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The University of Babylon

**LECTURE NOTES ON PUBLIC- KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY (One-Way Functions and ElGamal System)
**

By Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

College of Information Technology, University of Babylon, Iraq Samaher_hussein@yahoo.com

6 November 2012

**One-Way Functions (OWF)
**

A one-way function is a function that is “easy” to compute and “difficult” to reverse Examples of OWF that we’ll use in this lecture to explain public-key systems: Multiplication of two primes Modular exponentiation Multiplication of two prime numbers is believed to be a one-way function. We say believed because nobody has been able to prove that it is hard to factorise. Given two primes numbers p and q It’s easy to find n=p.q However, starting from n, it’s difficult to find p and q Is it prime factorization?

6 November 2012

OWF: Multiplying two Primes

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

**OWF: Modular Exponentaition
**

The process of exponentiation just means raising numbers to a power. Raising a to the power b, normally denoted ab just means multiplying a by itself b times. In other words: ab = a x a x a x … x a Modular exponentiation means computing ab modulo some other number n. We tend to write this as ab mod n. Modular exponentiation is “easy”.

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

El-Gamal

ElGamal is another public-key encryption We will also take a look at the ElGamal public key cipher system for a number of reasons: To show that RSA is not the only public key system To exhibit a public key system based on a different one way function ElGamal is the basis for several well-known cryptosystems

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

El-Gamal

ElGamal is another public-key encryption We will also take a look at the ElGamal public key cipher system for a number of reasons: To show that RSA is not the only public key system To exhibit a public key system based on a different one way function ElGamal is the basis for several well-known cryptosystems

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

El-Gamal algorithm (key generation) Key generation for ElGamal public-key encryption Each entity A creates a public key and a corresponding private keys Generate a large prime number p (1024 bits) Generate a generator g of the multiplicative group Zp* of the integers modulo p Select a random integer x, 1 ≤ x ≤ p-2 Compute y = gx mod p A’s public key is (p, g, y) To be published A’s private key is x To be kept secret by A

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

El-Gamal algorithm (key generation) Example Step 1: Let p = 2357 Step 2: Select a generator g = 2 of Z2357* Step 3: Choose a private key x = 1751 Step 4: Compute y = 21751 (mod 2357) = 1185 Public key is (2357,2,1185) Private key is 1751

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

**ElGamal algorithm (Encryption/decryption)
**

Summary: Samaher encrypts a message m for Eman, which eman decrypts Encryption: samaher should de the following Obtain Eman’s authentic public key (p, g, y). Represent the message as an integer in the interval [0,p-1] Select an integer k, 1 ≤ k ≤ p-2 Compute w=g k mod p and v=m Decryption A uses the private key x to compute z= A computes M= z.v mod p

.(y) k mod p

Send the ciphertext c = (w, v) to Eman

w p -1-x mod p

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

ElGamal algorithm (Encryption/decryption) Encryption To encrypt m = 2035 using Public key (2357,2,1185) Generate a random number k = 1520 Compute w = 21520 mod 2357 = 1430 v = 2035 x 11851520 mod 2357 =697 Cipher Text: c = (1430 , 697) Decryption z= w p-1-x mod p = 1430605 mod 2357 =872 872x697 mod 2357 = 2035

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

ElGamal Properties There is a message expansion by a factor of 2 i.e., the cipher text is twice as long as the corresponding plaintext Requires a random number generator (k) Relies on discrete algorithm problem, i.e., having y= gx mod p it’s hard to find x (the private key) ElGamal encryption is randomized (coming from the random number k), RSA encryption is deterministic. ElGamal is the basis of many other algorithms (e.g., DSA)

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

Summary

RSA is a public key encryption algorithm whose security is believed to be based on the problem of factoring large numbers ElGamal is a public key encryption algorithm whose security is believed to be based on the discrete logarithm problem RSA is generally favoured over ElGamal for practical rather than security reasons RSA and ElGamal are less efficient and fast to operate than most symmetric encryption algorithms because they involve modular exponentiation

6 November 2012

Dr. Samaher Hussein Ali

Notes of Lecture 9

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