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}

=
b
a
a f b f dx x f ) ( ) ( ) ( '
} }}
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
C R
Qdy Pdx dA
y
P
x
Q
a)
b)
}
+
C
ydy ydx x 2 4
2
j
dr
dy
i
dr
dx
T

+ =
j
dr
dx
i
dr
dy
n

=
j y x Q i y x P y x F

) , ( ) , ( ) , ( + =
}}
}
} }
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c

c
c
=
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
R
C
C C
dA
y
Q
x
P
Pdy Qdx
dr j
dr
dx
i
dr
dy
j Q i P dr n F
) (
) (

1)
dxdy
y
P
R
}}
c
c
dxdy
x
Q
R
}}
c
c
( ) { } ) ( ) ( , , x f y x g b x a y x S s s s s
4 3 2 1
C C C C C =
2)
}
+ + dy y x dx xy x ) 3 ( ) 2 (
2 2
}
+ +
C
dy x x dx x xy ) ( ) 2 (
2 2
}
+ +
C
dy y x dx y x ) 3 2 ( ) 4 3 (