc ch
Ch bin: Nhit cao trong l nng c tc dng lm chn sn phm, thch hp cho
mc ch s dng ng thi dn n s bin i l ha v h keo lm cho sn phm c
cu trc, mi v, mu sc c trng.
Bo qun: nhit nng cao (trn 1500C), tiu dit vi sinh vt vo trong giai on ny,
tng thi gian bo qun.
b, Cc bin i
Cc bin i vt l:
Bin i v khi lng: khi lng ca sn phm (bnh nng) gim i, nguyn nhn l
do mt nc t trong qu trnh nng di tc dng ca nhit .
Bin i v nhit : nhit bnh tng ln, nhng khng phi ng u trong cu trc.
Bnh khi ra khi l nung t nhit 980C v c hm m tm l 8%. Lp v nng
(khong 1500C) v kh hn (1-2% hm m) nhng c th lm ngui nhanh. Trong sut
qu trnh lm ngui, lng m chuyn t bn trong ra lp v v sau bc hi.
Cc bin i ha l:
S bin i m: song song vi s bin i nhit , m trong vt liu cng bin i do
qu trnh trao i m vi mi trng (l nng). c trng ca qu trnh trao i m l
s bc hi nc, tin ti cn bng vi m mi trng.
Bin i h keo: s tc dng tng h gia protein, tinh bt v nc lm cho bt nho
tin n trng thi mm, do. Protein trng n nhit 30oC, nhit cao hn th
trng n gim dn, trn 50oC protein ng t v mt nc. Nc s c tinh bt ht
trong qu trnh trng n v h ho, xy ra trong sut qu trnh nng, lm cho sn
phm kh hn.

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Bin i trng thi: di tc dng ca nhit cao, trng thi ca sn phm bin i
ng k. Di tc ng nhit nng ln thnh phn ca khi bt, protein b ng t
gii phng nc cn tinh bt th b h ha hnh thnh cu trc lp v bnh: mm, xp,
tch tng lp.
Cc bin i ha hc:
Tinh bt h ha mt phn, v b phn hy to dextrin, ng.
Xy ra phn ng Maillard gia ng kh v acid amin trong giai on u ca nng
(nhit thp).
Xy ra phn ng Caramel lm mt ng nhng to mu nu sn phm khi nhit
nng ln cao.
Cc bin i ha sinh v sinh hc: nhit nng cao (2000C) nn tiu dit ht cc vi
sinh vt.
Cc bin i cm quan:
Qu trnh nng xc tin s bin i tnh cht sinh l ha ca cc thnh phn tham
gia cu thnh bnh bn thnh phm, lm cho bnh thnh phm chn. S bin i dn
n s to thnh hng v, mu sc c trng v lm tng gi tr cm quan ca sn phm.
c, Thit b: l nng ng hm
Cu to:
Bao gm 1 ng hm (c th di ti 120m v rng 1,5m), bnh s c vn chuyn
xuyn qua ng hm bng bng ti trn nhng tm bng kim loi hay trn mt dy
cuaroa c c l hay dng li an bng kim loi (bng ti c thm du). My c chia
lm nhiu vng gia nhit. Trong mi vng nhit v m c kim sot mt cch
c lp bng ngun nhit v van hi. Chng c th gi li hay loi b m bng cch to
s cn bng gia khng kh mi v khng kh tun hon bn trong. Hi nc (trong thit
b un trc tip l sn phm ca qu trnh t) c tch ra trong tng vng ring bit.
C th thit k thnh h thng thu hi nhit.
H thng my tnh c lp trnh kim sot tc ca dy cuaroa, lng nhit cn cung
cp, v tr ca cc van kh c th t ng thay i iu kin nng trong tng vng, c
th sn xut ra nhng chng loi bnh Chocopie vi mu sc v m khc nhau.
u im:
C th dng nng rt nhiu loi bnh khc nhau.
Nng sut ln.
Kim sot qu trnh chnh xc.

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Tn t nhn cng, t ng ho cao.


C s dng nhng thit b trao i nhit ti ca ra ca kh thi nh m c th tit
kim nng lng v rt ngn thi gian khi ng.
Nhc im:
Chi ph cao.
Tn nhiu din tch
Nguyn tc:
- Bnh c vn chuyn trn bng ti thm du, i vo l nng v tri qua ba giai on
nng:
Giai on 1: bnh c nng mi trng c m cao (khong 60 70%), v nhit
khng qu 1500C. Trong giai on ny, tinh bt b h ha thu ht mt lng nc
ng k lm cho bnh kh hn; protein b bin tnh to cu trc cho bnh; CO2 c to
thnh do s phn hy ca cht to xp thot ra ngoi; hi m bc ra lm gim dn m
ca bnh; lp ngoi cng cha thnh v cng m ch mi thnh lp mng do v n hi,
do vy cha nh hng n qu trnh truyn nhit, sn phm chn u, hi m v CO2
thot ra d dng khng lm nt v bnh.
Giai on 2: nhit l nng tng ln khong 190 2050C v m thp hn. Giai
on ny tip tc cc bin i nh trn, ng thi xy ra mt s bin i ha hc nh:
ng b caramen ha hoc do phn ng melanoid (phn ng gia ng kh vi cc
acid amin) to cho lp v ngoi c mu vng nu, cc phn ng to mi thm cho bnh.
Bn cnh cc vi sinh vt cng b tiu dit ng k.
Giai on 3: l giai on cui ca qu trnh nng, c tin hnh v gi nhit
1700C. y l giai on c nh cu trc sn phm v kt thc qu trnh bay hi nc.

Hnh 18: L nng ng hm

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Thit b c gia nhit gin tip bng l to kh t. y khng th dng hi nc gia


nhit v nhit ca hi nc ch t 1000C, trong khi nhit nng l gn 2000C.
Gia nhit gin tip trnh gy mi cho sn phm.
Sau khi ra khi l nng, bnh mm v d v, phi lm ngui trc khi ly ra khi bng
ti. Mt trc ln c s dng lm phng b mt ca bnh khi chng cn nng v
cng l iu khin dy.
tch bnh ra khi bng ti l mt vic rt kh khn, i hi bnh khng b b. Dy
kim loi c s dng tch bnh tt hn c.
Thng s cng ngh:
Nhit nng 150 - 2000C
Thi gian nng: 7-8 pht

Hnh 18: M hnh l nng ng hm

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Hnh 19. (1) Mc gim m trong ming bt khi tng nhit


(2) Gin nng
3.4.5. Lm ngui
Lm ngui l qu trnh ngc li vi qu trnh un nng. N l qu trnh h nhit t
nhit ban u cao n nhit cui cng bng nhit mi trng chung quanh hay
cao hn mt t.
Hu ht cc bin i vt l ca qu trnh lm ngui l ngc li vi qu trnh un nng,
tuy nhin cng c mt vi bin i khng thun nghch.
Mc ch: chun b cho qu trnh ph nhn.
Thit b:
Tc bng ti lm ngui: 14m/pht

Hnh 20. Thit b bng ti lm ngui


3.4.6. Ph nhn:
Marshmallow dung trong sn xut bnh chocopie khng ging nh ko marshmallow
thng thng, thnh phn ca n ch yu l gelatin, hm lng ng rt t. Gelatine
c phi trn ng nc, gia nhit v nh bong ln to khi mm xp c trng dung
trong sn xut bnh Chocopie.
Nhn mashmallow nng c ph ln mt bnh bng h thng u phun t ng, chun
b cho qu trnh kp nhn.
Nguyn tc:
C 2 phng php ph nhn:
Ph nhn mashmallow nng chy: mashmallow nng c cp trc tip t my sn xut
mashmallow, c phun trc tip ln bnh bi cc u phun t ng.
u im: Phng php ny n gin, ch cn phun mashmallow nng ln b mt ming
bnh. Do mashmallow cn nng, dnh cao nn kt dnh vi b mt 2 ming bnh d
dng qu trnh kp nhn. Marshmallow c ph u trn b mt bnh, khng cha
khong trng no, to gi tr cm quan tt.
Nhc im:
D gy caramel ha mashmallow nu nhit gia nhit qu cao.

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Kh iu khin c b dy lp mashmallow giai on kp nhn do tnh chy lng ca


n.

Hnh 21. Thit b ph nhn


Ph nhn mashmallow c lm mm: mashmallow nhit va phi, c
dnh nhng khng qu lng.
u im:
iu khin c b dy lp mashmallow khi kp nhn.
Khng gy caramel ha do nhit gia nhit khng qu cao.
Nhc im:
Kh phun ln bnh do tnh do v dnh kh t, cn h tr bi thit b ct
To dnh vi ming bnh khng cao nh dng lng.
Kh nng phn b ca marshmallow khng ng u lm, dn n ch tha ch thiu,
lm gim gi tr cm quan ca sn phm.

Yu cu khi ph nhn:
Tc u phun phi cng tc di chuyn ca bng ti.
Lng mashmallow phun va phi, khng qu nhiu lm nh hng ti qu
nhn.

trnh kp

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Bnh c ph mashmallow xen k nhau, chun b cho qu trnh kp nhn. C mt hng


bnh c ph nhn, lin sau l mt hng bnh khng ph nhn xen k nhau.
Cc bin i:
Vt l: nhit ko Mashmallow tng ln, nht gim.
Ha l: mashmallow chuyn t th rn sang lng.
Ha hc: phn ng caramen ha, lm mt mu trng ca lp nhn.
Cc yu t nh hng:
Nhit : Nhit thch hp l 40oC, nhit ny c th ph marshmallow bng cch
phun, kh nng bm dnh ca marshmallow vo b mt bnh l tt nht. Nu nhit
thp hn phi h tr thit b ct khi phn phi.
Lng marshmallow: Lng marshmallow va phi, khng qu nhiu s lm chy trn
lp marshmallow ra ngoi, khng qu t s khng ph kn c b mt bnh, nh hng
ti gi tr cm quan ca sn phm. Lng dung thch hp l 5.2g/bnh.
3.4.7. Kp nhn:
Mc ch: chun b cho qu trnh ph chocolate.
Nguyn tc: S dng my kp nhn, gip ming bnh khng c ph mashmallow v
ming bnh c ph mashmallow ghp li vi nhau, to thnh hnh bnh chocopie vi
lp nhn mashmallow chnh gia.
Hot ng: My c mt thit b c tc dng c bit, c th ht ming bnh khng c
ph mashmallow ln nh p sut, sau di chuyn ming bnh v t bn trn ming
bnh c ph mashmallow. Bnh sau khi c kp nhn c chuyn qua h thng p. H
thng ny c tc dng p ming bnh bn trn xung iu chnh dy ca ming
mashmallow.

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Hnh 22. Thit b kp nhn


3.4.8. Ph Chocolate:
Bnh sau khi kp nhn c cho qua h thng ph chocolate nng chy nhit 40oC,
lm cho ton b b mt bn ngoi bnh c ph mt lp o chocolate mng to im
c trng cho loi bnh chocopie ny, tng cng hng v, mu sc cho sn phm.
Bin i:
Vt l: nhit gia tng do bnh tip xc vi chocolate nng. Sau gim xung trong
qu trnh lm ngui.
Ha hc: c xy ra phn ng Caramel khi gia nhit chocolate, nhng y l phn ng c
li gip tng mu v hng v cho chocolate.
Ha l: Bnh ang c hm m thp c th b ht m khi tip xc vi chocolate nng, lm
tng hm m bnh, lm mm cu trc bnh.
Cc yu t nh hng:
Nhit : Nhit chocolate nng thch hp c th ph thnh mt lp mng u trn
bnh. Nu nhit chocolate qu ngui, nht cao th kh chy u trn b mt bnh,
nhit qu nng lm oxy ha cht bo, chy kht chocolate.
Tc bng ti: Bnh c cho qua chocolate chy thnh mng vi tc va phi,
chocolate c ph u ln b mt. Tc qu nhanh c th lm chocolate ph khng
u, tc qu chm c th to lp chocolate qu dy.
Lng chocolate: Lng chocolate va phi, khng qu nhiu s ngi n cm thy
ngn, khng qu t s khng ph kn c b mt bnh, nh hng ti gi tr cm quan
ca sn phm. Lng dung thch hp l 5.2g/bnh

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Hnh 23. Thit b ph chocolate


Cc ch tiu ca chocolate:
Ch tiu ha hc:
m : < 2%
Hm lng cht bo : 38 - 42 %
Ch tiu Ha l:
Cu trc bn vng, kh chy lng ngoi khng kh iu kin thng, kh nng ht m
thp
mn: 28-30 m. Cho vo ming th tan mn.
Ch tiu Vi sinh:
Tng s vi khun hiu kh: < 5.103 cfu/g
Coliform: 10 cfu/g
Nm men: 100 cfu/g
E. Coli: 0
Staphylococcus aureas: 0
Salmonella: 0
Ch tiu Cm quan:
Chocolate phi kh, cng, b mt lng bong, mu c trng ca Chocolate ( trng sa,
nu, en ),
Lp chocolate khng c hin tng Fat bloom v Sugar bloom. Sugar bloom(n hoa do
ng) l do Chocolate b bo qun hoc sn xut trong mi trng c m cao, khi
chuyn Chocolate t ch nhit thp sang ch c nhit cao, hi nc s ngng t
trn b mt Chocolate lm tan ng c trong Chocolate, lng ng ny s kt tinh li
trn b mt Chocolate, nu dng tay di nh m lp kt tinh ny khng b tan i. Khi b
Sugar Bloom, Chocolate s khng cn gi c hng v v dn ban u. Hin tng

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fat bloom(n hoa do cht b) l do b bo qun trong iu kin nhit thay i, khi
nhit cao hn 22oC, cht bo bn trong Chocolate s b nng chy v thot ra ngoi b
mt, khi gp nhit thp, cht bo ny s kt tinh trn b mt Chocolate to thnh 1 lp
phn trng, nu dng tay di nh s thy lp phn ny tan ra gi l fat bloom. Trng hp
ny vn c th n c v gi nguyn mi v nhng sn phm khng c p.
B mt lng, bng, mn
Mi v: Mi thm c trng ca Chocolate.
3.4.9. Lm ngui:
a, Mc ch: lm cho lp v chocolate ca bnh ng c li.
b, Cc bin i quan trng trong qu trnh:
Bin i vt l: nhit bnh gim, c s co th tch ca lp v chocolate.
Bin i ha l:
Chocolate chuyn t th lng sang th rn.
Bnh c th b ht m lm cht bo kt tinh v gy ra hin tng n hoa trn b mt v
chocolate.
Nu lm mt qu nhanh c th lm tng nguy c chocolate chm ng lm xut hin cc
tinh th khng mong mun, lm cho cu trc chocolate b mm v khng c mn.
Cc bin i khc: khng ng k.
c, Cc yu t nh hng:
Nhit : nhit ti ca vo bung lm mt c th gy sc nhit lp v chocolate, lm
cho b mt lp v khi ng li b rn nt, khng c lng mn.
m tng i ca khng kh: khi m tng i ca khng kh trn 80% th
chocolate en s ht m. m cao v nhng iu kin lm cho hi m trong khng kh
ngng t li c th gy nn hin tng n hoa trn b mt chocolate lm cho v bc
khng c p.
d, Thit b:
Thit b lm mt n gin nht l bung i lu nhit, tc nhn l khng kh lnh c
tun hon bn trong, trong nhit ti tm ca bung l nh nht. Tuy nhin, m
ca khng kh bn trong bung lm mt l kh cao v nhit ti ca vo bung s c
th gy sc nhit chocolate. trnh cho v chocolate khng b ht m, khng kh bn
trong bung lm mt nn c lm kh v c tun hon lin tc. Vic lm kh khng
kh c th thc hin bng cch a khng kh mi vo c nhit thp hn nhit khi
s dng n. Sau , trong bung lm mt s c cc vng khng kh c nhit l 13
19oC, 10 13oC v 13 15oC, y l iu kin nhit thch hp nht.
Bng ti a bnh chocolate i vo bung lm mt thng c bc bng nha. Bng ti
nn c chiu dy mng thi s tiu hao nhit cng nhiu cng tt, v n c th d
dng i qua c on ng - ni m sn phm s tch ra khi n. Nh bng ti c th un
cong theo on ng nn chocolate d dng tch ra v tt c cc vt ui, cc git nh
hoc cc phn chocolate trn ra ngoi khc cng s c ly i v rt xung mt bng ti
khc bn di. Cng c th s dng thm dao co m bo cho bng ti cng sch
cng tt.
Nn bng ti quay v v tr ban u sau khi ra khi bung lm mt, khi vn chuyn
nhng sn phm mi vo lm mt th nhit bng ti bng vi nhit phng v khng
qu lnh. Thng thng s c mt ngi cng nhn ng gia thit b bc v o v ca

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vo bung lm mt kim tra m bo cc chic bnh bc v khng dnh vo nhau


trc khi lm mt. S tch ri cc chic bnh giai on ny c th lm gim ng k s
hao ht v sau. Bnh b dnh vo nhau sau khi ra khi thit b bc v o thng l do khi
i vo thit b khng c thng hng.
Thi gian lm mt: nu lp v bc quanh bnh l mng th thi gian lm mt ti thiu c
th khong 3,5 4 pht.
Cn lu thm l nhit khng kh xung quanh phng bao gi bnh khong 20oC v
m tng i di 65%.

Hnh 24: Bung lm mt


3.4.10. Bao gi
a, Mc ch:
Bo qun: bnh sau khi nng d b ht m tr li
khi iu kin mi trng xung quanh, nn
phi bo qun trong cc bao b chng thm du
nc.
Hon thin: bao b c in mu m bt mt gp
phn tng gi tr cm quan cho thc phm. Bao b
cn c thi kh tr cng phng ln trnh khi
rt b v ra.

Hnh 25. My hn m bao

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GVHD: Th.S Trn Th Thu Tr


Thit b:
Cuon plastic se
c xep nep e
ong bao b

Thc pham
V tr luc bat au ong bao b
Thc pham
V tr bao goi tiep theo
San pham

Con lan han m bao

Hnh 26. Thit b ng gi


Cun bao b c in nhn hiu sn, c dui ra v xp thnh hnh khi ch nht, mt
h thng t ng nh lng v t bnh ln b mt bng ti, mng plastic bao bc bnh,
c ct ri v xp thnh bao hon chnh, c hn thn hn m hai u.

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TI LIU THAM KHO:


[1]. L Vn Vit Mn (ch bin), Cng ngh ch bin Thc Phm, Nh xut bn i hc
Bch Khoa Tp.HCM, 2009.
[2]. Bi c Hi (ch bin), K thut ch bin Lng thc, Nh xut bn Khoa hc v
K thut, 2006.
[3]. R. Carl Hoseney, Principles of Cereal Science and Technology, 1994
Trang web:
1.
www.wikipedia.com

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