Department of Software

The University of Babylon

LECTURE NOTES ON Classical Cryptographic  Techniques
By Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali
College of Information Technology, University of Babylon, Iraq Samaher_hussein@yahoo.com

Classical Cryptographic Techniques
have two basic components of classical ciphers : Substitution and Transposition

Classical Ciphers

Transposition

Substitution

Fig 1. Classical cipher Methods
In Transposition Ciphers the letters are arranged in a different order, such as the word message in the following:
Rotate text

EGASSEM MESSAGE

EMSSGAE

Rotate  every two  letters

Rotate  every three  letters

SEMGASE

SSEMEGA

Rotate  every  four  letters

In Substitution Ciphers letters are replaced by other letters , such as the word message in the following: 
PHVVDJH
KEY=3

TLZZHNL MESSAGE

KEY=7

KEY=12

YQEEMSQ

HZNNVBZ

KEY=21

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Transposition Ciphers
Transposition or Permutation
ciphers hide the message contents by rearranging the order of the letters according to the following procedures 1.    Message Reversal This procedure requires that the plain text to be written backwards to produce a cipher text.  Plain text: MEET ME MONDAY MORNING  Cipher text: GININGROM YADNOM EM TEEM This procedure is straightforward and easy to decipher a message ,simply reverse it 2.   Geometric Patterns The normal writing of a message follows a pattern from left to right, one line at a time . Message then form a geometrical pattern in the shape of a rectangular ,or any other geometrical pattern would disguise the message from a single horizontal line. It can be transposed into rectangular shapes of: 2.1. The Columns of Equal Length  This method base on dived the message to number of line have the columns of equal length (i.e., each line have number of letters change dynamic base on key)by writing the plaintext vertically: Example: let , the plain text: THE SIMPLE STOPS SIBLE TANSPOSITIONS X X and Key : 4 1 5 3 2  T H E S I  M P L E S    T P O S S I B L E T  R A N S P  O S I T I  O N S X X S T I E H E M S L P  S T S O P E I T L B  S R P N A  T O I I S  X O X S N 

Cipher text: STIEH EMSLP STSOP EITLB SRPNA TOIIS

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Transposition Ciphers
2.2. The Rows of Equal Length  This method base on dived the message to number of line have the rows of equal length (i.e., each line have number of letters change dynamic base on key)by writing the plaintext horizontely: Example: let , the plain text: THE SIMPLE STOPS SIBLE TANSPOSITIONS X X and Key : 4 7 1 6 2 3 5  T   H E  S   I    I B L E T  M P  L  E   S               O N S X X T  P  O  S  S T H E S I  I   B  L   E  T                E O S I T I  R A  N  S   P               M P L E S  O S  I   T    I                T P O S S O N S   X  X R A N S P  Cipher text: I B L E T O N S X X T H E S I E O S I T I M P L E S T P O S S R A N S P This procedure produce a very limited degree of message security, however, geometrical patterns are useful an intermediate step for another encryption procedure ,route transposition 3.   Route transposition : It is providing a way of further scrambling geometrically shaped message . Example: Let, the plain text:   SEND HELP SOON the cipher text: SE ND HE LP SO ON The cipher text message is easily understood. The procedure provides very little security. We can increase the scrambling if we make use of the rectangle (2*6)as intermediate step. Then the cipher text become: the cipher text: SNHLSO EDEPON

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Transposition Ciphers
4.  Zig Zag Transposition In this method, The plaintext divided into fixed lengths. one length contains every even positioned letter of the message. The transposing process follow this type of pattern(zig zag) Example: Let, the plain text:   SEND HELP SOON, and depth=2 find cipher text: the cipher text: SNHLSO EDEPON *   Reversed Zig Zag Transposition The enciphering starts with the last letter of the plain text and continues back to the beginning of the message first the odd positioned letters are taken and then even positioned “ ones Example: Let, the plain text:           SEND HELP SOON the cipher text:        NOPEDEOSLHNS 5.  Route variations Route transpositions can go in many different directions:  Horizontal  Vertical  Diagonal  Clockwise  Counter clockwise If we use the message in (3*4) geometric shapes, several of these route transpositions can be illustrated:

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Transposition Ciphers
5.1. Horizontal Route   SEND NOOS HELP                   PLEH SOON DNES 5.2. Vertical Routes SDLO NSEN EHPO OPHE NESN OLDS 5.3. Digonal Routes S   E  D L N O S E N  H P O          O P H N E   S O N          L  D  E S  

1

5.4. Clockwise SEND OONH SPLE

S   O  S

E   O P 
3

N    N L

D H E
2

5.5. Counter Clockwise SPLE OONH SEND

S O  S

P O E
1

L N N

E H D
2

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Classical Cryptographic Techniques
As a result classical ciphers : substitution and transposition

Classical  Cipher  Methods

Transposition Methods

Substitution Methods

Message  Reversal

Geometric  Patterns

Route  variations

Zig Zag Transposition

Route  transposition

Next  Lecture

Horizontal

Vertical

Diagonal

Clockwise

Counter  Clockwise

Fig 2. Expending of Classical cipher Methods

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 2

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.