0do'r*f - jrefrmjyef k ¨d wwd,wGJ rmwdum

12-£'d¨0d"eda'´o-NyD;ajrmufrI (wefckd;zefqif;rI) trsKd;rsKd;ukd tus,fjycsuf tbdnmOf jyqkdcsuf avmuDtbdnmOfig;yg;o½kyf tbdnmOf&&ef avhusifhykH uokdPf;y&duHukd jyKjcif;onfaomfvnf; 0efav;aMumif; edrdwf&NyD;aomfvnf; psmef&&ef 0efav;aMumif; psmef&NyD;aomfvnf; wefckd;zefqif;&ef 0efav;aMumif; *d&db@0g[eylaZmfyGJtaMumif; NyD;ajrmufjcif; £'d¨q,fyg;jyqkdcsuf £'d¨q,fyg;o½kyf t"d|med'd¨ (1) 0dukAÁed'd¨ (2) raemr,d'¨d (3) ÓP0dyæg&d'd¨ (4) t½SifAmukv\ ÓP0dyæg&d'd¨ t½SifoHudpö\ ,if;£'d¨ blwygv\ ,if;£'d¨ orm"d0dyæg&d'd¨ (5) t½Sifom&dykwå&m\ orm"d0dyæg&d'¨d t½SifoOÆD0 \ ,if;£'d¨ t½SifcgPkaum@n\ ,if;£'d¨ Owå&m\ ,if;£'d¨ omrm0wD\ ,if;£'d¨ t&d,d'd¨ (6) qV*kFayu©m ur®0dyguZd'd¨ (7) ykn0awm£'d¨ (8) 0dZÆmr,d'd¨ (9) xkdxkdt&mü or®mya,m*aMumifh NyD;ajrmufrI (£'d¨) (10) £'d¨\ bkHtqifhav;yg; ,if;\ yg' av;yg; ,if;\ tao;pdwftaMumif; y'½Spfyg;

,if;\ rlv 16-yg; wefckd;zefqif;ykH tpDtpOf t½SifplVyef wefckd;zefqif;ykH xif½Sm;ay:atmifjyKonfh tm0dbm0wefckd; ESpfvSrf; okH;z0g;jzifh wm0wðomokdY <uawmfrlykH jrif;rkd&fawmif rawGU&jcif;taMumif; (rSwfcsuf) wm0wðomrS ouFóNrdKUokdY oufqif;awmfrlaMumif; pMum0Vmrsm;pGmukd jrif&atmifzefqif;aom avmu0d0&Pwefckd; uG,fatmif rjrif&atmif zefqif;aomwefckd; awmifeH&H ponfukd azmufxGif;oGm;Ekdifatmif zefqif;ykH ajrvQKd;oGm;Ekdifatmif zefqif;aomwefckd; a&ay:rSm oGm;Ekdifaomwefckd; rkd;ysHEkdifaomwefckd; eaE´myeE´ e*g;rif;ukd qkH;rjcif; jA[®mhavmuwkdifatmif ukd,fjzifh tvkdtwkdif;jzpfaomwefckd; ta0;ukd teD;jzpfatmif zefqif;ykH teD;ukd ta0;jzpfatmif zefqif;ykH trsm;ukd tenf;jzpfatmif zefqif;ykH tenf;ukd trsm;jzpfatmif zefqif;ykH ukd,f\tpGrf;jzifh pdwfukd nGwfapykH pdwf\tpGrf;jzifh ukd,fukd nGwfapykH 0dukAÁed'd¨taMumif; raemr,d'd¨taMumif;

13-tbdnm eda'´o-tbdnmOfwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf 'dAÁaomw"mwf jyqkdcsuf 'dAÁaomwtbdnmOf&atmif tm;xkwfenf; apawmy&d,ÓPf jyqkdcsuf ykaAÁed0goÓPf jyqkdcsuf omoemy&aoh omoemwGif;&[ef;ponfwkdY\ odjrifEkdifaomuyÜgtykdif;tjcm; ,if;wkdY\ atmufarhodjrifykH tjcif;t&m ,if;wkdY\ odjrifykH Oyrmrsm; ykaAÁed0goÓPf &atmif avhusifhykH urÇmysufykH okH;rsKd; Ak'¨acwfokH;yg; rD;jzifh urÇmysufykH avmuAsL[mewfwkdY a<u;aMumfMuykH urÇmjyefvnf jzpfxGef;ykH urÇmOD;om; vlwkdY tajctae rdef;r a,musfm;wkdY pí jzpfvmykH ckd;,lrI jzpfay:vmykH r[mor®wrif; pí ay:vmykH toacsF,suyfav;ck tykdif;tjcm; a&jzifh urÇmysufykH avjzifh urÇmysufykH urÇmysufjcif; taMumif;ponf pkwlyygwÓPfac: 'dAÁpu©KÓPf jyqkdcsuf uHtm;avsmfpGm b0opfokdY uyfa&mufMuonfukd jrifaMumif; t&d,ly0g'uH xkdufjcif;taMumif; t&d,ly0g'uHukd ukpm;ykH t&d,ly0g'uHESifh rdpäm'd|d tjypfBuD;aMumif; 'dAÁpu©KtbdnmOf&atmif avhusifhcPf; NydK;>yrf;jyqkdcsuf tem*wHo ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfwkdYESifhwuG tbdnmOf ckepfyg;jzpfaMumif; £'d¨0d"ÓPf\ tm½kH (7)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; 'dAÁaomwÓPf\ tm½kH (4)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; apawmy&d,nPf\ tm½kH (8)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; ypöKyÜef (3)rsKd; taMumif; ykaAÁed0goÓPf\tm½kH (8)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; 'dAÁpu©KÓPf\ tm½kH (4)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; tem*wHoÓPf\ tm½kH (8)rsKd; a0befjyjcif; ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf\ tm½kH (5)rsKd; a0befjyjcif;

14-cE¨eda'´o-cE¨mwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf ynmukd jyqkdcsuf þü qkdvkdaomynmukd azmfjyjcif; ynmrnfjcif;\ taMumif; onm 0dnmPf ynmwkdY\ xl;jcm;jcif; ,if;xl;jcm;ykHukd Oyrmjzifh jyjcif; ynm\ vu©Pm &oponf ynmtjym;ukd jyqkdcsuf avmuDynmESifh avmukwå&mynm emrfukd ykdif;jcm;aom ynmESifh ½kyfukd ykdif;jcm;aomynm 'óeblrdynmESifh bm0emblrdynm okwr, pdEÅmr, bm0emr,ynm tm,aumov’ynm ponfokH;yg; 'ku©ü ÓPfponf (pwkopöÓPf) av;yg; y#dorÇd'gÓPf av;yg; tw¬y#dordÇ'gÓPf "r®y#dordÇ'gÓPf ed½kwådy#dordÇ'gÓPf y#dbmey#dordÇ'gÓPf y#dorÇd'gÓPf &aMumif;rsm; ynm\ bkH-rlv-ukd,fxnfwkdYukd ykdif;jcm;csuf ½lyu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf blw½kyf 4-yg; Oyg'g½kyf 24-yg; pu©Kyom'ponfwkdY\ vu©Pm &o ponf aupd tya&0g' ½Sif;vif;csuf tqif; toHwkdY rsufpd em;okdY a&muf ra&muf pdppfcsuf pu©Kyom'ponfwkdY\ wnfaeykH tqif;ponfwkdY\ vu©Pm &oponf

£wd¬a`E´ yk&doda`E´wkdY\ vu©Pmponf ZD0dwda`E´\ vu©Pm &oponf [',0w¬K½kyf\ vu©Pm &oponf 0dnwf½kwfwkdY\ vu©Pm &oponf tmumo"mwf\ vu©Pm &oponf v[kwm½kyfponfwkdY\ vu©Pm &oponf ½kyftjym;ukd jyjcif; tZÑwådu½kyfESifh Am[d&½kyf MoVm&du½kyfESifh okckr½kyf edyæEé½kyfESifh tedyæEé½kyf Oyg'dPÖ½kyfESifh tEkyg'dPÖ½kyf ur®Z½kyf pdwåZ½kyf tm[m&Z½kyf OwkZ½kyf t&doaomESifh ½lyH yk'fNyD;jcif; wlykH (rSwfcsuf) ur®Z½kyf 18-yg; (rSwfcsuf) pdwåZ½kyf 15-yg; (rSwfcsuf) tm[m&Z½kyf 12-yg;? OwkZ½kyf 13-yg; (rSwfcsuf) 0dnmPu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf umrm0p& ukokdvfpdwf 8-yg; ½lyg0p& ukokdvfpdwfponf tukokdvfpdwf 12-yg; 'd|r*Fvm ponf (rSwfcsuf) t[dwfukov0dygufpdwf 8-yg; o[dwfumrm0p& ukov0dygufpdwf 8-yg; tukov0dygufpdwf 7-yg; tukov0dygufpdwf Oayu©monf 'ku©oabm½SdaMumif; ½lyg0p&0dygufpdwf ponf t[dwfud&d,mpdwf 3-yg; o[dwfumrm0p& ud&d,mpdwf 8-yg; ½ly-t½ly ud&d,mpdwf 9-yg; (89) yg;aompdwfwkdY\ 14-yg;aomudpöwkdYtvkdtm;jzifh jzpfykHukd a0befjyjcif; a0'emu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf okca0'em\ vu©Pm &o ponf 'ku©a0'em\ vu©m &o ponf

aomreóa0'em ponfwkdY\ vu©Pm &o ponf onmu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf ocFg&u©E¨m jyqkdcsuf zó\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf apwem\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf 0D&d,\ teufESihf vu©Pm ponf orm"d\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf o'¨g\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf owd\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf [d&D MowåyÜwkdY\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf tavmb ta'go tarm[ ponfwkdY\ vu©Pm ponf yó'd¨ v[kwm ponfwkdY\ vu©Pm ponf ,if;wkdYukd bm0emyGg;qJü ukd,fwkdif awGUod&aMumif; (rSwfcsuf) qE´\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf t"darmu©\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf reodum&\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf wMwrZÑwåwm\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf ,if;\jzpfykHukd bm0emyGg;olrSm ukd,fwkdifawGUod&aMumif; (rSwfcsuf) 0d&wdokH;yg;\ vu©Pm ponf t[d&du taemwåyÜwkdY\ vu©Pm ponf avmb arm[ wkdY\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf rdpäm'd|d\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf O'¨pö\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf xdeESifh rd'¨wkdY\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf a'go\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf £ómESifh rpä&d,wkdY\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf ukuúKpö\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf 0dpdudpäm\ teufESifh vu©Pm ponf twdwfponf a0befjyqkdcsuf t'¨gtwdwf ponf a0bef jyqkdjcif; cPypöKyÜef twdwf tem*wf a0befjyjcif; tpOfponf tqkH;tjzwf jyqkdcsuf jzpfpOf ponfukd a0befjyjcif;

a'oemtpOfom oifhaMumif; cE¨mESifh Oyg'geu©E¨m xl;jcm;aMumif; cE¨mig;yg;rQ twdtus a[mjcif;\ taMumif; cE¨mig;yg;wkdYukd Oyrmjzifh jyjcif; cE¨mig;yg;wkdYukd ½Ityfaom tjcif;t&m xkdokdY½Ioltm; tusKd;NyD;ykH

15-tm,we"mwkeda'´o-tm,we"mwfwkdYukdtus,fjycsuf tm,wewkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf tm,weo'´g\ teufwkdYukd jyjcif; tm,wewkdYukd 12-yg;wdwd a[mjcif; taMumif; a'oemtpOfom oifhaMumif; ½Ityfaom tjcif;t&mwkdYukd jyjcif; "mwfwkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf "mwko'´g\ teufwkdYukd tus,fjyjcif; "mwfwkdYukd 18-yg;wdwd a[mjcif;\ taMumif; tmbm"mwf ponfwkdY "mwf 18-yg;ü twGif;0ifykH taMumif; 4-yg; 4-yg;½SdrS pu©K0dnmPfponf jzpfEkdifaMumif; "mwf 18-yg;wkdYü ½Ityfaomtjcif;t&m

16-£`E´d,opöeda'´o-£a`E´ opömwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf £a`E´wkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf £`E´d,\ teuf a'oemtpOfom oifhaMumif; £a`E´wkdY\ udpöukd jyjcif; £a`E´wkdYukd bkHjzifh a0befjyjcif; opömwkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf opömteufoabm 16-yg; jyjcif; 'k-o'´g c-o'´g ponfwkdY\ teufukd jyjcif; t&d,opömrnfaMumif; jyjcif; 'ku©opöm ponfwkdY\ toD;toD;aom vu©Pm &oponf opöm\teuf rsufvSnfhESifh wHvSyf txl; (rSwfcsuf) opöo'´g\ &oifhaomteufwkdYukd xkwfjyjcif; opömwkdYukd 4-yg;rQom wdwdusus a[mjcif;\taMumif; a'oemtpOfom oifhaMumif; Zmwd ponfwkdYukd qkH;jzwfjyjcif; opömav;yg; a0befcsufygVdESifh ,if;\ jrefrmjyef 'ku©ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf Zmwdukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf Zmwdukd t&aumufjyjcif; ,if;\ vu©Pm ponf Zmwd\ 'ku©rnfjcif;\ taMumif; 'ku©'ku©-paom 'ku©(7)rsKd;ukd a0befzGifhjyjcif; 'ku©'ku©ESifh 0dy&dPmr'ku© ocFg&'ku© y#dpäEé'ku©ESifh tyÜ#dpäEé'ku© y&d,m,'ku©ESifh edyÜ&d,m,'ku© trd0rf;ü y#doaE¨ wnfae&jcif;aMumifh qif;&JykH ukd,f0eftqifrajyí cGJpdwfjyKjyif&jcif;aMumifh qif;&JykH zGm;jrifjcif;aMumifh qif;&JykH zGm;jrifNyD;aemuf woufywfvkH; qif;&JykH i&J ponfwkdYü jzpfjcif;aMumifh xkdi&Jqif;&J ponfukd cHpm;&aMumif; ponfjzifh jyqkdjcif; Z&mukd tus,fjycsuf Z&m\ o½kyfw&m;ukd,fukd aumufjyjcif; ,if;\ vu©Pm ponf ,if;Z&mukd 'ku©[k qkd&jcif;taMumif; r&Pukd tus,fjycsuf r&P\ o½kyfw&m;ukd,fukd aumufjyjcif; ,if;\ vu©Pm ponf ,if;r&Pukd 'ku©[k qkd&jcif;taMumif; aomuponfukd tus,fjycsuf

aomu\ 'ku©rnfjcif;taMumif; y&da'0ü tqkH;tjzwf 'ku©ü tqkH;tjzwf a'greóü tqkH;tjzwf Oyg,moü tqkH;tjzwf tydÜ,orÜa,m*ü tqkH;tjzwf yd,0dyÜa,m*ü tqkH;tjzwf £pdäwmvmbü tqkH;tjzwf wPSmukdyif 'ku©[k qkdjcif;\taMumif; (rSwfcsuf) Oyg'geu©E¨mwkdYü tqkH;tjzwf ork',ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf aygaemb0dum-yk'fNyD;ykH (rSwfcsuf) eda&m"ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf edAÁmefukd jyqkdcsuf oOyg'daooedAÁmef tEkyg'daooedAÁmef 0dok'd¨r*fr[m#Dumedó, wwd,wGJrS edAÁmefqkdif&mpdppfcsuf r*fukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf r*¾if½Spfyg;tus,f (rSwfcsuf) 'kau© ÓPH paom ygVdt& pwkopöur®|mef;ukd jyaomt|uxm (,if;rSwfcsufyif) oH,kwfygVdawmfenf;t& jrifqJ ponfü jzpfaom Oyg'geu©E¨m 'ku©opöm w&m;wkdYukd ½Ií tedpötp½Sdaom vu©PmwkdYjzifh odtyfaMumif; (,if;rSwfcsuftqufyif) 0dyóem½Ickdufü or®m0gpm ponfwkdY\ udpövnf;NyD;aMumif; (,if;rSwfcsufyif) psmeform"dr½SdvQif or®morm"d rjzpf[lí¤if;? ,if;orm"dr½SdvQif 0dyóem r½Iaumif;[lí¤if; qkdaom0g'ukd ½Sif;vif;jyjcif; (,if;rSwfcsufyif) t&d, t|*Øur*fü 0dyóemr*fukdvnf; ykAÁbm*r*ftjzpfjzifh xnfhoGif;,ltyfaMumif; (,if;rSwfcsufyif) ÓPf\ udpötm;jzifh tqkH;tjzwf tEkaAm"ÓPfonf wqifhMum;ponfjzifh eda&m" r*¾wkdYukdvnf; odaMumif; y#da0"ÓPfonf eda&m"ukd tm½kHjyKvsuf odí usefopömokH;yg;wkdYüvnf; odjcif;udpöNyD;aMumif; opömav;yg;ukd odaom tEkaAm"ÓPfonf ouúm,'d|dponfukd qkwfepf&yfwefYapEkdifaMumif; £óm&ac: zefqif;olaMumifhç y"meac: yuwdaMumifh avmujzpfonfponfjzifh ,laom taMumif;rSm; t,l0g'wkdYukd #Dumü tus,fjyqkdxm;onfhtwkdif; xkwfjyxm;onf (rSwfcsuf) eda&m"ü t,lrSm;wkdYukdvnf; #Dumt& xkwfjyxm;onf (rSwfcsuf) twGif;0ifaom w&m;wkdY\ tjym;tm;jzifh tqkH;tjzwf opömav;yg;ukd Oyrmjzifhjyjcif; av;csufpk tqkH;tjzwf okntm;jzifh tqkH;tjzwf opömav;yg;wkdYukd toD; toD; wyg;tjym; ESpfyg;tjym;ponfjzifh cGJjcrf; a0befjyjcif; r*¾opömukd oDvu©E¨m paom okH;yg;aomcE¨mwkdYjzifh a&wGuftyfaMumif; opömav;yg;wkdYukd wlaomtzkdY½Sdjcif; uGJjym;aomtzkdY½Sdjcif;wkdYjzifh a0befjyjcif; 0dok'd¨r*f-jrefrmjyef ed*kH; 0dok'd¨r*f-jrefrmjyef wwd,wGJ rmwdum NyD;\/

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

1

0do'r*fe'gef; k ¨d d
o*F[*gxmygXfteuf
«jrefrmjyefpum;ajy 0do'r*fe'gef;ukd yXrwGüjycJNh yD? xkyXrwGü¤if; 'kw,wGü¤if; pmrsuEmrsm;aeaom k ¨d d J d J d J f S aMumifh o*F[*gxmwkYd \ teufudk rjyEkiy½conf/ ,cktcg ,if;o*F[*gxmwkYd udk azmfjyí o'´genf;qef; d f J dS hJ tvuFmenf;wkYd jzifh a0befyi;jcm; pOf;pm; ,lqEki&eftwGuf edó,jyefenf;jzifh jyefqxm;aom ,if;*gxmwkYd \ dk f d f dk teufuvnf; þt&mü azmfjyygtH/ ¤if;wkYd rmvnf; ygVdbmom wwfoem;vnfowYdk \ twGuom jzpfonf/» dk h S d l f 1/ orÇm0eD,ó ok"0&meD rm'wå"&|y'ó ,ó/ D d ynm'dZmwm vvdwm *kPmbm? bmaw0 avmurSd owH rk'g,/ 1/ ok"0&meH? ynm&nfcRef yk*Kd¾ vfref jrwfu0dwYdk onf/ orÇm0eD,ó? vGepmav;jrwf csD;usL;*kPwif D G f G f tyfaom/ tm'wå"&|y'ó? jynfpaomtm; &,lxm;onfh xl;jcm;omvGef ÓPf&nfcRefbd ynm½Stjzpf[aom D d h Hk d l t&m½Sdaom/ ,ó? tBuif Ak'aCmo emrrnfwif ax&ft½Sif q&mawmfjrwf\/ ynm'dZmwm? ynmponf ¨ G t&nftaoG;aMumifh eD;a0;ESYH jzm jzpfay:vmaom/ vvdwm? tjypfuif;í oefY½i; wifw,faom/ *kPmbm? csD;rGr; S f h f xkupm *kPa&mif0gonf/ avmurS?d urÇmavmuü/ owHr'g,? ÓPfynm½Sif olawmfpifwYdk Munfvif½Tifyso'¨g d f G f k <uvsuf tm;&0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg/ bmaw0? xdew½Te;½Te; wufae0ef;okYd awmufxe;vsufom ½Sygayownf;/ f f f G f d 2/ o Ak'aCmom0Sx&*¾"rm? ¨ d D 0d'e}rpöEorm'&m}'g/ l Å obm0ZH Aswoowdv'¨?H åd å od&ð '"maw0 okA'aCmaom/ k ¨ 2/ okA'aCmaom? bk&m;½Si\ aumif;aom ausmfapmoHrsKd;½Sawmfraom/ o Ak'aCmom0Sx&*¾"rm? xkd k ¨ f d l ¨ d D Ak'aCmornfwif ynm½Sif rax&fjrwfonf/ 0d'e?H ynm½SwYdk \/ tpöEorm'&H? pifppfta&;xm;í av;pm;jcif; ¨ G l d Å uk/ tm'g-tm'g,? olrwlatmif ,laqmif&½Scí/ Aswdoowdv'¨?H xif½m;vmonfh rdr\ pGr;&nfaMumifh d d hJ å å S d f &tyfaom/ 0g? & tyfonfjzpfí/ obm0ZH? zefw;ûyjyif trTe;wif& ya,m*ryg trSetwki;om jzpfvmaom/ D f f d f od&?ð *kPusufoa&uk/ '"maw0? arS;rSeavsmhyg; rysufjym;atmif aqmifxm;vsufom½Sygayownf;/ f d d f d 3/ ]]orÁK'¨aoa| y&deAKÁ wo®?ð d oH0pä&meH 'oar owrS/ d Zmawm}}wd Óawm 0dAa"[d Ak'k ¨ aCmouFa&m ywåorwårmeD/ k 3/ 0dAa"[d? ynm½SwYdk onf/ ywåo rwårmeD? &tyfrvGJ &NrJjzpfonfh olcyfor;wkYd \ jrwfE;jcif;½Saom/ k d d f dk d Ak'aCmouFa&m? tnGeYf tan§mufyrm Ak'aCmotavmif;tvsmuk/ orÁK'¨aoa|? bk&m;jrwfpmonf/ y&deAKÁ ¨ k ¨ d G d wo®?ð y&deAmef 0ifpNH yD;vwfaomf/ oH 0pä&meH? ESpwYdk\/ 'oar owrS?d q,fcajrmufjzpfaom &mpktwGi;ü/ d Á f k f Zmawmwd? arG;zGm;ay:xGe;cJonf[í/ Óawm? urÇmwvTm; ½Sivtrsm;u xif½m;odtyfayownf;/ f h l f l S 4/ 0dñl 0d'}l ró ykr*¾Zmaw? oOÆmwwH 'u©Pa'obma*/ d &ar®}E´,o®ð okZemu&o®?ð d wwåwaroDe} r,H ywDw/ ¬ d 4/ 0dñ?l ynm½SwYdk onf/ £ró? t½SiA'aCmo tavmif;tvsm ynmjynf<h u,f þoli,f\/ ykr*¾Zm d f k ¨ aw? a,musm;jrwfref vl&nfcRefy*Kd¾ vfausmfwYdk \ jzpfay:xGe;um;&mjzpfaom/ &ar®? ESpûf cduf ½TiaysmfarGUavsmfz,f f G k f f G

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

2

vnf;aumif;aom/ okZemu&o®?ð olawmfaumif;rsm;jzpfyg;wnf½&mvnf; jzpfaom/ £E´,o®?ð tdE,Ekiiü/ G dS d d´ d f H 'u©Pa'obma*? awmifyi;t&yfü/ oOÆmwwH? aumif;pGmarG;zGm; BuD;yGg;vmcJonf\ tjzpfu/ 0d'?l taxmuf d dk f h dk om"u oJvepjzifh odrwMf uavukeNf yD/ t,H? þonfum;/ wwåwaroDe?H rSeuefaom tcsuftvuf tjzpf G f S ¬ f tysuf taMumif;t&mukd azG½mEIi;n§d ynm½SwYdk \/ ywDw?d a0beforwf qk;jzwf,qcsuaywnf;/ S d f d d S H l f 5/ arm&@*grrSd o ww¬ Zmawm? yknmedawm 0dyuvrSd or®m/ Ü k ol&ó avmuw¬orm 0[w¬?H OyÜZmem,m} ' s½kaPm 0 &Ho/ Æ d 5/ avmuw¬orm0[w¬?H urÇmolurÇmom; owå0grsm;tusKd; onfy;½Guaqmifjcif;iSg/ ol&ó? aerif; dk f \/ OyÜZem,? xGuay:vma&;twGu/ tm'd? tOD;tpjzpfaom/ t½kaPm &Ho?d t½kPf a&mifonf/ (Zm,wd £0? Æ f f êudwifNyD;um jzpfay:vmouJoYdk /) o? xkt½SiA'aCmo tavmif;vsm oli,fonf/ ww¬? xktE,awmifyi;ü/ h d f k ¨ d d d´ dk f arm&@*grrS?D arm&@½Gmü/ yknmedawm/ aumif;rIwYdk uaqmifyYdk tyfonfjzpfí/ 0dyuvrS?d jAm[®PtrsKd;tEG,fü/ Ü k or®m? csr;csr;omom aumif;rGepm/ Zmawm? arG;zGm;cJav\/ f f f G h 6/ oH0'¨A'D¨ o y0k'yawåm? k D¨ tm&m",H Ówd*PH oa'0/ a0a'ok 0dZmok w'nodyÆ Ü *aE¦o}G em,moy0dPwm}*g/ 6/ o? xkd t½SiA'aCmotavmif;vsmoli,fonf/ y0k'yawåm? BuD;yGg;jcif;okYd a&muf vlvm;ajrmufvwf f k ¨ ¨d aomf/ oH0'¨A'?d¨ tvGew;wufaom ÓPfynm½Sonfjzpfí/ oa'0? tcgrvwf rjywfomvQif/ Ówd*PH? aqG k f dk d rsKd;taygif;uk/ tm&m",H? ESpouf½iys tm;&0rf;ajrmufapvsuf? a0a'ok? a0'usrf;wkYd ü¤if;/ 0dZmok? EIwrynm d f T f Æ f I pmayusrf;*efwYdk ü¤if;/ w'nody*aE¦ok p? xkrwyg; tjcm;odyHÜ usrf;*efwYdk ü¤if;/ tem,moy0DPwH? rcufcJ Ü d S wef; yifyef;r½Sd vG,upm wwfouRrf;usifotjzpfoYdk / tm*g? qkua&mufcavNyD/ f l G d l d f hJ 7/ ok'g"drwe 0da0paee? ¨ k åd oma&mEkç}oma&mwd 0d0Ormaem/ d ö a0a'oG}om&wå}rAkZÑd ,o®m? wk|ð o emyZÆd okawe aoe/ 7/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmo tavmif;vsm vkvifonf/ ok'g"drwe?H pifMu,foefY½i; tjypfuif;onfh d f k ¨ ¨ k då S f twGi;"mwfcH ajzmifreaom tZÑmo,½SowYdk \/ 0da0paee? a0befpppfjcif;rsK;jzif/ oma&mEk toma&mwd? tESpf f h S f d l d d h om& ½Savoavm r½Savoavm[lí/ 0d0Ormaem? a0befpppfvwfaomf/ a0a'ok? a0'wkYd ü/ tom&wåH tESpf d d d ö d om& uif;yonf\ tjzpfu/ ,o®m? tMuifaMumif/ tAkZÑd? ÓPfjzifxifxif odjrifcavNyD/ wo®m? xkYd aMumif/ dk h h hJ h aoe okawe? rdrOpömtrSef a0'usr;*ef[aom okwjzif/ wk|?ð ESpoufpwcs tm;&auseyfjcif;okYd / emyZÆ?d d f l h f d f ra&mufEiyJ ½ScavNyD/ dk f d hJ 8/ taEGoawm wó yow¬om&H? o'¨roma&m o0aee va'¨g/ ® edaEém0 Ak'ó o omoerS?d ¨ Oóm[Zmawm}y*rm, ww¬/ 8/ yow¬om&H? aumif;jrwfaom tESpom&uk/ taEGoawm? tpOfwpkuf vkuvar;jref; pkprf;½SmazG f d d d f H H aom/ wó? xkt½SiA'aCmotavmif;vsm vkvifonf/ o'¨roma&m? olawmfaumif;w&m; tppftESpom&uk/ d f k ¨ ® f d o0aee? emcHrwom; tMum;tm;jzif/ va'¨g? &tyfavNyD/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmo tavmif;vsm vkvifonf/ S f h d f k ¨ Ak'ó -omoerS?d bk&m;omoemawmfü/ edaEém0? nGwonfjzpfíomvQi/ ww¬? xkomoemawmfoYdk/ Oy*rm,? ¨ f f d uyfa&mufjcif;iSg/ Oóm[Zmawm? jzpfaom êud;pm;jcif; tvGetrif; ½ScavNyD/ f d hJ

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

3

9/ "r®mbdvmoD o 0da&mpd ww¬? oHv'¨yAÁZyorÜa'g0/ Æ axa&}youFr® 0do'ax&k ¨ 0g'Deum,rSd ywDwyan/ d 9/ "r®mbdvmoD? w&m;awmfudk vkvm;onfh tavh½aom/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmo tavmif;vsmvkvif d dS d f k ¨ onf/ 0do'ax&0g'D edum,rS?d 0do'ax& 0g'EG,0if ax&ft½SiwYdk \ *kP;ü/ ywDwyan? ausmfapmxif½m; k ¨ k ¨ f f d f S onfh ynm½Sd jzpfueaom/ axa&? rax&fwYdk u/ OyouFr?® csOf;uyfí/ ww¬? xkomoemawmfü/ oHv'¨yAÁZKÆ y k f dk d orÜa'g0? enf;vrf;use aumif;pGm&aom b0topf ½Si&[ef;tjzpf ½SonfjzpfíomvQif/ 0da&mpd? oDvponf f d jrwf*P&nfjzifh pkjd ynf½r;vJh wifw,fcavNyD/ k f T f h hJ 10/ w'g [d}okH'u©dP£E´,rS?d d ed0godaem ax&d,0HoZmwm/ w'n0g'D p rkeD rkeEd ´ rwH ,xmv'¨d yumo,EÅm/ 10/ [d? ax&0g'D rax&fjrwfrsm; xHawmfyg;ü w&m;½Smvpf &[ef;jzpfonfrm rSwvygay\/ w'g? xkd S f S acwftcgü/ 'u©P£E´,rS?d awmifyi;tdE,jynfü/ ax&d,0HoZmwm? ax&0g'tquftEG,ü jzpfueaom/ d d dk f d´ f k f rkeD p? &[ef;awmfwYdk onf¤if;/ w'n0g'D? xkax&0g'rSwyg; wjcm;t,ltq 0g'½Sueaom/ rkeD p? r[m,me d d k f *kP;0if t½Si&[ef;awmfwYdk onf¤if;/ rkeErwH? bk&m;tvkawmfjrwf yd#uwfu/ ,xmv'¨?d rdrd rdrwYdk \ d f f d ´ d dk d t,ltq oabmusonftwki;/ yumo,EÅm? a[mMum;nTejf yukevsuf/ ed0godaem? oDwif;ok;aexkiawmfrl h d f f H d f ukeonf/ tmok?H jzpfue\/ f k f 11/ o'¨rom&m"d*rm, bda,sm? ® ygVð ork*PdS Zdae&dwçH om/ ¾ Zd0S*vDvm reom}odwm}ó? ¾ vu©0 ykan ed0oH Abmo/ D 11/ o? Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmfonf/ bda,sm? vGeursm;jym;pGm/ o'¨rom ¨ d f J ® &m"d*rm,? ok;jzmo'¨r® tESpom&wkYd udk 'd|od&eftvkYd ig/ Zdae&dw?H bk&m;½Sif a[mawmfrtyfaom/ ygVð? yd#u H f S l ygVdu/ ork*P?dS aumif;pGmoif,cavNyD/ vu©?D usufoa&onf/ ykan? vGeux;jcm; aumif;rIrsm;aomolü/ dk ¾ l hJ f J l ed0oH? jynfpoefY½i; rysuf,i;yJ ruif;ruGm pGNJ rJpmrSaevsuf/ bmwd £0? awmifajymifw;yGg; xif½m;bdouJh h Hk S f G f G D dk S odYk / om? xky#uygVdonf/ tó? Ak'aCmobGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmf\/ Zd0*vvm? vQmzsm;ü d d ¨ d S ¾ D usufpm;vGeYf v; uGeYf jrL;wifw,fvsuf/ reod? pdwEv;ü/ tmodwm? tpOfruGm pGNJ rJpmrSaeonfjzpfí/ Abmo? l h f S Hk G D oefY½i;jynfpHk aumif;jcif;*kPudk tukeaqmifvsuf xGe;ajymifawmufycJavowwf/ S f h f f f h 12/ {0H wrk*P}S raAm"d or®m? ¾ ]]{um,aem,H ok0o',mwd/ d k ¨d ra*¾g 0d0¥mrd*rm,}} waw¬ma,sm*H ormyZÆd y&H y&wD/ ¬ 12/ o? Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmfonf/ {0H? þqkconftwki;/ wH? xky#u ¨ d d hJ h d f d d ygVdu/ O*¾P?HS EIwirwpJG oif,qyifvQif/ ]]t,H? t|*Øu pifMu,fvonfh "r®vrf;aMumif; þtusifaumif; dk f Hk S f l J S h onf/ ok0o',m? udavomtnpftaMu; uif;a0;oefY½i; aumif;pGmpifMu,fjcif;iSg/ 0d0¥m"d*rm,? edAmefxwf d k ¨d S f Á k acsmuf ÓPfjrifaygufí rsufarSmuf&odjcif;iSg/ {um,aem? waMumif;c&D; wvrf;wnf;omjzpfaom/ ra*¾g? vrf; aMumif;aywnf;}}/ £wd? þokYd / or®mtaAm"d? ajzmifrepmyif ÓPfjzifjh rifí ouf0ifoabmusavNyD/ wo®m? h S f G xkoYdk edAmef oGm;&efvrf;um; wjcm;r½Sd þvrf;om½Sonf[k jrifooabmusavaomaMumif/ y&w¬?D edAmefudk d Á d d h Á tvk½aom/ o? Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmfonf/ ww¬? xky#uygVdü/ y&H Oa,sm*H? d dS ¨ d d d vGeveuuJ pGNJ rJpm êud;pm;jcif;okYd / tmyZÆ?d a&mufcavNyD/ f G f J G hJ

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

4

13/ obm0ynm r[wD p ow¬EÅa&myv'¨g 0dyvm0 0dZm/ k Æ awe}ó Aka'¨gwåork'waPÖ? d ´ d tudpom"dwybm0}rnm/ ä å 13/ tó? Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmf\/ obm0ynm p? wd[w,Oay oaE¨ ¨ d d f S f wnfp cgumvrS wuGygvm yifu&if; ÓPfynmonfvnf;/ r[wD? xufjrufzUHG xGm; BuD;rm;vSygay\/ ow¬EÅ dk a&myv'¨g? yd#uawmfrwyg; tjcm;avmuD tvDvaomusrf;wkYd rS &tyfaom/ 0dZm p? pmayqki&m twwfynm S D Æ d f onfvnf;/ 0dyvm0? jyefYajymwk;yGg; rsm;jym;vSonfomwnf;/ awe? xkYd aMumif/ tó? Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh k d h ¨ "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmf\? Aka'¨gwåd ork'waPÖ? bk&m;a[mazmf pum;awmfjrwf yd#uwfo;jzm orkj'mukd d ´ d Hk vsifpmraES;ul;cwfa&;ü/ tudpom"dwybm0H? tvG,wul NyD;apEkiojl zpfaMumif; pGr;&nfowåtaygif;uk/ G ä å f d f f d d tnm-tnm,? rsufjrif'| od½awmfrMl uí/ d dS 14/ Ak'ó udw0 okuwaCmaom? ¨ Då d då 0wådóaw}pöó *½l 0d,wåm/ tw¬mEGwH emrruHok Ak'd ¨ aCmaomwd orÁK'¨rw*Fwó/ 14/ orÁK'¨rw*Fwó? bk&m;½Sitvkd xkxtqk;tr Mo0g'ukd edprjywf vkuemûyusifwwfaom/ tó? f d dk H ö d f h Ak'aCmo bGUJ rnf&rnfh "r®arGUavsmf xk&[ef;awmf\/ 0d,wåm? tzufzufü xufjrufÓPfjrif ynm½Sijf zpfawmfrl ¨ d ukeaom/ *½l? q&mocif ax&ft½SiwYdk onf/ tó? þ&[ef;i,f\/ okuwaCm aom? aumif;aomausmf f f d åd apmoHonf/ Ak'ó udw0? bk&m;½Si\ ausmfapmjcif;uJoYdk yif/ 0wåóaw? jzpfayvdrrnf/ £wd? þokYd aemifa&; ¨ då f h d hf ajr§mawG;xifjrif qifjcifMuukeí/ tó? xk&[ef;i,ftm;/ Ak'aCmaomwd? Ak'aCmo[lí/ tw¬medwH emrH? f f d ¨ ¨ teuft& avsmfnvonfh tEGwbUJG trnfu/ tuHo?k rSnac:rSwom;ay;xm;MuavukeNf yD/ D S ¬ dk hf f 15/ r,l&'lw0S,y¥eo®?ð ed0ó uOö0y&m'dau p/ d S k o tE¨umcsmwoa'od,|uxH ork*PdS orm[dwawåm/ ¾ 15/ orm[dwawåm? pGJNrJwnfMunfaompdwf ½Sdaom/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmoonf/ r,l&'lw0S,y¥e d f k ¨ oð?® r,l&'lw trnf&aom qdyurf;ûrdUü¤if;/ uOö0y&m'dau p? uOdy& tp½SaomûrdUü¤if;/ ed0ó? oDwif;ok;ae f d S k ö k d H xkií/ tE¨umcsmwoa'od,|uxH? tE¨u[k ac:qktyfonfh rdrwi;&if;jzpf t|uxmuk/ ork*P?dS aumif;pGm d f d d dk f d ¾ oifMum; usupm;avhvmcJavNyD/ f h 16/ wm0wåaue}ó okar"oómoEÅK|pdwó wwkw&r/ å å d Üd orÁK'¨0gPDok orwårw¬?H tnmwkrpm r[wD tZm,d/ d ä 16/ wm0wåaue? tE¨uonm wki;&if;jzpf t|uxmukd avhvmoif& xktwki;t½SnrQjzif/ toEÅK| d f d d f f h pdwó? tm;r&ao;yJ ra&mif&aompdwf ½Saom/ okar"oó? aumif;aom ÓPfynm ½Sawmfraom/ tó? xkd å h J d d l t½SiA'aCmo\/ 0g? tm;/ wwkw&r?Üd xkxuftvGevnf; orÁK'¨0gPDo?k jrwfpmbk&m; pum;awmfjref f k ¨ ¬ d d f G yd#uwfawmfwYdk ü/ orwåH tw¬?H <uif;rJOókH tvk;pkaom teuf t"dyg,fu/ tnmwk?H odem;vnf&eftwGu/ h H H Ü dk f r[wD £päm? BuD;rm;aom tvkqE´onf/ tZm,d? xufxufoefoef jzpfcjhJ yefavownf;/ d 17/ r[mr[dEm'd0 oD0a&bd? ´ ormbwm ,m}|uxm oom&m/ oax&0g'g ok0ep,m p? d d ä w'g 0dbmwm 0w vuF,m}ok/ H

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

5

17/ r[mr[dEm'd0oD0a&bd? r[mr[dEpaom &[EÅmt½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ oom&m? tESpom& ½SMd uay ´ ´ f ukeaom/ ,m t|uxm? tMuif t|uxmwkYd u/ ormbwm? rl&if;rysuf qufvufaumif;pGm aqmif,vmcJuef f dk l h k NyD/ wm t|uxm/ xkd t|uxmwkYd onf/ w'g? xktcgü oax&0g'gp? ax&0g'wkYd EiwuG jzpfMuukeí ¤if;/ d S hf f ok0ep,m p? jynfpaumif;jrwf tqk;tjzwf ½SMd uukeí¤if;/ vuF,m vuFm,? oD[VuRef;ü/ 0dbmwm? d d ä h Hk H f dk f xif½m;xGe;ajymifueonf/ tmokH 0w? jzpfavukeNf yDwum;/ S f k f 18/ y0wdarwH 0d',ó arwå d 'a[mod ]],H Ele bd&mrvuø/ tvuFa&mEÅçð &wemu&H0? Oaypö odau©}|uxm r[EÅ/ D 18/ {wH y0wå?ð þ taMumif;t&muk/ 0d',? od&í/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmotm;/ {wH? þtBuHonf? d d d f k ¨ ta[mod? jzpfavNyD/ t[H? igonf/ &wemu&H? orkj'muk/ rvuFa&mEðÅ £0? ½Icsifz,&m wefqmqifay;onf d G f ESiwaom/ tbd&mrvuø? aysmfarGUzG,&m yifv,frmxGe; oD[VuRef;okYd / Oaypö? csOf;uyfom;a&mufí/ r[EÅD fh l f S f dk f G t|uxm? r[m t|uxmwkYd u/ odau©? avhvmrSwom; oifMum;&ygrl/ ,EéLe? aumif;vdrrnfwum;/ dk f hf 19/ wm bmo,m oD[Vdum, &pöm? wEðÅ orma&mys e0H ua&,sH/{0O§d a'oEÅ&,me Ak'd ¨ rmeDe}rw¬H cvk om"a,}}wd/ 19/ oD[Vdum, bmo,m-bmom,? oD[Vbmomjzif/ &pöm? a&;om;tyfueaom/ wm? xkt|uxm dk f h k f d wkYd u/ wEÅð orma&mys? ygVd-rm*" a0g[m&okYd rlveufyif rysufwifí/ e0H? t|uxmopfu/ ua&,sH? ûypD&if dk dk &ygrl/ ,EéLe? aumif;vdrrnfwum;/ [d? tusKd;um;/ {0H? þokYd rm*"bmom t|uxmusrf;opfûy jzpfonf hf ½Saomf/ a'oEÅ&,meH? wki;wyg;ü jzpfyg;aexkiavh½ueaom/ Ak'rmeDe?H bk&m;ukd jrwfE;ol &[ef; ½Sif vlwYdk \/ d d d f G d f dS k f ¨ dk tw¬?H tusKd;pD;yGg;uk/ cvk? pifppf/ om"a,? NyD;apEki&m\/ £wd? þokYd tBuHtpnf jzpfavNyD/ d d f 20/ yka& p vuFm*womoeH ,H? okervEL0 [drm'drawåm/ d ® d ´ k ybmodç udod®Odö w'g}n0g'remukvH wm} ukvwH Z*gr/ 20/ p? tvsOf;oifvm qkz,&mw&yf Mum;n§yí jyvkuO;tH/ yka&? a½S;tcgü/ ,H vuFm*womoeH? h d G f f d f D h oD[Vüa&mufvm tMuifomoemawmfonf/ [drm'drawåm? qD;ESi;tp jypfa'gorS uif;yvGwajrmufaom/ dk f k f f okervEL0? tvGeoefY½i; xdexevif;aom vrif;toGiuoYdk / ybmod? npfaMu;uif;½Si; a&mif0gvif;vsuf d ® d ´ f S f f d f f hJ f xGe; vif;awmufycJavNyD/ tn0g'remukv?H 0g'wyg;wkYd jzifh axGjym;½Iyjf cif;vk;0uif;í oefY½i;pifMu,fcaom/ f h H S f hJ wH? xko[Vomoemonf/ w'g? t½SiA'aCmo tBuHaumif;&í qE´jzpfvm xkpOftcgü/ udoO?dö tcsKdU d D dk f f k ¨ d ®d edum, *kP;*Pü/ tmukvwH? 0g'taxGaxG ½IyayGa&m,Sujf cif;okYd / Z*gr? 0rf;enf;p&m a&mufc½mavNyD/ d f f hJ S 21/ ZderSd edAme*aw [d 0óÁ owEÅa& omoedum or*¾g/ orme0g'g ZdeomoerS?d e aumpd aba'gyd w'g ta[mod/ 21/ [d? xkpum;ukd xif½m;apOD;tH/ ZderS?d jrwfpmbk&m;onf/ edAme*aw? y&deAmef 0ifpawmfrNl yD;vwf d S h G Á d Á H aomf/ 0óowEÅa&? tESpw&mtwGi;ü/ omoedum? omoem0if ax&ft½SiwYdk onf/ ZdeomoerS?d bk&m; f f f jrwfpm omoemawmfü/ orme0g'g? ruGrjym; wom;wnf; wlrQonfh t,ltq½Sueonfjzpfí/ or*¾g? G J d k f waygif;wnf; rysufnnwvsuf½ayuke\/ w'g? tESpw&m xktcsdetcgü/ aumpdyd aba'g? rajymypzG,f D G f dS f f d f tenf;i,frQaom tuGtjym; aomfvnf;/ e ta[mod? ray:aygufcb;ay/ J hJ l

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

6

22/ ypäm p o'¨r'rm[awbs® k "ar®[d 0gaw[d y#dpö ygay/ Zmaw[d oH0*rem orm,? d ¾ axa&}o}rka,sm*}ruHok 'V§/ H 22/ ypäm p? tESpw&mrS aemufumvürlum;/ ygay? ,kwrmaom &[ef;wkYd u/ y#dp?ö tpGûJ yí? Zmaw[d? f f dk jzpfay:vmukeaom/ o'¨r'rm[awbd? o'¨ro;jzm omoemjzLpif jrwfopfyifudk wk;0ifwucwfueaom/ f ® k ® Hk d dk f k f t"ar®[d 0gaw[d? t"r®0g' ,lq½ki;pki; avrkewi;wkYd aMumif/ oH0*rem? ajr§mawG;pk;xdwf oHa0*pdwf ½Sawmf d f d f f dk f h d ¾ f d d rlueaom/ ax&m rax&fwYdk onf/ {oH? þt"r®0g' ,lq½ki;pki; avjyif;rkewi;wkYd \/ orm,? Nidr;aysmuf k f d f d f f dk f f uif;½Si; &yfpjJ cif;iSg/ 'V§?H NrJNrHpm/ Oa,sm*H? êud;yrf;tm;xkwjf cif;uk/ tuHo?k ûyawmfravukeNf yD/ f G d l 23/ o*Ðwa,m upö okayoav[d? d ed*,rmemyd xda&[d 'V§/ ¾ S H qdEmyd ½kum} ók ykaem½k[m0gé © umok0 "r®H 0de,m}nxm aw/ H 23/ okayoav[d? oDvodumukd vGepmtm;uk; cspfjrwfE;ukeaom/ xda&[d? rax&ft½Sif jrwfwYdk onf/ © f G d dk f o*Ðwa,m upö? o*Fg,emwifupö ûyvkyMf uukeí/ 'V§?H NrJNrHpm/ ed*,rmemyd? ESyuytyfyg ukeaomfvnf;/ d d f G ¾ S d f G f f (aw-ESipyf) ½kum? opfyifwYdk onf/ qdEmyd? ckwjf zwftyfueaomfvnf;/ ykaem½k[m? aemufxyfwzefayguf hf © é k f NrJaygufjyefueonf/ tók £0? jzpfue&mouJoYdk / aw? xkd t"r®0g'DwYdk onf/ "r®?H okwtbd"r®muk¤if;/ 0de,H? k f k f h f d 0denf;uk¤if;/ tnxm? trSerwyg; trSm;tm;jzif/ tumok0? ûyNrJwzef ûyMujyefueonfomwnf;/ d f S h H k f 24/ emem*Pm aw p taeu0g'g? oHo*¾um&m Zdeomoae}ok/ H 0ga'bd tan[d Zdae&dawbsok'g,rmem 0de,Oö "r®/ ¨ H 24/ aw? xk"r®0g'DwYdk onf/ emem*Pm p? trsKd;rsKd;tpm;pm;uGjJ ym;aom *kP;½Sueonf¤if;/ taeu0g'g d d f d k f p? *kP;uGonfEitrQ 0g'tpm;pm; rsm;jym;aom t,l½ueonf¤if;/ ([kwm? jzpfueí/) Zdeomoae? bk&m; d f J S hf dS k f G k f tqkH;tr "r®0e,ü/ oHo*¾um&m? EIwy,fjznfpua&m,Sujf cif;ukd ûyukevsu/ Zdae&dawbd? jrwfpmbk&m; d f h G f f f G a[mMum;awmfrtyfaom0g'wkYd r/ tan[d 0ga'bd? wyg;aom t"r®0g'wkYd jzif/ 0de,Oö? 0denf;uk¤if;/ "r®O?ö l S h d okwtbd"r®muk¤if;/ tok'g,rmem? roefY½i;onfudk ûyukeonf/ tmok?H jzpfavukeNf yD/ f d ¨ S f f 25/ 0g'g p 0g'D yd#umed awoH? vuø rvuø 0 u&H y,mwm/ y#d*a[ok}H ys}b,m'd0goD? ¾ em}an r[mcsmw 0d[m&0god/ 25/ awoH? xkt"r®0g'DwYdk \/ 0g'gp? t,ltq 0g'wkdYonf¤if;/ 0g'D p? xkdt,ltq 0g'½Sol &[ef;½Sif d d vlwYdk onf¤if;/ yd#umed p? yd#utaxGaxG pmayusrf;*efwYdk onf¤if;/ vuø? oD[VuRef;uk/ rvuø? 0g'½IyaxG; dk f d f npftaMu;jzifh acs;pGe;ayvwf trnf;uGutrSw½onfu/ u&H-ua&mEÅm £0? ûyukebouJoYdk/ Oy,mwm? f f f dS dk f d h csO;uyfxi;azmuf qkua&mufvmuke\/ tb,m'd0goD? tb,*d&d 0goD&[ef;wkYd onf/ (wmed? xk0g' 0g'D f G f d f f d yd#uwkYd u/) y#d*a[ok?H topftqef;ü "mwfwcuí ESpûf cduvufcMH uavukeNf yD/ tyd? okYd aomfvnf;/ tan? dk ¾ l dk f f tb,*d&0goDwYdk rwyg;ukeaom/ r[mcsmw0d[m&0goD? r[m0d[m& 0goD*P;0if ax&ft½SiwYdk onf/ e d S f dk f f y#d*a[ok?H tzufrvkyf ½Gpufqyí ESixwy,fvef vufrcHyJ rsufEmvTawmfrue\/ ¾ H k f f k f S S J l k f 26/ ,xm p Ak'gbd[wm0 ygVd? ¨ d w'w¬om&m p 0oDbd Ówm/ e ]]aw}" a0guúr® 0do'ax&k ¨ 0g'D 0d0g'D}}wd y0wåd umpd/

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

7

26/ ,xm? tMuiftjcif;t&mjzif/ ygVd p? rl&if; ygVdawmfuvnf;/ Ak'gbd[wm0? jrwfpmbk&m; a[m h dk ¨ d G Mum;awmfrtyfNyD; omvQiwnf;/ w'w¬om&m p? xkd ygVdawmf\ teuf[aom tESpom& (t|uxm l f l f enf;edó,) wkYd uvnf;/ 0oDb?d &[EÅmocif t½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ ,xm? tMuiftjcif;t&mjzif/ Ówm? dk h odawmfrtyfuef\/ 0do'ax&0g'D? pifMu,faom ax&0g'*kP;0if t½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ aw? bk&m;&[EÅmwkYd l k k ¨ d f a[mtyf odtyfwi;aom xkygVd t|uxmESihf xktjcif;t&mwkYd u/ a0guúr?® vrf;vTa½Smif½m; MuOfz,fxm;í/ dk f d d dk J S 0d0g'D £wd? tqkujJG ym; tjiif;yGg;cJMh uonf[/ umpd? wpkwckaom/ y0wå?d taMumif;t&mrsKd;onf/ e? r½SchJ d k H d bl;acs/ 27/ ZD00 &u©ð ok oax&0g'H? H wEÅð w'w¬Oö oedP,H aw/ Ö wo®m e ouúm0 w'n0g'd0ga'bd [EÅKH pk}y*EÅK} r'¨g/ 27/ aw? xk0o'ax&0g'Drax&ft½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ wEÅð p? bk&m;a[mazmf ygVdawmfu¤if;/ oax&0g'H? d d k ¨ dk ax&0g'wkYd Eihf wuGjzpfaom/ oedP,?H tqk;tjzwf ESiwuGjzpfaom/ w'w¬H p? xkygXf\teuf[aom S Ö H hf d l t|uxmuk¤if;/ ZD00? toufuoYdk / &u©ð ok? jrwfjrwfE;Ek; tm;uk; apmifa½SmufMuukeNf yD/ wo®m? xkYd aMumif/ d H hJ dk d d h h w'n 0g'd 0ga'bd? xkax&0g'rSwyg; tjcm;qefYusifaom 0g'½SowYdk Eihf 0g'wkYd onf/ (wH? xk0o'ax&0g'D d d l S d d k ¨ wkYd \ yd#uuk)/ [EÅKH p? wkucuf ûzdzsufjcif;iSg¤if;/ Oy*EÅKH p? tcsif;eif;0ifa&mufjcif;iSg¤if;/ t'¨g? pifppf{uef d d f dk trSef yif/ eouúm0? rwwfEiyJ ½SMd uukeonf omwnf;/ dk f f 28/ wH0g'oHab'b,Oö rn,m? ]]'k'g& a0vmyd ba,[d wEÅe/ ¨ d H oar®mowm'D[d ba0}}wd aygw¬u?H tma&mys or®m y&dygv,ð ok aw/ 28/ aw? xk0o'¨ ax&0g'Drax&f t½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ wH0g'oH-ab'b,H? xkrpm0g'wkYd \ a&m,Suf d d k d d ä rnfab;uk/ tn,m-tnm, p? t½Snta0; ajr§mawG;odjrifMuukeí¤if;/ ba,[d? 'kAupaomab;wkYd aMumifh h d f f f dÇ © ¤if;/ oar®mowm'D[?d owd ynmw&m; avsmhyg; csKdU,Gi; arhavsmhjcif;paom taMumif;wkYd aMumif¤if;/ wEÅe?H ygVd f h D wkYd \/ 0g? wkYd u/ 'k'g&a0vmyd? aqmifxm;&eftwGuf cJcufaom tcsdetcgonfvnf;/ ba0? aemifwcsderm dk ¨ f f S jzpfwef&m\/ £wdp? þokYd BuHq ajr§mjf rifrMd uukeí¤if;/ aygw¬u-tma&mys? ayxufoYdk wifí/ or®my&dygv,ð f H ok? aumif;pGmcsD;ajr§muf apmifa½Smufawmf rlcayuke\? h hJ f 29/ w'g [d awoH y#dAm[ae &P0d'0 oduH© Zdeomoe'¨a&m/ H o Ak'aCmaom rked Ak'yg#a0g? ¨ d¨ *awmod 'DyH 0&wrÁyPÖu/ d H 29/ [d? jywfcaom pum;vufpukd qufíqkygOD;tH/ w'g? xko[VuRef;wGif *kP;uG0ifí tjrifvrm; hJ d h d D dk f d f J JG S 0g'jcm;wkYd acwfpm;ayGvrf ½Iyaecsdeü/ awoH? xkrpm0g'wkYd u/ y#dAm[ae? wGe;vSey,f½m; jrpfwm;ûzdzsufa&;ü/ d f f d d ä dk f f S &P0d'?H aoe*FAsL[m ppfynmuk/ odu0? avhusifh oifMum; ppfausmif;om;ESihf tvm;wlayaom/ Zdeom d H© oe'¨a&m? bk&m;omoemukd aqmifxm;ayaom/ Ak'yg#a0g? ynmoGuvuf xufjrufvrmonf\ tjzpf½Sdaom/ ¨d f d ® o Ak'aCmaom rke?d xk&[ef;awmf t½SiA'aCmoonf/ 0&wrÁyPÖu?H omoemxGe;vwf *kPouwfaMumifh ¨ d f k ¨ d f f jrifjh rwfq& vufeMD uí wrÁyPÖd trnfwyg;wnf; ½Saom/ 'Dy?H oD[VuRef;okYd / *awm tmod? <uoGm;awmfrchJ dk d dk f l avNyD/ 30/ vuø Oaypö o r[m|uxmPÖ0ó? yg&H y&H 0dw&aP xd&edPa,m0/ Ö oHo'0oZed 0gor[m0d[m&k ¨ H rm*g}rÁ&0 O',dEK´ }yaomb,aEÅm/ H

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

8

30/ o? xkt½Sif Ak'aCmoonf/ vuø Oaypö? oD[VuRef;jrwf uyfa&mufvwfaomf/ r[m|uxmPÖ d ¨ dk f 0ó? r[mt|uxmwnf;[laomorkj'm\/ yg&H? wzufurf;okdY/ y ? vGeveuuJ ZGoefpm/ 0dw&aP? tNyD; &H f G f J J G wkia&muf ul;ajrmufa&;ü/ xd&edPa,m0? ckirmNrJNrH t"d|mefjzifh pdwoef&nfrwf tqk;tjzwf½onf jzpfí d f Ö d f f S H dS omvQif/ (tm*g-ESipyf) £E´K? vrif;onf/ O',m? O'nfawmifr/ trÁ&?H aumif;uifu?dk Oyaomb,aEÅm? hf S a&mif0g½Te;a0 wifxe;apvsuf/ tm*päwd £0? wufa&mufvmbdouJoYdk ? oHo'0oZed0go r[m0d[m&H? tvGef f h G f h k ¨ H oefY½i; pifMu,faomrax&fjrwfwYdk \ tEG,tqufü qif;oufjzpfvm ax&fr[mwkYd \ ae&mXme r[m0d[m& S f f ausmif;wkuu/ Oyaomb,aEÅm? y#dAv Aswponf olU*kP&nfjzifh pkjd ynfqifa0wifw,fapvsuf/ tm*g? d f dk å f h h a&mufvmcJayownf;/ h 31/ wo®ð p 'u©P'dom, 0oD o ww¬? d aombH y"meC&ondwyg&da0PH/ ygom'}rkwr}rum okZaebd aoAsH? å oaEÅm r[med* romrd okpP"ar®m/ d Ö 31/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmoonf/ woð® p? xkr[m0d[m&ausmif;wkuüvnf;/ 'u©P 'dom,? awmif d f k ¨ d d f d rsufEmt&yfü/ okpP"ar®m? pGNJ rJpmusiftyfaom w&m;tusif½onfjzpfí/ oaEÅm? olawmf aumif;tppfjzpfaom? S d Ö G h h dS r[ed*romrd? ed*;yki½iBf uD;rnfaom Oygoumonf/ aombH? ½IcsifpzG,wifw,faom/ y"meC&ondw Hk d f S f h yg&da0PH? y"meC&[k ac:tyfaom y&d0Püjzpfaom/ okZaebd? olawmfaumif;wkYd onf/ aoAsH? tcgrjywf k f rS0tyfaom/ Owår?H aumif;jrwfaom/ ,H ygom'H? tMuifjymom'fausmif;uk/ tum? aqmufvyc\/ ww¬? D J d k f hJ xkjd ymom'fausmif; awmfü/ 0oD? oDwif;ok;aexkicavNyD/ H d f hJ 32/ or®m p a,m*ru&D Ak" Ak'rw¨ d å ax&m'd}rEÅ}rky,mw rElewaEÅ/ oHao0dawm 0d0"Ó,yAk',m aom? d d¨ okwmbd"r®0e,|uxmoG}Ele/ å d H 32/ aom? xkt½SiA'aCmoonf/ tElewaEÅ? tvk;pkaomusrf;*efü/ tEÅH Oy,mwH? qkcef;wkia&muf d f k ¨ H H H d f uRr;usiwwfajrmufawmfraom/ Ak"Ak'rwax&m'ð? Ak'rwrnfaom ynm½Srax&f ponfu/ oHao0dawm? f f l ¨ d å ¨ d å d dk wynfusi0wf rcRwapyJ pGNJ rJpm qnf;uyfrcvsu/ okwmbd"r®0e,|uxmok? okwef tbd"r®m 0denf; h hf f G DS dk f å d å t|uxmwkYd ü/ tEle?H <uif;rJOókH tuketpif/ 0d0"Ó, yAk',m? trsKd;rsKd; tpm;pm; enf;emrsm;ukd xl;jcm; h f d d¨ yGivif; wwfojd cif;iSg/ or®m? r,kwrvGef aumif;rGevpm/ a,m*H p? êud;yrf;tm;xkwjf cif;ukvnf;/ tu&D? hf f f S G d ûyavNyD/ 33/ a0,swå,}H o ora, or,EÅa& p? d ynm, 'doG 0d0#H 0 ed[wrw¬/ D H ax&m or*¾Zer*¾rwm}rwmoD? d rnð ok}e*¢&weH0 ok'vbEÅ/ k ’ d 33/ ed[wrw¬?H a½S;,cifu ajrwGior; odr;qnf;jr§KyfExm;cJaomOpömuk/ 0d0#H? zGityfvsuf/ 0g? d f dk DS f HS h d hf yGiay:vsuf½onfu/ yóEÅd £0? awGUjrifMu&ukeouJoYdk / tó? xkt½SiA'aCmo\/ ora, p? yd#uawmf hf dS dk f h d f k ¨ [laom rdr\ 0g' or,ü¤if;/ or,EÅa& p? ouúwusrf;*efpaom tjcm;0g' or,wyg;ü¤if;/ ynm, d a0,swå,?H ynmÓPf\ vsifjrefouvuf xufjrufonftjzpf [laom pGr;&nfu/ 'dom? ta&;tom; ta[m d G f h f dk G tm;jzifh xif½m; awGUjrifMuukeí/ or*¾Zer*¾rwm? jrwfb&m;\ w&m;usifyHk vrf;rsKd;pkudk tuketpif odjrifMu S f d k h H f ayukeaom/ trwmoD? edAmefomvQif vkcsifqE´½awmfrMl u ukeaom/ ax&m? rax&ft½SiwYdk onf/ ok'vb?H f Á d dS f f k ’ t&nftaoG;xl;cRef tvGe&Ekicaom/ te*¢&weH0? wefb;uefYowf rjzwfEi&m &wemtpkuoYdk / rnð ok? f d f J dk dk f hJ wifpm;orI todtrSwûf yavukeNf yD/

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

9

34/ 0dnm, "r®0e,w¬,xdp'gae? d ä pdEÅmrPDwd oked½lydwAk'¨d½lyH/ ,aó}w¬ edpwraem u0doHCygväd aw¬½warm Ze[dwm, eda,mZ,D wH/ k å 34/ ,ó? tMuift½SifAk'¨aCmo\/ "r®0e,w¬,xdp'gae? "r®0e,\ teufwYdk uvvorQ zGijhf yay; d ä d dk dk dk a0&mü/ pdEmrPDw?d BuHorQ xkxdk tvkqE´ jynf0apEkiaom pdEmrPd y'jrm;&wem [lí/ oke½ywAk'½y?H u0d Å d d h d f Å d l d d¨ l wkYd tjriftm;jzifh wifpm;tyfaom ynm\ t&nftaoG;ukd/ 0dnm,? od½SdcJhí/ {w¬? þt½SifAk'¨aCmo\ ynm ÓPft&nftaoG;ü/ edpwraem? qk;jzwftyfNyD;aom pdwEv;½Saom/ u0doCygvaw¬½warm? oHCygvrnf äd H f S Hk d H k å aom ynm½Srax&fjrwfonf/ Ze[dwm,? vl½itrsm;\tusKd; pD;yGg;twGu/ wH? xkt½SiA'aCmouk/ eda,mZ d S f f d f k ¨ d ,D? wkuwe;awmif;yefcavNyD/ (uxH? tb,foYdk awmif;yefoenf;[lr/) d f G f hJ l 35/ ]]udOmyd oEÅd 0d0"m y#dywå*E¦m? ö d d auoOdö udOöd wk e Ak'rwmEkom&H/ ¨ oHo'ax&ora,[d p aw 0d½'g/ k ¨ k ¨ wo®m ua&mwk 0drvH y#dywå*E¦}H }/ d 35/ 0d0"m? trsKd;rsKd;tpm;pm; rsm;jym;ukeaom/ y#dywd*E¦m? y#dywfusrf;*ef wkYd onf/ udOmyd oEÅ?d ½SMd u d f å ö onfum; rSeay\/ wk? okYd aomfvnf;/ auoOö?d tcsKdUusrf;*efwYdk \/ udO?dö tcsKdUtcsuftvuf teuft"dyÜg,f f onf/ e Ak'rwmEkom&H? bk&m;tvkd xkxy#uokYd tpOfrvkuc/ p? onfrQom ruao;/ aw? xkusrf;*efwYdk ¨ d dk d d f hJ d onf/ ax&ora,[d? ax&0g'wkYd Ei/ 0d½'g? rnDnwyJ uGvqefYusifvsuf vnf;½Sueao;\/ wo®m? S hf k ¨ G f J JG d k f xkYd aMumif/ 0drvH? a'gorxif oefYpifaumif;jrwfaom/ y#dywå*E¦?H y#dywfusrf; wcku/ ua&mwk? ûypD&ifygavmh/ h d dk £wd? þokYd awmif;yefcavNyD/ hJ 36/ arwåm',rÁK'0eH Zeblr,}H o? d oH0óaw p}&d,r*¾*r*¾}r*¾H/ oHaom"ew¬}rdwd ]]yw¬wax&tmoH? d yla&ó} arw}}rdwd umod 0do'r*¾/ k d¨ H 36/ t*¾?H rGejf rwfaom/ t&d,r*¾*r*¾?H t&d,mr*foYdk a&mufaMumif;jzpfaom 0dyóemvrf;uk/ oHaom" d ew¬H? rSm;aomt,ltq 0g'tnpftaMu; uif;a0;oefY½Sif; pifMu,fatmif okwfoif jcif;iSg/ tó? xkdt½SifAk'¨ aCmo q&mjrwf\/ arwåm',rÁK'0eH? arwåm u½kPm ESpjf zmwk;,SOf rd;a& t,Ofonf/ Zeblr,?H usif&efvdk d k d h vm; qE´yg;onfh vlrsm;wcGiajrtjyifü/ oH0óaw p? t&nfrsm;pGm ½Gmvnf; ½GmoGe;vsuf ½Say\/ (þü pG f f d o'´gjzifh eda,mZ,D-ukd jyefí qnf;onf)/ £wd? oHCygv rax&f\ tmomESihf rdr\ u½kPm[laom þ d taMumif;ESpyg;aMumif/ (tumod-ü pyf) {wH yw¬w ax&tmoH? oHCygvrax&fjrwf awmifwtyfaom xkd f h d h tvkqE´u/ yla&óH? jynf0apawmht/ £wd? þokYd pdw&if;ESv;oGi;í/ 0do'r*¾?H 0do'r*fusrf;uk/ tumod? d dk h hH f Hk f k ¨d k d¨ d ûypkwxif pD&ifawmfrcayownf;/ D G l hJ 37/ 0D&mEkurÜowda,mZdwAk'rm oH? d¨ Mo*,Sç *,Sç p}cdv|uxm owEÅ/ D om&H oac'}re ayu©, om"kuH o? d ,H}umodç uH Ek}" ea&mp,aw Ak"H aom/ 37/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmoq&mjrwfonf/ 0D&mEkurÜowda,mZdwAk'rm? 0D&, u½kPm owdwYdk u tcsKd; d f k ¨ ¨d d usatmif ,SOaqmifay;tyfBuD;jrwfaom ÓPfynm½Sonf/ oH? jzpfvsuf/ oac'H? rdr\ qif;&Jyifyef;jcif;uk/ f d d d teayu©,? riJuutm; ta&;rxm;bJ/ owEÅ?D ygVdawmfEiwuGjzpfueaom/ tcd v|uxm? tvk;pkaom d h G f S hf k f H H t|uxmwkYd u/ Mo*,S? ÓPfjzifh ouf0ifí¤if;/ om&H? y#dywfEihf pyfqiorQ tESpom&uk/ *,S p? a½G;xkwf dk S dk f f d EIwf ,lí¤if;/ om"ku?H tjypfrxif oefYpifaumif;rGepm/ ,H? tMuif 0do'r*fu/ tumod? ûypD&ifay\/ aom? f G k d¨ dk wyfaygif;pkuyuJ tpGr;ukeBf uJí tm;cJygrS ay:vm&aom xk0o'¨d r*fusrf;onf/ £"? þavmuü/ uH Ak"?H pdwf H G f f d d k

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

10

xm;aumif;rGef ÓPf&nfcRefí trSewwfod tb,fynm½Su/ e a&mpa, Ek? rcGgcsifatmif qGaqmifiifvsuf f d dk J rESpoufapEkibJ ½SygtHenf;/ f d f d h 38/ 0kawå}w¬ bm0y&rm 0 obm0"r®m? 0w¬L p yDwoca0'ed,m}edwm0/ d k ykaPÖm0 oAÁy#dywåea,[d apaom? d ykygbdzvy0eH0 0d&mZaw},H/ æ k ’ 38/ {w¬? þ0do'r*fü/ bm0y&rm0? t"dyg,feuf uefYowfcsuf ½SonfomvQif jzpfueaom/ obm0 k ¨d Ü d k f "r®m p? razmufrjyef oabmrSeonfh ½kyemrfw&m;wkYd uvnf;/ 0kwm? tjynftpkH qkxm;tyfayuke\/ yDwoc f f dk å h d f d k a0'ed,m? yDwoc cHpm;&aMumif; ESpoufz,aumif;ukeaom/ 0w¬L p? taMumif;rSef azmfjyonfh om"u0w¬K d k f G f f wkYd uvnf;/ tmedwm0? ,laqmifxif½m; jyxm;tyfayukeonfomwnf;/ {aom? þ 0do'r*fonf/ oAÁy#dywåe dk S f k ¨d d a,[d p? tvk;pk½orQ y#dywfenf;e,wkYd jzifvnf;/ ykaPÖm0? vk;0 ukepif pkvifjynf0vsuf½onfomwnf;/ H H dS h H f H h dS (wo®m? xkYd aMumif/) t,H? þ0do'r*fusrf;onf/ ykygbdzvy0eH0? tvGeyiaom yef;pkaygonfh ûrdiawmtoGif h k ¨d æ k ’ f G hf H f yef;O,smOfuoYdk / 0d&mZaw? ½IcsifpbG,f wifw,fvygayownf;/ hJ h S 39/ ,H yód,me y&duyÜ, &wéom&d *AÇH 0do'}¨d rbd,mwk}rayu©rmem/ k wH om&}rm'd,w}k rmok y,kw,wm? d å k å 'dom [d e*¢&weH eEk 0ZÆa, e/ G 39/ ,H? tMuif 0do'r*fu/ yód,me? awGUjrif½pm;&onf½aomf/ &wéom&*AÇ?H &wemtppf tESpjf ynfh k ¨d dk I dS vQr; &wemwkucef;[lí / y&duyÜ,? taumif;csnf;yif BuHawG;xifvsuf pdwwi,q wifpm;Muukeí/ 0do'?ð¨ f d f d f G f l f k qif;&Jo;jzm udavomrS pifMu,f&mrSef jrwfeAmefu/ tbd,mwk?H uk,awGUrsuarSmuf qkua&mufzYdk&m/ tayu© Hk d Á dk d f f d f rmem? vkvm;awmifw ajr§mvifMh uukeonfjzpfí/ wH om&H? xk0o'¨d r*frS tESpom&uk/ tm'd,w?Hk xkuwef d h f f d d k f d d d f orQ t&,ljcif;iSg/ tmok? vsifjrefpm/ ,kwy,kwm? ravsmhwif;&if; &Jrmefoi;í tjyif;tm;xkwMf uukeonf/ G å å G f f tók? jzpfue&m\/ [d? xka½SUpum;rSm rrSm;{uef rSevygay\/ te*¢&weH? tzk;rjzwfEiaom &wemuk/ k f d f S d dk f d 'dom? awGUjrif&onf½aomf/ e0ZÆa, eEk? ausmuf&nf ausmufuJ a0cGool xkxvonf r,laqmifbJ ra½SmifvJT G dS J d d dk l &monf r[kwygavm/ f 40/ uEÅm y'g0vd}[ wEÅe,mEkom&m? d om&mwdom&e,yEÅyod'o'g/ d ¨ d ¨ tw¬m p oEÅE*rm, wkvm,rmaemd k a,sma*e arw¬ [d 0dem y#dywåd um}nm/ 40/ £[? þ0do'r*fü/ wEÅe,mEkom&m? ygVdawmfenf; tpOfr;cJonfjzpfí/ uEÅm? acsmarmajyjypf k ¨d d DS h ESpoufz,jf zpfaom/ y'g0vd? yk'tpOfonfvnf;/ tw¬?d ½Sygay\/ om&mwdom&e,yEÅyod'o'g? tESpom& f G f d d ¨ d ¨ f ½Saom enf;tpOf tvGetESpom&½Saom enf;tpOfwYdk jzifh ay:vGixif½m; jzpfyg;NyD;ajrmufjcif;½Sueaom/ d f f d f S G d k f oEÅE*rm,? edAmefoYdk oGm;a&mufa&;twGu/ wkvm,rmem? vrf;rSm; vrf;rSef a0bef ppfaq; qk;jzwfa&;0,f d k Á f H csdeciozG,jf zpfueaom/ tw¬m p? usif&eftcsuftvuf teufwYdk onfvnf;/ oEÅ?d ½Sygayuke\/ [d? f G f k f h d f pifppfaomfum;? 0g? tusKd;um;/ {w¬? þ0do'r*f ygXfteuf0,f rdeYf >rufneMf um; usifz,rsm;ü/ Oa,sma*e0dem/ k ¨d T h G f edAmefvvm; êud;pm;usifMh uHjcif;rSví/ tnm y#dywå?d tjcm;wyg;aom ûyusifz,onf/ um? tb,frm ½Sygawmh Á dk JG h G f S d tHenf;/ h 41/ tmbmwd ow¬K pwk&m*rrZÑa*g},Htaw¬ yumo,d[ bmPk0 aeu'aAÁ/ ar"m0dywZeeH}o 0d"me}arwHD d wDwH [d ,m0 u0da*gp&}ró ÓPH/

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

11

41/ £[? þavmuü/ bmPk? aerif;onf/ aeu'aAÁ? rsm;pGmaom urÇmY0w¬KwkYd u/ (r 2-115-ü dk aeumeH-yk'uoYdk þü aeu-[k NyD;aponf/) yumo,H? owå0grsm;tm; xif½m;jyvsuf/ tmbmwd£0? f hJ S aumif;uiftwGi; xGe;vif;wnfaebdouJoYdk / t,H? þ 0do'r*fonf/ ow¬K? jrwfpmbk&m;\/ pwk&m*r f f h k ¨d G rZÑa*g? okweav;oG,f av;edum,f\ tv,fXmeD vk&mqDü &yfwnf0ifa&mufvsuf/ taw¬? oDvuxm å f d tpjzmonfh vGepmuG,0uf w&m;teufwYdk u/ yumo,H? xif½m;azmfjyvsuf/ tmbmwd? urÇmavmutwGi; f G f S dk S f xGe;vif;wnf ½Sygay\/ tó? xkd t½SiA'aCmoq&mjrwf\/ {wH 0d"meH? usrf;rav;yJ eufejJ yefYus,f f d f k ¨ t"dyg,fudk vG,v,f od&ef pDraqmif½uf þokYd aom a&;om;csufonf/ ar"m0dywZeeH? ynm½Staygif;\ Ü f G H G D d d ESpaxmif;tm;& oabmus jcif;ukd jzpfapwwfygay\/ (awae0? xkYd aMumifyifvQif/) tóÓPH? xkq&mjrwf f h d ÓPfawmfonf/ ,m0? tMuif rQavmuf/ u0da*gp&H? vlU avmuwGif ynm½SiwYdk odjrifEiwef; ÓPf\ f dk f pcef;onf/ (tw¬d? ½Sd\/) wH? xkynm½Sd vlu0dwYdk todÓPfyif usufpm;Ekiaom e,fy,fpcef;uk/ twDwH [d? d dk d f d uAsmÓPfeYJ b,fycsUJ aomfvnf; zGUJ EGrrSD ausmveconfomwnf;/ h Hk J f G f hJ 42/ 'd|m0 wdurwd} ró 0do'r*¾© k ¨d orÜm'aee orkygwåo"ya'bd/ k D aweó Ak'0pew¬0bm0em,? ¨ d yAswowåd 0d'wm 0d'wm*ar[d/ å d d 42/ 0do'r*¾orÜm'aee? 0do'r*fusrf;ukd qk;cef;wkia&muf NyD;ajrmufapjcif;jzif/ orkygwåo"ya'bd? k ¨d k ¨d H d f h k D aumif;pGm &,lxm;onfh ynm½St&m ½Sueaom rax&fjrwfwYdk onf/ £ró? þ t½SiA'aCmo\/ wdurwd? d d k f f k ¨ © xufjrufaom ÓPfynmuk/ 'd|m0? rsu0g;xifxif awGUjrif&onfomwnf;/ awe? xkYd aMumif/ 0d'wm*ar[d? d f h d usr;*efrsm;pGm avhvmaygufa&muf wwfajrmufojd rifNyD;jzpfaom rax&fjrwfwYdkonf/ Ak'0pew¬0bm0em,? f ¨ d bk&m;a[mazmf ygVdawmf\ teufudk zGiqjdk yojcif;ü/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmo\/ yAswåowå?d tvGexif½m; hf d f k ¨ f S xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufaom pGr;&nfowåu/ 0d'wm? rsufjrif'| odc&avNyD/ f d dk d d hJ 43/ csmwH u0Db}d "d*wH ,o}rm0a[e? ax&ó ok'rwdA'o&0S,ó/ ¨ k ¨ d D avmuw¬}rm0duwyw¬e}rm'd,me? omrOö edE['a,e Zmeme}raw¬/ é 44/ orÁK'¨bm00d'awed}rdem orEÅd ygom'dum0S0e,|uxm yPDwm/ d ola&m}'daw 0d, w,m 0de,w¬rVml § rlVD§ b0EÅd ZdeeDwyxm}"d*EÉm/ d 43-4/ u0Dbd t"d*wH? ynm½SwYdk om &tyf &Ekiaom/ csmwH ,oH? ay:vGixif½m;aom ausmfapmjcif;uk/ d d f f S d tm0a[e? raysmufEiatmif ,laqmif&½Sxm;aom/ orÁK'¨bm0 0d'awe? bk&m;tvkawmfudk odaom/ £rdem? þ dk f d d d t½SiA'aCmoq&mjrwfonf/ okA'rwdA'o&0,ó ax&ó? pifMu,faom ÓPfynm½Saom Ak'o&rax&f f k ¨ k ¨ k ¨ d D S d ¨ d D \/ avmuw¬?H avmu\ tusKd;pD;yGg;tvkYd ig/ tm0duwyw¬e?H txift½Sm; xkw>f rufMum;onfh vkvm;awmifw S d h csuu/ tm'd,me? aqmif½uzYdk &ef vufccí/ omrH p? uk,wiuvnf;/ ZemeH? vl½i&[ef;wkYd \/ taw¬? f dk G f H hJ d f dk f S f tusKd;pD;yGg;ü/ edE['a,e? u½kPmvIi; EI;aqmfci;ojzifh nGwui;aom pdwEv;½Sonfjzpfí/ ,m orEÅygom é d f d dk f f dk f f S Hk d 'dum0S0e,|uxm? tMuiforEÅygom'dumtrnf½aom 0denf;t|uxmuk/ yPDwm? ûypD&iftyfNyD/ ola&? aerif; d dS d onf/ O'daw? xGuay:vmvwfaomf/ trlVb0EÅ0,? tjrifudk &í rawGra0 jzpfMuukeouJoYdk / 0de,w¬rVm? f D§ d d f h l § 0denf;ygVd\ teufü todcuf½yayG awGa0vsuf½aom olwYdk onf/ w,m-wm,? xkd orEÅygom'dum I f dS t|uxmjzif/ (0dy&dwjf zifh NyD;onf) ZdeeDwyxH? bk&m;enf;vrf; pnf;urf;Oya'awmfu/ t"d*EÉm? twdtus h d dk od&ukeí/ trlVb0EÅ?d awGa0rIuif; ,krm;½Si;vsuf tvif;ÓPf& jzpfMuavukeawmhownf;/ f §D H S f f 45/ vuFm tvuFwuwm0 r[mr[dEd ´ aw¬a&e ,m p 0de,|uxm}bwmçwH? uEÅm, oD[V*d&m, *d&m,rmem? tpöEuEÅA[kvm rkea,m yk&m}ok/ Å H

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

12

45/ vuFm? oD[VuRef;uk/ tvuFwuwm0? wefqmqifrI ûytyfouJoYdk / r[mr[dEaw¬a&e? t½Sif kd f d d h ´ r[mr[dErax&fonf/ ,m p 0de,|uxm? tMuif0enf;t|uxmukvnf;/ tmbwm? aqmif,tyfcavNyD/ ´ d d l hJ yk&m? a½S;tcgü/ rkea,m? oD[Vf &[ef;awmfwYdk onf/ wH? xk0enf;t|uxmuk/ uEÅm,? ESpoufz,aom/ kd d d d f G f oD[V*d&m,? oD[Vbmomjzih/ *d&m,rmem? oiftorI ½Gwqjdk cif;ukd ûyukevsuf/ tpöEuEÅA[kvm? pifppftm; dk f f H f f Å xm; yGg;rsm;aom ESpoufjcif; ½Sueonf/ tmok?H jzpfcavukeNf yD/ f d k f hJ 46/ tnm p ypö&d uk½Eorndwm'D? k d´ 'DyH y'Dyu&PD 0de,rSd ,m}ok/ H o*F,S wmo}rcdvw¬ea, p ax&0ga' p rkw&wemed0 aruokawå/ å 46/ tnm? r[mt|uxmrS wyg;ukeaom/ ypö&u½Eorndwm'D? ypö&D uk½E[ac:tyfaom t|uxm f d k k d´ k D´ k tp½Sueaom/ ,m p? tMuif t|uxmwkYd onfvnf;/ 0de,rS?d 0denf;t&mü/ 'Dy?H oD[VuRef;uk/ y'Dyu&PD? d k f dk f d qDr;ozG,f ûyukevsuf/ tmok?H jzpfay:avukeNf yD/ {uokawå? wacsmif;wnf;aomêud;ü/ rkw&wemed? rsm;pGmaom D f å ykvJ&wemwkdYukd/ oH*F,SEÅd £0? pD&&DukH; odrf;½kH; aygif;,ltyfueouJoYdk / wmoH? xkd r[mt|uxmç r[mypö&çD k f h uk½kE´D-tp½Saom t|uxmwkYd \/ tcdvw¬ea, p? tvk;pkaom teuf toD;toD; enf;trsKd;rsKd;wkYd u¤if;/ d H H dk ax&0ga' p? rax&fjrwfwYdk\ tqkH;tjzwf t,ltq ax&0g'wkdYukd¤if;/ o*F,S? odrf;½kH;aygif;,lí/ 47/ wma[0 oD[Ved½w,wH p wEÅ?ð k då k tma&myd,me ½kp&H tx 0dwwH p/ d ¬ r*¾H ormoe0aoe ,xm orwåavmaue ,m *½kuwm uwrmeem}um/ 47/ wma[0? xk0enf;t|uxmwkYd ryifvQif/ oD[Ved½w,w?H oD[VbmomESi,Oaom a0g[m&uk/ d d S k då k dk f hf S f d ½kpd&H? ESpoufz,aumif;aom/ wEÅ?ð ygVdbmom a0g[m&okYd / tma&myd,me p? bmomjyefvsuf rlrysufwifxm;í f G f ¤if;/ tx? xkYd jyif/ 0dwwH r*¾?H us,f0ef;aompum;tpOfu/ ormoe0aoe p? tusOf;csKH;onf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ¬ dk f ¤if;/ ,xm? tMuif taetxm; ygVdtoGm;jzifh a&;om;pD&iftyfonf½aomf/ orwåavmaue? urÇmw0Se;vk; dS f H onf/ ,m? tMuif orEÅygom'dum 0denf; t|uxmopfu/ 0g? onf/ *½kuwm? tav;tjrwf t½ktao ûytyf dk d onf/ uwrmeem? ,kMH unftm;uk;ûytyfaom jrwfE;jcif;½Sonf/ (tó? jzpf&m\/) wxm? xkoYdk aom tae d dk d d txm; tcsKd;tpm; ykpjH zif/ wH? xkorEÅygom'dum 0denf; t|uxmopfu/ tum? ûypD&ifawmfrcayownf;/ H h d dk l hJ 48/ ok'E,m*w0d&m p 0do'aw¬&¨ G k ¨ 0g'D 0do'0e,m*rykZ"r®m/ k ¨ d Æ ok'¨H u&ðok e ,ax}EÅd w'n0g'g? £pöm'd}rm0du&d,m}od ed'ge arw¬/ 48/ 0do'aw¬&0g'D? pifMu,faom ax&0g'½Saom t½Sijf rwfwYdk onf/ ok'E,m*w0d&m p? t½Sir[m k ¨ d ¨ G f uóy tp½Saom pifMu,faom rax&fjrwfwYdk \ tEG,tqufrS qif;oufvmaom rax&fwYdk vnf; jzpfMuygay d f uke\/ 0do'0e,m*rykZ"r®m p? txl; pifMu,faom 0denf;okwef tbd"r®mvnf; ½SMd uygayuke\/ ,xm? f k ¨ d Æ å f tMuif tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ûytyfonf½aomf/ w'n0g'g? xkax&0g'rSwyg; tjcm;aom 0g'wkYd onf/ e {EÅ?d dS d rwk;rayguf r0ifa&mufvmEkiue/ wxm? xktjcif;t&mjzif/ ok'H¨ p? yuwdr&if;twki; oefY½i; pifMu,fatmif d d f k f d h l d f S f vnf;/ u&ðo?k apmifa½SmuforI ûyawmfrMl uayuke\/ £pöm'ðç þokYd paom tcsuftvufrsm;uk/ tm0du&d,? h f d xif½m;azmfjyí/ {w¬? þorEÅygom'dum 0denf; t|uxmü/ ed'geH? Am[d&ed'gef;onf/ tmod? jzpfavNyD/ S 49/ ,oð® rEkny'yEÅd okbm okaAm"m? tw¬m p yDwor 0dr,wm'dbm0D/ d S pdMwm 0dpMd wrwdZm u0dpw[om? d å H wo®m &om,wd w'w¬Eom&deH ,H/ k

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

13

49/ ,o®?ð ,if;orEÅygom'dum 0denf;t|uxm\ ed'gef;ü/ okbm? tjypfrxif oefYpifwifw,faom/ h okaAm"m? r½Iyrcufteufvnf;odv,aom/ rEkny'yEÅ?d ESpoufz,aumif;aom yk'ygXftpDtpOfonfvnf;/ f G f f G f f tw¬d? ½Sdygay\/ yDwor0dr,wm'dbm0D? ESporjhf cif; Nidr;at;jcif; tHMh ojcif;paom om,mzG,oabmwkYd udk jzpf d S f d f f apwwfueaom/ 0dpMd wrwdZm? qef;Mu,faom q&mhÓPfrS jzpfvm&ukeaomaMumif/ pdMwm? ynmjzifcs,f yef; k f f h h ozG,oYdk qef;Mu,fvnf; qef;Mu,fueaom/ u0dpw[om? u0dwYdk\ pdwEv;ukd ½Tiûf yH;apwwfueaom/ f k f d å H f S Hk k f tw¬m p? taMumif;tcsuf teufwYdk onfvnf;/ tw¬?d ½Sygayuke\/ wo®m? xkYd aMumif/ ,H? ,if;orEÅygom'dum d f h t|uxm\ ed'gef;onf/ u'w¬Eom&De?H ¤if;\teufudk avhusufoif,l tpOfvuowYdk tm;/ &om,wd? k dk f l ESpouf½ijf rL; pdwMf unfE;í txl;Nrde½uf t&omay:vsuf½ygayownf;/ f T l f S dS 50/ tpöEom*&edbm 0d0"m e,w¬m? Å d oaEÅ}w¬ ,m}ok 0de,|uxm yk&mPm/ wmoH ,xmbdrwyEÅd okwEÅuwå?H d udO}§d ó udOAv0D&}y#dpö umwk/ öd H 50/ yk&mPm? a½S;üjzpfueaom/,m 0de,|uxm? r[mt|uxm tp½Saom tMuif0enf;t|uxmwkYd k f d d onf/ tmokH? ½SdcJhukef\/ {w¬? þ0denf;t|uxma[mif;wkYd ü/ tpöEom*&edbm? orkj'mtppfozG,f tvGeus,f Å f ukeaom/ 0d0"m? trsKd;rsKd;tpm;pm; rsm;jym;pGmukeaom/ e,w¬m? enf;toG,o,f teuft"dyg,fwYdk onf/ oEÅ?d f d f f G Ü ½Sdaeukef\/ wmoH? xkt|uxmwkYd \/ ,xmbdrwyEÅ?d tvk½tyforQ tpdtpOfusatmif/ ok*EÅuwå?H d d dS d tjypfuif;í oefY½i;acsmarmajyjypfaom ygVd½onf\tjzpfu/ umwk?H ûy&eftwGu/ udOAv0D&?H tenf;i,frQ S f dS dk f öd pGr;tm;0D&,uk/ y#dp?ö tpGûJ yí/ uð[d tó? jzpfEiz,&m tb,frm ½SygtHenf;/ 0g? jzpfEiz,&m r½Sonfom f d d dk f G f S d h dk f G f d wnf;/ 51/ Oa,sm*}ró u½kPmy[dwH y#dp?ö ynmo[m,o[dwH Av0H p 'V§/ H v'¨g0 ,m edcvavmurEknblwm? d ar"m0de}H Ekob*g0 0d&mZaw om/ 51/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmo q&mjrwf\/ u½kPmy[dwH? u½kPmw&m;u appm;EI;aqmftyfaom/ d f k ¨ d ynmo[m,o[dw?H ynmxufjruf&abmf &bufvnf; twlygaom/ Av0H p 'V§?H pGr;tm;vnf;oef NrJNrHcirm J f dk f aom/ Oa,sm*k?H vkUH vuk/ y#dp?ö tpGûJ yí/ edcvavmurEknblwm? wavmuvk;\ ½Tiûf yH;ESpoufz,jf zpfaom/ d d H f G ,m? tMuiforEÅygom'dum t|uxmukd/ v'¨g0? u umif;axmufr ykawmfvojzifh &tyfonfomwnf;/ om? a H H S xkd orEÅygom'dum t|uxmonf/ ar"m0De?H ynm½SwYdk \/ tEkob*g0? 0denf;qki&m ajymqk&mwGif olygrSNyD; d d f d ta&;BuD;ojzifh 0denf;ajymvQifctoGijf zifh obifwi;ayguf yGwi;a&mufvsufomvQif/ 0d&mZaw? *kPjf rif0ifh Hk dk f J dk f h x,f wifw,fvsuf ½Sygayownf;/ h d 52/ 0dñlbd ,m ]]0de,om*&yg&wdaPÖ}}/ orÇm0dwm ]]okw&Pm,wd oDC0g[m}}/ £pömbdrmedw*kPm}ZÆ &&mZ ,m0? uð ,H xd&H v[k 0deówd 'kyo,S/ Ü H 52/ 0dñb?d ynm½SwYdk onf/ ,m? tMuiforEÅygom'dum t|uxmuk/ 0de,om*&yg&wdaPÖ? 0denf; l d d orkj'm\ [krmbufurf;okYd wufvr;ul;ajrmufa&;ü/ oDC0g[m? vsifpma&mufatmif ykYd aqmifwwfonfjzpfí/ d S S f G okw&Pm,wd? {&mckiNf zD; pufvnf;tm;oef tvGejf refaom oabFmaumif;ozG,f jzpfygay\/ (emr"mwfjzifh d NyD;onf) £wd? þokYd / orÇm0dwm p? [kwwi;xifjrif ÓPfouf0ifí *kPwifcsD;usL;tyfay\/ £wd? þokdY f dk f f ponfjzif/ tbdrmedw*kPm? 0denf;"k&ynm½SiwYdk tpOfjrwfE;tm;uk;tyfonfh *kPrsm;pGm½Sayaom/ om?xkorEÅ h d f f dk d f d d ygom'dum 0denf;t|uxmonf/ ,m0 tZÆ? ,aeYwiatmif/ &&mZ? 0denf;avmu *kPa&mif<uí xGe;ywifh dk f f f w,fvsuf ½Sdygay\/ ,H? tMuift&m0w¬Konf/ xd&?H pGNJ rJwnfwhH ckicrmausmonfjzpfí/ 'kyo,S?H qefYusifbuf d f hH Ü wkYd ûzdzsufEi&ef trSecufcv\/ wH xkcicaom t&m0w¬KrsKd;onf/ v[k? vsifjrefpm/ uð 0deówd? aysmufu,f dk f f J S d dk f hH G G vGiyg; ysufjym;zkYd &m tb,frm ½SygtHenf;/ 0g/ vsifpmysufjym; uG,om;Eki½;r½Sonfomwnf;/ hf S d h G f G d f dk d

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

14

53/ ]],m Asmyde}D cdve,ó okaAm"deD p? aomwlbd ao0dwo'gwe"r®&*ø/ uwGme avmuy[daw o*kaP '"EÅ?D Xmwl}}wd e|}rkyg*g}|uxm yk&mPm/ 53/ ,m? tMuiforEÅygom'dwm t|uxmonf/ tcdve,ó? t|uxma[mif;wkYd wif yg0iforQ G tvk;pkaom enf;e,okYd / Asmyde?D rusefruGi; ysHUESYH jcif;vnf; ½Say\? okaAm"deD p? o'´gay:vGif teufxifí H H f d odjrifvnf; odjrifv,ygay\/ om? xkorEÅygom'dum t|uxmonf/ aomwlb?d pmoifom;wkYd onf/ ao0dw G f d o'gwe "r®&*ø? avhusufr0J tNrJwrf;w&m;yGu/ uwGme? qif,ifusif;yí/ avmuy[daw? urÇmwvTm;okYd DS J dk vTwxm;jzefYcsdtyfueaom/ o*kaP? rdr\*kP&nfwYdk u/ '"EÅ?D pGNJ rJpmaqmifxm;vsuf/ Xmwk? ûydibufuif;uGm f k f d f dk G f wapmifwnf;omvQif omoemaemifacwf wnfae&pfygapownf;/ £wd? þokYd aemifa&; tcGiay;ouJoYdk jzpf hf h ukeí/ yk&mPmt|uxm? a½S;a[mif; 0denf;t|uxmwkYd onf/ e|H? wyki;wprQ ½Smr&atmif vk;0uG,aysmuf f d f H f jcif;okYd / Oy*g? ta[mif;wkYd om;&m "r®wmjzifh a&muf½mMuavukeawmhownf;/ G S f 54/ Zembdowåm, ',m, apm'dawm? 0daqZÆ ac'H 0de,rSd om"ke/ H txm*rme} |uxm0d"meae? "k&H '"mwk}H bdrcg}od aom ok"/ k D 54/ Zembdowåm,? &[ef;yk*Kd¾ vf rsm;xkx0,f pGw,uyfa&mufcaom/ ',m,? Muifemaxmufxm; d dk J G f hJ u½kPmw&m;onf/ apm'dawm? wkuwe;EI;aqmftyfonfjzpfí/ 0g? EI;aqmftyfaom/ ok"?D aumif;jrwfvpm d f G f d d S G ÓPfynmESihf jynfpayaom/ aom? xkt½SiA'aCmo q&mjrwfonf/ 0de,rS?d 0denf;t&mü/ om"ke?H &[ef; h Hk d f k ¨ awmftaygif; olawmfaumif;wkYd \/ ac'H? od&efcufcJ qif;&Jyifyef;jcif;uk/ 0daqZÆ? 0denf;t|uxmpD&ifumjzifh d y,fcgjzwfawmufNyD;í/ tx? xktcgrS aemufumvü/ tm*rmeH? edum,fav;&yf okweygVdawmfjrwfwYdk \/ G d å f t|uxm0d"meae? t|uxmopf tpktvifjzpfatmif zGivpaygif;pk pD&ifrü/ "k&?H wm0efu/ '"mwk?H xrf;aqmif H hf S f I dk zkYd &ef/ tbdracg tmod? a½S;½IO;wef;vsuf &nfre;BuHpnfawmfravNyD/ k D S f l 55/ y'¨}H 0 zkvmbdewH okbmPkw?H ’ v'¨ge zkv}H’ wdo,m} od apwem/ 'gXm'dema*e xd&*¾"rwm? D ,m yw¬wm}&AÇ w'w¬oZÑae/ d d 55/ zkvmbdewH? yGivma&;ü a½S;½Inwaeaom/0g? yGive;qJqjJ zpfaom/ y'¨?H y'krmMumyef;onf/ ’ hf G f hf k D ® okbmPkb?H oefY½i; awmufajymifaumif;aom aerif;\ ta&mifu/ v'¨ge? &í/ zkvH’ £0? um;um;pGipihf S f dk hf G yGiavbdouJoYdk / 'gXm'dema*e xd&*¾"rwm? 'gXmem*trnf½aom rax&fjrwfynm½Sonf/ ,m? tMuif'C hf h D dS d D edum,f t|uxmuk/ yw¬wm? awmifwtyfcavNyD/ wH? xk'Cedum,ft|uxmuk/ tm&AÇ? taMumif;ûyí? d d h hJ d D d w'w¬oZÑae? xkt|uxm[laom tusKd;\-NyD;ajrmufa&;ü/ twdo,mapwem? aqmif½uzYdk &ef tvGexufoef d d G f f aom apwemkonf/ tmod? awmif;yefotm; av;pm;onfjh yif vl½itrsm; oem;iJnm u½kPmaMumifh aumif;pGm l S f h § jzpfay:cJavNyD/ h 56/ 'DCm*raw¬ok oAk'0ur¨d d ú rm*r® om&m"d*rm okr*FvemrmEk*EÅm0 0dvmodewd ,m? D oH0PÖem avmu[dwm, orÇ0/ D 56/ 'DCm*raw¬o?k 'DCedum,f\ (t|uxm[laom) teufwYdk ü/ oAk'0ur?H rdrÓPf\tpGr;owåu/ ¨d d ú d f d dk tm*r®? taMumif;ûyí/ om&m"d*rm? tESpom&wkYd udk &½Sjd cif;aMumif/ okr*FvemrmEk*EÅm0 0dvmodew?d okr*Fv f h D rnfemrokYd aemufrqufum vkuonfomjzpfaom 0dvmodeD trnf½aom/ 0g-okr*Fv0dvmodetrnf½aom/ S d f dS D dS ,m oH0PÖem? tMuift|uxmonf/ w¬?d ½S\/ om? xkd t|uxmonf/ avmu[dwm,? avmu\ tusKd;pD;yGg; d tvkYd ig/ orÇ0?D toifaumif;pGm jzpfay:vmcJayNyD/ S h h

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

15

57/ *rÇ&ar"m0do,m* rrSy?d D d tm&AÇ Ak'ó okervuwH/ ð¨ d ® D 0dnmwAk'gbdrwm A[l Zem? ¨ tnw¬om"m r[wH [d Ak'a,m/ ¨d 57/ tó? xkt½Sif Ak'aCmoq&mjrwf\/ okervuwH? trSm;tnpf tjypfvwuif; tvGeoefY½i; d ¨ d ® D G f f S f atmif aMumif;&if;qufpyf ûyxm;tyfaom/ Ak'?ð¨ oefY½i;xl;cRef tvGexufjrufaom ÓPfynmuk/ tm&AÇ? S f f d taMumif;ûyí? A[lZem? &[ef;½Sivl rsm;pGmaomolwYdk onf/ *rÇ& ar"m0do,m*rrSy?d eufevpm ÓPfynm\ f D d J S G usupm;&m e,fy,feum,f'C okwey#uüaomfvnf;/ 0dnmwAk'gbdrwm? txl;odtyfaom bk&m;jrwf\ f d D å f d ¨ tvkawmf½MdS uayuke\/ 0g? bk&m;½Sif\tvkd xkxtcsuf w&m;eufwYdk udk ÓPfoufueYf jrL; txl;odjrifMuay d f d dk G uke\/ [d? þtcsuf0,f ,kz,om"u taMumif;jy&vQif/ r[wH? tvkjd rifjh rwf pdw"mwfx;cRef yk*Kd¾ vfref f H G f f l G yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk \/ Ak'a,m? ÓPfynmwkYd onf/ tnw¬om"m? olwyg;[k trsm;tusKd; tm;uk;oavmuf c&D; ¨d d a&mufatmif NyD;ajrmufapwwfygayuke\/ f 58/ om}eDw0d'gudrem rem,dwm? G © uEÅm*ar "r®obm,aw o'g/ awae0 ran}[ wda&muwm w,m? uð oDC*}nMw yxn*grdum/ 58/ tmeDw0d'gudrem? qGaqmiftyfaom ynm½SwYdk \ rsufpEipwf ½Sayxaom/ 0g? ynm½SwYdk \ rsufpd G © J d d S hf d d d ESihf pdwudk aoG;aqmifq,wwfayxaom/ rem,dwm? ynm½SwYdk ½IMunfavhvm qifjcifumjzifh cGicgtm;vk; f JG l d h hf H tNrJo;í pdwEv;ozG,vnf; jzpfayxaom/ om? xkor*Fv 0dvmodeD t|uxmonf/ uEÅm*ar? ESpouf Hk f S Hk f d k f pzG,f 'DCedum,fü/ o'g "r®obm,aw? rjywfqifEonfh w&m;yGobifBuD; jzpfaeygay\/ awae0? xkYd aMumifh JT J yifvQif/ w,m-wm,? xkor*Fv0dvmodeD t|uxm onf/ £[? þavmuü/ tnm? wyg;aom 'DCedum,f d k qki&m r[mt|uxmuk/ wda&muwm? ok;olenf;yg;í aysmufu,om;atmifûyxm;Ekicay\/ oDC*H yxH? d f d H G f G d f hJ vG,uoufom vsifpma&mufaMumif; vrf;aumif;vrf;wkYd u/ tnMw? a½Smif½m;vGz,fí/ tn*grdum? aESmifaES; f l G dk S J h apvsuf toGm;cuf½nvsm; vrf;wyg;ukd vkuom;Muukeonf/ uð a[mEÅ?d tb,frm jzpfuetenf;/ 0g? rjzpf S f d f G f S k f hH Ekiueonfomwnf;/ d f k f 59/ ywGm r[EÅm}rÁ&}rrÁKa'g ,xm? avmuw¬om"Dyd r[mo,H rwd/ wo®m}ó od'g}|uxmy&rÜ&m? ¨ Ak'y'gem,}[k0Hk e0g e0g/ ¨d Ü 59/ trÁKa'g? rk;onf/ r[EÅH trÁ&?H BuD;rm;jyefYus,f aumif;uife,fu/ ywGm? &½Sí/ 0g? &aomaMumifh d dk d omvQif/ avmuw¬om"d ,xm? avmutusKd; yGg;wk;avatmif ½Guaqmif NyD;ajrmufapEkiouJoYdk / rwdy?d ÓPf d f d f h ynmonfvnf;/ r[mo,H? rusO;ri,f jyefYus,Bf uD;rm;vkvm;qE´ tZÑmo,"mwfcH &ifoefuvef vl&nfcRef f d h J G yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfu/ ywGm? &íomvQif/ 0g? &ygrSomvQif/ avmuw¬om"de?D avmutusKd; wk;xufw;atmif pGr; dk d dk f aqmifNyD;ajrmufapwwf\/ wo®m? xkYd aMumif/ tó? xkr[ZÑmo, t½SiA'aCmorax&fjrwf\/ e0g e0g? h d f k ¨ topf topfjzpfueaom/ t|uxmy&rÜ&m? a&;ul;yGg;vmt|uxm tqufqufwYdk onf/ Ak'y'gem,? ygVdawmf k f ¨d Ü w&m; t&omrsm;ukd cHpm;Ekia&; ÓPfynmay;jcif;iSg/ od'g t[k0?Hk êud;yrf;oavmuf c&D;a&mufí NyD;ajrmufcyg d f ¨ hJ ayuke\/ f 60/ Ak'g'drwHå xd&ao| rk'o/ ¨ d ´d H oH0PÖem pmod yyOöo'eD/ l ]]oHAwoma& ZderZÑdrm*ar? Á ¬ v'¨ge yDwð okZem oarEÅL}}wd/ 60/ Ak'g'drw?Hå Ak'rwtrnf½aom/ xd&ao|H? rax&fjrwfu/ O'´o?H &nfne;orI taMumif;ûyvsuf/ ¨ d ¨ d å dS dk d T f okZem? olawmfaumif;wkYd onf/ ZderZÑrm*ar? jrwfpmAk'¨ a[mrdeYf [onfh rZÑredum,fü/ oAÁwoma&? tvk;pkH d G d ¬ H

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

16

tw¬ teuf[aom tESpom&wkYd u/ v'¨ge? &ukeí/ yDw?ð ESpor½ivef; 0rf;ajrmufjcif;okYd / oarEÅK? aumif;pGm l f dk f f d hf T f jynf0 a&mufMuygap/ £wd? þokYd &nfvsuf awmifwcsuf\ tpGr;jzif/ yyOöo'eD oH0PÖem p? yyOöo'eDrnf h h f h l l aom t|uxmonfvnf;/ tmod? omoemxGe;&ef tcsdewefí jzpfjyefcavNyD/ f f hJ 61/ OyÜZdÆ ]]om&w¬yumode}D }wd ,m? om aZmwdygvó ,xmbdvmodw/ H avmuH ,xm emrduom&'Dyem? tmbm}od or®my#dyEéyE¬'g/ 61/ om&w¬yumodew?d om&w¬yumode[aom/ ,m? tMuift|uxmonfvnf;/ OyÜZ?dÆ jzpfay:cJ\/ D D l h om? xkt|uxmonf/ aZmwdygvó? aZmwdygvrax&fjrwf\/ ,xmbdvmodw?H awmifwvkvm; ajr§mre; d h d f S f xm;onftwki;/ avmuH? avmuuk/ ,xm emrduom&'Dyem? om&w¬yumodeD olUtrnfEihf avsmnpmvS h d f d S f D G tESpom&wkYd udk azmfjyzGiqvsuf/ or®my#dyEéyE¦'g? tusifaumif;vrf;rSef od&ef usifa&; xkwazmfay;onfjzpfí? f hf dk h h f tmbm-tmod? awmufajymifxe0if; xGe;vif;vsuf½avNyD/ d f f dS 62/ orÜL&d umwk}H o raem&axm ,,m? t*Fw&EÅm*rrw¬0PÖem/ k å wEémra",sH okZeH p ZD0uH/ aom aZmwdygvH p yow¬"wr/ D d H 63/ O'´ó ,H}umod y0DPwH u&H? d Ak'g'doaoAsokr*¾'óae/ ¨ H o'¨ryyge}0em,dwm}od om? ® k æ 0d'gvdoCó o'g0*g[Pm/ G H 62-3/ t*Fw&EÅm*rrw¬0PÖem? t*Fw& edum,f tqk;½Saom edum,fBuD;av;jzm\ t|uxmwkYd ukd/ k å k å H d umwk?H a&;om;pD&ifzYdk &ef/ tóraem&axm? xkt½SiA'aCmo\ tvkqE´onf/ ,,m-,m,? tMuift*Fw& d f k ¨ d k å t|uxmjzif/ orÜL&d? jynf0cJavNyD/ aom? xkt½SiA'aCmoq&mjrwfonf/ wEémra",sH? xkpwEv; tvkjd ynfh h h h d f k ¨ d d f S Hk aMumif; (raem&xyl&PD)[laom trnf½aom/ Ak'g'doaoAsokr*¾ 'óae? bk&m;&[EÅmt&d,mwkYd aumif;pGmpGNJ rJ dS ¨ H rS0tyfonfh vrf;jrwfvrf;rGewYdk udk jynTe&mü/ y0DPwH? vdrmuRrf;usifotjzpfu/ u&H? ûywwfaom/ ,H? D J f f ® l dk tMuift|uxmuk/ okZeH? olawmfaumif;jzpfaom/ ZD0uH p? ZD0urnfaom Oygoumuk¤if;/ yow¬"wr?H d d D d csD;rGr;tyfonfh ynm½Sjd zpfawmfraom? aZmwdygvH p? aZmwdygv rax&fjrwfu¤if;/ O'´ó? &nfne;orI f l dk d T f taMumif;ûyí/ tumod? ûypD&ifavNyD/ om? xkt*kw&t|uxmonf/ 0d'gvdoCó? ynm½Swnf;[laom ydwe; d F å G H d k f taygif;\/ o'g0*g[Pm? w&m;0wf&nf ok;aqmifrnf[k BuHpnfarQmfre;vsuf tNrJwrf; oufa&muf&monf/ H S f ([kwm? jzpfí/) o'¨ryygeH? olawmfaumif;w&m;yef;trsm;wkYd \/ 0em,dwmtmod? tpDt&D zl;ikpvsuf pknyihf G ® k æ H D H D G aom ûrdiawmtoGif yef;O,smOfozG,f jzpfygayownf;/ f 64/ a,e}wåv'd¨ yZ[EÅK om"a0g? 'kaAÁm""ar® p obm0'Dyae/ AkZÑEÅK £pömod} bd"r®om*a&m? ww¬m}0wm&H okua&e om"de/ D 65/ ar"m0dvmom}ó} [k0}k |omvde?D uEÅm p oar®m[0daem'eDwd ,m/ wm Ak'aCmaomwd owkvsemrdu¨ rm*r® Zmwm okZew¬om"de/ D 64-5/ a,e? tMuiftbd"r®m a'oemawmfjzif/ twåv'¨ð p? twå'|uvnf;/ yZ[EÅK? y,fEiMf uygap/ h d d dk dk obm0'Dyae? rdr\oabmrSeuefaom vu©PmwkYd udk jywwfueaom/ 'kaAÁm""ar® p? od&efcufcJ eufeaom d f k f J ½kyemrfw&m;wkYd uvnf;/ AkZÑEÅK? odMuygap/ £wd? þokYd aom tvkawmf\tpGr;jzif/ aom tbd"r®om*a&m? f dk d f h

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

17

orkj'mozG,f eufus,fvpm xktbd"r®m a'oemawmfonf/ tmod? jzpfay:cJpm jzpfay:vmcJavNyD/ ww¬? xkd S G d G h tbd"r®m orkj'mü/ okua&e? cufcuif;uGm vG,upmjzif/ t0wm&H? ouf0ifEia&;uk/ om"de?D NyD;apEkiaom/ J f l G h dk f d d f t|omvde?D t|omvdetrnf½aom/ ,m p? tMuift|uxmonf¤if;/ uEÅm? ESpoufz,aom/ oar®m[0daem D dS f G f 'eDw?d oar®m[0daem'eD[aom/ ,m p? tMuift|uxmonf¤if;/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmo q&mjrwf\/ l d f k ¨ ar"m0dvmom? ÓPfynm\ us,pmjyefYjyL; uGeYf jrL;usupm;jcif;aMumif/ t[k0?Hk xl;uJvpm jzpfay:vmukeNf yD/ f G f h S G okZew¬om"de?D olawmfaumif;wkYd \ tusKd;ukd NyD;apwwfueaom/ wm? xkt|uxmwkYd onf/ Ak'aCmaomwd k f d ¨ owkvsemrdu?H Ak'aCmo[líyif rdrEiwaom trnf½aom &[ef;uk/ tm*r®? taMumif;ûyí/ Zmwm? jzpfay: ¨ d S hf l dS d vmMuayuke\/ f 66/ tnm p yOö|uxm} bd"r®aZ? bma0 ed"ma,}w¬ ,xm}ók okw&m/ å *rD&raw¬ok y0d'A'w?H Ç ¨ k ¨d orÜm'eD ow¬K wkvwå'yeD/ D 66/ {w¬? þyOöyu&P|uxmü/ ,xm? tMuiftjcif;t&mjzifh okr;xnfoi;tyfueonf½aomf/ d DS h G f k f dS okw&m? tvG,wul ul;ajrmufEiueonf/ tók? jzpfue&m\/ wxm? xktjcif;t&mtm;jzif/ tbd"r®aZ? å f dk f k f k f d h tbd"r®mü jzpfueaom/ bma0? teuft"dyg,fwYdk u/ ed"m,? okr;xnfoi;í/ *rÇ&raw¬o?k eufeaomtcsuf k f Ü dk d DS h G f D J obm0 teufwYdk ü/ y0d'A'w?H azmufxi;odEiaom ÓPf½otjzpfu/ orÜm'eD? NyD;apwwfueaom/ ow¬K ¨ k ¨d G f dk f dS l dk k f twkvwå 'DyeD? jrwfpmbk&m;\ twkry*Kd¾ vftjzpf ([laom oAÁnKw ÓPftpGr;)ukd jywwfueaom/ tnm? G hJ k f k f t|omvdeD oar®m[0daem'eDwYkd rS wyg;ukeaom/ yOö|uxm p? "mwkuxmtzGipaom t|uxm ig;apmifwYdk f hf onfvnf;/ Zmwm? oifavsmfvpm jzpfay:vmcJueNf yD/ h S G h k 67/ aomPm0Sax&ó y#dpö ,mpeH? wm ,m, ucFg0dw&EÅd bdu©a0g/ ,m ygwdarmu©rçdS w'EG,m0S,?H oH0PÖe}H umod o "DrwH 0a&m/ 67/ "DrwH? ynm½SwYdk wi/ 0a&m? xl;cRef jrifjh rwfol jzpfawmfrayaom/ o? xkt½SiA'aCmorax&f d G f l d f k ¨ onf/ aomPm0Sax&ó? aomPtrnf½aom rax&f\/ ,mpeH? awmif;yefru?dk y#dp?ö tpGûJ yí/ ygwdarmu©r?dS dS I ygwdarmufü/ ,m ucFg? tMuif ,krm;awGa0jcif;wkYd onf/ (tw¬?d &[ef;awmfwYdk tm; jzpfyg;vsuf½ue\)/ wm H S G dS k f ucFg? xk,rm;awGa0jcif;wkYd u?dk ,m,? tMuift|uxmjzif/ bdua0g? &[ef;awmfwYdk onf/ 0dw&EÅ?d ÓPftvif; d Hk S h © a&muf oabmaygufí vGeajrmufMuayuke\/ w'EG,m0S,?H xk,rm;ukd vGeajrmufaMumif;[laom teufoYdk f f d Hk S f tpOfvuaom (ucFg0dw&PD) trnf½aom/ wH oH0PÖe?H xkygwdarmuftzGihf t|uxmuk/ tumod? 0denf; dk f dS d d w&m; tav;xm;í a&;om;pD&ifawmfrcavNyD/ l hJ 68/ orwåavmu| 0dbm0d&OÆem? uaw}"dem "r®y'ó 0PÖem/ xd&ork'ó ukrm&uóyH? H d´ owH reH yDwyzkvwH ,,m/ d d’ 68/ £rdem? þt½SiA'aCmorax&fjrwfonf/ ukrm&uóyH? ukrm&uóy rnfaom/ xd&?H rax&f f k ¨ uk/ ork'ó? &nf½,orItaMumif;ûyí/ orwåavmu| 0dbm0d&OÆmem? wurÇmvk;ü wnf½aom ynm½SiwYdk \ d ´d G f H dS f ESpoufpvrf;&mjzpfaom/ "r®y'ó 0PÖem? "r®y'ygVdawmf\ tzGihf t|uxmuk/ uwm? ûypD&ifawmfrtyfNyD/ f JG d l ,,m-,m,? ,if;"r®y't|uxmjzif?h owH reH? olawmfaumif;wkYd \ pdwEv;onf/ yDwyzkvw?H ESporjhf ynfh f S Hk d d’ f d vQrf; yDwvr;í ½Tivef;wk;yGg; yGium;pkjd ynfvsuf ½Sygay\/ d T f f d hf d 69/ ynm}ó ,m okweygw ck'uå d ´ ygXw¬'gwm y&rw¬aZmwdum/ oH0PÖem ZmwuwEÅd r@em? wm a[mEÅd avmuó [dwyÜ'ye/ D d D

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

18

69/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmorax&fjrwf\/ tnm? qkcNhJ yD;rSwyg;ukeaom/ okweygwck'uygXw¬ d f k ¨ d f å d ´ 'gwm? okweygwfEic'uygX\teufwYdk udk zGiqay;wwfaom/ ,m y&rw¬aZmwdum? y&rw¬aZmwdumrnf å d S hf k ´ hf dk aom tMuift|uxmonf¤if;/ ZmwuwEÅr@em? ZmwuygVdtwGuf vkcsufr½Satmif xkwaqmifzium d d d f G hf wef;qmqifaMumif;jzpfaom/ ,m oH0PÖem? tMuift|uxmonf¤if;/ (tw¬d? ½Sdukef\/) wm? xkt|uxmwkYd d onf/ avmuó? vltaygif;[l;aom avmu\/ [dwy'Dye?D tusKd;pD;yGg; rsm;xufrsm;atmif nTeMf um;rjywf azmf d jywwfueonf/ a[mEÅ?d jzpfygayuke\/ k f f 70/ edaóo avmurSd ypm&Pdpm? ä vuFm*wme} |uxme}r'¨g/ ,m ax&0g'De} ryl&d Ak'¨ aCmo*¾ax&ó ybm0v'¨g/ 70/ vuFm*wmeH? oD[VuRef;ü jzpfueaom/ t|uxmeH? r[mt|uxm tp½Saom t|uxma[mif; dk f k f d wkYd \/ edaóoavmurS?d urÇmw0Se;vk;ü/ ypm&aP? wGius,fraES; jyefYEYHS a&;ü/ ax&0g'De?H ax&0g'*kP;0if f H f d f t½SifjrwfwkdY\/ ,m £päm? tMuif tvkqE´onf/ t'¨g? rcRwf{uef trSepifppf? (ta[mwd? jzpfay:cJavNyD/) d f h om? ax&0g'omoem urÇmjyefYa&; ûyjyifay;zkYd arQmfawG;awmifw xktvkqE´onf/ Ak'aCmo*¾ ax&ó? t½Sif h d d ¨ Ak'aCmo rax&fjrwf\/ ybm0 v'¨g? &tyfaom pGr;&nftxl;½Sonfjzpfí/ 0g? pGr;&nftxl;ukd &onfjzpfí / ¨ f d f tyl&?D tvk½wi; rqki;aphi jynf0cJayownf;/ d dS dk f d f h h 71/ b'´}H oemrH pç *kPm rEknm? or*¾*grD} Ekua&mEÅd awoH/ oouFo&m [d o'gwem a,? l avmuH yarm'H p u&H p&EÅ/ d 71/ tó? xkt½SiA'aCmo rax&fjrwf\/ b'´?H tEGwonmokwomí o'´gteuf nDavsmfcsuf d f k ¨ ¬ d aMumifh ESpoufz,&m aumif;jrwfpmaom/ emrH p? Ak'aCmo[k avmuxifay: trnfawmfonf¤if;/ rEknm p f G f G ¨ *kPm? ESpoufz,tpkH aus;Zl;awmf*Pf wkYd onf¤if;/ or*¾*grD? t&yfwi;ayguf tESYH a&mufuevsuf/ f G f k dk f k f (tEkua&mEÅ-üpyf) a, oouFo&m? tMuif vESiaewkYd onf/ o'gwem? tNrJwrf;½SaeMuukeonf¤if;/ avmuH? d l hf d f urÇmol urÇmom; vltrsm;uk/ yarm'H? ESpouf½ijf rL;MunfE;0rf; ajrmufjcif;uk/ u&H p? ûyMuukeonf¤if;/ d f T l d f ([kwm? jzpfuevsu/) p&EÅ?d vSnvnfaeuke\/ awoH? xkurÇmYusuoa& vESiaewkYd \/ 0g? vESifhaewkdYtm;/ G k f f hf f d f hf tEku a&mEÅ?d twlvuum oGm;vmvSnvnfvsuf ½SMd uygayukeownf;/ dk f hf f 72/ okA'aCmoó 0dbm0dowåk ¨ d yAswå}d rm&AÇ xd&mobó/ or*¾ avmaum [d okax&0ga'? rmeH y0a¹kod tenZmwH/ 72/ [d? okYd jzpfjcif;\ taMumif;&if;um;/ okA'aCmoó? bk&m;½Si\ ausmfapmoHrsKd; ½Sawmfraom/ k ¨ f d l xd&mobó? a,musfm;jrwfZmenft½SiA'aCmorax&f\/ 0dbm0dowåyAswð?å usrf;*eftrsm; a&;om;Ekionfh f k ¨ d d f ynm½StpGr; vQrf;vQrf; awmufy0if; xif½m;jcif;uk/ tm&AÇ? taMumif;ûyí/ or*¾avmaum? wavmuvk;onf/ d f S d H okax&0ga'? rlreuse aumif;jrwfaom ax&0g'ü/ tenZmwH? tjcm;pepf 0g'opfü rjzpfpbl; vGepmxl;aom/ S f f G rmeH? ESpouftm;uk; jrwfE;jcif;uk/ y0a¹ko?d yGg;apcJayownf;/ f d dk d h 73/ Aka'¨gwd emrH bk0erSd ,m0? okA'aCmoó od,m e udO/ k ¨ §d v'¨g [d om"lbd ra[m yuma&m? r[*¾0wmed0 wHoumom/ d å 73/ ,m0? tMuifrQavmuf/ bk0erS?d urÇmavmuü/ Aka'¨gwdemrH? Ak'[aom trnfawmfonf/ (tw¬?d ½Sd ¨ l aeao;\/ wm0? xkA'[aom trnf wnf½aeorQumvywfv;/) okA'¨ aCmoó? bk&m;½Si\ ausmapmoH d k ¨ l dS Hk k f f

0dok'¨dr*fed'gef;

19

rsKd;½Saom t½SiA'aCmo\/ emrH? trnfawmfonf/ uð [d e od,m? tb,frmvQif r½SyJ aeygtHenf;/ od,m d f k ¨ S d h {0? ½SNd rJxifpm ½Saernfomwnf;/ [d? xkd pum;0,f ,kMH unf zG,um;/ om"lb?d w&m;vkvm; olawmfaumif; G d f d trsm;wkYd onf/ r[*¾0wmed? tbk;rsm;pGm xkuwefaom &wemwkYd u/ v'¨ged0? &tyfueouJoYdk / wHoumom? d å d d f dk k f h xkt½SiA'aCmorax&fjrwf\txHr/ ra[myum&m? y&d,wf y#dywf y#da0"qki&m rsm;pGmaom aus;Zl;wkYd u/ d f k ¨ S d f dk v'¨g? vkwi; tvk;pkH &tyfygayukeownf;/ d dk f H f 74/ cDa,x 0aPÖm e ork'a#myd? ¨ eEG}óç aeum [d *kPm teEÅm/ aum Ek}'¨a&,sm} cdvom*a&ma'? wxmyd rnEÅK ok"D o'g awwd/

q|o*Ðwdbm& edw¬m&u oHCordwd,m yumodwm,H 0dok'd¨r*¾ed'geuxm ed|dwm/Ä
74/ ork'a#m? ukepifatmif[k êud;pm;rIjzifh a½G;pkiifEwaqmifxwtyfonf/ ormaemyd? jzpfygaomf ¨ f d I f k f vnf;/ tó? xkdt½SifAk'¨aCmo\/ 0aPÖm? aus;Zl;tpkH *kPawmftaygif;onf/ e cDa,x? ukeEiz,&m r½Syg f f dk f G f d ay/ [d? þpum;\ twd0wå a'gor0if *kPwifz,&m jzpfonfrmum;/ tó *kPm? xkt½SiA'aCmo q&m k f G f S d f k ¨ jrwf\ *kPawmfwYdk onf/ taeum? *kPtuJod jrwfu0dwYdk ½IMunfwi;yif ay:vGixif½m; tvGersm;ukeonf f f h dk f f S f f jzpfí/ teEÅm? tb,foYdk csJUcsJU zGUJ EGUJ pDu; tEIe;rykif rqk;Ekiueonf/ a[mEÅd eEk? jzpfueonf r[kwygavm/ Hk f d H d f k f k f f aum? a,musm;pdwrmef tm;pGr;oefí wHcepuxl tb,foYdk aomolonf/ tcdvom*a&ma'? a&wGur& EIi;q f f f G f dk f f d f rukef tvk;pkaom orkj'ma&wkYd u/ O'¨a&,sEk? tuketpif xkwwifaqmif,EiygtHenf;/ wxmyd? okYd yif H H dk f f l dk f h rukeEiatmif jrm;ajrmifvygaomfvnf;/ ok"?D *kPaus;Zl;ukd txl;jrifoynm½SwYdk onf/ aw? xkt½SiA'aCmo f dk f S f d d d f k ¨ q&mjrwf\ *kPawmfwYdk u/ o'g? tcgcyfor;/ rnEÅK? trSww& atmufarhEiMf uygapukeownf;/ f dk d f f dk f

0dok'd¨r*fed'gef; o*F[*gxmygXfteuf þwGif tvkH;pkH NyD;\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

20

0do'r*f - jrefrmjyef k ¨d wwd,wGJ
earm wó b*0awm t&[awm or®morÁK'¨ó/ udavomwkdYrS a0;uGmpifMu,fí rSefpGm ukdk,fwkdifodawmfrlaom xkd jrwfpGmbk&m;tm; ½Sdckd;yg\/

12-£'d0"eda'´o-Ny;D ajrmufrI (wefc;dk zefqif;rI) trsK;d rsK;d ukd ¨ d tus,jf ycsuf
tbdnmOf jyqkdcsuf
«1» +365/ + ,cktcg (jyqkcaom) þorm"dbm0emukd tMuifavmuD tbdnmOfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh d hJ f ]]tbdnmOf[l aom tmedoiftusKd; ½Sonf}}[k (orm"dea'´o ESm 644-ü) igqkc\? xkd avmuDtbdnmOfwYdk udk d d d hJ jzpfay:jynfpapjcif;iSg yx0Du okP;ponfwYdk ü pwkwpsmefudk &NyD;aom a,m*Donf tm;xkwtyf\? tusKd; h Hk d f ¬ f xl;um; ,if;okYd tm;xkwvQif xka,m*D\ orm"d bm0emonf tmedoiftusK;ukd &NyD;vnf; jzpfayvwH?h omí f d d ckiNf rJonfvnf;jzpfayvwH?h xka,m*Donf tmedoiftusK;ukd &onfh jyif omívnf;ckiNf rJaom orm"d bm0emESihf d d d d jynfponfjzpfí ynmbm0em (ynmukd yGg;aprI)ukd csr;omvG,upmjzifh jynfpNHk yD; ajrmufapEkiayvdrrnf/ h Hk f f l G h d f hf xkYd aMumifh (ynmbm0emukjd yqk&ef tvSnusaeaomfvnf; ,if;ukd rjyqkr) a½S;OD;pGm tbdnmOfjyqkcsuf d hf d D d (tbdnmuxm)ukd tm;xkwp&ifaytH/ f D h jrwfpmbk&m;onf pwkwpsmeform"dudk &NyD;aom trsK;om;wkYd tm; orm"dbm0em\ tmedoif tusKd;ukd G ¬ d jyjcif;iSg¤if; wqifxuf wqifh jrifjh rwfaom w&m;wkYd udk a[mjcif;iSg¤if; ]]xkd (pwkwpsmef &NyD;aom h ¬ &[ef;)onf þqkconftwki; pdwonf (pwkwpsmef orm"djzif) wnfMunfvwfaomf xuf0ef;usif pifMu,f d hJ h d f f ¬ h vwfaomf xuf0ef;usif jzLpifvwfaomf t*FP (ac:udavom) uif;vwfaomf npfñ;aMumif; uif;vwfaomf l El;nHpm jzpfvwfaomf trIü cHvwfaomf wnfwvwfaomf rwkevyjf cif; (tmaeOÆ)okYd a&mufvwfaomf h G h hH f I NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc;zefqif;rI) trsKd;rsKd;tvkYd ig pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\/ xk(&[ef;)onf rsm;aom dk S f d tzkYd (tjym;)½Saom NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc;zefqif;rI) tzkYd udk rsufarSmufcpm;\ (rsuarSmufawGU&\)? wyg;wnf; d dk H f vnf; jzpfygvsuf trsm;jzpf\}} þokdY tp½Sdaom enf;jzifh (1) £'¨0" tbdnmOf (2) 'dAaomwtbdnmOf (3) d d Á apawmy&d, tbdnmOf (4) ykaAÁe0gotbdnmOf (5) pkwyygwac: 'dApu©KtbdnmOf [laom avmuDtbdnmOf d l Á ig;yg;wkYd udk a[mawmfrl cJayonf/ h «2» xkd ig;yg;wkYd wif ]]wyg;wnf;vnf; jzpfygvsuf trsm;jzpf\}} þokdYponfjzifh jyqkxm;aom NyD;ajrmuf G d rI (£'d)ESihf wrsKd;wrnf zefqif;rI (0duAe)ukd ûyvkaom tm;xkwcgp a,m*Donf Mo'gwuokP; tqk;½Saom ¨ k Á d f d f H d ½Spyg;aom uokP;wkYd ü ½Spyg;pD ½Spyg;pDaom ormywfwYdk udk jzpfapNyD;vQiff d f f f (1) uokP;tEkvtm;jzif¤if;? (2) uokP;y#dvtm;jzif¤if;? (3) uokP;tEkvy#dvtm;jzif¤if; (4) d f Hk h d f Hk h d f Hk Hk h psmeftEkvHk tm;jzif¤if;? (5) psmefy#dvtm;jzif¤if;? (6) psmeftEkvy#dvtm;jzif¤if;? (7) psmefudk ckeausmf h Hk h Hk Hk h f jcif;tm;jzif¤if;? (8) uokP;ukd ckeausmfjcif;tm;jzif¤if;? (9) psmefEihf uokP;wkYd udk ckeausmfjcif;tm;jzifh h d f f h S d f f ¤if;? (10) t*Fgajymif;a½TUjcif; tm;jzif¤if;? (11) tm½kajymif;a½TUjcif;tm;jzif¤if; (12) t*FgESifhtm½kHwkdYukd h H h ajymif;a½TUjcif;tm;jzif¤if;? (13) t*Fgukd rSwjf cif; tm;jzif¤if;? (14) tm½kudk rSwjf cif;tm;jzif¤if;? h h H h þ 14-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdwudk (,Ofaus;El;nHatmif) êudwif qk;rtyf\/ f h H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

21

366/ þ 14-yg;wkYd wif uokP; tEkv[onf tb,fygenf;? uokP; y#dv[onf tb,fygenf;/ G d f Hk l d f Hk l y/ tm½kudk rSwjf cif;[lonf tb,fygenf;? þum; tar;wnf;/ H (1) þomoemawmfü &[ef;onf yx0DuokP;ü psmefu0ifpm;\? xkYd aemif tmayguokP;ü (0ifpm; d f dk d f \)? þenf;jzifh tpOftwki; ½Spyg;aom uokP;wkYd ü tBudrw&maomfvnf; tBudrwaxmifaomfvnf; 0ifpm; d f f d f f f \? þokYd 0ifpm;jcif;onf uokP; tEkvHk (tm;jzifh 0ifpm;jcif;) rnf\/ d f (2) Mo'gwuokP;rS pí xkUd twlyif y#dv(aemufjyef)tpOftm;jzifh 0ifpm;jcif;onf uokP;y#dvHk d f Hk d f (tm;jzifh 0ifpm;jcif;) rnf\/ (3) yx0DuokP;rSpí Mo'gwuokP; wkiatmif? Mo'gwuokP;rSvnf;pí yx0DuokP;wkiatmif d f d f d f d f d f d f þokYd tEkvHk y#dvtpGr;tm;jzifh tzefwvJvJ 0ifpm;jcif;onf uokP;tEkvHk y#dvrnf\/ Hk f d f Hk (4) yXrpsmefrpí tpOftwki; ae0onmemonm,wepsmefwiatmif tzefwvJvJ 0ifpm;jcif;onf S d f dk f psmeftEkvHk rnf\/ (5) ae0onm emonm,wepsmefrS pí yXrpsmefwiatmif tzefwvJvJ 0ifpm;jcif;onf psmefy#dvHk dk f rnf\/ (6) yXrpsmefrpí ae0onm emonm,wepsmefwiatmif? ae0onm emonm,wepsmefrpí yXr S dk f S psmef wkiatmif þokYd tEkvHk y#dvtpGr;tm;jzifh tzefwvJvJ 0ifpm;jcif;onf psmeftEkvHk y#dvrnf\/ d f Hk f Hk (7) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif xkd yx0DuokP;üyif wwd,psmefu0ifpm;\? xkUd aemif d f d f dk xkyx0D uokP;edrwuyifcgí tmumomeOöm,wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\)? xkUd aemif «3» tmudOnm,wepsmefudk d d f d f dk G ö (0ifpm;\)? þenf;jzifh uokP;ukd rckeausmfrí psmefuomvQif wckjcm;\ tjzpfjzifh ckeausmjf cif;onf psmefudk d f f l dk f ckeausmjf cif;rnf\/ þ twlyif tmayguokP; ponfudk rlwnfí (ckeausmf[ef) ,SOjf cif;wkYd uvnf; ûytyf\/ f d f f dk (8) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif wzef xkyXrpsmefuyif awaZmuokP;ü (0ifpm;\)? d f d dk d f xkUd aemif eDvuokP;ü? xkUd aemif avm[dwuokP;ü (0ifpm;\)? þenf;jzifh psmefudk rckeausmfrí uokP; d f d f f l d f ukomvQif wckjcm;\ tjzpfjzifh ckeausmjf cif;onf uokP;ukd ckeausmjf cif;rnf\/ d f d f f (9) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif xkUd aemif awaZmuokP;ü wwd,psmefudk (0ifpm;\)? d f d f (xkYd aemif) eDv uokP;ukcgí tmumomeOöm,wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\)? (xkUd aemif) avm[dwuokP;rS tmudOö d f d G d f nm,wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\)? þenf;jzifh psmefu¤if;ç uokP;uk¤if; ckeausmfjcif;onf psmefEihf uokP;wkYd udk dk d f d f S d f ckeausmjf cif;rnf\/ f (10) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif xkyx0DuokP;üyif tjcm;psmefwYdkuvnf; 0ifpm;jcif; d f d d f dk onf t*Fg ajymif;a½TUjcif; rnf\/ (11) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif xkd yXrpsmefuyif tmayguokP;ü¤if; awaZmuokP; d f dk d f d f ü¤if;/y/ Mo'gwuokP;ü¤if; (0ifpm;\)? þenf;jzifh tvk;pkaomuokP;wkYd ü wyg;wnf;aom psmefuomvQif d f H H d f dk 0ifpm;jcif;onf tm½kajymif;a½TUjcif;rnf\/ H (12) yx0DuokP;ü yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif tmayguokP;ü 'kw,psmefu?dk awaZmuokP;ü d f d f d d f wwd,psmefu?dk 0ga,muokP;ü pwkwpsmefu?dk eDvuokP;ukd cGgí tmumomeOöm,wepsmefu?dk yDwuokP;rS d f ¬ d f d f 0dnmPOöm,wepsmefu?dk avm[dwuokP;rS tmudOnm,wepsmefu?dk Mo'gwuokP;rS ae0onmemonm, d f ö d f wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\)? þokYd wckausmf0ifpm;jcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh t*FgwkYd u¤if;ç tm½kwYdk u¤if; ajymif;a½TUjcif; f dk H dk onf t*FgESihf tm½kwYdk udk ajymif;a½TUjcif;rnf\/ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

22

(13) yXrpsmefudk t*Fgig;yg;½Sonf[k rSwom;NyD;vQif 'kw,psmefudk t*Fgok;yg;½Sonf[?k wwd,psmefudk d f d H d t*Fg ESpfyg;½Sdonf[?k xkUd twl pwkwpsmefu¤if; tmumomeOöm,wepsmefu¤if;/y/ ae0onmemonm ,we ¬ dk dk psmefu¤if; (t*Fg ESpyg;½Sonf[k rSwom;\)? þokYd psmeft*FgrQukomvQif rSwom;jcif;onf t*Fgukrwjf cif; dk f d f d f d S rnf\/ (14) xkUd twlyif þonfum; yx0DuokP;wnf;[k rSwom;NyD;vQif þonfum; tmayguokP; d f f d f wnf;/y/ þonfum; Mo'gwuokP;wnf;[k (rSwom;\)? þokYd tm½krQukomvQif rSwom;jcif;onf tm½kudk d f f H d f H rSwjf cif;rnf\/ «4» t*FgESifh tm½kHrSwfjcif;ukdvnf; tcsKdUq&mwkdYu tvkd½SdMuuke\/ okYd aomfvnf; t|uxmwkYd ü f rvmaomaMumifh xkt*FgESihf tm½krwjf cif; onf pifppftm;jzifh bm0em\ taMumif;rjzpf[k (odtyf\)/ d H S 367/ þ 14-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdwudk (,Ofaus;El;nHatmif) êudwifrqk;ryJ a½S;uyGg;apNyD; f h H onfh bm0em r½Saoma,m*Donf wefc;zefqif;jcif;ukd NyD;apEkivrrnf[aom þtaMumif;rSm r½Sdacs/ rSefay\? d dk d f d hf l tm;xkwcgp a,m*Drm uokP;y&duudk ûyjcif;onfaomfvnf; 0efav;\? w&mrS wa,mufç waxmifrS f S d f H wa,mufomvQif pGr;Eki\/ uokP;y&duH ûyNyD;aomolrmvnf; y#dbm*edrwudk jzpfapjcif;onf 0efav;\? f d f d f S d f w&mrS wa,mufç waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif pGr;Eki\/ y#dbm*edrwf jzpfay:vwfaomf xk(edrw)ukd yGg;apí f d f d d d f tyÜempsmefudk &jcif;onf 0efav;\? w&mrS wa,mufç waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif pGr;Eki\/ tyÜempsmefudk f d f &NyD;aom olrmvnf; 14-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdwudk (,Ofaus;El;nHatmif) êudwifq;rjcif;onf0efav;\? S f h Hk w&mrS wa,mufç waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif pGr;Eki\/ 14-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdwudk êudwifq;r f d f f Hk NyD;aom olrmvnf; wefc;zefqif; jcif; rnfonf 0efav;\? w&mrSwa,mufç waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif S dk pGr;Eki\/ zefqif;Ekijf cif;okYd a&mufNyD;&NyD;aomolrmvnf; vsijf refpGm ½IEkdif-0ifpm;zefqif; Ekijf cif;rnfonf f d f d S d 0efav;\? w&mrS wa,muf waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif vsijf refpm ½IEi-0ifpm;Eki\/ (tb,fuoYdk enf;[lr) G dk f d f hJ l ax&rÁue;ü r[ma&m[P*kwå rax&ftm; olemûy&ef <uvmukeaom wefc;½Sif ok;aomif;wkYd wif &[ef;odum k f f dk H G © ½Sp0g&onfh &u©w ax&ft½SifuJhokdY aywnf;? xkdt½Si\ tpGr;tmEkabmfudk yx0DuokP;tus,fjyqk&m f d f f d f d yx0DuodPeda'´o (jrefrmjyef yXrwGJ ESm-478)ü jyqkcNhJ yD/ xkd &u©wax&ft½Si\ tpGr;tmEkabmfudk jrifí d d f f r[ma&m[P*kwrax&fu ]]igh½iwYdk tu,fíom &u©wr½SygvQif ]e*g;rif;ukd rapmifa½SmufEiMf ubl;}[k igwkYd å S f d d h dk tm;vk;yif tuJ&UJ cHMu&acsrnf? xkUd aMumifh rdrEitwlaqmifí vSnvnftyfaom vufeuf rnfonfudk tnpf H h d S hf hf taMu; okwoifíomvQif aqmif,vnvnf&efoifayonf}}[lí rdeYf qawmfr\/ xko;aomif;aom &[ef;awmf f l S hf h dk l d Hk wkYd onfvnf; rax&fBuD;\ Mo0g'üwnfí vsifjrefpm ½IEi-0ifpm; zefqif; EkiowYdk jzpfMuavonf/ G dk f d f l qufO;tH?h vsifjrefpm ½IEi-0ifpm; zefqif;Ekijf cif; ½Saomfvnf; olwyg;\ axmufwnf&m-tm;uk;&m D G dk f d d d tjzpfonf 0efav;\? w&mrS wa,mufç waxmifrS wa,mufomvQif (olwyg;\ axmufwnf&m tm;uk;&m) d jzpfEi\? (tb,fuoYdk enf; [lr) *d&b@0g[eylaZmfyü rm&fewfu rD;usD;rk;½Gmapvwfaomf aumif;uifü dk f hJ l d JG d ajrBuD; zefqif;í rD;usD;rk;ukd umuG,f apmifa½Smufaom ax&fuoYdk yifwnf;/ d h hJ a½S;b0wkYd ü tm;xkwrtm;BuD;ukeaom Ak'j¨ rwfpmbk&m;yapöu Ak'gt*¾om0u tp½Saom yk*Kd¾ vfjrwfwYdk f I f G ¨ d rSmrl ,ckjy qkcaom bm0emavhusifytpOfEihf uif;ívnf; t&[wåzvudk &jcif;jzifomvQif þwefc; d hJ h Hk S dk f h dk zefqif;jcif;onf¤if;ç «5» y#dord'gÓPf ponf tjym;½Sueaom tjcm;*kPx;wkYd onf¤if; NyD;pD;jynfpMHk uuke\/ Ç d k f f l h f xkYd aMumifh tqifwefqm txl;ukd ûyvkyvaom a½Tyef;xdrq&monf rD;jzifrwjf cif;ponfwYdk jzifh a½Tudk f dk f h I El;nHatmif trIü cHatmif (ûyvkaomtrIuûdk y&ef oifavsmfatmif) ûyNyD;rSomvQif (vktyfaom tqifwefqm h h d h d txl;uk) ûyvkyouJoYdk ¤if;? tk;cGutxl;ukd ûyvkyvaom tk;vkyorm;onf ajrnufudk aumif;pGme,fNyD; d f h d f f dk d f jzpfatmif El;nHatmif ûyvkyNf yD;rSomvQif (vktyfaom tk;cGuu) ûyvkyouJoYdk ¤if;? xkUd twlyif tbdnmOf&atmif h d d f dk f h tm;xkwcgp a,m*Donf þ14-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdwudk (,Ofaus;El;nHatmif) êudwifq;rNyD;vQif f f h Hk qE´udk OD;aqmifí 0ifpm;jcif;ç pdwuO;aqmifí 0ifpm;jcif;ç 0D&,ukO;aqmifí 0ifpm;jcif;ç ynmukd OD;aqmifí f dk D d d D 0ifpm;jcif;wkYd (wGif wyg;yg;aom 0ifpm;jcif;)\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;? tm0ZÆe0oDtp½Saom 0oDabmfwYdk \ tpGr; f h d f tm;jzif¤if; (pdwu) El;nHatmif vktyfaomtrIü cHatmifûyí wefc;zefqif;rI trsKd;rsKd;twGuf tm;xkwjf cif;ukd h f dk h d h dk ûytyf\/ a½S;b0ü avhvmcJb;aom taMumif;ESijhf ynfpaom yk*Kd¾ vfonfum; uokP;tm½kwYdk üjzpfaom pwkw¬ h l h Hk d f H psmefrQü avhvmNyD;aom 0oDabmf½vQivnf; (wefc;zefqif;rIu)ûy&ef oifay\/ qufO;tH?h wefc;zefqif;rIudk dS f dk dk h D dk NyD;apaom þt&mü tm;xkwoifaom tpDt&ifudk jyawmfrvaom jrwfpmbk&m;onf ]]xk(pwkwpsmef&NyD; f h l dk G d ¬ &[ef;)onf þqkconftwki; pdwonf wnfMunfvwfaomf}}þokYd tp½Saom pum;ukd a[mawmfravonf/ d hJ h d f f d l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

23

368/ xkpum;&yfü ,ckjyqkrnftzGionf ygVdenf;okYd tpOfavQmufojzifomvQif qk;jzwfzijhf ycsuf d d h hf h H G pum;aywnf;/ xkb&m;pum;awmfxü xkonf [lonfum; pwkwpsmefudk &NyD;aom xka,m*D&[ef;onf ([k d k J d ¬ d qkv\)/ d dk þqkconftwki; [laompum;onf pwkwpsmef &yktpOfudk jyaompum;jzpfonf/ ,if;pum;jzifh d hJ h d f ¬ H ]]yxrpsmefudk &jcif; tp½Saom tpOfjzifh pwkwpsmefudk &NyD;í}}[k qkv\/ wnfMunfvwfaomf [lonfum; þ d ¬ d dk pwkwpsmef orm"djzifh wnfMunfvwfaomf ([k qkv\)/ pdwonf[onfum; ½lyg0p&pdwonf ([k qkv\)/ ¬ d dk f l f d dk xuf0ef;usif pifMu,f vwfaomf þokYd tp½Saom (vu©PBud,m)yk'wYdk ü Oayu©mu jzpfaptyfonfh owd\ d f xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fonf\ tjzpfjzifh xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fvwfaomf/ xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif;aMumifyif h vQif xuf0ef;usif jzLpifvwfaomf? ûyd;ûyd;jyufjyufawmufyouJoYdk jzpfvwfaomf[k qkv\/ (&m* a'gowkYd \) h d dk taMumif; jzpfueaom okcESihf aomreóç 'kuEia'greówkYd udk y,faomtm;jzifh &m*a'go[laom t*FPac: k f © S hf udavomwkYd udk y,fNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh t*FP (rnfaom &m*a'gopaom udavom) uif;vwfaomf t*FP rnfaom udavomuif;jcif;aMumifyifvQif npfñ;aMumif; uif;vwfaomf? rSeay\? t*FPrnfaom udavom h l f jzifh xkpwonf npfñ;&acsonf/ aumif;pGmyGg;aptyfNyD; jzpfaomaMumifh El;nHpmjzpfvwfaomf? tvkd½Sdwkdif; d d f l h G jzpfapEkijf cif;[laom 0oDabmfoYdk a&mufvwfaomf [kqv\/ rSeay\? tvküjzpfaom (0g-tvktwki;jzpfaom) d dk dk f d d d f pdwudk El;nHonf[k qktyfayonf/ El;nHjh cif;aMumifyifvQif trIü cHvwfaomf? vktyfaomtrIuûdk y&ef cHvwf f h d h h d h aomf vktyfaomtrIuûdk y&ef oifavsmfvwfaomf[k qkv\/ rSeay\? El;nHaompdwonf aumif;pGmOD;NyD;aom d h d dk f h f a½TuoYdk wefc; zefqif;jcif;paom trIü cHay\ oifavsmay\? xkE;nHjh cif;ç trIü cHjh cif; ESpyg;vk;onfvnf; hJ dk h h f d l f H aumif;pGmyGg;aptyfNyD; jzpfaomaMumifyif (NyD;pD;jynfpayonf)/ (þ tqkonf) h h Hk d ]]&[ef;wkYd ? þpdwonf (yGg;apvQif tBudrrsm;pGm ûyvQifE;nHonf¤if; trIü cHonf¤if;) jzpfouJh f f l h h okYd þtwlyif tMuifw&m;onf yGg;apvQif tBudrrsm;pGm ûyvQif El;nHonf¤if; trIü cHonf¤if; jzpf&m f h h \? pdwrwyg; xkoYdk jzpfEiaom tjcm;w&m; wckurQ igrjrifay}}[k a[mawmfronfEihf tnDyifwnf;/ f S d dk f dk l S þqkcaom xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif; ponfwYdkü wnfaomaMumifh wnfwvwfaomf ([k qkayonf)/ d hJ hH d wnfwjhH cif;aMumifyifvQif rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufvwfaomf ([k qkonf)? ]]rwkevyvwfaomf wkevyjf cif; h f I d f I f f I uif;vwfaomf}}[k qkv\/ wenf;um; El;nHí trIü cHonf\tjzpfjzifh rdrtvkü wnfjcif;aMumifh wnfvwf d dk h h d d aomf ([k qkonf)/ o'¨gponfwYdk u tm;ay;axmufytyfaomaMumifh rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufvwfaomf([k d hH f I qkonf)/ rSeay\? o'¨gu tm;ay;axmufytyfaom pdwonf r,kMH unfjcif;aMumifh rwkevy?f 0D&,u tm;ay; d f hH f f I d axmufytyfaom pdwonf ysi;&djcif;aMumifh rwkevy?f owdu tm;ay;axmufytyfaom pdwonf arhavsmjh cif; hH f f f I hH f aMumifh rwkevy?f orm"du tm;ay;axmufytyfaom pdwonfO'¨paMumifh «6» rwkevy?f ynmu tm;ay; f I hH f ö f I axmufytyfaom pdwonf udavom tarSmifaMumifrwkevy/ þ 6-yg;aomw&m;wkYd u tm;ay; axmufyhH hH f h f I f tyfaompdwonf rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&muf\/ þ qkconftwki; t*Fg½Spyg;ESihf jynfpaom pdwonf xl;aom f f I d hJ h d f f h Hk f ÓPfjzifh rsufarSmuf ûytyf-odjriftyfaomw&m;wkYd udk xl;aomÓPfjzifh rsuarSmufûy&ef-uk,awGU jzpf&eftwGuf f d f (,if;pdwu) a½S;½Iaqmif&efcay\ (oifavsmay\/) f dk hH h f a½S;t|uxmenf;rS wyg;aom zGiyenf;um;-pwkwpsmeform"djzifh wnfMunfvwfaomf/ eD0&PwkYd rS hf Hk ¬ a0;onf\ tjzpfjzifh xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fvwfaomf/ 0dwufponfwYdkudk ausmvejf cif;jzifh xuf0ef;usif jzLpif f G vwfaomf/ psmef&jcif;ukd taMumif;ûyí jzpfwwfueaom ,kwnonfh tvkq;wkYd \ r½Sjd cif;jzifh t*FP rnfaom k f f hH d dk udavom uif;vwfaomf/ pdwudk npfEr;apwwfueaom tbdZÑm ponfwYdk \ uif;jcif;jzifh npfñ;aMumif; f G f k f l Oyuúavouif;vwfaomf/ t*FPuif;jcif;ESihf Oyuúavo uif;jcif; [laom þESpyg;taygif;ukd te*FPokwf d d f 0w¬owwYdk udk tpOfavQmufojzifh odtyf\/ 0oDabmfoYdk a&mufojzifh El;nhpmjzpfvwfaomf/ NyD;ajrmufaMumif; k f H G £'dyg'ftjzpfoYdk a&mufojzifh trIü cHvwfaomf/ yGg;aprIbm0em\ vk;0jynfpjHk cif;aMumifh tjrwfq;tjzpfoYdk ¨ h H h Hk a&mufojzifh wnfwvsuf rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufvwfaomf/ ]]rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufatmif wnfwvwfaomf}} hH f I f I hH þum; qkv&if;teufaywnf;/ þ tzGienf;t&tm;jzifvnf;pdwonf t*Fg½Spyg;ESijhf ynfponfjzpfí xl;aom d dk hf h f f h Hk ÓPfjzifh rsufarSmufûytyf-odjriftyfaom w&m; wkYd udk xl;aomÓPfjzifh rsuarSmufûy&ef uk,awGUjzpf&eftwGuf f d f (,if;pdwu) a½S;½Iaqmif&efcay\? tajccHyg'ujzpfí (wefc;zefqif;jcif; ponf\) eD;aomtaMumif; jzpfay\/ f dk hH dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

24

Ny;D ajrmufjcif;-£'d¨q,fyg;jyqkdcsuf
369/ NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc;zefqif;rI) trsKd;rsKd;tvkYd ig pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\ [l&mü dk S f NyD;ajrmufjcif;ç &jcif;[laom teufaMumifh £'drnf\? NyD;pD;jcif; NyD;ajrmufjcif; teufaMumif¤if;ç &jcif; ¨ h teufaMumif¤if; (£'drnfonf)[k qkv\/ rSeay\? NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmufaomoabmç &tyfaomoabmukd £ZÑwd h ¨ d dk f (NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmuf\ç &\)[k qktyfayonf/ (þtqkonf)d d ]]umrH umr,rmeó? wó ap wH ordZÑwd/}} ]]vkcsifp&m (umr*kP)ukd vkcsifaeaom xdotm; xkvcsifp&monf tu,fí NyD;pD;jynfpjHk im;tH}h }[kd f d k l d dk h a[mawmfronfEihf tnDyifwnf;/ xkYd jyifl S ]]umrtvkrS xGuajrmufroabm (aeu©r)onf (£ZÑwDw) NyD;pD;jynfpwwfç a&muftyf-&tyf d f I ® d h Hk aomaMumifh £'d¨ rnf\? qefYusibufudk y,fwwfaomaMumifh (yg#d[m&d,) jym#d[mrnf\/y/ t&[wå f r*fonf NyD;pD;jynfpwwfç a&muftyfaomaMumifh £'drnf\? qefYusibufudk y,fwwfaomaMumifh h Hk ¨ f (yg#d[m&d,) jym#d[mrnf\}}[k a[mawmfronfEivnf; tnDyifwnf;/ l S hf enf;wyg;um;-NyD;ajrmufapwwfaom teufaMumifh £'drnf\? £'d[aom þtrnfonf taMumif; ¨ ¨ l Oyg,f jynfpjHk cif;\ (0g-taMumif; aumif;jcif;\) trnfaywnf;/ rSeay\? taMumif;Oyg,f\ jynfpjHk cif;onf h f h tvk½tyfaom tusKd;ukd jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh tusKd;ukNd yD;ajrmuf apwwfay\/ (þ tqkdonf) ]]þ pdwå d dS ol<u,fonf oDvESijhf ynfp\? aumif;aom *kPaus;Zl;ESihf jynfpH\? aemiftcgü pMu0aw;rif;jzpfygap[k h Hk f h k tu,fí awmifwjim;tH?h oDvESijhf ynfpaom xko<l u,f\ þpdwuxm;jcif;-awmifwjcif;onf pifMu,faom h h Hk d f dk h aMumifh NyD;ajrmufapEkiayvwH}h }[k a[mawmfronfEihf tnDyifwnf;/ d f l S enf;wyg;um; -þtrIjzifh owå0gwkYd onf jynfpue\? xkoYdkjynfpaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh £'drnf\/ h Hk k f d h Hk ¨ jynfpue\ [lonfrm BuD;yGg;uke\ jrifjh rwfw;wufue\[k qkv\/ h Hk k f S f dk k f d dk £'drnfaom xkd NyD;ajrmufrwefc;onf q,fyg;tjym;½Sd \/ ]]£'dwYdk onf tb,frQ½Suef oenf;[kar; ¨ I dk ¨ d k vQif £'dwYdk onf q,fyg;wkYd wnf; ([k ajz&m\)}}[lonfEihf tnDyif/ wzefvnf; aemufxyf zGiqjdk yefonfrm¨ S hf S q,fyg;aom «7» £'dwYdk onf tb,fonfwYdk enf; (1) t"d|med'-"d|mefzefqif;jcif;wefc;? (2) 0duAe'-yuwd ¨ ¨d dk k Á d ¨d toGiuazsmufí wrsKd;wrnf zefqif;jcif;wefc;? (3) raemr,d'-pdwjf zifNh yD;aom (rdrEihf ykw) zefqif;jcif; f dk dk ¨d d S H l wefc;? (4) ÓP0dyg&d'-ÓPf\ ysUH ESYH jcif;aMumifh NyD;ajrmufaomwefc;? (5) orm"d0yg&d'-orm"d\ ysUH ESYH jcif; dk æ ¨d dk d æ ¨d aMumifh NyD;ajrmufaomwefc;? (6) t&d,'-t&d,mwkYd rm jynfpNHk yD; ajrmufaomwefc;? (7) ur®0yguZd'-uH\ dk d ¨d S h dk d ¨d tusKd;ukrí NyD;ajrmufaom wefc;? (8) ykn0awm£'d-xl;jcm;onfh aumif;rI½iwYdkrm NyD;ajrmuf jynfpaom d DS dk ¨ S f S h Hk wefc;? (9) 0dZmr,d'-0dZmrEÅmefjzifNh yD;aom wefc;? (10) ww¬ ww¬ or®mya,m*ypö,'-xkxt&mü enf;vrf; dk Æ ¨d Æ dk d d¨ d dk rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh NyD;ajrmufaom wefc;/ þq,fyg;wkYd yifwnf;/ f G f I dk 370/ xkwif ]]yuwdtm;jzifh wyg;wnf; jzpfygvsuf trsm;jzpfatmifqifjcif\? w&mukaomf¤if; d G d waxmifuaomf¤if; wode;ukaomf¤if; qifjcifNyD;vQif trsm;jzpfap[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\}}[k þokYd a0befzifh dk f d G qkí jyaom(£'d) wefc;onf "d|mefjcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh NyD;aomaMumifh t"d|med'¨d rnf\/ (1) d ¨ dk f 371/ ]]xkwefc;½Sionf yuwdtoGioP²mefudk y,fpeYf í vkvifysKdtoGiurvnf; jy\? e*g;toGiudk d dk f f G f dk l f *VKef toGiudk bDv;toGiudk odMum;toGiudk ewftoGiudk jA[®mtoGiudk ork'&mtoGif awmiftoGif jcaoFh f l f f f f ´ toGif usm;toGif usm;opftoGif qiftoGif jrif;toGif &xm;toGif ajcvsifwyftoGiuvnf; jy\? trsKd;rsKd; f dk aom ppfwyftaygif;ukvnf; jy\}}[k þokYd a0befjyqkxm;aom wefc;zefqif;jcif;onf yuwd toGioP²mef d d dk f uk d y,fpeYf í azmufjyefajymif;vJaom toGioP²mef\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfaomaMumifh 0duAe'¨d rnf\/ (2) G f f k Á d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

25

372/ ]]þomoemawmfü &[ef;onf þyuwdu,rS wyg;aom tbdnmOfpwaMumifh jzpfaom tjcm; dk f d f ykwu,udk zefqif;\}} þokYd aomenf;jzifh jyqkxm;aom wefc;onf yuwdu,aumifxü tbdnmOfpwaMumifh H l dk f d dk dk f J d f jzpfaom tjcm;ykwu,f NyD;pD;jzpfay:onf\ tpGr;jzifh jzpfaomaMumifh raemr,d'¨d rnf\/ (3) H l dk f 373/ ÓPfjzpfonfrS a½S;üaomf¤if; aemufüaomf¤if; xkcPüaomf¤if; ÓPf\tpGr;aMumifjh zpfaom d f txl;onf ÓP0dyg&d'¨d rnf\/ rSeay\? ]]tedpm Ekyóemjzifh edponmukd y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmuf\? æ f ö ö xkYd aMumifh ÓP0dyg&d'¨d rnf\/y/ t&[wår*fjzifh tvk;pkaom udavomwkYd udk y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmuf\? æ H H xkUd aMumifh ÓP0dyg&d'¨d rnf\? t½SiAmukv\ ÓP0dyæg&d'd¨ukd? t½Sioup\ ÓP0dyæg&d'd¨ukd? t½Sifblwygv\ æ f f H d ö ÓP0dyg&d'udk (odtyf\)}}[k a[mawmfrayonf/ æ ¨d l xkwif t½SiAmukvrax&fonf (ig;&ufom;) uav;i,fb0u r*FvmaeYwif jrpfxü a&csK;ay;aepOf d G f G J d uav;xde;\ arhavsmraMumifh a&pD;aMumif;xJü usom;av\? xkuav;i,fudk ig;BuD;ursKdí Am&mPoD f h I G d qdyurf;okYd a&mufom;av\? ,if;qdyurf;ü xkig;BuD;ukd wHigu zrf;í aoa|;uawmftm; a&mif;vku\? xkd f G f d d f aoa|;uawmfu ig;ü ESpoufaom pdw½ojzifh xkig;ukd iguk,wiyif ûyjyifí csufrnf[Bk uHum cGvwfaomf f f dS d d f dk f J ig;\0rf;xJü a½T½yozG,f wifw,faom oli,fudk awGU&í ]]igonf om;ukd &ayNyD}}[k 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfav k f h \/ «8» þokYd (ypdrb0du) tqk;pGeb0ü wnfaom t½SiAmukvax&f\ ig;0rf;xJü tema&m*g r½Sjd cif; ä H f f qif;&Juif;jcif;onf xkcE¨muk,jf zifyif &tyfvwHaom t&[wår*fÓPf\ tpGr;tmEkabmfaMumifh jzpfojzifh d d h h f ÓP0dyg&d'¨d rnf\/ 0w¬Kukrl tus,ftm;jzifh (Oy&dyPÖmot|uxm ESm 135? t*Fw& t|uxm {w'*¾0*fwYdk ü æ d k å jyxm;onftwki;) qktyf \/ h d f d xkrwyg; oHupax&f\ rdcifonf ,if;oli,f 0rf;xJü½SpOfyif aoqk;ojzifh xkre;r\ tavmif;ukd d S d ö d H d d f xif;ykxufoYdk wifí wHp;0g;wkYd jzifh xk;í rD;½IUd aomtcg oli,f\ rsufaxmifudk wHp;0g;pGe;jzifh xk;rdí oli,fu H l d h l f d toHûyavonf? xktcg oli,f touf½iaeao;aMumif; odMuojzifh tavmif;ukd xif;ykrcsí 0rf;ukcum oli,f d S f H S d JG ukd xkw,Nl yD;vQif olUtzGm;xH tyfMuav\? xkoi,fonf tzGm;jzpfou ûypkarG;jrLí BuD;jyif;vmaomtcg f d l l ½Si&[ef;ûyNyD; y#dord'gav;yg;ESiwuG t&[wåzvoYdk a&mufawmfravonf/ ("r®y'-| y-426-Munf) þokYd f Ç hf dk f l h qkcaomenf;jzifyif rD;½IUd &m xif;ykay:ü t½Sioup\ tema&m*g uif;jcif;onf ÓP0dyg&d'rnf\/ d hJ h H f H d ö æ ¨d xkrwyg; blwygvrnfaom oli,f\ zcifonf &mZû*d[ûf rdUü (xif;a&mif;pm;&aom) vlqif;&Jaywnf;? d S xkd vlqif;&Jonf xif;twGuf vSn;jzifh awmokYd om;NyD;vQif xif;0efudk vSn;üwifí jyefvmcJ&m naecsrf;tcsdef f G f h ü ûrdUteD;okYd a&muf\? xkdtcg ol\EGm;wkYd onf xrf;yk;ukd pGeYf vwxuajy;um ûrdUwGi;okYd 0ifom;Muav\/ xkd d T f G f f G vlqif;&Jonf vSn;teD;ü om;oli,fudk xkiaeapNyD;vQif EGm;wkYd \aemufoYdk vkuom;&m ûrdUwGi;okYd yifvQif f d f d f G f 0ifom;&av\? xkvqif;&J ûrdUjyifoYdk rxGu&ao;rDyif (tcseusojzif) ûrdUwHcg;ukd ydwav\/ oli,frm ûrdUjyif G d l f d f h f S bDv;Murf;wkYd \ usupm;&mt&yfü nOfo;,mrfywfv; (wa,mufwnf; ae&aomfvnf;) ab;&eftEÅ&m,f l f h Hk Hk uif;jcif;onf qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzihyif ÓP0dyg&d'¨d aywnf;/ 0w¬Kukrl ("r®y't|uxm 'k 284-ü jyqkxm;onfh d f æ d d twki;) csJUí odtyf\/ (4) d f 374/ orm"drS a½S;üaomf¤if;? aemufüaomf¤if;? xkcPüaomf¤if; orxtmEkabmfaMumifh jzpfaom txl; d onf orm"d0yg&d'¨d rnf\/ rSeay\? ]]yXrpsmefjzifh eD0&PwkYd udk y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmuf\? xkUd aMumifh d æ f orm"d0yg&d'rnf \/y/ ae0onmemonm,we ormywfjzifh tmudOnm,wem onmukd y,fjcif; oabmonf d æ ¨d ö NyD;ajrmuf\? xkUd aMumifh orm"d0yg&d'¨d rnf\/ t½Sifom&dykwå&m\ orm"d0yg&d'u?dk t½SioOÆ0\ orm"d0yg&d'¨d d æ d æ ¨d f D d æ ukd? t½SifcgPkaum@n\ orm"d0yg&d'u?dk Owå&mrnfaom Oygodumr\ orm"d0yg&d'u?dk omrm0wD rnfaom d æ ¨d d æ ¨d Oygodumr\ orm"d0yg&d'udk (odtyf\)}}[k a[mawmfrayonf/ d æ ¨d l xkwitcgwyg;ü t½Siom&dyw&mrax&fonf t½Siarm*¾vmefrax&fEitwl uaygwrnfaom acsmufü d G f f k å f S hf vomaeaom nOftcgwGif [if;vif;jyift&yfü oDwif;ok;vsuf xkiaepOf acgif;&dwNf yD;pjzpfí (va&mifjzifh h H d f awmufyaeaom t½Sif om&dyw&m\) OD;acgif;ukd bDv;qk;wa,mufonf tazmfbv;u wm;jrpfygvsuf jyif;pGm k å l d D l ykwcwfav\? ,if;ykwcwfjcif;\ toHonf rk;csKH;oHuoYdk yif «9» jrnfav\? xktcg t½Siom&dyw&m f f d hJ d f k å rax&fonf xkbv;ykwcwfqtcseü ormywfudk 0ifpm;awmfrav\/ xkdtcgüt½Sif om&dykwå&mrax&frm xkd d D l f J d f l S bDv; ykwcwfjcif;aMumifh emusifrI wpkwckrQrjzpfay/ xkt½Siom&d ykw&m\ þokYd emusirrjzpfjcif;onf orm"d l f H d f å f I 0dyg&d'aywnf;/ 0w¬Ktus,frmrl O'gef;ygVdawmf (ESm-123)ü vmonfomwnf;/ æ ¨d S

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

26

xkrwyg; eda&m"ormywf 0ifpm;aeaom oOÆ0rax&fudk aoqk; (ysHawmfr) aeonfxifrwí EGm;ausmif; d S D H l S f om; ponfwYdk u jrufç xif;ç EGm;acs; ponfwYdk udk pkyí rD;½IUd Mu\? okYd aomf rax&f\ouFe;ü csnf wrQirQ rD; Hk f f ravmifay/ xkoOÆ0rax&f\þokYd r;ravmifjcif;onf tpOftwki; 0ifpm;aom ormywfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifjh zpf d D D d f f aom orxtmEkabmftm;jzifh NyD;jcif;aMumifh orm"d0yg&d'aywnf;/ 0w¬Ktus,frm rlvyPÖmorm&wZÆe,okwf d æ ¨d S D (409)ü vm½Say\/ d xkrwyg; t½SicgPkaum@nrax&fonf taMumif;xl;r½SyJ yuwdoabmtm;jzifyifvQif ormywf0if d S f d h pm;jcif; rsm;ayonf? xkrax&fonf awmwck0,f nOftcgü ormywfudk 0ifpm;vsuf xkiaeawmfr\? ck;ol d h d f l d ig;&mwkYd onf ypön;b@mukd ck;,lcMhJ uNyD;vQif (½GmrS) xGuom; ukevwfaomf ]],cktcg igwkYd aemufoYdk vkuvm f d f G f d f olrsm;r½SMd u}}[k odMuojzifh tyef;ajz em;aeMu vkaomaMumifh ck;xkyb@mwkYd udk csxm;Muaomtcg ]]þt&m d d f onf opfiwyif}}[k xifrwMf uí rax&f\ txufü tvk;pkaom b@mwkYd udk xm;Muav\? ,if;ck;olwYdk onf k f S H H d tyef;ajz em;aeNyD;aemuf oGm;Murnfûy&mwGif a½S;OD;pGm csxm;aom b@mxkyudk ,laomtcgü rlvut"d|mefûy f xm;aom umvtyki;tjcm;\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh t½SifcgPkaum@nrax&fonf ormywfrS xawmfrav\/ xkd d f l ck;olwYdk onf rax&f\ vIy½m;aom tjcif;t&mukd jrifMu&í aMumufvefYMuaomaMumifh [pfatmf jrnfwrf; d f S uke\/ rax&fu ]]OygoumwkYd raMumufMuukevif?h ig&[ef;yg}}[kq\/ xkc;olwYdk onf vmMuukeí ½Sc; f f dk d dk f d dk MuNyD;vQif rax&fü jzpfaom Munfñjdk cif;jzifh ½Si&[ef; ûyMuí y#dord'gÓPfwYdk EiwuG t&[wåzvoYdk f Ç S hf dk f a&mufMuav\/ þ0w¬Kü b@mxkyf ig;&mwkYd jzifh tzdc&aom t½SicgPkaum@nrax&f\ emusifrr½Sjd cif;onf H f I orm"d 0dyg&d'aywnf;/ æ ¨d xkrwyg; Owå&mrnfaom Oygodumronf ykPaoa|;\ orD;jzpfonf? (,if;Owå&mu olUcifye;tm; d S Ö G f vkyauR; ûypk&ef iSg;&ef;xm;aom) jynfwefqmr oD&rmonf remvkaomaMumifh xkaoa|;orD; Owå&m\ acgif; f d d d ay:ü avmavmylaom qDy&nfudk oGe;avmif;csvku\/ Owå&monf xkcPüyif (oD&rm\ aus;Zl;ukd qifjcifí) l f d f d d arwåmpsmefudk 0ifpm;vku\? qDonf Mumzufay:rS a&aygufuoYdk pD;qif; vdrusoGm;av\/ xkOwå&m d f hJ hf d Oygodumr\ þokYd qDyravmifjcif;onf orm"d0yg&d'¨d aywnf;/ 0w¬Kukrl ("r®y't|uxm 17-0*fEihf t*Fw& l d æ d S k å t|uxm {w'*¾0*fwYdk ü jyxm;onftwki;) csJUíodtyf\/ h d f omrm0wD (rnfaom Oygodumr) onfOawebk&if\t*¾ra[oD rdz&m;BuD;jzpfonf/ rm*@DyPm;onf k k Ö rdr\ (arG;pm;) orD;jzpform*@D\ t*¾ra[oDrz&m;BuD;\ t&mukd ajr§mvifh awmifwvsuf xkomrm0wD\ d l d k f h d apmif;xJü «10» a>rqk;ukd xnfapNyD;vQif Oawerif;ukd ]]rif;BuD; omrm0wDonf t½Sirif;Bu ;ukd aoapvkaom d h f D d aMumifapmif;xJü a>rqk;ukxnfum aqmifxm;ygonf}}[k *k;acsmajymqk\/ Oawerif;onf xka>rukd awGUjrifí h d d h H d d trsuxuaomaMumifh omrm0wDudk owfrnf[k BuHum av;wifNyD;vQif tqdyv;aom pOf; oGm;jrm;ukd zGUJ ,SOf f G f f l av\/ ta>ct&H ig;&mESiwuGaom omrm0wDonf Oawe bk&ifrif;ukd arwåmjzifh jzefYav\/ Oawebk&ifonf hf jrm;ukd ypfvnf; rypfEif csvnf; rcsEiyJ wkevyvsuf wnfaeav\/ xktcgomrm0wD rdz&m;u ]]yifyef; dk dk f f I f d k aeovm;rif;BuD;}}[k ar;vku\/ ]]at;yifyef;aeygw,f}}[k rif;BuD;uqk\/ ]]okYd jzpfvQif av;ukd csxm;vkufyg d f d d avmh}}[k omrm0wDuqk\/ jrm;onf rif;\ ajc&if;üomvQif usav\/ xktcg omrm0wD rdz&m;u ]]rif;BuD; d d k rjypf rSm;wwfaomoludk rjypfrm;aumif;bl;}}[k Mo0g'ay;av\/ þ0w¬Kü Oawerif;onf jrm;ukd ypfvw&ef S T f rpGr;Edif jcif;onf omrm0wD Oygodumr\ orm"d0yg&d'aywnf;/ (5) f k d æ ¨d 375/ xkrwyg; pufqyz,tm½kH ponfwYdk ü pufqyz,f r[kw[k trSw½vsufaejcif; tp½Saom d S k f G f k f G f f dS d NyD;ajrmufrI wefc;onf t&d,'rnf\/ þtqkEitnD rdeYf qcsufrmdk d ¨d d S hf dk S ]]t&d,mwkdY\ Opömjzpfaom NyD;ajrmufrwefc;onf tb,fenf;/ þomoemawmfü &[ef;onf pufqyf I dk k zG,tm½kü pufqyz,r[kw[k trSw½vsuf aevkonf[k tu,fí tvk½jdS im;tH?h xktm½kü pufqyz,f r[kwf f H k f G f f f dS d d d H k f G [k trSw½vsuf aeEki\/ pufqyz,r[kwaomtm½kü pufqyz,[k trSw½vsuf aevkonf[k tu,fí f dS d f k f G f f H k f G f f dS d tvky½jdS im;tH?h xktm½kü pufqyz,[k trSw½vsuf aeEki\/ pufqyz,tm½kü¤if; pufqyz,f r[kwaom f d H k f G f f dS d f k f G f H k f G f tm½kü¤if; pufqyz,r[kw[k trSw½vsuf aevkonf[k tu,fí tvky½jdS im;tH?h xktm½küpuf qkyz,f H k f G f f f dS d f d H f G r[kw[k trSw½vsufaeEki\/ pufqyz,f r[kwaom tm½kü¤if; pufz,f tm½kü¤if; pufqyz,[k trSwf f f dS d f k f G f H G H k f G f ½Svsufaevkonf[k tu,fí tvk½jdS im;tH?h xktm½küpufqyz,[k trSw½vsuf aeEki\/ pufqkyfzG,f tm½kHü d d d d H k f G f f dS d f ¤if; pufqyz,r[kwaom tm½kü¤if; xkEprsKd;vk;ukd MuOfy,fNyD; vspfvsL½Ium trSw&vsuf rSepmodvsuf k f G f f H d S f H f f G

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

27

aevkonf[k tu,fí tvk½jdS im;tH?h xktm½kü vspfvsL½Ium trSw&vsuf rSepmodvsuf aeEki\}} [laom þ d d d H f f G d f y#dord'gr*f aywnf;/ Ç rSeay\/ þokYd tvk½wi; NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf pdw\ 0oDabmfoYdk a&mufueaom t&d,m yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk f d dS dk f f k f tm;omvQif jzpfoifaomaMumifh t&d,'¨d [k qktyfayonf/ h d d csJUíjy&vQif þt&d,'Eihf jynfpaom tmoa0gukeNf yD; (&[EÅm)&[ef;onf pufqyz,jf zpfaom ted|m½kH d ¨d S h Hk k f G 0w¬Kü arwåmjzifjh zefYjcif;ukd jzpfap? "mwfoabm[k ESv;oGi;jcif;ukd jzpfap ûyvsuf pufqyz,r[kw[k trSwf Hk f k f G f f ½Sdvsufae\/ pufqyz,r[kwaom £|m½k0w¬Kü tokb[k jzefYjcif;ukd jzpfap? tedp[k ESv;oGi;jcif;ukd k f G f f H ö Hk f jzpfap ûyvsuf pufqyz,[k ½Ivsufae\/ xkUd twlyif pufqyz,tm½kH pufqyz,f r[kwaom tm½kwYdk ü k f G f k f G f k f G f H xkarwåmjzifh jzefYjcif;ukyif jzpfap? xk"mwfoabm[k ESv;oGi;jcif;ukyif jzpfap ûyvsuf pufqyz,f r[kw[k d d d Hk f d k f G f trSwf½Sdvsufae\/ pufqyz,f r[kwaomtm½kH pufqyz,f tm½kwYdk üvnf; xktokb[k jzefYjcif;ukyif jzpfap? k f G f k f G H d d xktedp[k ESv;oGi;jcif;ukyif jzpfapvsuf ûyvsuf pufqyz,f [ktrSwf ½Svsufae\/ ]]rsufpjd zifh tqif;ukd d ö Hk f d k f G d jrifNyD;vQif 0rf;ajrmufonfvnf;r[kwf ESv;romonfvnf;r[kwf trSw&onf rSepmodonf jzpfí vspfvsL½I Hk f f G vsuf ae\/}} þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh a[mxm;aom qV*kayu©mukd jzpfapvsuf (0g-jzpfapaom &[ef;onf) d F pufqyz,tm½kü¤if;? pufqyz,r[kwaom tm½kü¤if; xkEprsKd;vk;ukd MuOfy,fí vspfvsL½Ium trSw&onf k f G f H k f G f f H d S f H f rSepmodonfjzpfí ae\? (0g-aeonf rnf\)/ rSeay\? y#dord'gr*fü ]]pufqyz,tm½kü pufqyz,r[kw[k f G f Ç k f G f H k f G f f trSw½vsuf tb,foYdk aeoenf;/ ted|m½k0w¬Kü arwåmjzifrvnf; jzefY\? "mwfoabmtm;jzifrvnf; ½Iqifjcif f dS H h l h l \}} þokYd tp½Saom enf;jzifh ,ckjycJaom teufuyif a0befxm;ayonf/ þokYd tvk½wi; NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf d h dk d dS dk f pdw\0oDabmfoYdk a&mufueaom t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfwYdk tm;omvQif jzpfoifaomaMumifh t&d,'[k qktyfayonf/ f k f h d ¨d d (6) «11» 376/ xkdrSwyg; iSufponfwkdY\ aumif;uifü oGm;jcif;tp½Saom NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf ur®0yguZd'¨d d d rnf\/ þtqkEitnD rdeYf qcsufrmd S hf dk S ]]uH\tusKd;ukd rSíjzpfaom NyD;ajrmufjcif;wefc;onf tb,fenf;/ tvk;pkaom iSuwYdk \¤if;? D dk H H f tvk;pkaom ewfwYdk \¤if;? tcsKdUaom (urÇmOD;om;) vlwYdk\¤if;? tcsKdUaom 0deygwduac: ajrwnfewf H H d wkYd \¤if; (aumif;uifü oGm;Ekijf cif; tp½Saom wefc;onf ½S\)? þwefc;onf ur®0yguZd'¨d rnf\}} d d dk d dk d [laom y#dord'gr*faywnf;/ Ç rSeay\? þowå0gwkYd wif tvk;pkaom iSuwYdk \ (tbdnmOf) psmefvnf;r½Sd 0dyóemvnf;r½SyJ f G H H f d aumif;uifjzifh oGm;jcif;onf¤if;? xkUd twlyif psmef0yóemr½SygyJ tvk;pkaom ewfwYdk \¤if;? urÇmOD;om;tcsKdU d d H H vlwYdk \¤if;? (aumif;uifjzifh oGm;jcif;onf¤if;)? xkUd twlyif yd,uF&\rdcif ajrbkwbv;rç Owå&\rdcif f D l ajrbkwbv;rç zkórdwm rnfaom ajrbkwbv;rç "r®*wmrnfaom ajrbkwbv;r tp½Sueaom tcsKdUaom f D l å f D l k å f D l d k f 0deygwdu ac: ajrwnfewfwYdk \aumif;uifjzifh oGm;jcif;onf¤if; ur®0yguZd'rnf\/ (7) d d ¨d 377/ xkrwyg; pMu0aw;rif; ponfwYdk \ aumif;uifjzifom;jcif; tp½Saom NyD;ajrmufjcif; wefc;onf d S h G d dk ykn0awm£'d¨ (xl;jcm;aomaumif;rI½Sif\ NyD;ajrmufjcif;wefc;) rnf\/ þtqkEitnD rdeYf qcsufrmdk d S hf dk S ]]ykn0awm£'donf tb,fenf;/ pMu0aw;rif;onf t,kwq;tm;jzifh jrif;xde; EGm;xde;wkYd rS ¨ f Hk f f pí t*Fgav;yg; ½Saom ppfwyfEiwuG aumif;uifjzifom;\/ aZmwduaoa|;\ (jynfpjHk cif;onf) d S hf h G h ykn0awm£'daywnf;? Z#dvaoa|;\ (jynfpjHk cif;onf) ykn0awm£'daywnf;? aCmodwaoa|;\ ¨ h ¨ (jynfpjHk cif;onf) ykn0awm£'d¨ aywnf;? ar@u aoa|;\ (jynfpjHk cif;onf) ykn0awm£'daywnf;? h h ¨ bke;uHBuD;rm;ol ig;OD;wkYd \ (xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jynfpjHk cif;onf) ykn0awm£'d¨ aywnf;}}[laom y#dorÇ'g f h d r*faywnf;/ tusO;csKyftm;jzifrum; &ifusujf cif;okYd a&mufaom aumif;rItaqmuftOD;aMumifh NyD;ajrmuf jynfpaom f h l h h Hk txl;0daooonf ykn0awm£'d¨ rnf\/ t>rufrQjy&vQif þbke;uHBuD;olwYdk wif aZmwduaoa|;rSm ajrBuD;ukd f G azmufcí ywåjrm;jymom'f xGuay:cJav\? ya'omyif 64-ckvnf; xGuay:cJ\? þtxl;onf xkaZmwdu\ JG f h f h d ykn0awm£'d¨ aywnf;/ Z#dvaoa|;rSm tawmif½pq,f½aom a½Tawmifaygufc\/ aCmodwaoa|;tm; S f dS hJ

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

28

ckepfcaom t&yfwYdk ü aoap&ef vkUH vûyaomfvnf; a&m*gr½Sjd cif;-aoab;uif;jcif;onf ykn0awm£'daywnf;/ k ¨ ar@uaoa|;rSm wpfy,frQ½Saomt&yfü &wemckepfyg;jzifNh yD;aom (qdwf ukvm;ac:) ok;½kywYdk \ xif½m;jzpfay: d d f S vmjcif;onf ykn0awm£'daywnf;/ ¨ bke;uHBuD;rm;ol ig;OD;wkYd rnfonfrm (1) ar@uaoa|;? (2) ¤if;\ aoa|;uawmf pE´y'krod&?D (3) f S ¤if;wkYd \om;jzpfol "eOö,aoa|;? (4) acR;rjzpfol okrema'0D? (5) ykPrnfaom (¤if;wkYd \) uRef? þig;OD;wkYd Ö aywnf;/ xkig;OD;wkYd wif ar@aoa|;onf acgif;aq; (avQmf) NyD;í aumif;uifudk armfMunfaomtcgü oav;eD d G h pyg;wkYd onf aumif;uifrS (usvmukeí) pyg;usDwaomif; ESpaxmifig;&mwkYd udk jynfapukef\/ aoa|;uawmf f f h pE´y'krod&onf wpv,fcsurQ xrif;ukaomfvnf; (olU vufjzifuií) ZrÁL'dywuRe;vk;aevlwYdkudk auR;aomf D f d h dk f f f H vnf; xrif;onf rukeay/ om;jzpfol "eOö,onf aiGwaxmifxyudk ukií ZrÁL'dywuRef;vk;aevlwYdk tm; f k f d f f H ay;urf;aomfvnf; (aiGwYdk onf) rukef Muay/ acR;rjzpfol okrema'0Donf «12» pyg;wkYd jzifh jynfaom jynfawmif; h wckuuií ZrÁL'dywuRef;vk;ae vlwYdk tm;a0iSay;aomfvnf; pyg;onf rukeay/ ykPrnfaomuRefonf wck dk dk f f H f Ö wnf;aomx,fjzifh x,fx;vQif þbufrS ckepfaMumif; xkbufrS ckepfaMumif; þokYd 14-ckaom x,fa&;vrf; dk d aMumif;wkYd onf jzpfue\/ þokYd xl;xl;jcm;jcm; NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf xkig;OD;wkYd \ ykn0awm£'daywnf;/ (8) k f d ¨ 378/ xkrwyg; 0dZm"k&f ponfwYdk \ aumif;uifjzifom;jcif; tp½Saom NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf 0dZmr,d'¨d d S Æ d h G d Æ rnf\/ þtqkdESifhtnD rdefYqcsufrmdk S ]]0dZmr,d'onf tb,fenf;/ 0dZm"k&wYdk onf *E¨m&D0Zm tp½Saom rEÅmefudk (rEÅmef½wenf;jzif) Æ ¨d Æ d f d Æ d G f h ½Gwzwfueí (rEÅmefpyueí) aumif;uifoYdk wufom;uke\? a&;jcpfrxifonfh aumif;uifü qifwyf f k f k f k f G f ukvnf; jyuke\? jrif;wyfuvnf; jyuke\? &xm;wyfuvnf;jyuke\? ajcvsiwyfuvnf; jyuke\? d f dk f dk f f dk f trsKd;rsKd;aom ppfwyftaygif;ukvnf; jyuke\}}[laom y#dorÇ'gr*faywnf;/ (9) d f d 379/ xkrwyg; xkxoYdk aomNyD;pD;jynfpaMumif; enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwjf cif;aMumifh xkxdk trI\ NyD;pD; d S d dk h Hk f G d jynfpjHk cif;onf ]]xkxt&mü enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh NyD;ajrmufaomwefc; (£'d)}} rnf\/ þtqkdESifh h d dk f G f I dk ¨ tnD rdeYf qcsufrmdk S ]]umrtvkrxuajrmufrI (aeu©r)jzifumrpäEudk y,fjcif; uif;apjcif;onf NyD;ajrmuf\? þokYd d S G f ® h ´ NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf xkxdk t&mü enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh NyD;ajrmufjcif; teufoabmtm;jzifh d f G f I NyD;ajrmufaom wefc;(£'d) rnf\/ jypfrm;rI\qefYusifbuf ta'go-arwåmjzifh Asmyg'ukd y,fjcif; dk ¨ S oabmonf NyD;ajrmuf\? þokYd NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf xkxt&mü enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh d dk f G f I NyD;ajrmufjcif; teufoabmtm;jzifh NyD;ajrmufaom wefc; (£'d) rnf\/y/ yXrpsmefjzifh eD0&PwkYd udk dk ¨ y,fjcif; oabmonf/y/ t&[wår*fjzifh tvk;pkaom udavomwkYd udk y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmuf\? H H þokYd NyD;ajrmufjcif;onf xkxt&mü enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh NyD;ajrmufjcif; teufoabmtm; d dk f G f I jzifh NyD;ajrmufaom wefc; (£'d) rnf\}}[laom y#dorÇ'gr*f aywnf;/ dk ¨ d þaemufq;£'dudk tus,fjy&müvnf; tusify#dywf[k qktyfaom xkenf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwruom Hk ¨ h d d f G f I dk vQijf yonf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh a½S; (orm"d0yg&d'¨d ponfudk tus,fjyonf) ygVdEihf wlonfomvQif jzpfaom f d æ h S tus,fjyaom ygVdonf vm½S\/ (,if;\tzGi) t|uxmürlum; vSn; ppfqifa&; (ou#AsL[m) (puf0i;ppf d hf f dk f qifa&; puúAsL[mç y'krmppfqifa&; y'krAsL[m) ponfwYdkudk ûyjcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh trSwr½Sd wpkwckaom ® f f H (ppftwwf *Pef;twwf uacsonftwwf paom) twwfynmtrIu¤if;ç trSwr½Sd wpkwckaom (cGpwf dk f H J d ukojcif; paom) aq;ynmtrIu¤if;ç aA'if ok;ykoif,jl cif;uk¤if;ç yd#uwfo;ykH oif,jl cif;uk¤if;ç t,kwfqkH; dk H H d Hk d tyki;tjcm;tm;jzifh xGejf cif; pkuysKd;jcif;ponfwYdk udk pGrí xkxtrIudk ûyvkyí jzpfay:vmaom txl;onf xkxdk d f d f J DS d dk f d t&mü enf;vrf;rSepm tm;xkwraMumifh NyD;ajrmufjcif;teufoabmtm;jzifh NyD;ajrmufaomwefc; (£'d) rnfonf f G f I dk ¨ [lí vm½Sd\/ (10) ,ckjycJonftwki; q,fyg;aom þNyD;ajrmufrI (wefc; zefqif;rI-£'d)wkYd wif ]]NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc; h h d f dk ¨ G dk zefqif;rI) trsKd;rsKd; tvkYd ig}}[laom þyk'ü t"d|med'-t"d|mefzefqif;jcif; wefc;onfomvQif vm½Sayonf? S f ¨d dk d okYd aomfvnf; (tbdnmedoo[k qktyfaom? 0g-£'d0"[k qktyfaom) þt&mü 0duAe'Eihf raemr,d'¨d H d ¨ d d k Á d ¨d S wkdYukdvnf; tvkd½Sdtyf-,ltyfueonfomvQiwnf;/ k f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

29

380/ £'d0"m, [lonfum; NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc;zefqif;rI) tzkYd tvkYd ig? wenf;um; NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc; ¨ d dk S dk zefqif;rI)trsKd;rsKd;tvkUd iSg ([kqv\)/ pdwfukda½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\ [lonfum; xkwefc;½Si&[ef;onf dk dk d dk f qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;\tpGr;tm;jzifh xkpwkwpsmefpwonf tbdnmOf\ tajccHjzpfvwfaomf trsKd;rsKd;taxGaxG d f d ¬ d f NyD;ajrmufrI (wefc;zefqif;rI) ukd &&eftusKd;iSg êudwifjyifqifrI (y&du) pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmif\? uokdPf; tm½kHrS dk H f zJcgapí taxGaxG trsKd;rsKd; NyD;ajrmufrI (zefqif;rI)okYd a½S;½I apvTw\([k qkvd\)/ a½S;½InGwfap\ G f d k [lonfum; &tyfvwHaom NyD;ajrmufrI (zefqif;rI)okYd uki;½Ii;onfudk ûy\([k qkv\)/ xkd (&[ef;)onf h d f d f d dk [lonfum; þqkconftwki; pdwua½S;½IaqmifNyD;aom xk&[ef;onf([k qkv\)/ taeu 0d[w[onfum; d hJ h d f f dk d d dk d H l rsm;aomtzkYd ½aom rsm;aomtjym;½Saom ([k qkv\)/ £'d0"H [lonfum; NyD;ajrmufrI tzkYd udk (0g-NyD;ajrmufrI dS d d dk ¨ d trsKd;rsKd;-zefqif;rI trsKd;rsKd;uk) ([kqv\)/ ypöEabmwd [lonfum; rsuarSmuf cHpm;\ «13» ]]awGU\ d dk dk k f rsuarSmufûy\ a&muf\}}-þum; rsuarSmufcpm;\ [laompum;\ teuf/ ,cktcg ,if;NyD;ajrmufrI (zefqif; f f H rI)\ rsm;aom tjym;½Sonf\ tjzpf (rsm;jym;jcif;)ukd jyvkaomaMumifh ]]{aumyd [kwm-wyg;wnf;vnf; d d G jzpfygvsuf}} tp½Saom pum;ukd rdeYf qawmfravonf/ xkpum;&yfü wyg;wnf;vnf;jzpfyg vsuf [lonfum; d dk l d zefqif;jcif; wefc;ukûd yonfrS a½S;ü yuwdtm;jzifh wyg;wnf;vnf; jzpfygvsuf ([k qkv\)/ trsm;jzpf\ dk d dk [lonfum; trsm;wkYd \teD;ü pBuøom;vkíaomf¤if;? ½Gwqjdk cif;ukd ûyvkíaomf¤if;? jyóemukd ar;vkíaomf¤if; G d f d d w&maomfvnf;jzpf\? waxmifaomfvnf;jzpf\/ þwefc;½Sif &[ef;onf tb,foYdk aomenf;jzifh þokYd jzpf dk oenf;/ NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc;(£'d)\ 4-yg;aom bk-tqifwYdk u¤if;? 4-yg;aom (yg')taMumif; I dk ¨ H h dk wkYd u¤if;? 8-yg;aom (y') tao;pdwf taMumif;wkYd u¤if;? 16-yg;aom (rlv) tjrpft&if;wkYd u¤if; jynfpapí dk dk dk h Hk ÓPfjzifh t"d|mefvsuf (þokYd jzpfayonf)/ 381/ xkwif 4-yg;aom bk-tqifwYdk [lonfrm 4-yg;aompsmefwYdk yif-[k odtyfue\/ rSeay\? d G H h S k f f w&m;ppfoBl uD; jzpfaom t½Siom&dyw&monff k å ]]NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)\ 4-yg;aombkH tqifwYdk onf tb,fonfwYdk enf;/ I dk ¨ h yXrpsmefonf eD0&P uif;qdwjf cif;aMumifh jzpfaom (0da0uZ) bkaywnf;/ 'kw,psmefonf yDwoc H d d k [laom (0g) yDwocaMumifh jzpfaom bkaywnf;/ wwd,psmefonf Oayu©mokc[laom (0g) Oayu©m d k H okcaMumifh jzpfaom bkaywnf;/ pwkwpsmefonf t'kurokc[laom (0g) 'kuocr[kwonfh Oayu©m H ¬ © © k f aMumifjh zpfaom bkHaywnf;/ þ4-yg;wkYd onf NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI wefc;(£'d)\ bktqifwYdk aywnf;? I dk ¨ H h þ bktqifwYdk onf NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)uk&jcif;iSg wefc; (£'d)ukd tzefzef &jcif;iSg H h I dk ¨ d dk ¨ trsKd;rsKd; wefc; zefqif;jcif;iSg wefc;\ tusKd; trsKd;rsKd;ukd &jcif;iSg wefc;zefqif;rIü tvktwki; dk dk dk d d f jzpfapEkijf cif;iSg wefc; zefqif;rIü &J&ifjh cif;iSg jzpfue\}} [laom þpum;ukd rdeYf qdk (tyf)ayonf/ d dk k f qufí ½Si;jytH?h þ psmefav;yg;wkYd wif a½S;psmefo;yg;wkYd udk (wefc;½Sifonf) yDw\ ysUH ESUH jcif;jzifh¤if; f G Hk dk d okc\ ysHUESUH jcif;jzif¤if; psmefcsrf;omESihf ,SOonfh trSwonmokYd ¤if; ayghyg;jcif;ESihf ,SOonfh trSwonmokYd ¤if; h f f f f oufa&mufí ayghyg;El;nHtrIücHaom uk,½onfjzpfí NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)okYd a&muf\? xk(okYd h h d f dS I dk ¨ d a&muf&aom)aMumifh þokdYaom y&d,m,ftaMumif;jzifh NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd &jcif;iSgjzpfjcif; I dk ¨ aMumifh yuwdb\ taMumif;taqmuf ttkjH zpfaom (orÇm&)bkwYdk [í odtyfue\/ pwkwpsmefonfum; Hk H l k f ¬ NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd &jcif;iSg yuwdbHk aywnf;/ I dk ¨ 382/ £'dyg'f av;yg;wkYd udk av;yg;aom (yg') taMumif;wkYd [í odtyfue\/ rSeay\¨ l k f f ]]NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc;(£'d)\ av;yg;aom (yg')taMumif;wkYd onf tb,fonfwYdk enf;/ I dk ¨ þ omoemawmf ü &[ef;onf qE´(vGeuaom) orm"dç jyif;pGm tm;xkwrocFg&wkYd Eihf jynfpaom f J f I S h Hk £'dyg'fudk yGg;ap\? 0D&, (vGeuaom) orm"d/y/ pdwf (vGeuaom) orm"d/y/ 0Drom (ynmvGef ¨ d f J f J H uJaom) orm"dç jyif;pGmtm;xkwrI (y"me) ocFg&wkYd Eihf jynfpaom £'dyg'fudk yGg;ap\/ þ av;yg; f S h Hk ¨ wkYd onf NyD;ajrmufrI zefqif;rI wefc; (£'d)\ (yg') taMumif; wkYd aywnf;? þ (yg') taMumif;wkYd onf dk ¨ NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc;ukd &jcif;iSg/y/ wefc;zefqif;rIü &J&ifjh cif;iSg jzpfue\}}[laom þpum;ukd I dk dk k f qktyfayonf/ d qufí zGijhf yOD;tH?h þygXfü qE´vQif taMumif;½Saomç okYd r[kwf qE´veuaom orm"donf qE´orm"d d G f J rnf\? þtrnfonf ûyvkjd cif;[laom (uwåKurswm) qE´udk tBuD;trª;ûyí&aom orm"d\ trnfaywnf;/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

30

jyif;pGmtm;xkwrI jzpfueaom ocFg&wkYd onf y"meocFg& rnfue\? þ trnfonf udpav;yg;ukd NyD;apaom f k f k f ö or®y"mefvUHk v\ trnfaywnf;/ jynfpaom [lonfum; qE´ orm"dEi¤if; y"meocFg&wkYd Ei¤if; wuGjzpfaom Ü h Hk S hf S hf ([k qkv\)/ £'d¨yg' [lonfum; NyD;pD;jcif;\ y&d,m,f pum;vS,jf zpfaom (£ZÑe|) NyD;ajrmufjcif; teuf d dk oabmaMumifh £'drnf \? wenf;um; owå0gwkYd \ BuD;yGg;jrifjh rwfaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh £'drnf\? ¨ ¨ NyD;ajrmufrI jzpfaomaMumifh (wenf;) BuD;yGg;jrifjh rwfaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh £'d¨ rnfueaom tbdnmOfpwEihf k f d f S ,SOueaom «14» qE´ (vGeuaom) orm"dEihf jyif;pGmtm;xkwrocFg&wkYd \ wnf&mteuf oabmaMumifh (yg') f k f f J S f I tajccH taMumif;jzpfaom (,if;wkYd r) <uif;aom pdwapwoduf taygif;tpkonf £'dyg'f rnf\/ rSeay\ ]]£'d¨ S f ¨ f yg' [lonfum; xkd (NyD;ajrmufaom) tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfaomol\ a0'emu©Em onmu©Em ocFg &u©Em ¨ ¨ ¨ 0dnmu©Emaywnf;}}[laom þpum;ukd (0dbif;ygVdü) a[mawmfrl (tyf) ayonf/ ¨ wenf;um; a&mufaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh yg'rnf\? NyD;ajrmufjcif;okYd a&mufaMumif;onf (wenf;) NyD;ajrmufjcif;\ taMumif;onf £'dyg'frnf\? þtrnfonf qE´ponfwYdk \ trnfaywnf;/ þtqkdESifhtnD ¨ a[mawmfronfrml S ]]&[ef;wkYd &[ef;onf qE´urí orm"dudk tu,fí &jim;tH?h pdw\ tm½kHwckwnf; ½Sdonfh dk DS f tjzpf ({u*¾wm)ukd &jim;tH?h þorm"dudk qE´orm"d[í qktyf\/ xk&[ef;onf rjzpfao;aom l d d ,kwnaom tukovw&m;wkYd \ rjzpfjcif; tusKd;iSg/y/ tm;xkwvjdk cif;ukd jzpfap\ tm;xkw\ vkUH v f hH dk f f f ukd ûyvkytm;xkw\ jyif;pGmtm;xkw\ pdwudk cs;ajr§muf\? þ jyif;pGm tm;xkwrwYdk udk y"meocFg&wkYd f f f f D f I [lí qkdtyfukef\/ þokYd vQif þqE´onf¤if; þqE´orm"donf¤if; þ y"meocFg&wkYd onf¤if; (jzpfue\)? þoabmukd qE´ (vGeuaom) orm"dç jyif;pGm tm;xkwrI ocFg&wkYd Eihf jynfpaom £'dyg'f k f f J f S h Hk ¨ [lí qktyfonf &[ef;wkYd }}[líyifwnf;/ <uif;aom £'dyg'fwYdk üvnf; teufudk þtwlyif odtyf\/ d ¨ 383/ qE´tp½Sdaom ½Spfyg;aomw&m;wkdYukd ]]½Spfyg;aom a&mufaMumif; (y')wkdY}}[lí odtyfuke\/ rSeay f f \? ]]NyD;ajrmufrI wefc; (£'d)\ ½Spyg;aom a&mufaMumif; (y')wkYd onf tb,fonfwYdk enf;/ &[ef;onf qE´ dk ¨ f ukrí orm"dudk tu,fí &jim;tH?h pdw\ wtm½kwnf;½Sonftjzpf ({u*¾wm)ukd &jim;tH?h qE´onf orm"d d DS f H d h r[kw?f orm"donf qE´ r[kw?f qE´u wjcm; orm"duwjcm; jzpfonf/ &[ef;onf 0D&,ukd rSí/y/ &[ef; d D onf pdwudk rSí/y/ &[ef;onf (0Dromac:) ynmukd rSí orm"dudk tu,fí &jim;tH?h pdw\ wtm½kHwnf; f D H D f ½Sonftjzpf ({u*¾wm)ukd &jim;tH?h 0Dromonf orm"d r[kw?f orm"donf 0Drom r[kw?f 0Dromuwjcm; d h H H H orm"duwjcm; jzpfonf/ þ ½Spyg;wkYd onf NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)\ tao;pdwf taMumif; (y') f I dk ¨ wkdYaywnf;? þ tao;pdwftaMumif;wkdYonf y;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd &jcif;iSg/y/ wefc;zefqif;rIü ND I dk ¨ dk &J&ifjh cif;iSg jzpfue\}}[laom þ pum;ukd a[mawmfrl (tyf)ayonf/ rSeay\? þqE´ ponfwYdkwif NyD;ajrmuf k f f G rI-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd jzpfapvkjd cif;[laom qE´onf orm"dEiwaygif;wnf; ,SOaomfomvQif NyD;ajrmufrI dk ¨ S hf f -zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd &jcif;iSg jzpfayonf/ 0D&, ponfwYdk onfvnf; xkUd twlyif/ xkUd aMumifh þ½Spyg; dk ¨ d f aom tao;pdwf taMumif; (y')wkYd udk a[mtyfueonf[k odtyfue\/ k f k f 384/ 16-yg;aom (rlv)tjrpft&if;wkYd [l&mü 16-yg;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh pdw\ rwkevyonf\ f f I f tjzpfudk odtyf\/ rSeay\? ]]NyD;ajrmufr(£'d)\ rwkevyaMumif; tjrpft&if; (rlv)wkYd onf tb,frQwkYd f I ¨ f I f ayenf;? tjrpft&if; rlvwkYd onf 16-yg;wkYd aywnf;? rnGwus-rwGeYf qwaom pdwonf ysi;&djcif;aMumifh rwkef f k f f f vIy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆ (rwkevyaomoabm)rnf\ (1)? rwuf<urysUH vGiaompdwonf ysUH vGiraMumifh f I f hf f hf I rwkevy?f xdUk aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (2)? uyfNidaomtm;jzifh rnGwaom pdwonf wyfrufrI (&m*)aMumifh f I f f rwkevy?f xkUd aMumiftmaeOÆrnf\ (3)? (rke;ojzifh rsuEmrvT) rzJcgaompdwonf jypfrm;rI (Asmyg')aMumifh f I h f f S J G f S rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (4)? igaumiftaejzifh rrSaompdwonf tjrifrm;rI ('d|)aMumifh rwkevy?f f I D f S d f I xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (5)? ESpoufwyfpvsuf rzGUJ tyfaompdwonf ESpoufwyfprI (qE´&m*)aMumifh rwkef f JG f f JG vIy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (6)? vkcsiwyfrufrrS vGwajrmufaompdwonf umr&m*aMumifh rwkevy/ xkUd d f I f f f I f aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (7)? udavomESihf r,SOaompdwonf ylyef-npfEr;rI (udavom)aMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd f f G f f I aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (8)? udavom tyki;tjcm;uif;atmif ûyxm;aompdwonf udavom[laom tyki;tjcm; d f f d f aMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (9)? udavom tazmfrrS;ojzifh wckwnf; oabmüwnfaom f I D pdwonf txl;xl;oabm½Saom udavomaMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (10)? o'¨gu «15» f d f I cs;ajr§muftyfaom pdwonf r,kMH unfraMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumiftmaeOÆrnf\ (11)? 0D&,u csD;ajr§muf D f I f I h d tyfaom pdwonf ysi;&draMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆ rnf\ (12)? owdu csD;ajr§muftyfaom f f I f I

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

31

pdwonf arhavsmjh cif; aMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (13)? orm"du csD;ajr§muftyfaompdwonf f f I f ysUH vGiraMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (14)? ynmu cs;ajr§muftyfaom pdwonf rodr-odrm;rI hf I f I D f I S (t0dZm)aMumifh rwkevy?f xkYd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (15)? ynm tvif;a&mifEiwuGjzpfaom (0g-½Sif;vif; Æ f I S hf jywfom;pGmodaom) pdwonf t0dZmtarSmifaMumifh rwkevy?f xkUd aMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\ (16)/ þ 16-yg;wkdY f Æ f I onf NyD;ajrmufrI (£'d)\ (rlv) tjrpft&if;wkYd aywnf;? þrlvwkYd onf NyD;ajrmufr-zefqif;rI-wefc; (£'d)ukd ¨ I dk ¨ &jcif;iSg/y/ wefc;zefqif;rIü &J&ifjh cif;iSg jzpfue\}} [laom þpum;ukd a[mawmfrl (tyf) ayonf/ dk k f qufí ½Si;jyOD;tH?h (pwkwpsmefpwonf ysif;&djcif;aMumifh rwkevy-tp½Sdaom) þteufonf (pmrsuf f ¬ d f f I f ESm 2-ü jycJaom) ]]þqkconftwki; pdwonf (pwkwpsmeform"djzif) wnfMunfvwfaomf}} þokYd tp½Saom h d hJ h d f f ¬ h d pum;jzifyifvQif NyD;pD;onfom tu,fíum; rSeay\? okYd aomfvnf; yXrpsmef ponfwYdk\ £'d\ blrd yg' y' h f ¨ rlvjzpfjcif;ukd jyjcif;tusKd;iSg wzefxyfí qktyfayonf/ wenf;½Si;jy&vQif (þqkconftwki; pdwonfwnf d f d hJ h d f f Munfvwfaomf ponfjzifh jyqkaom) a½S;enf;onf okwygVd awmfwYdk ü vm½Saomenf;aywnf;? (£'d\ blrd d f d ¨ yg' y'rlvwkYd ujdk yaom) þenf;onf y#dorÇ'gr*f ygVdü(vm½Saom enf;aywnf;)? okYd jzpfí ESpyg;aomXmewkYd ü d d f rawGa0jcif;tusKd;iSg (&nf½,í)vnf; wzefxyfí qktyfayonf/ G f d 385/ ÓPfjzift"d|mefvsuf [l&mü (qkvaom teufum;) xkqcNhJ yD;aom *kPx;wkYd Eihf jynfpaom þ h d dk d dk f l S h Hk wefc;½Sif &[ef;onf wefc;zefqif;rI (£'d)\ blrd yg' y'jzpfMuaom þqkcaom w&m;wkYd udk jynfpapNyD;vQif dk dk ¨ d hJ h Hk tbdnmOf\ tajccHyg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;í (xkpsmefr)xí w&mukd tu,fí tvk½jdS im;tH?h ]]w&mjzpfv\ w&m d S d dk jzpfv\}}[k êudwifûyrI y&duuûdk yNyD;vQif wzef tbdnmOf\ tajccH yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;í (xkr)xNyD;vQif dk H d S t"d|mef\? t"d|mefûyaom pdwEihf wûydieufyifvQif w&mjzpf\/ waxmifponfudk t"d|mef&mwkYd üvnf; þ f S f enf;wlyif/ tu,fí þqkconfh twki;rNyD;pD; rNyD;ajrmuf ao;jim;tH?h wzef y&duudk ûyNyD;vQif ESpBf udrajrmuf d hJ d f H f vnf; (tbdnmOf\ tajccH yg'upsmefu) 0ifpm;í (xkpsmefr)xí t"d|me tyf\/ rSeay\? oH,wt|uxmü dk d S f k f wBudrf ESpBf udrf 0ifpm;jcif;iSg oifonf[k rdeYf qxm;ayonf/ xkoYdk yg'u psmef0ifpm;jcif; ponfudk ûy&mü yg'u h dk d psmefpwonf y#dbm*edrwudk tm½kûH y\? y&duûH yaompdwwYdkonf w&m waxmifudk tm½kûH yuke\? xkd w&m d f d f f f waxmifaom uk,wYdk uvnf; tqif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifom tm½kûH yuke\? ynwf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh tm½kûH yonf d f dk f h f f r[kw?f t"d|mefpwonfvnf; xkUd twlyif w&m waxmifudk tm½kûH y\? xkt"d|mef pdwonf (psmefoYdk yXrtBudrf d f d f a&mufyudk jy&m) a½S;üjyqkcaom tyÜempdwuoYdk a*gMwblpw\ tjcm;rJü ½lyg0p& pwkwpsmefEihf ,SOvsuf Hk d hJ f hJ d f h ¬ S f wBudrwnf;om jzpf\/ f 386/ y#dord'gr*fü ]]yuwd yifutm;jzifh wyg;wnf;u w&mukaomf¤if;? waxmifuaomf¤if;? wode; Ç dk d dk f udaom¤if; rsm;pGmukd qifjcif\? qifjcifNyD;vQif ]rsm;pGmjzpfv\ (rsm;pGm jzpfap)}[k ÓPfjzifh t"d|mef\? rsm;pGm k dk aom uk,onf jzpf\? t½Sif plVyefuoYdk yifwnf;}}[k tMuifpum;ukd qkxm;\? xkpum;üvnf; qifjcif\ d f hJ d d [laompum;ukd y&duûH yonf\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh omvQif q (tyf) ayonf/ qifjcifNyD;vQif ÓPfjzifh t"d|mef\ dk [laom pum;ukd tbdnmOfÓPf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh qkd (tyf) ayonf/ xkUd aMumifh rsm;pGmaomuk,udk (y&duH f d f pdwjf zif) qifjcif\? xkraemuf xky&dupwwYdk\vnf; tqk;ü (tbdnmOf\ yg'utjzpfjzif) 0ifpm;\? h d S d H d f H h ormywfrS xNyD; vQif wzef ]rsm;pGmaomuk,jf zpfv\(jzpfap)}[k qifjcifí xkqifjcifrI tm0ZÆe; pdwrS aemufü d dk d f f jzpfueaom ok;Budrf av;Budrueaom a½S;tzkYd pwwYdk \ tjcm;rJü jzpfaom2 NyD;aponf\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh «16» k f H f k f d f h t"d|mef[k trnf&aom wckwnf; (wBudrwnf;)aom tbdnmOfÓPfjzifh t"d|mef\-[lí xkd y#dorÇ'gr*f f d pum;ü teufudk rSwtyfayonf/ f t½SipVyefuoYdk yif [laom pum;ukrl rsm;pGmaomuk,f jzpfjcif;\ uk,awGUoufaoukd jyjcif;iSg qktyf f l hJ d d d f d ayonf/ xk0w¬Kukrl þokYd jytyf\-xknaemif 2-OD;wkYd onf c&D;oGm;aepOf vrf;üzGm;jrif MuaomaMumifh yE¦u d d d D (vrf;)[laom trnfudk &uke\? ,if;wkYd wif tBuD;onf r[myE¦u-r[myefrnf\? xkr[myefonf ½Si&[ef; f G d f ûyí y#dord'gÓPfwYdk EiwuG t&[wåzvoYdk a&mufvsuf &[EÅm jzpfawmfravonf/ &[EÅmjzpfNyD;aemuf nD Ç S hf dk f l plVyE¦u-plVyefudk ½Siûf yay;NyD;vQify'krH ,xm aumue'H ok*E¨?H ygawm od,m zkvr0Dw*E¨/ ’ H t*Ð&oH yó 0da&mprmeH? wyEÅ rm'dpö rd0EÅvau©/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

32

aumue'H-aumue'rnfaom? y'kr-y'krmMumonf? ok*E¨H ,xm-arT;êudiaom teHY½ouJoYdk ¤if;? H ® f dS h ygawm-eHeuf apmapm aexGufcsdefü? z -yGivsuf? t0Dw*E¨-ruif;rjy,fao;aom teHY½onf? od,m ,xmvH’ hf k H dS jzpf&mouJoYdk¤if;? ok*E¨-oDv,eHYponfwYdk jzifh arT;êudiaom teHY½awmfraom? zkv-t&[wår*fÓPf oAÁñw h H f dS l H’ k ÓPfwYdk jzifyivsuf bk&m;tjzpfoYdk a&mufawmfraom? t0Dw*E¨-ruif;rjy,faom oDvpaom teHY ½Sawmfraom h G hf l H d l jrwfpmbk&m;uk?d yó-zl;jrifygavmh/ t*Ð&oH-ûyd;ûyd;jyufjyuf uk,awmfrxuaom a&mufjcnf½awmfronfjzpfí? G d f S G f dS l 0da&mprmeH-wifw,foyÜg,fawmfraom jrwfpmbk&m;uk?d yó-zl;jrifygavmh/ tEÅvau©-aumif;uifü? tm'dpHö h l G d £0-xGe;vif;awmufyaeaom aerif;BuD;uJoYdk? wyEÅ-ÓPfawmf ta&mifwYdk jzifh xGe;vif; awmufyawmfraom f h H f l jrwfpmbk&m;uk?d yó-zl;jrifygavmhG [laom þ*gxmukd oifay;avonf/ plVyefonf xkd *gxmukd av;vwkYd jzifh aMu>yefap&ef rpGr;EkiyJ f d f ½Savonf/ xktcg r[myefrax&fu plVyefudk ]]oifonf omoemawmfü ruRwfxuaom tbAÁy*Kd¾ vf d d dk f k jzpfonf}}[k qkum ausmif;awmfrS ESixwvu\/ xkpOfumvü r[myefrax&fonf qGr;nTe; or®Kwd& yk*Kd¾ vf d f k f dk f d f f vnf; jzpfae\? (xkYd aMumif) orm;awmf ZD0uonf r[myefrax&fxH csOf;uyfí ]]eufjzefcg t½Sib&m;ç jrwfpm h f k G bk&m;ESiwuG &[ef;ig;&mwkYd udk yifaqmifcí tuREkywYdk \ tdrü qGr;ukd cH,l bkO;ay;awmfrMl uyg}}[k avQmuf hf h hJ f f f f f \/ r[myefrax&fuvnf; ]]plVyefudk csefxm;í <uif;aom &[ef;wkYd twGuf vufcygonf}}qkí vufcH vku\/ H d d f plVyefonf wHcg;rkcü &yfwnfvsuf ikae\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf 'dApu©Kjzifh jrifawmfrojzifh plVyefteD;okYd f d G Á l <uawmfrí ]]tb,faMumifh ikaeoenf;}}[k ar;awmfr\/ plVyefonf xktaMumif;t&mukd avQmufMum;\/ l h d l d xktcg jrwfpmbk&m;u ]]½Gwzwfo&ZÑm,frudk ûy&ef rpGr;EkiaomaMumifh ig\ omoemawmfü ruRwxuaom d G f I f d f f dk f tbAÁy*Kd¾ vfrnfonf rjzpfay? (plVyef) &[ef;ç rpk;&drvif}h }[k tm;ay;um plVyefudk vufarmif;ü qGuiawmfrí k d f J dk f l ausmif;awmfoYdk 0ifNyD;vQif wefc;jzifh ykq;Murf;yki;ukd zefqif;í ay;awmfr\? ]]a&mh &[ef;ç þt0wfyi;ukd dk dk d f l dk f qkye,fvsuf ]&aZm[&PH &aZm[&PH (acs;ukd aqmif,wwfonfh t0wf acs;ukaqmif,wwfonft0wf)}[k f l d l h tzefwvJvJ ½Gwqjdk cif;ukd ûyaeavmh}}[k nTeMf um;awmfr\/ plVyefu xkneMf um;awmfronftwki; ûyaepOf xkd f l d T l h d f t0wfyi;onf rnf;npfaom tqif;½Som;avonf? xktcg plVyefonf ]]t0wfuawmh xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fay dk f d G d \? þt0wfü tjypfr½Say? pifppfrmrl þtjypfonf cE¨muk,\omvQif tjypfaywnf;}}[k trSwonmukd d S d f f &NyD;vQif ig;yg;aomcE¨mwkYd ü ÓPfudk csoGi;í 0dyóemukd yGg;apvsuf tEkva*gMwblÓPfteD;okYd a&mufap\/ f Hk xktcg jrwfpmbk&m;u a&mifjcnfawmfvwjf cif;ESiwuG atmufyg*gxmwkYd udk a[mawmfravonf/ d G T hf l &ma*g &aZm e p ye a&Pk 0kpw?d &m*aówH t"d0peH &aZmwd/ ö {wH &ZH 0dyZ[dwm y@dwm? 0d[&EÅd aw 0d*w&Zó omoae/ Ü G &ma*g-wyfpr&m*onf? &aZm-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu; aywnf;/ a&Pk-jrLrIeu?dk e p ye 0kpwJG I f f ö d aMu;an§mtnpf taMu;[k rqktyf/ &aZmwd {wH-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu;[laom þtrnfonf? &m*ó-wyfprI f d f JG &m*\? t"d0peH-trnfaywnf;/ y@dwm-ynm½SwYdk onf? {wH &ZH-wyfpr&m*[laom þtnpftaMu;uk?d 0dyZ d JG I Ü [dwm-y,fpeYf ueí? aw-xkynm½SwYdk onf? 0d*w&Zó-udavomjrL tnpftaMu;uif;aom Ak'j¨ rwfpm\? G G k f d d G omoae-omoemawmfü? 0d[&EÅ-aeMuayuke\/ d f «17» a'gaom &aZm e p ye a&Pk 0kpw?d ö {wH &ZH 0dyZ[dwm y@dwm? Ü G a'goaówH t"d0peH &aZmwd/

0d[&EÅd aw 0d*w&Zó omoae/

a'gaom-pdwq;jypfrm;rI a'goonf? &aZm-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu;aywnf;/ a&Pk-jrLrIef uk?d e p ye f dk S f 0kpw-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu;[k rqktyf/ &aZmwd {wH-aMu;an§mtnpf taMu;[laom þtrnfonf? ö d f d f a'goó-pdwq;jypfrm;rI a'go\? t"d0peH-trnfaywnf;/ y@dwm-ynm½SwYdk onf? {wH &ZH-pdwq;jypfrm;rI f dk S d f dk S a'go[laom þtnpftaMu;uk?d 0dyZ[dwm-y,fpeYf ueí? aw-xkynm½SwYdk onf? 0d*w&Zó-udavom jrL Ü G G k f d d tnpftaMu; uif;aom Ak'j¨ rwfpm\ omoae-omoem awmfü? 0d[&EÅ-aeMuayuke\/ G d f arma[m &aZm e p ye a&Pk 0kpw?d arm[aówH t"d0peH &aZmwd/ ö {wH &ZH 0dyZ[dwm y@dwm? 0d[&EÅd aw 0d*w&Zó omoae/ Ü G

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

33

arma[m-trSwurodrI odrm;rIarm[onf? &aZm-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu; aywnf;/ a&Pk-jrLrIeu?dk e f dk S f f p ye 0kpw-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu;[k rqktyf/ &aZmwd {wH-aMu;an§mtnpftaMu; [laom þtrnfonf? ö d f d f arm[ó-trSeurodrI odrm;rIarm[\? t"d0peH-trnfaywnf;/ y@dwm-ynm½SwYdk onf? {wH &ZH[trSeudk f dk S d f rodrI odrm;rI arm[[laom þtnpftaMu;uk?d 0dyZ[dwm-y,fpeYf ueí aw-xkynm½SwYdk onf? 0d*w&ZóS Ü G G k f d d udavom jrLtnpftaMu;uif;aom Ak'j¨ rwfpm\? omoae-omoem awmfü? 0d[&EÅ-aeMuayuke\/ G d f xkdt½SifplVyefrSm *gxmokH;yk'f tqkH;ü y#dorÇd'gav;yg; tbdnmOf 6-yg; tNcHt&H ½Sdukefaom 9-yg;aom avmukw&mw&m;wkYd udk vufxa&mufvmMuouJoYdk &½Sawmfrav\/ å J h d l jrwfpmbk&m;onf 'kw,aeYü orm;awmf ZD0utdroYdk &[ef;taygif; oHCmawmfrsm;ESiwuG <uawmfrl G d f hf av\/ xktcg jrwfaomtvªa&ukd ay;vªoe;csNyD;onftqk;ü ,m*kudk uyfvvwfaomf vufjzifh oydwudk ydwf d G f H ª f xm;awmfr\/ tb,faMumifygenf;[k ZD0uu ar;avQmuf\/ ausmif;ü &[ef;wyg;½Sao;onf[k rdeYf awmfr\/ l h h d l ZD0uonf a,musfm; wa,mufudk ]]oGm;acsç ausmif;üusef½aeaom xkt½Siudk yifaqmifí tjrefjyefvmcJavmh}}[k dS d f h h apvTwvu\/ ausmif;awmfrS jrwfpmbk&m; xGucgawmfrNl yD;aomtcguyiff dk f G f G t½SipVyE¦uonf arGUavsmfb,aumif;aom o&ufO,smOf ausmif;wkuü rdru,udk (tBudrf f l G f d f d dk f waxmif) tyg;waxmifjzpfatmif zefqif;NyD;vQif qGr;bkO;ay; <u&efumvukd ajymMum;onf f f wkiatmif aeawmfravonf/ d f l xktcg apvTwvuaoma,musfm;onf oGm;í ouFe;a&mifwYdk jzifh wpyfwnf; wxdexef awmufajymif d f dk f f f d aeaom ausmif;wkutm&mrfudk awGUjrif&aomaMumifh jyefvmcJí ]]ausmif;wkutm&mrfonf &[ef;wkYd jzifh jynfaeyg d f h d f h onf t½Sib&m;? tb,f&[ef;onf yif&rnfh xk&[ef;jzpfaMumif; bk&m;wynfawmfrodyg}}[k avQmuf\/ xkd f k h d h tcg jrwfpmbk&m;u ]]oGm;acs? a½S;OD;pGmjrifawGU&aom &[ef;ukouFe;pGeü qGí ]jrwfpmbk&m;u t½Sib&m;ukd G d f f J G f k ac:awmfronf}[k ajymqkí yifaqmifc}hJ }[k xka,musfm;ukd rdeYf awmfrvu\/ xka,musfm;onf xkausmif;wkuf l d h d l dk f d d d tm&mrfoYdk oGm;í t½SipVyefax&f\ ouFe;pGeüyif qGuivu\/ xktckuüyifvQif edrw &[ef;tm;vk;wkYd f l f f J dk f dk f d d f ®d H onf uG,aysmufom;Muavonf/ t½SipVyefax&fonf ]]oifom;ayawmh}}[k xka,musfm;ukd vTwvuNf yD;vQif f G f l G d f dk rsuEmopfjcif; tp½Saom uk,vufowoifjcif; udpudk ûyNyD;aemuf (xka,musm; ra&mufr) a½S;OD;pGm <u f S d d f k f ö d f D a&mufí rdrtwGuf usa&mufaomae&mü xkiae av\/ þ taMumif;t&mukd&nfí ]]t½SifplVyefuJhokdYyif}}[k d d f rdeYf qdk (tyf)ayonf/ xkoYdk zefqif;&mü txl;rowfrwrí zefqif;vQif rsm;pGmukeaom edrw½kyyg;wkYd onf zefqif;ol d S f l f d® f G wefc;½SiEihf wlMuonfom jzpfue\? xkijf cif;&yfjcif;ponfwYdkwijf zpfap? ajymqkjd cif; qdwqwaejcif;ponfwYdk dk f S k f d G f d f wGijf zpfap wefc;½Sif ûywki; ûywki;aom trIuomvQif ûyuke\/ tu,fí txl;xl;aom tjcif;t&m½Sdatmif dk d f d f dk f ûyvkjd im;tH?h tcsKdUu yXrt½G,½MdS u[ef tcsKdUu tv,fyi;t½G,½MdS u[ef tcsKdUu aemufq;yki;t½G,½MdS u[ef? f dk f f Hk d f f «18» tcsKdUu ½SnaomqHyif½MdS u[ef tcsKdUu xuf0uf acgif;wk; &dwxm;Mu[ef tcsKdUuvk;0 acgif;wk;&dwxm; f H f H H f Mu[ef tcsKdUu qHyif tjzL trnf; a&mvsuf½MdS u[ef tcsKdUu xuf0uf eDaomouFe;½SMd u[ef tcsKdUu 0gazsm f aom ouFe;½SMd u[ef ûyvkjd im;tH?h yk'\tpGr;jzifh jywfom;pGm ½Gwjf cif; (y'bmP) w&m;a[mjcif; ("r®uxm) f f f o,maom toHjzifh ½Gwjf cif; (o&bn) jyóemukd ar;jcif; ajzjcif; qk;a&usKjd cif; ouFe;csKyfjcif; zGyavQmjf cif; d f f ponfwYdk udk ûyaeMu[ef xkrS wyg;vnf; txl;xl; tjym;jym; ½SaeMu[ef ûyvkjd im;tH?h xkoYdk ûyvkaom wefc;½Sif d d d d dk onf yg'upsmefrxí þrQaom&[ef;wkYd onf yXrt½G,f ½SonfjzpfMuap þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh y&duuûdk yNyD; S d d H vQif wzef0ifpm; NyD;aemuf xkyg'upsmefrS xí t"d|meftyf\? t"d|mefpwEihf wûydieuftvk½tyf tvk½tyf d d f S f d dS d dS aom tjym;½SMd uonfomjzpfaom edrw &[ef;wkYd onf jzpfue\/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ ®d k f trsm;vnf; jzpfygvsuf wyg;wnf;jzpf\- þokYd tp½Saomzefqif;rIwYdk üvnf; þqkcaom enf;twl d d hJ yifwnf;/ þqkvwHonfum; txl;aywnf;? þ wefc;½Si&[ef;onf ,ckjyqkconftwki; trsm;jzpfatmif d h kd f d hJ h d f zefqif;NyD;í wzef ]]wyg;wnf;omjzpfvsuf pBuøom;tH?h ½Gwqjdk cif;ukûd ytH?h jyóemukdar;tHh}}[k BuHíaomf¤if;? G f ]]þ ausmif;wkuonf enf;aom&[ef; ½S\? tu,fí tcsKdUaomolwYdk vmMuygrl þrQ avmufrsm;ukeaom þ d f d f tqifwl &[ef;wkYd onf b,fu a&mufvmMutHenf;? pifppftm;jzifh þt&monf ausmif;½Srax&f\ wefc; h d dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

34

tmEkabmfyif jzpfrnf[k ighudk wefc;½Sire; odom;Muvdrrnf}}[k tvkenf;jcif;aMumifaomf¤if; t"d|mef ûyxm; dk f S f G hf d h aom tcsderukerD tMum;üyifvQif ]]wyg;wnf;jzpfvonf}}[k tvk½aom &[ef;onf yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm; f f dk d dS NyD;vQif xkpsmefrxí ]]wyg;wnf;jzpfv\ (jzpfap)}}[k y&duûH yNyD;vQif wzef yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;í xkpsmefrxí d S dk d S ]]wyg;wnf; jzpfap}}[k t"d|meftyf\/ t"d|mefpwEihf wûydieufyif wyg;wnf;jzpf\/ þokYd rûyygrlum; d f S f yki;jcm;xm;onfh umv\ tpGr;tm;jzifh tvkvyif wyg;wnf;jzpf\/ d f f d dk 387/ tm0dbm0H wda&mbm0H [laom þpum;&yfü xif½m;jzpfjcif;ukd ûy\? wzufü jzpfjcif; (uG,jf cif;) S ukd ûy\/ þum;qkvaomteuf/ rSeay\? þteufuyif &nfí y#dord'gr*fü ]]tm0dbm0H-[lonfum; wpkH d dk f dk Ç wckjzifh rqD;wm;tyfonf rzk;uG,tyfonf yGivif;onf xif½m;onfjzpf\/ wda&mbm0H [lonfum; wpkwck H f hf S H jzifh qD;wm;tyfonf zk;uG,tyfonf ydwtyfonf arSmuftyfonfjzpf\}}[k zGifhqkdxm;ayonf/ xkd 2-rsKd; wkYd wif H f f G þwefc;½Sionf xif½m;jzpfatmifûyvkvQif trkuarSmifurvnf; ta&miftvif;ukd (tvif;jzpfatmif) ûy\? dk f S d d f dk l zk;uG,aeonfurvnf; [if;vif;yGiatmif ûy\? rxifay: onfurvnf; xifay:atmifûy\/ tb,fokdYenf; H f dk l hf dk l [lr/ þwefc;½Sionf zk;uG,aeaomoluvnf; awGUjrif&atmif ta0;ü wnfaomoluvnf; awGUjrif&atmif l kd f H f dk dk rdru,ujdk zpfap olwyg;ukd jzpfap ûyvkvQif yg'upsmefrS xí þtrkuarSmifonf jzpfaomtvif;½Sonf jzpfap d dk f d d f d [líaomf¤if;ç þzk;uG,aeaomt&monf [if;vif;yGiap[líaomf¤if;ç þrxifay:aom t&monf xifay:ap H f hf [líaomf¤if; qifjcifvsuf y&duuûdk yNyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyifvQif t"d|mef\? t"d|mefpwEihf wûydieuf H d h d f S f t"d|mefonfh twki;yif jzpf\/ ta0;ü wnfMuaomfvnf; wyg;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk onf (rdru) jrifue\? rdrd d f d dk k f uk,wiuvnf; jrifvvQif jrifay\/ d f dk f dk «19» 388/ þwefc;jym#d[mukd tb,fol ûybl;oenf;[lrl jrwfpmbk&m; ûybl;onf/ ûybl;ykrm-jrwfpm dk G H S G bk&m;onf (temxydPaoa|;\ orD;jzpfo) plVokb'´gu yifavQmuftyfonfjzpfí 0doêuHewf zefqif;tyf f l h aom ig;&maom jymom'faqmif (,mOfys)ausmif;wkYd jzifh om0w¬ûd rdUrS ckepf,Zem a0;uGmaom omauwûrdUokYd <u H l awmfraomtcg omauwûrdUaevlwYdku om0w¬ûd rdU aevlwYdkudk jrifatmif om0w¬ûd rdUaevlwYdkuvnf; omauwûrdY l aevlwYdkukd jrifatmif t"d|mefûyawmfravonf/ omauwûrdUtv,fü oufqif;awmfrNl yD;vQif ajrBuD;ukd ESpjf zmcGJ l í t0Dpwif atmif jrifapawmfr\? aumif;uifuvnf; ESpjf zm½Sapí jA[®mjh ynfwiatmif jrifapawmfr\/ d dk l dk J dk f l xkUd jyif ewfjynfrS oufqif;awmfrjl cif;jzifvnf; xif½m;jrifatmif ûyawmfrjl cif;[laom þteufudk h S xif½m; jyoifay\/ wqifpum;Mum;&onfrm jrwfpmbk&m;onf a&rD;tpktpkzefqif;jyaom ,rkujf ym#d[mukd S h h S G H H d ûyawmfrí ½Spaomif;av;axmifaom owå0gwkYd udk udavomtaESmiftzGUJ rS vGwapawmfrNl yD;vQif ]]a½S;twdwu l f f f Ak'j¨ rwfpmwkYd onf ,rkujf ym#d[mûyawmfrNl yD;aemuf tb,foYdk <uawmfrueoenf;}}[k qifjcifawmfríwm0wðom G d l k f l ewfjynfoYdk <uawmfrMl uaMumif; jrifawmfravonf/ xkoYdk jrifawmfrNl yD;aomtcg wzufaom ajcawmfjzifh ajrjyif l d ay:ü eif;awmfrvsuf 'kw,ajcawmfudk ,k*E¨Kd &f awmifxufü wnfapNyD;vQif a½S;ajcawmfudk ajr§mufcsawmfrum l d D l jrif;rk&awmifxyudk eif;awmfrí xkjd rif;rk&awmifxyf wm0wðomewfjynf0,f y@KurÁvm ausmufzsmxufü d f d f l d f d 0guyfawmfrNl yD;vQif waomif;aom pMu0VmwkuwYdk rS vma&mufpa0;vsuf½aom ewfwYdk tm; tprSpí tbd"r®m d f k dS a'oemukd tm;xkwa[mMum;awmfravonf/ eHeuf qGr;cH<ucseü edrwbk&m; ½kyyg;awmfudk zefqif;awmfr\? f l f d f ®d f G l xkerwbk&m;u (tpOfa&muf&mrSpí) tbd"r®mw&m;ukd qufvufa[mMum;awmfravonf/ (oufawmfxif½m; d d ®d l S ½Saom) jrwfpmbk&m;onf (þajrjyif [dr0EÅmt&yfoYdk qif;oufawmfrcNhJ yD;vQi) em*vwmac: e*g;EG,'efyudk d G l f f l ok;aqmifawmfrí te0wwftiü rsufEmopfawmfrNl yD;vQif Owå&uk½t&yfwYdk ü 0g-ajrmufuRe;ü qGr;ukc,l H l dk f S k f f d H awmfrcí te0wwftif teD;ü bkO;ay;awmfravonf/ t½Siom&dyw&mrax&fonf xkt&yfoYdk <uoGm;í l hJ dk f l f k å d jrwfpmbk&m;ukd ½Sc;uefawmh\/ jrwfpmbk&m;u ]],aeY þrQaomw&m;uka[mcJNh yD}}[k t½Siom&dyw&mrax&f G d dk G d f k å tm; enf;ay;awmfr\/ þenf;jzifh ok;vwkYd ywfv; tbd"r®ma'oemawmfudk rjywfrpJ a[mawmfr\/ xkd l H Hk l w&m;awmfudk emMum;Muí uka#½Spq,faom ewf jA[®mwkYd tm; opömav;yg;w&m;ukd odjcif;jzpfavonf/ f ,rkujf ym#d[mjyyGü vma&mufpa0;vsu½aom tcsif; wqJEp,Zem½Sd vlxy&dowfonfvnf; jrwfpm d J k f dS h S f l k G bk&m;ukd zl;ajr§mNf yD;rSomvQif (olwYdk\ae&yfoYdk ) oGm;Murnf[k &nf½,um opfwyfzUJG í wnfaeavonf xkvxk G f d l y&dowfudk temxydPf aoa|;BuD;\nD plVtemxydPf aoa|;uomvQif tvk;pkaomypön;wkYd jzifh vkyauR;\/ H H f f pka0;vsuf ½SMd uaomvlwYdk onf ]]jrwfpmbk&m; b,ft&yfrmenf;}}[k od&ef tusKd;iSg t½SitEk½'g rax&fudk ar; G S f k ¨ avQmufawmif;yefue\? t½SitEk½'grax&fonf tvif;ukd yGg;apí 'dApu©Kjzifh Munfvwfaomf xkwm0wðom k f f k ¨ Á h d ewfjynfü 0guyfvsu½aom jrwfpmbk&m;ukd jrifawmfrí ajymMum; awmfr\/ f dS G l l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

35

xkvwYdkonf jrwfpmbk&m;tm;½Sc;uefawmh&ef r[marm*¾vmefrax&fudk awmif;yefMu\/ r[marm*¾vmef d l G d dk rax&fonf y&dowftv,füyifvQif r[myx0DajrBuD;ü ikyvQKd;í jrif;rk&awmifudk azmufxi;NyD;vQif «20» f d f G f jrwfpmbk&m;\ ajcawmf&if;ü jrwfpmbk&m;\ ajcawmfwYdk udk ½Sc;vsufomvQif ay:xGuí ]]ZrÁL'dyuRef;ae vlwYdk G G d dk f f onf jrwfpm bk&m;\ ajcawmfwYdk udk ½Sc;í zl;ajrmfMuNyD;rSomvQif (olwYdk ae&yfoYdk ) oGm;Murnf qkMd uygonf t½Sif G d dk bk&m;}}[k avQmufxm;av\/ jrwfpmbk&m;u ]]arm*¾vmef? oif\aemifawmf w&m;ppfoBl uD; om&dyw&monf G k å ,ck b,frmaeoenf;}}[k ar;awmfr\/ ouFóûrdUrSm aeygonf t½Sib&m;-[k avQmuf\/ arm*¾vmef? ighuz; S l f k dk l ajrmfvaom olwYdkonf eufzefcg ouFóûrdUokYd oGm;Muap? eufjzefowif;uRwvjynfh r[my0g&PmaeY OykoaeY dk D f f ü ouFóûrdUokYd igqif;ouf<uvmrnf- [k rdeYf awmfrvu\/ t½Sif r[marm*¾vmef rax&fonf ]]aumif;ygNyD l dk f t½Sib&m;}}[k avQmufí jrwfpm bk&m;ukd ½Sc;uefawmhNyD;vQif vmcJaomvrf;jzifyif oufqif;cJí vlwYdk \ txH f k G d dk h h h okYd a&mufav\/ oGm;pOf jyefvmpOf umvüvnf; olUukd vlwYdk jrifatmif t"d|mef ûyavonf/ þonfum; þ t&mü a½S;OD;pGm t½Sit[marm*¾vmefrax&f zefqif;onfh xif½m;jzpfaom wefc;jym#d[maywnf;/ f S dk xkt½Sir[marm*¾vmefonf ,ck qkconftwki; jyefvmcJNh yD;vQif jrwfpmbk&m;rdeYf awmfrvuaom xkd d f d hJ h d f G l dk f taMumif;ukd ajymMum;í ]]a0;vSonf[k ratmufarhMuyJ eHeufpmpm;NyD;MurSomvQif xGuMf uuke}f }[k rdeYf qawmfrl dk \/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf odMum;rif;tm; ]]odMum;rif;? eufjzefvUl avmuokYd <urnf}}[k ajymMum;awmfr\/ G l odMum;ewfrif;onf ]]tarmif 0doêuH? jrwfpmbk&m;onf eufjzefcg vlUavmuokYd <uawmfrv\? a½Tapmif;wef; G l dk wck aiGapmif; wef;wck ywåjrm;apmif;wef; wcktm;jzifh ok;oG,aomapmif;wef;wkYd udk zefqif;avmh}}[k 0doêuH H f ewfom;ukd trdeYf ay;\/ 0doêuHewfom;uvnf; xktrdeYf twki; zefqif;\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf 'kw,aeYrm d d f G d S jrif;rk&f awmifxyü &yfawmfrvsuf ta½SUavmu"mwfudk Munf½awmfr\? waxmifru rsm;pGmaom pMum0Vm d d f l h I l wkYd onf [if;vif; yGiuevsuf wjyifwnf;uJoYdk xifay:uke\/ ta½SUt&yfjzifh [if;vif;xif½m;ouJoYdk yif þ hf k f h f S h twl taemuft&yf ajrmuft&yf awmift&yfjzifvnf; tvk;pkudk [if;vif;yGivsuf jrif&avonf/ atmufzuf h H H hf üvnf; t0Dpd wkiatmif txufzufüvnf; tued|bkwiatmif jrif&avonf/ d f H dk f xkaeYü (wode;ru rsm;pGmaom pMum0VmavmuESihf owå0gtaygif; avmuukd xif½m;ay:apaom) d f S avmu0d0&Prnfaom wefc;zefqif;jcif; jzpfconfq\? vlwYdkonfvnf; ewfwYdkujdk rifue\? ewfwYdkonf dk hJ dk k f vnf; vlwYdk udk jrifue\? xkoYdkjrif&mü vlwYdku txufoYdkarmfMunfh &onf r[kwue?f ewfwYdkuvnf; atmuf k f d f k okYd ikYH Munf&onfr[kwue?f ewf vl tm;vk;wkYd onf rdrwYdk \ a½SUrsufarSmufüomvQif tcsif;csif;ukd jrifue\/ h f k H d k f jrwfpmbk&m;onf ywåjrm;jzifh NyD;aomtv,fapmif; wef; avSum;jzifh qif;oufawmfr\/ 6-rsK;aom umrm0p& G l d ewfwYdk onf vuf0zuf a½Tapmif;wef; avSum;jzifh (qif;ouf uke\)? ok'g0go jA[®mwkYd onf¤if; r[mjA[®mBuD; J f ¨ onf¤if; vusmzuf aiGapmif;wef; avSum;jzifh (qif;oufue\)/ odMum; ewfrif;onf jrwfpmbk&m;\ oydwf f k f G ouFe;ukd ,lvmcJ\/ r[mjA[®mBuD;onf ok;,lZem½Saom xD;jzLawmfudk rk;vsu?f ok,mrewfrif;onf om;NrD; f h H d d ,yfuuivsuf? yOöocrnfaom *E¨AÁ ewfom;onf OoQpfo;rSnuoYdk 0gazsmhazsmhtqif;½Sí aAvk0y@K dk dk f d D hf hJ d rnfaom ok;*g0kwcefY½dS apmif;ukuivsuf jrwfpmbk&m;tm; ylaZmf,if; qif;ouf\/ xkaeYü jrwfpmbk&m;ukd H f d dk f G d G zl;jrifí bk&m;jzpf&ef vkcsifawmifwjcif;ukd rjzpfapyJ wnfaom owå0grnfonfr½Say/ þonfum; þt&mü d h d jrwfpmbk&m; zefqif;aom xif½m;jzpfonfh wefc;jym#d[maywnf;/ G S dk «21» wenf; jy&vQif oD[VuRe;ü wv*F&ausmif;ae"r®'Erax&fonfvnf; wdór [m0d[m&0,f dk f f d é apwD,ifjyifü xkiNf yD;vQif ]]ok;yg;aom tusifw&m;wkYd Eihf jynfpaom &[ef;onf tyPÖu y#dy'grnfaom d H h S h Hk ude;ao tusifudk usifonf rnfay\}} tpcsDaom tyPÖuokwudk a[maepOf ,yfudk atmufzufoYdk a½S;½Iûy f h h f vku\? t0Dpwiatmif wjyifwnf; [if;vif; yGiavonf? xkUd aemuf ,yfudk txufzufoYdk a½S;½Iûyvkujf yef\? d f d dk f hf d jA[®mjh ynfwiatmif wjyifwnf; [if;vif; yGiavonf/ "r®'Erax&fonf i&Jab;jzifh Ncdr;acsmufí¤if;ç ewfjynf dk f hf d é f csrf;omjzifh jzm;a,mif;í¤if; w&m;uka[mawmfravonf? tcsKUd aomwmyef jzpfMuavonf? tcsKdUou'g*grf d l tem*grf &[EÅmjzpfMuavonf/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ 389/ uG,jf cif;ukd ûyvkvQifrum; tvif;a&mifurvnf; trkuarSmifûy\? tzk;tuG,r½Sonfurvnf; d l dk l d f H f d dk l zk;uG,atmifûy\? xifay:onfurvnf; rxifay:atmifûy\? tb,foYkd enf;[lrl þwefckd;½Sifonf tzkH;tuG,f H f dk l r½Saomoludk aomfvnf;ç teD;üwnfaeaomoluaomfvnf; rjrif&atmif rdru,uaomf¤if;ç olwyg;ukaomf¤if; d dk d dk f dk d ûyvkdvQif yg'upsmefrS xí ]]þta&miftvif;½Sd&mXmeonf trkdufwkdufjzpfap}}[líaomf¤if;ç ]]þtzkH;tuG,f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

36

r½Saomt&monf zk;uG,tyfonf (zk;uG,aeonf)jzpfap}} [líaomf¤if;ç ]]þxifay:aeaom t&monf d H f H f rxifay:onfjzpfap}} [líaomf¤if; qifjcifí y&duuûdk yNyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyifvQif "d|mef\? "d|mefaom H d h pdwEiwûydieufyifvQif t"d|mefûytyfonftwki; jzpf\/ teD;ü wnfueaomfvnf; olwyg;wkYd onf (rdru) f S hf f h d f k f d dk rjrifue?f rjrifvaom wefc;½Sionf (olwyg;wkYd u) rdru,wivnf; rjrifawmhay/ k dk dk f dk d dk f dk f 390/ þwefc;jym#d[mukd tb,fol ûybl;oenf; [lr-jrwfpmbk&m;ûybl;onf/ ûybl;ykrm-jrwfpm dk l G H S G bk&m;onf teD;ü xkiaevsufyif½aom ,otrsKd;om;ukd (ol\) zcif rjrifatmif ûyawmfravonf/ xkUd twlyif d f dS l ,lZem 120-t&yfwiatmif r[muyÜerif;tm;êudqjdk cif;ukd ûyawmfrí xkrif;ukd tem*grdzvü xkrif;\ trwf dk f d l d dk f d waxmifuvnf; aomwmywåzvü wnfapNyD;vQif xkrif;\ vmcJ&mvrf;twki; vkuvmaom rde;rwaxmif dk d dk f d h d f d f f tNcHt&H ½Sdaom taemZma'0Drz&m;onf vmvwfí teD;ü xkiaeaomfvnf; ta>ct&Hy&dowfEiwuG rif;ukd d k d f S hf rjrifatmif ûyawmfrí ]]r[muyÜerif;ukd awGUjrifygoavm t½Sib&m;}}[k taemZma'0Du ar;avQmufaomtcg l d f k ]]tokYd enf; taemZm? oifrm rif;ukd ½Smjcif;u aumif;jrwfoavm? okYd r[kwf rdru,udk ½Smjcif;u aumif;jrwf h S d dk f oavm}}[k ar;awmfr\/ ]]rdru,udk ½Smjcif;u aumif;jrwfygonf t½Sib&m;}}[k ajzMum;avQmufxm;NyD;vQif l d dk f f k (½kaopGm) xkiaeaom xktaemZma'0Dtm; tNcHt&H rde;rwaxmifEiwuG aomwmywåzvüwnfatmif w&m;ukd d d f d f S hf d dk f a[mawmfr\/ trwfwkdYonf tem*grdzvü r[muyÜerif;onf t&[wåzvü wnfav\/ xkdUjyifvnf; «22» l dk f d dk f oD[VuRef;okYd a&mufaomaeYü rdrEitwlvmMuaom tjcm;yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk udk a'0gerÜ,wdórif; rjrifatmif t"d|mef dk f d S hf d ûyaom r[dErax&fonfvnf; rjrifatmif zefqif;aom þwefc;ukd ûybl;onfomwnf;/ ´ dk 391/ wenf;jy&vQif wefc;½Sif xif½m;aom jym#d[m tvk;pkonf tm0dbm0rnf\/ wefckd;½Sif rxif½Sm; dk S H H aom jym#d[monf wda&mbm0rnf\/ xkwif wefc;½Sif xif½m;aom jym#d[mü NyD;ajrmufrI wefc;vnf; xif½m; d G dk S dk S \ wefc;½Sivnf; xif½m;\/ ,if;wefc;jym#d[mukd ,rkujf ym#d[mjzifh jytyf-odaptyf\/ rSeay\? xk,rkuf dk f S dk d f d d jym#d[mü ]]þavmuü jrwfpmbk&m;onf om0uwkYd Eihf roufqiaom ,rkujf ym#d[mukd ûy\? txufyi; G S dk f d dk f uk,awmfrS rD;vQHtpkonf jzpf\? atmufyi; uk,awmfrS a&t,Ofonf jzpf\}} þokYd ponfjzifh ESpyg;vk; d f dk f d f f H xif½m;cJav\/ wefc;½Sif rxif½m;aomjym#d[mü NyD;ajrmufrI wefc;onfomvQif xif½m;\? wefc;½Sionf S h dk S dk S dk f rxif½m;ay/ ,if; wefc;jym#d[mukd r[uokwjf zif¤if; jA[®erEÅe okwjf zif¤if; jytyf-odaptyf\/ rSeay\? S dk h d h f xkowwYdk ü t½Sir[u\¤if;? jrwfpmbk&m;\¤if; zefqif;í NyD;ajrmufonfwefc;om xif½m;\? wefc;½Sionf d k f f G h dk S dk f rxif½Sm;ay/ þtqkdonf]]oifavsmfaomt&yfü xkiaeNyD;vQif pdwo<l u,fonf t½Sir[uukd ]awmif;yefygonf t½Sif h d f å f bk&m;? t½Sir[uonf tuREkytm; vlomrefwYdk \ w&m;xuf vGejf rwfaom wefc;jym#d[mukd jyawmfrl f f f dk yg}[k avQmuf\/ 'g,um okYd jzpfvQif ausmif;OD; qif0ifü tay:½kt0wfudk cif;í jruftpkudk jzefYBuJ H xm;ygavmh-[kq\/ aumif;ygNyD t½Sib&m;-[k t½Sir[utm; 0efcH jyefMum;NyD;vQif pdwo<l u,fonf dk f k f å ausmif;OD;qif0ifü tay:½kH t0wfucif;í jruftpkudk jzefYBuJxm;av\/ xkdtcgü t½Sifr[uonf dk ausmif;xJoYdk 0ifNyD;vQif xkoYdk oabm½Saom wefc;zefqif;rIudk ûyavonf? ,if;okYd aom wefc;zefqif;rI d d dk dk aMumifh rD;awmufr;vQHonf oHaumufayguf (aomhayguf)jzif¤if;? wHcg;½GuwYdk \ tMum;jzif¤if; xGuí D h f h f jrufwYdkudk avmifav \? tay:½kHt0wfukdum; ravmifay}}[k qkonfEihf tnDyif/ d S xkYd jyif]]&[ef;wkYd xktcgü igonf xkoYdk oabm½Saom wefc; zefqif;jcif;ukd ûycJayonf? þrQjzifh d d d dk h AujA[®m onf¤if;? Au jA[®m\ y&dowfonf¤if;? jA[®yg&doZÆmjA[®mwkYd onf¤if;? ig\ toHuvnf; dk Mum;ukevwH?h ighuvnf; rjrifuevwHh [k &nf½,um uk,a&mifazsmufvsuff dk k f G f d f «23» ]]ba00g[H b,H 'dom? b0Oö 0dba0ode/ G H b0H embd0'ð udO?dö eE´Oö e Oyg'd,}ð } d ]](rm&dom-ighudk awGUjrif&ef ½SmBuHaeMuaom jA[®mtaygif;wkYd )? t[H-igonf? ba0-b0oHo&mxJü? b,H-tkjd cif; emjcif; aojcif;tp½Saomab;uk?d 'dom{0-jrifaomaMumifomvQi?f 0db a0ode-b0uif;&m d G h H ukd ½SmaeMuaom olwYdk \? b0Oö-wG,wmrI ruif;ao;aomaMumifh tzefwvJvJ jzpfae&jcif;ukvnf;? f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

37

'dom {0-jrifaomaMumifomvQi?f udOdö b0H-wpkwckaom b0ukrQ? e tbd0'ð-rcsD;rGr;ownf;? eE´OG h H d f d ö b0ü ESpoufaysmfarGUaom wPSmukvnf;? e Oyg'd,-qGuirxm;yJ jywfppeYf vwvuayownf;/}} f d ð J dk f J G T f dk f £wd-[laomþ*gxmukd ½GwqcNhJ yD-[k a[mawmfronfEivnf; tnDyif/ f dk l S hf 392/ wda&muk¥H wda&mygum&H wda&myAÁwH toZÆrmaem*päwd ao,sxmyd tmumao- [laom þ pum;&yfü wda&muk¥H [lonfrm eH&\wzufoYdk? eH&\xkzuftzkYd oYdk -[k qkv\/ wda&myg um&H-wHwi;\ S H H d d dk dk f wzufoYdk? wda&myAÁw-awmif\ wzufoYdk [aom yk'wYdk üvnf; þenf;wlyif/ txl;um; uk¥onf tdre&\ H l f f H H trnfjzpfonf/ ygum&onf tdrf ausmif;wkuf ½GmponfwYdk \ t&Htwm;wHwi;aywnf;/ yAÁwonf ajrrIeYf d dk f awmifaomf¤if; ausmufawmifaomf¤if; jzpfonf/ toZÆrmaem[lonfrm rNid-rxd-rwkurí([k qkv\)/ S d f l d dk ao,sxmyd tmumao [lonfum; aumif;uifüuJoYdk([k qkv\)/ þqkconftwki; oGm;vkaom wefc;½Sif h d dk d hJ h d f d dk onf tmumo uokP;psmefudk 0ifpm;í (xkr)xNyD; vQif eH&uaomf¤if;? wHwi;ukaomf¤if;? jrif;rk&f pMum0Vm d f d S H dk dk f d d awmif ponfwYdk wivnf; wyg;yg;aom awmifuaomf¤if; (tayguftacgif; tmumojzpfap[k) qifjcifvsuf G f dk y&duûH yNyD;vQif ]]tayguftacgif; tmumo jzpfap}}[k "d|meftyf\? (xkt&yfü) tmumoomjzpf\? atmufoYdk d qif;vkotwGuçf txufoYdk wufvotwGuf (xkd eH&H wHwi;awmifonf) tacgif;½Sonf jzpfav\? xkwcsi; d l dk l dk f d f f ayguf oGm;vkdoltwGuf tayguf½Sdonf jzpfav\/ xkwefc;½Sionf tacgif;tayguf½aeaom xkd eH&wwi; d dk f dS H H dk f awmifü rNid-rxdyJ oGm;Ekiay\/ d f þt&mü wdy#u plVmb,rax&fu rdeYf qonfrm ]]igh½iwYdk (tmumo zefqif;&ef) tmumo uokP; d dk S S f d f ukd 0ifpm;jcif;onf tb,ftusKd; ½Soenf;? qif jrif; ponfwYdk udk zefqif;vkvQif qifuokP; jrif; uokP; d d d f d f ponfwYdk udk 0ifpm;&oavm? trSwr½Sd wpkwckaomuokP;ü y&duudk ûyí ½Spyg;aom ormywfwYdk ü 0oDabmf f H d f H f ajrmufjcif;onf omvQif yrmP r[kwygavm? (xkUd aMumif) tMuiftMuift&mukd tvk½\? xkxt&myif f h d dS d dk jzpfonf}}[k rdefYqkd\/ (xktcg) &[ef;wkYd u ]]t½Sib&m;? ygVdü (tmumo zefqif;&m0,f) tmumo uokP; d f k d f onf omvQif vm½Sonf? xkUd aMumifh tmumozefqif;&mü þ tmumouokP; 0ifpm;jcif;ukd rcRwfyif qktyfd d f d qkoifygonf}}[k avQmufMuuke\/ xkpum;&yfü atmufygonf y#dord'gr*f ygVdaywnf;/ d h f d Ç ]]yuwd yifutm;jzifh tmumouokP;ukd Ekieif;pGm&ol jzpf\? (xkdolonf) eH&wzuf wHwi; dk d f d f H dk f wzuf awmifwzufudk qifjcif\? qifjcifNyD;vQif ]tmumo jzpfap}[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\? tmumoonf jzpf\? eH&wzuf wHwi; wzuf awmifwzufoYdk rNid-rxdrí oGm;\? yifudk yuwdtm;jzifwefc;r½Saom H dk f l h dk d vlwYdk onf wpkwckjzifh rydwrqD;wm; tyfaom tumt&H r½Saom t&yfü rNid rxdueyJ oGm;Muukef H f d k f ouJoYdk þtwlyif ormywf½pyg;pdwudk Ekieif;(jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf eH&wzuf h S f f d f d dk f H wHwi;wzuf awmifwzufoYdk rNidrxdrí oGm;\? aumif;uifü oGm;ouJoYdk yifwnf;}} þum; y#dord'g dk f l h Ç r*fygVdjzpfonf/ «24» apm'emoGi;í ½Si;jyOD;tH?h xk&[ef;onf t"d|mefûyí oGm;aepOf (vrf;ckvwf) tMum;ü awmifaomf f f d ¤if; opfyifaomf¤if; tu,fí aygufvmjim;tH?h wzef 0ifpm;í t"d|mef ûytyfygoavm-[lr-wzef t"d|mef l ûyjcif;ü tjypfr½Say? rSeay\? wzef0ifpm;í t"d|mefûyjcif;onf OyZÑm,fq&mhxü edó,nf;,lonfEihf wlay\/ d f H S okYd aomfvnf; þwefc;½Sif &[ef;u ]]tmumojzpfap}}[k t"d|mef ûyxm;NyD; jzpfaomaMumifh [if;vif;tmumo dk jzpfaeonfomwnf;? a½S;t"d|mef\ tpGr;jzifyifvQif xkwefc;½Sif &[ef;rSm ]]tMum;ü OwkaMumifjh zpfaom awmif f h d dk aomf¤if; opfyifaomf¤if; aygufvmvdrrnf}}[laom þt&monf jzpfEiaom tcGitaMumif; r[kwonfom hf dk f hf wnf;/ tjcm; wefc;½Siu zefqif;vQifrum; yXrzefqif;rIu tm;BuD;\? (xkYd aMumif) aemufzefqif;ol\ awmif dk f l h opfyif ponfonf yXrzefqif;xm;aom xktmumo\ txufoYdkjzpfap atmufoYdkjzpfap oGm;av&m\/ d 393/ yx0d,myd Or®KZÆerZ[aom þpum;&yfü Or®KZÆ[onfrm ay:wufjcif;ukqonf/ edrZ[onf d k HÆ l l S d dk kÆ l rSm ikyjf cif;ukqonf/ ajrBuD;xJü ay:jcif; ikwjf cif;ukd ûyvkaom wefc;½Sionf tmayguokP;ukd 0ifpm;NyD;vQif d dk d dk f d f (xkr)xí þrQaomt&yfü ajronf a& jzpfap[k yki;jcm;vsuf y&duûH yNyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyif "d|meftyf d S d f d h \/ "d|mefonfEihf wûydieuf yki;jcm;xm;orQ t&yfü ajronf a&twdomvQif jzpf\/ xkwefc;½Sionf xka&ü S f d f d dk f d ikyjf cif; ay:jcif;ukd ûy\/ xkpum;ü atmufyg rSm om"ujzpfaom y#dord'gr*fygVdaywnf;/ d Ç

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

38

]]yuwdyifutm;jzifh tmayguokP;ormywfudk Ekieif;pGm&oljzpf\? (xkoonf) ajrukd qifjcif\? dk d f d f d l qifjcifNyD;vQif a&jzpfap[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\? a&jzpf\? xkwefc;½Sionf (a& jzpfaeaom) ajrxJüikyjf cif; d dk f ay:jcif;ukd ûy\/ wefc;r½Saom yuwdvwYdk onf a&xJü ikyjf cif; ay:jcif;ukd ûyMuouJoYdk þtwlyif ormywf dk d l h ½Spyg;pdwukd Ekieif; (jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf (a&jzpfatmifzefqif;xm;aom) ajrxJü ikyjf cif; f f d f d dk f ay:jcif;ukd ûy\? a&xJü ikyjf cif; ay:jcif;ukd ûyouJoYdk yifwnf;}} þum; y#dordÇ 'gr*fygVd/ h ikyjf cif; ay:jcif;rQuom oufouf ûyonfr[kwao;? a&csK;jcif; aomufjcif; rsuEmopfjcif; ouFe; dk f d f S f oydwpaom b@mukd avQmfjcif; aq;jcif; ponfwYdk wif tvk½&m&m trIu(vnf;) ûy\/ oufouf a&omvQif f G d dS dk jzpfonf r[kwao;? axmywf qD ysm; wifvponfwYdkwivnf; xkxtvk½&mukd þrnf þrnfaom 0w¬Konf f J G f d dk d dS þrQavmuf jzpfap[k qifjcifNyD;vQif y&duûH yí "d|mefaom wefc;½Sitm; "d|meftyfonftwki;yif jzpf\/ aumfcyf dk f h d f í tk;üwnfonfuûdk yaomoltm; axmywfonf (tk;xJüvnf;) axmywfyif jzpfae\? qDponfwYdkonfvnf; qD d d ponfwYdkyif jzpfaeuke\? a&onf a&yif jzpfae\/ xkwefc;½Sionf (ajrukd zefqif;xm;onf) xka&ü pkpwap f d dk f h d d G f vkaomfomvQif pkpw\? rpkpwapvkygrl rpkpw/ xkajronf xkzefqif;oltm;omvQif a&jzpfonf? tjcm; d d G f d G f d d G f d d vlrsm;rSm ajromvQif jzpf\/ (a&zefqif; xm;aom) xkajrü vlwYdkonf ajcvsivnf; oGm;uke\? ,mOfponf d f f wkYd jzifvnf; oGm;uke\? xGe,ufrI ponfwYdk uvnf; ûyukeonfomvQifwnf;/ tu,fí þwefc;½Sionf xkd h f f dk f dk f tjcm;olwYdk tm;vnf; «25» a&jzpfap&ef tvk½jdS im;tH?h (tvk½onftwki;) jzpfonfomwnf;/ yki;jcm;xm;aom d d dS h d f d f umvukd vGeaomtcgürl tk;ç wzufqnfuef ponfwYdkü rlvu a&rSwyg; <uif;aom yki;jcm;zef qif;xm;onfh f d d f a&t&yfXmeonf ajromvQif jyefjzpfav\/ 394/ O'auyd tbdZrmae [laom pum;&yfü eif;vQif epfusaoma&ukd (bdZrme) uGaoma& uRaom Æ Æ J H a&[k qktyf\? ruGaom-ruRH aoma&ukd tbdZrme qktyf\/ þokYd ruGruRH usaom a&ü oGm;vkaom wefc; d J Æ d J d kd ½Sionf yx0Du okP;ukd 0ifpm;NyD;vQif (xkr)xí þrQaom t&yfü a&onf ajr jzpfap[k yki;jcm;NyD;vQif f d f d S d f y&duûH yí qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyifvQif "d|meftyf\? "d|mefonfEihf wûydieuf yki;jcm;xm;orQ t&yfü a&onf ajr d h S f d f twdom jzpf\/ xkd wefc;½Sionf (a&ukd zefqif;xm;aom) xkajray:ü oGm;\/ xkpum;ü atmufygonf dk f d d om"uygVdaywnf;/ ]]yuwdyifu,tm;jzifh yx0DuokP; ormywfudk Ekieif;pGm&oljzpf\? (xkoonf) a&ukd dk f d f d f d l qifjcif\? qifjcifNyD;vQif ajrjzpfap[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\? ajrjzpf\? xkwefc;½Sionf ruG-ruRaom d dk f J H (ajrjzpfatmif zefqif;xm;onf) a&ü oGm;\/ wefc;r½Saom yuwdvwYdk onf ruGruRHaom ajrjyifü h dk d l J oGm;MuouJoYdk þtwlyif ormywf½pyg;pdwudk Ekieif; (jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf ruGruRH h S f f d f d dk f J aom a&ü oGm;\ ajrjyifü oGm;ouJh okYd yifwnf;}} þum; y#dord'gr*f ygVd/ Ç oufoufom;½komr[kwao;? tvk½&m&m £&d,mykwuvnf;ûy\/ ajrjzpfatmifom oufoufûyonf G H f d dS f dk r[kwao;? ywåjrm; a½Tawmif opfyif ponfwYdk wivnf; tvk½&m&mukvnf; qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif qifjcifí f G f d dS d d h "d|mef\? "d|meftyfonfh twki;yifjzpf\/ xka&onf xkzefqif;oltm;om ajrjzpfonf? tjcm;vlrsm;rSma&omvQif d f d d jzpfaeonf? ig;vdywYdk onf¤if;? a&usD;paom owå0gwkYd onf¤if; (xka&xJü) tvk½wi; oGm;vmusufpm;aeukef f d d dS dk f \/ tu,fí þwefckd;½Sifonf tjcm;vlwYdk tm;vnf; xka&ukd ajrjzpfatmif ûyvkjd im;tH?hH ûyEkionfomvQifwnf;/ d d f yki;jcm;xm;aomumvukd vGeaomtcgürl a&onfomvQif jyefjzpfavonf/ d f f 395/ yv’auFe urwd [l&mü wifyv’iacG (xkijf cif;)jzifh (xkivsu)oGm;\? (þum;teuf)/ yu©ouk f d d f f D aPm [l&mütawmifwYdk Eihf ,SOaomiSuonf (þum;teuf)/ þokYd oGm;jcif;ukd ûyvkaom wefc;½Sionf yx0D S f f d dk f uokP;psmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif (xkr) xí xkivsuf oGm;vkvQif wifyv’iacGyrmP½Saom t&yfudk yki;jcm;í d f d S d f d f d d f y&duûH yNyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif "d|meftyf \/ tu,fí vJavsmif;vsuf oGm;vkygrl anmifapmif; yrmP d h d ½Saom t&yfu?dk tu,fí ajcvsifom;vkygrl vrf;yrmP½Saomt&yfu-þokYd tm;jzifh oifavsmfaomt&yfudk d G d d dk h yki;jcm;NyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif ajrjzpfap [k "d|meftyf\? "d|mefonfEihf wûydieuf ajrom; twdomvQif d f d h S f jzpf\/ xkpum;&yfü atmufygonf om"uygVdaywnf;/ d «26» ]]tawmif½aom iSuuoYdk aumif;uifüvnf; wifyv’iacGjzifom;\}} [l&mü (tus,fum;)-yuwd dS f hJ f h G yifutm;jzifh yx0DuokP; ormywfudk Ekieif;pGm&oljzpf\? (xkoonf) aumif;uifudk qifjcif\? dk d f d f d l qifjcifNyD;vQif ajrjzpfap[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\? ajrjzpf\/ xkwefc;½Sionf txufaumif;uifü pBuø d dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

39

vnf; oGm;\? &yfvnf; &yfae\? xkivnf; xkiae\? avsmif;jcif;ukvnf;ûy\/ wefc;r½Saom yuwd d f d f d dk d vlwYdkonf yuwdajray:ü oGm;jcif; &yfjcif; xkijf cif; avsmif;jcif;ukd ûyMuouJoYdk þ twlyif ormywf d h ½Spyg;pdwudk Ekieif;(jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf txufaumif;uifü pBuøvnf;oGm;\/y/ f f d f d dk f avsmif;jcif;ukvnf; ûy\}} þum; y#dordÇ'gr*fygVd/ d aumif;uifü oGm;vkaom &[ef;onf 'dApu©Kukd &onfvnf;jzpfoif\/ tb,faMumifenf;[lr-tMum;ü d Á h h h l OwkaMumifh jzpfueaom awmif opfyif ponfwYdkonfrvnf; jzpfay:ukejf im;tH?h e*g; *VKef ponfwYdkurlvnf; k f l remvkí zefqif;ukejf im;tH?h xktEÅ&m,fwYdk ujdk rif&ef vkaomaMumifyif/ xkd awmif opfyifponfwYdk udk jrifvQif d d d h tb,foYdk ûytyfoenf;[lr-yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm; NyD;vQif (xkr)xí tmumo jzpfap[k y&duûH yNyD; "d|meftyf\/ l d S wdy#u plVmb,rax&furl ]]igh½iwYdk ormywfudk wzef0ifpm;jcif;onf tb,ftusKd;½Soenf;? xkwefc;½Si\ d S f d d kd f wefc;jym#d[m tpGr;jzifjh zpfaom pdwonf wnfMunfaeonfom r[kwygavm? xkwefc;jym#d[m\ tpGr;jzifh kd f f f d dk f jzpfaom pdwjf zifh tMuif tMuift&mukd tmumojzpfap[k "d|mefvQif xkxt&monf tmumotwdomvQif d dk jzpfonf}}[k qk\/ xkoYdkyif qkjd im;aomfvnf; wda&muk¥ jym#d[mü qkcaomenf;jzifyifvQif ûyusiftyfayonf/ d d d hJ h h wenf;taMumif; jy&vQi-oifaomt&yfü qif;&ef tusKd;iSgvnf; þwefc;½Sionf 'dApu©Kuk&ol f h dk f Á d jzpfoifayonf/ rSeay\? þwefc;½Sionf oufqif;&efroifonfh t&yfjzpfaom a&csKd;qdyüaomf¤if;ç ½GmwHcg;ü h f dk f h f aomf¤if; qif;oufjim;tH?h (aumif;uifjzifh <uvmaom&[ef;jzpfaMumif;) vltrsm;tm; xif½m;ay:oGm;av&m\/ S xkUd aMumifh 'dApu©KjzifMh unfNh yD;vQif rqif; oifaomt&yfudk MuOfa½Smifí qif;oifaom (vloqw&m) t&yfü qif; Á h h l d f Ekiay\/ d f 396/ þokYd BuD;aomwefc;½Sueaom þokYd BuD;aomtmEkabmf½ueaom þvESiaewkYd uvnf; vufjzifh dk d k f dS k f hf dk ok;oyf\ yGwoyf\-[laom þpum;&yfü vESiaewkYd \ ,lZemav;aomif;ESpaxmif\ txufü oGm;jcif;jzifh H f hf f wefc;BuD;jcif;ukd odtyf \? uRe;BuD;ok;ckwYdkü wûydieuftvif;a&mifudk ûyjcif;jzifh tmEkabmfBuD;jcif;ukd odtyf\/ dk f H f wenf;um;-þokYd jrifpma0;pGmaom txufaumif;uifüoGm;jcif; tvif;a&mifûyjcif;wkYd jzifh (r[d'au) BuD;aom h G ¨d wefc;½SMd uonf [lí¤if;? xkoYdk wefc;BuD;jcif;aMumifyifvQif (r[mEkbma0) BuD;aom tmEkabmf½MdS uonf[í¤if; dk d dk h l qkonf/ (y&mrowd) ok;oyf\[lonfrm uki\? wenf;um;? wpdwwa'ot&yfü xd\([k qkv\)/ d H S d f f d dk (y&drZÆw) yGwoyf\[lonfrm xuf0ef;usiü aMu;rkjH yifuuoYdk yGwoyf\([k qkv\)/ xkoYdk ûyaom wefc;½Sif d f S f dk hJ f d dk d dk \ þ wefc;onf tbdnmOf\ tajccH yg'upsmef (wyg;yg;)\ tpGr;jzifomvQif NyD;pD; NyD;ajrmuf\? þwefc; dk f h dk t&mü (rnfonfuokP; psmefudk tajccH0ifpm;&rnf[) uokP;ormywfudk oD;jcm; uefYowfjcif; r½Say/ h d f k d f d rSeay\? y#dord'gr*fü atmufygpum;ukd rdeYf qxm;ayonf/ f Ç dk «27» ]]þokYd BuD;aomwefc;½Sueaom BuD;aom tmEkabmf½ueaom þvESihf aewkYd uvnf; dk d k f dS k f dk vufjzifh ok;oyf\ yGwoyf\-[l&mü tus,um;-þavmuü ormywf½pyg; pdwudk Ekieif;(jcif;okYd H f f S f f d f a&muf)aom xkd wefc;½Sionf vESihf aewkYd udk qifjcif\? qifjcifNyD;vQif (1-awmifxm) [w¬ygof dk f h G twGi;ü jzpfap[k ÓPfjzifh "d|mef\? [w¬ygof twGi;ü jzpf\? xkd wefc;½Sionf xkivsufjzpfap? f f dk f d f avsmif;vsujf zpfap vESihf aewkYd udk vufjzifh ok;oyf\? yGwoyf\/ wefckd;r½Sdaom yuwd vlwYdkonf H f [w¬ygoftwGi;ü½Saom ½ky0w¬K wpkwckudk ok;oyfMu yGwoyfMuouJoYdk þtwlyif xkwefc;½Sionf f d f H H f h d dk f xkivsuf jzpfap/y/ yGwoyf\}} [líyifwnf;/ d f f xkoYdk aom þwefc;½Sionfom;í ok;oyf&eftvk½vQif (vaewkYd xoYdk ) oGm;í ok;oyf\/ þ vlUjynf d dk f G H d dS H H avmuüyif xkivsujf zpfap? avsmif;vsujf zpfap (v aewkYd u) ok;oyfvvQif [w¬ygof twGi;ü jzpfap[k d f dk H dk f "d|mef\? t"d|meftpGr;aMumifh tn§mrS ûywfusaomxef;oD;uJoYdk vmukeí [w¬ygof twGi;ü wnfMuonfurl f h f f dk vnf; ok;oyf\? rdr\ vufukd yGg;ap ½Snfapírlvnf; ok;oyf\/ vufuyg;apvQif Oyg'dEu ac: uk,wi; H d H dk G é d f G f ½kyu yGg;oavm? tEkyg'dEu ac: uk,y½kyu yGg;oavm-[lr?l uk,wi;½kyurí uk,y½kyyg;ayonf/ f é d f f d f G f f dk DS d f f G xkpum;&yfü wdy#uplVem*rax&fu ]]tokYd enf; igh½iwYdk Oyg'dEuac: uk,wi;½kyonf i,fonf d d S f é d f G f f vnf; rjzpfawmhNyDavm BuD;onfvnf; rjzpfawmhNyDavm/ tMuiftcgü wefc;½Sif &[ef;onf oHaumufayguf dk (aomhayguf) ponfwYdk jzifh xGuom;\? xktcgü uk,wi;½kyonf ao;i,fom;onf r[kwavm/ tMuiftcgü f G d d f G f f G f BuD;aom cE¨muk,udk ûy\? xktcgü t½Sir[marm*¾vmef uJoYdk yifBuD;onf r[kwygavm}}[k rdeYf qawmfr\/ d f d f h f dk l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

40

eaE´myeE´e*g;rif;ukd qkH;rjcif;
wqifpum;Mum;&onfrm-tcgwyg;ü temxydPaoa|;onf jrwfpmbk&m;\ w&m;a'oemawmfudk h S f G emMum;NyD;vQif ]]jrwfpmbk&m;? eufjzefcg &[ef;ig;&mwkYd EiwuG tuREkywYdk \ tdrü qGr;ukc,l bkO;ay;awmfrl G S hf f f f f d H f Muyg}}[k yifavQmufí oGm;av\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf (yifavQmufcsuudk qdwqwaeum) vufcawmfrNl yD;vQif h G h f f d f H xkaeYyi;t<uif;ESihf nOfyi;tzkYd udk ukeveapí eHeufr;aomuftcsdeü waomif;aom avmu"mwfudk Munf½I d dk f h dk f f G f dk f h awmfravonf/ xktcg eaE´myeE´rnfaom e*g;rif;onf jrwfpmbk&m;\ ÓPfawmft0ü xifay:vmav\/ l d G jrwfpmbk&m;onf ]]ig\ ÓPfawmft0ü þe*g;rif; xifay:vm\/ olUrSm (o'¨gjzpfaMumif;) Oyedó,½S\ G d avm}}[k qifjcifawmfrvwfaomf ]]þe*g;onf rdpmt,l½\? &wem ok;yg;wkYd ü rMunfñ}dk }[k jrifawmfrí l ä dS H l ]]tb,fy*Kd¾ vfonf þe*g;ukd rdpmt,lrS uif;vGwapEkiygrnfenf;}}[k qifjcifjyefvwfaomf r[marm*¾vmef k ä f d f rax&fudk jrifawmfravonf/ l «28» xkUd aemif xknOfvif;aomtcg uk,vufowoifjcif;ukd ûyawmfrNl yD;í t½SitmeE´mukd ]]tmeE´m? d h d f k f f ewfjynfoYdk vSnvnf&ef bk&m;<uawmfrrnftaMumif;ukd ig;&maom &[ef;wkYd tm;ajymMum;avmh}}[k rdeYf awmfr\/ hf l h l xkaeYü eaE´myeE´e*g;rif;\ pm;aomufyusi;y&m tcif;tusi;ukd pDrûH yjyifaeMuavonf? xkeaE´myeE´e*g;rif; d JG f f d onf ewfjynfjzpf &wemyv’ixufü ewfjynfjzpf xD;jzLjzifh aqmif;rk;vsuf ok;rsK;aom uacsonfwYdk jzif¤if; f d H d h e*g;y&dowfjzif¤if; NcH&cpm;jcif;½Sonfjzpfí ewfjynfjzpf &wemcGuwYdk ü xnfxm;aom xrif; tazsmftpDt&ifudk h H d f h Munf½vsuf xkiaeavonf/ xktcg jrwfpmbk&m;onf e*g;rif; jrifatmif ûyawmfrvsuf xke*g;rif;\ rsuEm h I d f d G l d f S MuufrS txuft&yfjzifyifvQif &[ef; ig;&mwkYd EiwuG wm0wðomewfjynfoYdk a½S;½I<uawmfr\/ h S hf l xktcgu eaE´myeE´ e*g;rif;tm; þokYd aom,kwrmonfh rdpmt,l jzpfvsuf½\? þ zk;uwk;uav; d f ä dS d H &[ef;,kwuav;wkYd onf igwkYd \ txufxuf bkt&yfjzifh wm0wðom ewfboYdk 0ifvnf; 0ifue\ xGuvnf; f H Hk k f f xGuue\? ,cktcg þaeYrSpí þ&[ef;wkdYtm; igwkdY\ OD;xdyxufü ajcrSjrLrIeudk BuJcsuevsuf oGm;jcif;iSg f k f f f k f cGiray;awmht-[kBuHum xí jrif;rk&awmifajcokYd oGm;NyD;vQif ol\ yuwd uk,upeYf í jrif;rk&awmifudk ol\ hf hH d f d f dk G d f uk,tacGwYdkjzifh ckepfBudrf ckepfywfwiwif &pfywfí txufü yg;ysOf;ukûd yvsuf wm0wðomewfbudk arSmufaom d f dk f dk Hk yg;ysOf;jziftyí rjrif&jcif;okYd a&mufap\/ h k f xktcg t½Si&|ygvonf jrwfpmbk&m;ukd þokYd ar;avQmuf\? jrwfpmbk&m; a½S;tcguqkvQif þt&yf d f G G d a'oüwnfvsuf jrif;rk&awmifudk jrif&ygonf? jrif;rk&\ awmifcg;yef;ukd jrif&ygonf? wm0wðomukd jrif&yg d f d f onf? a0Z,EÅm jymom'fudk jrif&ygonf? a0Z,EÅmjymom'f\txufü vGiaeaom wHcef tvHujdk rif&ygonf? hf G ,cktcg xktvk;pkudk rjrif&jcif;\taMumif;um; tb,fygenf;-[k ar;avQmuf\/ &|ygv? eaE´myeE´rnfaom d H H þe*g; rif;onf oifwYdktm; trsuxuaomaMumifh jrif;rk&awmifudk ol\ uk,tacGwYdkjzifh ckepfBudrf ckepfywf f G f d f d f wkiwif &pfywfí txufü yg;ysOf;jzifh zk;tkyvsuf trkuwuûf yí (arSmifcsí) wnfaeonf-[k rdeYf awmfr\/ d f dk H f d f dk l xke*g;rif;ukd qk;rygrnf t½Sib&m;[k cGiawmif;\/ jrwfpmbk&m;u cGiûhf yawmfrrlacs/ xktcg t½Sib'´, d H f k hf G d f d t½Si&m[kvm þokYd paom tpOfjzifh tvk;pkaom &[ef;wkYd onf (e*g;rif;ukd qk;r&ef) x<u xGuay:vmMuav f H H H f onf/ jrwfpmbk&m;u cGiûhf yawmfrrlacs/ G aemufq;ü t½Sir[marm*¾vmef rax&fonf ]]xke*g;rif;ukd tuREkyq;rygrnf t½Sib&m;}}[k avQmuf Hk f d f f Hk f k \/ ]]arm*¾vmef qk;rav}}[k jrwfpmbk&m;u cGiûhf yawmfrav\/ t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf rdr\ yuwd H G l f d vlU uk,uy,fpeYf í BuD;pGmaom e*g;rif;toGizefqif;NyD;vQif eaE´myeE´udk wqJav;Budrf wqJav;ywf wkiwif d f dk G f h h d f dk uk,tacGwYdk jzifh &pfywfí xkeaE´myeE´\ yg;ysOf;txufü rdr\yg;ysOf;ukxm;í «29» jrif;rk&awmifEiwuG d f d d d d f S hf zdny\/ eaE´myeE´e*g;rif;onf tck;vTw\/ t½Sif r[marm*¾vmefrax&fuvnf; oif\uk,rmomvQif tck;½Sd § f d f d f S d onfr[kw?f ighrmvnf; ½Sonfyif[k (qkbouJoYdk ) tck;vTw\/ e*g;rif;\ tck;onf rax&furESypufEi?f S d d d h d f d dk d f dk rax&f\ tck;onfum; e*g;rif;ukd (yifyef;½krQ) ESypuf\/ xkUd aemife*g;rif;onf rD;vQHvw\/ rax&fuvnf; d H d f T f oif \ uk,üomvQif rD;½Sonfr[kw?f ighrmvnf;½Sd onfyif[k (qkbouJoYdk ) rD;vQHvw\/ e*g;rif;\ rD;vQH d f d S d d h T f onf rax&fudk rESypufEi?f rax&f\rD;vQH onfum; e*g;rif;ukd (yifyef;½krQ) ESypuf\/ e*g;rif;u ]]þolonf d f dk H d f ighujdk rif;rk&awmifEihf zdnyí tck;vnf;vTw\ tvQHvnf;vTw\}}[k BuHNyD;vQif ]]tcsif;? oif b,foenf;}}[k d f S § f d f f l ar;av\/ eaE´myeE´? igarm*¾vmefjzpfonf [k jyefMum;\/ t½Sib&m; rdr\ &[ef;toGijf zifh wnfygavmhf k d [kq\/ dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

41

t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf zefqif;xm;aom xke*g;toGiu,udk pGeYf y,fNyD;vQif xkd eaE´myeE´\ f d f dk f vusfmem;aygufjzifh 0ifí vuf0em;aygufjzifh xGu\? vuf0em;aygufjzifh 0ifí vusfmem; aygufjzifh xGu\? J f J f xkUd twlyif vusfmESmacgif;aygufjzifh 0ifí vuf0Emacgif;aygufjzifh xGu\? vuf0Emacgif;aygufjzif0ifí vusfm J S f J S h ESmacgif;aygufjzifh xGu\/ xktcg e*g;rif;onf cHwi;ukzivu\/ t½Sif r[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf cHwi; f d G f d G hf dk f G f jzif0ifí 0rf;xJü ta½SU taemuft&yf ESpyg;jzifh pBuø<u\/ xktcg jrwfpmbk&m;onf ]]arm*¾vmef ESv;oGi; h f kd G Hk f owdûyavmh? þe*g;onf wefc;BuD;\}}[k (owday;pum;) rdeYf Mum;awmfr\/ t½Sir[marm*¾vmef rax&fu dk l f jyefMum; avQmufxm;onfrm ]]jrwfpmbk&m;? wynfawmfonf av;yg;aom (NyD;ajrmufaMumif;) £'dyg'fwYdkuyg; S G h ¨ dk G apNyD; tBudrrsm;pGmûyxm;NyD; jzpfygonf? u f -xm;NyD;,mOfuoYdk toifûh yxm; NyD;jzpfygonf/ wnf&mozG,f ûyxm; hJ NyD; jzpfygonf? aqmufwnfNyD; avhusuNf yD; aumif;pGmtm;xkwNf yD; jzpfygonf/ eaE´myeE´ wOD;wnf;ukd xm;vkuf d ygOD;awmh? eaE´myeE´Eiwaom e*g;rif; w&mukaomfvnf; waxmifuaomfvnf; wode;ukaomfvnf; wynfh S hf l d dk f d awmfq;rEkiygonfb&m;}}[k avQmufxm;\/ Hk d f k e*g;rif;u BuHpnfonfrm ]]0ifpOfu olUukigrjrifvu&bl;/ ,ckxuaomtcgrSm xkarm*¾vmefudk S d dk f G f d tpG,Mf um;ü xnfí 0g;acsvkurnf}}[k BuHNyD;vQif ]]xGuyg t½Sib&m;? 0rf;xJü xkrS þrS pBuøavQmufvsuf h d f f f k d tuREkyudk rESypufygvif}h }[k qk\/ t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf xGucí tjyifyü &yfwnfaeawmfr\/ f f d f d f f hJ l e*g;rif;onf ]]&yfwnfaeaom þolonf xkd arm*¾vmefyif}}[k ESv;oGi;½IjrifNyD;í ESmacgif;avukvw\/ t½Sif Hk f d T f arm*¾vmefrax&fonf pwkwpsmefudk 0ifpm;awmfr\/ xkrax&f\ tarG;wGi; rQukaomfvnf; ESmacgif;avonf ¬ l d f d vIy½m;apjcif;iSg rpGr;Eki/ t½Siarm*¾vmefrwyg;aom &[ef;wkYd onf tprSpí tvk;pkaom wefc;jym#d[mwkYd f S f d f f S H H dk ukûd y&ef pGr;Ekiue\/ þ ESmacgif;avvTwaomt&mokYd a&mufvQifrum; þt½Sir[marm*¾vmeftwl vsifpm f d f k f f l f G ½IEiMf uonf jzpfí 0ifpm;&ef rpGr;EkiuevwH[k jrifawmfraomaMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf xkd tjcm;&[ef;wkYd tm; dk f d f k f h l G e*g;rif;ukd qk;r&ef cGiûhf yawmfrrlcay/ H hJ «30» e*g;rif;onf ]]ESmacgif;avjzifh þ&[ef;\ arG;nif;wGi;rQukaomfvnf; vIyap&ef igrwwfEi?f f d f dk &[ef;onf wefc;BuD;aypG}}[k BuHrav\/ t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf &[ef;toGiu,udk pGeYf y,fí *VKef dk d f f dk f toGif zefqif;NyD;vQif jyif;xefaom *VKefavukjd yvsuf e*g;rif;ukd tpOfvuav\/ e*g;rif;onf xkd e*g;uk,f dk f d ukd pGeYf y,fí vkviftoGizefqif;NyD; vQif ]]t½Sib&m; t½SiwYdk udk uk;uG,&m[k qnf;uyfygonf}}[lí avQmuf f f k f d f vsuf t½Siarm*¾vmefrax&f\ ajcawmfwYdk udk ½Sc;av\/ t½Siarm*¾vmefrax&fonf ]]e*g;rif;eE´? jrwfpmbk&m; f d dk f G <uvmawmfr\? vmavmhom;uket}hH }[k e*g;rif;ukq;rí tqdytawmufuif;atmif ûyNyD;vQif ac:aqmifcí l G f d Hk f hJ jrwfpmbk&m;txHoYdk oGm;av\/ e*g;rif;onf jrwfpmbk&m;ukd ½Sc;í ]]t½SiwYdk udk uk;uG,&m[k qnf;uyfyg G G d dk f d f onf t½Sib&m;}}[k avQmuf\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf ]]csrf;omonfjzpfap e*g;rif;}}[k rdeYf awmfrNl yD;vQif &[ef; f k G taygif; oHCmawmfNcH&vsuf temxydPaoa|; tdroYdk <uawmfravonf/ H f f l ]]tb,faMumifh tvGeaejrifrS <uvmawmfrMl uygoenf; t½Sib&m;}}[k temxydPaoa|;u ar;avQmuf h f h f k f \/ arm*¾vmefEieaE´myeE´e*g;rif;wkYd \ ppfyjJG zpfaeaomaMumif-[k rdeYf awmfr\/ b,fol\ ½I;jcif; b,fo\ S hf h l H l Ekijf cif; jzpfygoenf; t½Sib&m;-[k ar;avQmuf\/ arm*¾vmef\Ekijf cif; eaE´myeE´\ ½I;jcif;jzpfonf-[k rdeYf d f k d H awmfr\/ temxydPaoa|;onf ]]ckepf&ufywfv; wckwnf;aomtpOfjzifh wynfawmf\qGr;ukd vufcawmf l f Hk h f H rlyg? ckepf&ufywfv; t½Siarm*¾vmefrax&ftm; ylaZmf ouúm&ukd ûyygrnf}}[k avQmufNyD;vQif bk&m; trª;½Saom Hk f d &[ef;ig;&mwkYd tm; ckepf&ufywfv; BuD;pGmaom ylaZmfouúm&ukd ûyavonf/ ,ckjyqkconftwki; þeaE´myeE´ Hk d hJ h d f ukd qk;r&müûyaom þ BuD;aom cE¨muk,u&nfí ]]tMuif tcgü BuD;aom cE¨muk,uûdk y\? xkdtcgü t½Sifr[m H d f dk d f arm*¾vmefuoYdkyif BuD;onf r[kwygavm}}[laom þpum;ukd rdeYf qayonf/ þokYd yif qkjd im;aomfvnf; &[ef; hJ f dk wkYd onf ]]Oyg'dEuac: uk,wi;½kyudk rSí tEkyg'dEuac: uk,y½kyonfomvQif yGg;onf}}[k qkue\/ tqkH; é d f G f f D é d f f d k f tjzwfum; vuf-ponfukd yGg;ap aom þt&mü ukd,fy½kyfom yGg;onf[laom þ tqkonfomvQif toifh d ,kwåd½Sdayonf/ xkwefc;½Sionf þqkconftwki; ûyNyD;vQif v aewkYd udk oufouf ok;oyf½rQom r[kwao;? tu,f d dk f d hJ h d f H Hk f í tvk½vQif ajcyGwt;jcrf;uGûJ yí ajcwkYd udk wifxm;Eki\? tif;ysOfûyí wufxiEi\? anmifapmif;ûyí wuf d dS f dk d f dk f dk f avsmif;Eki\? aemufrDS ysOfcsyfûyí rSEi\/ qufíqkdOD;tHh-wOD;aom wefc;½Siu ûyouJoYdk tjcm;wefc;½Sif d f D dk f dk f h dk uvnf; ûyEki\/ rSeay\? rsm;pGmukeaom &[ef;wode;wkYd u þokYd ûyukevwfaomf xk&[ef;wkYd wif wyg;wyg; d f f f f f d G aom &[ef;rSmvnf; xkoYdk ûywki;yif NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmuf\? vESihf aewkYd \ a½GU½Sm;jcif; oGm;jcif;onf¤if; tvif;a&mif d d f ukd ûyjcif;onf¤if; xkd zefqif;onfrS a½S;uuJoYdk yif jzpfaeay\/ Oyrmjy&vQif cGuwaxmifwYdkudk a&tjynfxnfh h f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

42

xm;vQif tvk;pkaom cGuwYdk ü v0ef;&dywYdk xifueouJh okYd ¤if;? v\ oGm;jcif;ESihf tvif;a&mif ûyjcif;onf H H f f k f yuwdtwki;yif jzpfouJoYdk¤if; þwefc;jym#d[monf xkOyrmESiway\/ d f h dk d hf l 397/ ,m0 jA[®avmumyd[onfum; jA[®avmuukaomfvnf; tqk;tyki;tjcm;ûyí? (jA[® jynfwif l d H d f dk atmifaomfvnf; [k qkv\)/ uma,e 0oH 0awåwd [lonfum; xkjd A[®avmuü uk,jf zifh rdr\ tvkudk d dk d d d jzpfap\? (rdr\ tvkoYdk vkuap\-rdrtvktwki; jzpfap\[k qkv\)/ xkd0gus\ teufudk y#dord'g d d d f d d d f d dk Ç r*fygVdudk tpOfavQmufí odtyf\/ rSeay\? atmufygonf þt&mü zGijhf yaom (,if;) ygVdaywnf;/ f «31» ]]jA[®jynfwkdifatmifaomfvnf; uk,jf zifh tvkujdk zpfap\[l&mü tus,fum; ormywf ½Spyg;pdwudk d d f f Ekieif;(jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf jA[®avmuokYd tu,fí oGm;vkjd im;tH?h ta0;ü½Sonfuvnf; teD;ü d f d dk f d dk jzpfap[k teD;üjzpfatmif "d|mef\? teD;üjzpf\/ teD;ü½Sdonfukdvnf; ta0;üjzpfap[k ta0;ü jzpfatmif"|mef\? d ta0;ü jzpf\/ trsm;ukvnf; tenf;jzpfap[k tenf;jzpfatmif "d|mef\? tenf;jzpf\/ tenf;ukvnf; trsm; d d jzpfap[k trsm;jzpfatmif "d|mef\? trsm; jzpf\? 'dApu©Kjzifh xkjd A[®m\ tqif;ukd jrif\/ 'dAaomwjzifh xkd Á Á jA[®m\ toHuMdk um;\? apawmy&d,ÓPfjzifh xkjd A[®m\ pdwudk od\/ ormywf ½Spyg;pdwudk Ekieif;(jcif;okYd f f f d f a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf xif½m;jrif&aom uk,jf zifh jA[®avmuokYd tu,fí oGm;vkjd im;tH?h uk,\ d dk f S d d f tpGr;jzifh pdwudk nGwap-ajymif;vJap\? uk,\ tpGr;tm;jzifh pdwudk "d|mef\? uk,\ tpGr;tm;jzifh pdwudk f f f d f f f d f f f nGwapNyD;í uk,\tpGr;tm;jzifh pdwudk "d|mefNyD;í okconmokYd ¤if;? v[konmokYd ¤if; oufa&mufí xif½m; f d f f f S jrif&aom ud,jf zifh jA[®avmuokYd om;\/ ormywf½pyg;pdwudk Ekieif;(jcif;okYd a&muf)aom xkwefc;½Sionf k G S f f d f d kd f rxif½m;aom rjrif&aom uk,jf zifh jA[®avmuokYd tu,fí oGm;vkjd im;tH?h pdw\ tpGr;tm;jzifh uk,unwap S d f f d f dk G f -ajymif;vJap\? pdw\ tpGr;tm;jzifh uk,udk "d|mef\? pdw\tpGr;tm;jzifh uk,unwapNyD;í pdw\tpGr; f f d f f f d f dk G f f f tm;jzifh uk,udk "d|mefNyD;í okconmokYd ¤if;? v[konmokYd ¤if; oufa&mufí rxif½m;aom rjrif&aomuk,jf zifh d f S d jA[®avmuokYd om;\/ xkwefc;½Sionf xkjd A[®m\ a½SUü t*FgBuD;i,ftm;vk; jynfpí r,kwavsmhonfh £a`E´ G d kd f H h Hk f ½Saom raemr,½kyu,udk zefqif;\/ tu,fí xkwefc;½Sionf pBuøom;jim;tH?h zefqif;xm;aom edrw½kyf d f dk f d dk f G ®d uk,onfvnf; xkt&yfü pBuøom;\/ tu,fí xkwefc;½Sionf &yfwnfjim;tH?h xkijf im;tH?h avsmif;jim;tH?h d f d G d dk f d edrw½kyu,onfvnf; xkt&yfü avsmif;\/ tu,fí xkwefc;½Sionf tck; vTwjf im;tH?h rD;vQH vTwjf im;tH?h ®d f dk f d d dk f d w&m;a[mjim;tH?h jyóemar;jim;tH?h jyóemtar;cH&í ajzjim;tH?h edrw½kyu,onfvnf; xkt&yfü jyóem ®d f dk f d tar;cH&í (0g-ar;onfjh yóemuk) ajz\/ tu,fí xkwefc;½Sionf xkjd A[®mESiwuG wnfaejim;tH?h ajymqkd d d dk f hf jim;tH?h aqG;aEG; jcif;okYd a&mufjim;tH?h edrw½kyu,onfvnf; xkt&yfü xkjd A[®mESiwuG wnfae\? ajymqk\? d® f dk f d hf d aqG;aEG;jcif;okYd a&muf\/ xkwefc;½Sionf tMuiftMuif trIudk ûy\/ xkxtrIuyif edrw½kyonf ûy\}} d dk f d dk dk ®d f þum; y#dorÇ'gr*fygVd/ d «32» xkygVdwif ]]ta0;ü½Sonfuvnf; teD;üjzpfatmif "d|mef\}}[l&mü yg'upsmefrxí ta0;ü ewf d G d dk S jynfu¤if;? jA[®jynfu¤if; teD;ü jzpfap[k qifjcif\? qifjcifí y&duûH yNyD;vQif wzef0ifpm;jyefí teD;ü jzpfap dk dk [k "d|mef\? teD;ü jzpfav\/ <uif;aomyk'wYdk üvnf; þenf;yif/ f xkoYdk zefqif;&mü tb,foonf ta0;uk,í teD;jzpfatmif ûybl;oenf;-[lrjl rwfpmbk&m; ûybl;ay d l d l G onf/ ûybl; ykrm-jrwfpmbk&m;onf ,rkujf ym#d[m jyyGtqk;ü ewfjynfoYdk <uawmfrvwfaomf ,k*E¨Kd &fawmifudk H S G d J H l ¤if; jrif;rk&awmifu¤if; teD;üûyawmfrí ajrjyifrS wckaom ajcawmfudk ,k*E¨Kd &fawmifxyü wnfapNyD;vQif 'kw, d f dk l d f d ajcawmfudk jrif;rk&awmifxyü wnfap awmfr\/ d f d f l jrwfpmbk&m;rS wyg; tb,fol ûybl;ao;oenf;¿ t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&f ûybl;onf/ ûyykrm-t½Sif G f H S r[marm*¾vmef rax&fonf eHeufpmpm;NyD;í om0w¬ûd rdUrS xGucgoGm;aom wqJEp,Zem½Sd y&dowfudk ,lZem f G h S f l ok;q,f½dS c&D;ukcsKH;í xkcPtwGi;üyif ouFóûrdUokYd aumif;pGma&mufapawmfr\/ H d d f l wenf;jy&vQif oD[VuRe;ü plVork'rax&fonfvnf; ûybl;\/ wqifMh um;bl;onfrm tpm&cJaom dk f f ´ S 'kAuumvü &[ef;ckepf&mwkYd onf rax&f\xHoYdk eHeufapmapmuyif vma&mufMu\/ rax&fonf ]]&[ef; dÇ © taygif;oHCmonf rsm;vSacs\? tb,ft&yfü qGrf;cH½Gm ½SdygtHenf;}}[k qifjcifMunfvwfaomf oD[VwuRef;vk; h h kd f H ü rjrifaomaMumifh ]]ork'&m\ wzufurf;0,f yg#vdywjf ynfüjzpfvwH}h }[k jrifawmfrí &[ef;wkYd udk oydwf ´ k l ouFe;,lapNyD;vQif ]]vmMuavmh igh½iwYdk qGr;cHom;uket}hH }[k ac:íajrukcsKH;vsufyg#vdywjf ynfoYdk <uawmf f S f f G f d k rlav\/ ]]þûrdUonf tb,fûrdUygenf; t½Sib&m;}}[k &[ef;wkYd u ar;uke\/ ]]igh½SifwkdY yg#vdykwfûrdU jzpfonf}} f k f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

43

[k rdeYf awmfr\/ ]]yg#vdywûf rdUrnfonfrm ta0;ü ½Sygonfb&m;}}[k avQmufue\/ ]]igh½SifwkdY rax&ftkdBuD; l k S d k k f wkYd rnfonfrm ta0;ü½Sonfuvnf; ,lí teD;üjzpfatmifûywwfue\}}[k rdeYf qawmfr\/ ]]r[mork'&mu S d dk k f dk l ´ b,frmygenf; t½Sib&m;}}[k ar;uke\/ igh½iwYdk vrf;ckvyftMum;ü ñkaomajrmif;i,fwckudk ausmfívmcJMh u S f k f S f d onf r[kwavm/ rSeyg t½Sib&m; ausmfvmcJMh uygonf? ork'&monfum; BuD;us,fvygonf ([k avQmufMu f f f k ´ S aomtcg) igh½iwYdk rax&ftBdk uD;wkYd rnfonf BuD;onfuvnf; i,fatmifûywwfue\-[k rdeYf qawmfravonf/ S f dk k f dk l þplVork'rax&fûyouJoYdk yif wdó'wårax&fonfvnf; naecsrf;tcsdeü a&csKd;NyD;vQif {uoDouFe; ´ h f f ukd ½kawmfrl NyD;í r[maAm"dyifudk ½Sc;rnf[k pdwtBuHjzpfvwfaomf r[maAm"dyifudk teD;ü jzpfatmif ûyawmfrl H d dk f avNyD/ teD;uk,í ta0;jzpfatmif tb,fol ûybl;oenf;[lr-jrwfpmbk&m; ûybl;ayonf/ ûybl;ykrm-jrwfpm d l l G H S G bk&m;onf rdrEit*Fvrmv\ tMum;ü teD;ukvnf; ta0;jzpfatmif ûyawmfravNyD/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ d S hf k d d l xkrwyg; trsm;uktenf;jzpfatmif tb,foûl ybl;oenf; [lr-t½Sir[muóy rax&fûybl;onf/ d S d l f wqifMh um;bl;onfrm-&mZû*d[ûf rdU0,f eu©wyobifaeYü ig;&maom vkrysKdwYdk onf vrkUH wkYd udk ,lcí eu©wyJG S f JG H hJ f obifupm;jcif;tusK;iSgoGm;Mu vwfaomf jrwfpmbk&m;ukd zl;jrifMuaomfvnf; rkUH wckrQ rvªMuuke/ aemufrS d G f <uvmaom t½Sir[muóyrax&fudk awGUjrif Muaomtcg ]]igwkYd \rax&f<uvm onf? rkUH ukvMª urnf}}qkí f d d vkrysKdtm;vk;wkYd onf «33» rkUH wkYd udk ,laqmifcí t½Sir[m uóyrax&fxH csOf;uyfue\/ t½Sifr[muóy H H hJ f k f rax&fonf oydwudk tdwrxwí rkUH tm;vk;ukd woydwjf ynf½rQ ûyawmf rl\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf t½Sir[m f f S k f H h Hk G f yóyrax&fudk iHvifvsuf a½SUüxkiaeawmfr\/ t½Sir[m uóyrax&fonf rkUH wkYd udk aqmif,cí jrwfpm h h d f l f l hJ G bk&m;tm; uyfvavonf/ ª xkrwyg; £v’oaoa|;0w¬Kü t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf tenf;ukd trsm;jzpfatmifûy\? d S d f umu0vd,0w¬Kü jrwfpmbk&m;onfvnf; tenf;ukd trsm;jzpfatmif ûyawmfr\/ ûyykrm-t½Sif r[muóy G l H S rax&fonf ckepf&ufywfv; eda&m"ormywfjzifh ukeveapNyD;vQif qif;&Jom;wkYd tm; cs;ajr§mufjcif;ukd ûyvkd Hk f G f D aomaMumifh umu0vd,rnfaom vlqif;&J\ tdrwcg;ü (qGr;)&yfawmfr\/ xkumu0vd,\ r,m;onf f H f l d rax&fudk jrifvQif cifye;viftwGuf csuûf ywfxm;aom qm;rygonfh [if;pyf,m*kudk oydwü avmif;vªvu\/ G f f dk f t½Sir[muóyrax&fonf xk,m*kudk cH,cí jrwfpmbk&m;\ vufawmfü uyfxm;av\/ jrwfpmbk&m;onf f d l hJ G G rsm;pGmaom &[ef;oHCmtm; avmufiatmifûyí "d|mefawmfr\/ oydwf wvk;wnf;jzifh aqmifcaom ,m*konf l H hJ tm;vk;aom &[ef;wkYd tm;avmufiav\/ umu0vd,onfvnf; ckepf&ufajrmufaeYü aoa|;t&mukd &av\/ H þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ oufouf ten;fuom trsm;jzpfatmif ûyonfr[kwao;? tcsKdudk rcsKdatmifç rcsKdonfuvnf; csKdNrdef dk f dk atmif-þokYd ponfwYdk wivnf; tvk½&m&m tvk;pkonf wefc;½Sirm NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmuf\/ csJUíjy&vQif r[mtEkV§ G f d dS H H dk f S rnfaom rax&fonf rsm;pGmaom &[ef;wkYd onf qGr;cH vSnvnfí [if;rygyJ qGr;oufoufuom&í **Fg f hf f dk jrpfurf;ü xkivsuf bkO;ay;ok; aqmifaeMuonfudk jrifí **Fgjrpfü a&onf axmywfMunf jzpfap[k t"d|mefûyí d f f H omraPwkYd tm; axmywfudk jrifatmiftrSwonmukd ay;awmfr\/ xkomraPwkYd onf cGui,fwYdk jzifaqmif,í f l d f h l &[ef;oHCmtm; uyfvMª u\/ tm;vk;aom &[ef; omraPwkYd onf csKNd rdef aumif;jrwfaom axmywfMunf H ESiwuG bkO;ay;awmfrMl u&avonf/ hf f 'dApu©Kjzifh ponfü teufum; þvlUjynfüyif wnfvsuf tvif;ukd yGg;apí xkjd A[®m\ tqif;ukjd rif\? Á xkUd jyif ajymqkaeaom xkjd A[®m\ toHtm;vk;ukvnf; þvlUjynfüyif wnfvsufMum;\? pdwuvnf; od\/ d H d f dk uk,\tpGr;jzifh pdwudk nGwap\- [l&mü ½kyu,\ tpGr;jzifh pdwudk nGwap (ajymif;vJap)\? yg'upsmef d f f f f f dk f f f f pdwudk ,lí uk,ü wif\? uk,Eitvm;wl aES;aom oGm;jcif;½Satmifûy\? rSeay\? uk,\oGm;jcif;onf f d f d f S hf d f d f aES;\/ okconmokYd ¤if;? v[konmokYd ¤if; oufa&muf\ [l&mü yg'upsmefvQif tm½k½aom wefc;zefqif; H dS dk onfh pdwEiwuGjzpfaom okconmokYd ¤if; v[konmokYd ¤if; oufa&muf\ 0if\ awGUxd\ aumif;pGm f S hf a&muf\/ okconm rnfonfrm Oayu©mESi,Oaom onmaywnf;? rSeay\? Oayu©mukd NidroufaomaMumifh S hf S f f f okc[k qktyfayonf/ qufO;tH?h xkoconmukyifvQif qefYusifbufjzpfueaom eD0&PwkYd r¤if;? 0dwuf d D d k d k f S ponfwYdk r¤if; vGwajrmufjcif;aMumifh v[konm[lívnf; odtyfayonf/ xkd v[konmokYd oufa&mufaom S f xkwefc;½Si\ ½kyu,onfvnf; vJrUdI uJoYdk ayghyg;ay\? xkwefc;½Sionf þqkconftwki; avjzifh d dk f f dk f h d kd f d hJ h d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

44

ajr§mufwifonfh vJrUdI uJoYdk «34» tvGeayghyg;aom xif½m;jrif&onfu,jf zifh jA[®avmuokYd om;\/ þokdY h f S h dk G oGm;aom wefc;½Sionf vnf; tu,fí tvk½ygrl yx0DuokP;psmef\tpGr;jzifh aumif;uifü vrf;zefqif;í dk f d dS d f f ajcjzifh oGm;\? tu,fí tvkd½ygrl 0ga,muokP;psmef\ tpGr;jzifavukd (tvk½onftwki; wkucwfatmif) dS d f f h d dS h d f d f "d|mefí vJrUdI uJoYdk avjzifh oGm;\/ pifppfaomfum; oGm;vkonf\ tjzpfonfomvQif þt&mü yrmPaywnf;/ h d xifpmjy&vQif oGm;vkonf\ tjzpf½vQif þqkconftwki; ûytyfNyD;aom pdwudk "d|mef;jcif;½Saom xkwefc; G d dS d hJ h d f f d d kd ½Sionf av;orm;uypfvuaom jrm;uJoYdk "d|mefjcif;t[keu ypfvityfonfjzpfíomvQif xif½m;jrif&aom f dk f h f T hf S uk,jf zifh oGm;\/ d pdw\tpGr;jzifh uk,unwap\[l&mü ½kyu,u,í (yg'upsmef)pdwü wif\? pdwEihf tvm;wl f f d f dk G f f dk f dk l f f S jrefaom oGm;jcif;½Satmif ûy\? rSeay\? pdw\oGm;jcif;-jzpfjcif;onfjref\/ okconmokYd ¤if;? v[konmokYd ¤if; d f f oufa&muf\ [l&mü ½kyu,vQif tm½k½aom wefc;zefqif;onfh pdwEiwuGjzpfaom okconmokYd ¤if;? v[k f dk f H dS kd f S hf onmokYd ¤if; oufa&muf\[k (qkv\)/ <uif;aomyk'wYdk \ teuft"dyg,fudk qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifh odtyf\/ d dk f Ü d pdw\tpGr;jzif½yu,udk nGwap-ajymif;vJapaom þjym#d[monf pdw\ oGm;jcif;ESiwaom oGm;jcif;½Sonf f f h k f dk f f f hf l d omvQif jzpf\/ þokdYrxif½Sm;aom-rjrif&aomuk,jf zifh oGm;aom þwefc; ½Sionf xkt"d|mefpw\Oyg'f d dk f d d f cPü oGm;oavm? okYd r[kwf XDcPü bifcPü oGm;oavm-[k ar;vwfaomf ok;yg;vk;aomcPwkYd ü oGm;onfH H [k rax&fwyg;u qk\/ xkwefc;½Sionf olu,wiyif oGm;oavm? edrwukd apvTwoavm[lr?l tvk½onfh d d dk f dk f dk f ®d f d dS twki;ûy\/ okYd aomfvnf; þygVdürl xkwefc;½Si\ uk,wiom;jcif; omvQif vmayonf/ d f d dk f d f dk f G raemr,[l&mü "d|mefaomtbdnmOfpwjf zifh zefqif;tyfonf\tjzpfaMumifh raemr,-pdwf jzifNh yD;onf d rnf\/ r,kwavsmhonfh £a`E´½aom [laom þyk'udk rsufpd em; ponfwYdk ykoP²mef tvktm;jzifh qktyfay f dS f H d d onf/ okYd aomf edrw½kyyg;uk,ü yom'½kyum; r½Say/ ]]tu,fí wefc;½Sionf pBuøom;jim;tH?h zefqif;xm; ®d f G d f f d dk f G aom edrw½kyu,onfvnf; xkt&yfü pBuøom;\}} tp½Sdaom tvkH;pkHukd om0uzefqif;onfh t½kyfukd&nfí qkd ®d f dk f d G ayonf/ jrwfpmbk&m; zefqif;aom edrw½kyonfum; jrwfpmbk&m; ûyonfh xkxtrIuvnf; ûy\? jrwfpm G ®d f G kd dk dk G bk&m;\ tvkawmf tpGr;jzifh tjcm;trIuvnf; ûy\? þwGif w&yf NyD;\/ d f dk uk,jf zifh tvkoYdk vuapykudk ½Si;jytH?h þygVdt&jycJaom wefc;wkYd wif xkwefc;½Sionf þvlUjynfü d d dk f H f h dk G d dk f om wnfvsuf 'dApu©Kjzifh jA[®m\tqif;ukd jrif\? 'dAaomwjzifh jA[®m\toHudk Mum;\? apawm y&d,ÓPf Á Á jzifh jA[®m\ pdwuo\? þokYd jrifMum;od½rQjzifh uk,jf zifh tvkoYdk vkuaponfrrnfao;/ xkYd jyifvnf; xkd f dk d Hk d d d f wefc;½Sionf þvlUjynfüomwnfvsuf xkjd A[®mESiwuG wnf\? ajymqk\ aqG;aEG;\? þrQjzifvnf; uk,jf zifh dk f hf d h d tvkoYdk vkuaponf rrnfao;/ xkUd jyifvnf; ]]ta0;ü ½Sonfuvnf; teD;üjzpfatmif "d|mef\}} þokdYtp½Sdaom d d f d dk "d|mefjcif;ukd xkwefc;½Sionf ûy\/ þrQjzifvnf; uk,jf zifh tvkoYdk vuaponf rrnfao;/ xkUd jyifvnf; xkd d dk f h d d dk f wefc;½Sionf xif½m;jrif&aom uk,jf zifaomf¤if;? xif½m; rjrif&aom uk,jf zifaomf¤if; jA[®avmuokYd oGm;\? dk f S d h S d h þrQjzifvnf; uk,jf zifh tvkoYdk vkuaponf rrnfao;/ pifppfaomfum; ]]xkwefc;½Sionf jA[®m\ a½SUü h d d d f d dk f ½kyu,uzefqif;\}} þokYd tp½Saom enf;jzifh «35» qkxm;onfh tpDt&ifoYdk a&muf\? þrQaom ûyrIjzifh f dk f dk d d omvQif uk,jf zifh tvkoYdk vkuaponfrnfay\/ <uif;aom wefc;jym#d[mtaygif;ukrl þt&mü uk,jf zifh d d d f dk d d tvkoYdk vkuapjcif;\ a½S;tzkYd udk jyjcif;iSg qkxm;ayonf/ þqkcaom wefc;onf £'d0"m,-yk'f tzGiü d d f d d hJ dk ¨ d hf a½S;OD;pGm xkwjf ycJaom t"d|med'aywnf;/ h ¨d 398/ xkrwyg; wrsKd;wrnfzefqif;aom 0duAewefc;\¤if; tbdnmOfpwjf zifh NyD;apaom raemr, d S k Á dk d wefc;\¤if; xl;jcm;uGjJ ym;ykum; þokYd jzpfayonf/ 0duAeukûd yvkaom wefc;½Sionfdk H k Á d dk f ]]xkwefc;½Sionf yuwdtoGiupeYf í oli,ftoGiudk rlvnf;jy\? e*g;toGiurvnf; jy\? d dk f f dk G f f dk l *VKef toGiurvnf; jy\? tok&mtoGiurvnf; jy\? odMum;toGiurvnf; jy\? ewftoGiurl f dk l f dk l f dk l f dk vnf;jy\? jA[®mtoGiurvnf; jy\? ork'&mtoGiurvnf; jy\? awmiftoGiurvnf; jy\? f dk l ´ f dk l f dk l jcaoFh toGiurvnf; jy\? usm;toGiurvnf; jy\? usm; opftoGiurvnf; jy\? qiftoGiudk f dk l f dk l f dk l f rlvnf; jy\? jrif; toGiurvnf; jy\? &xm;toGiurvnf; jy\? ajcvsif wyftoGiurvnf; jy\? f dk l f dk l f dk l trsKd;rsKd;aom ppfwyftaygif;ukrl vnf;jy\}}[kd þokYd a[mxm;aom oli,ftoGiponfwYdk wif tvk½&m&m xkxtoGioP²mefudk "d|meftyf\/ (xkwif oli,f f G d dS d dk f d G toGiu) "d|mefvQifvnf; yx0DuokP;ponfwYdk wif wyg;yg;aom tm½k½aom tbdnmOf\ tajccH yg'upsmef f dk d f G H dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

45

rSxí rdr\ oli,f toGiudk qifjciftyf\? qifjcifNyD;vQif y&duûH yonf\tqk;ü wzef 0ifpm;í (xkr) xí d f H d S þokYd oabm½Sonfrnfaom oli,f jzpfap[k "d|meftyf\/ "d|mefaompdwEiwûydieuf oli,fjzpf\ d f S hf f (tZmwowfrif;om;xH oGm;cgeD;wefc;zefqif;aom) a'0'wf uJoYdk yifwnf;/ tvk;pkwYdk ü þenf;yif/ dk h H H xl;onfrm ]]qifuvnf; jy\}} þokYd paompum;ukd þt&mü tjyifyüvnf; qifponfudk jyonf\ S dk tpGr;tm;jzifh qkxm;ayonf/ xktjyify zefqif;&mü ]]qifjzpfv\}}[k "d|mefjcif;rûyrlí ]]qifjzpfap}}[k f d d dk "d|meftyf\/ jrif;ponfwYdküvnf; þenf;yifwnf;/ þonfum; 0duAe'aywnf;/ k Á d ¨d 399/ xkrwyg; raemr,½kyu,udk zefqif;vkaom wefc;½Sionf yg'upsmefrxí (rdr\)uk,udk d S f dk f d dk f S d d f a½S;OD;pGm qifjcifNyD;vQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif tacgif;½Sonf jzpfap (tacgif;jzpfap)[k "d|mef\? wuk,v; d h d d f Hk tacgif;twd jzpf\/ xkdtcg xkdukd,f\ twGi;tacgif;xJü tjcm;uk,udk qifjcifNyD;vQif y&duûH yí qkcNhJ yD;aom f d f d enf;jzifyif "d|mef\? xku,\ twGi;tacgif;xJü tjcm;uk,onf jzpf\/ xkwefc;½Sionf xkerwuk,udk h d dk f f d f d dk f d d d® d f tjyifyokYd xkw\? Oyrmtm;jzifh jzLqHjrufyifrS jzLqHan§mufudk xkwouJoYdk¤if;? oefvsutrf "m;tdrrS f f h f d f oefvsu"m;ukd xkwouJoYdk¤if;? a>ryûcyfr?S 0g-a>ra&cGrS a>rukd xkwouJoYdk ¤if; aywnf;/ xkYd aMumiff f h H f h h ]]þomoemawmfü &[ef;onf þ yuwd½yu,rS tjcm;wyg;aom t*FgBuD;i,ftm;vk;jynfpí k f dk f H h Hk r,kwavsmhonfh £a`E´½aom raemr,½kyu,udk zefqif;\? Oyrmjzifjh y&vQif a,musm;wa,mufonf f dS f dk f f jzLqHjrufyifrS jzLqHan§mufudk xkwEw&m\? xka,musfm;rSm þokYd aom todtjrifjzpf&m\-þ f k f d t&mum; jzL qHjrufyifaywnf;? þt&mum; «36» jzL qHan§mufaywnf;? jzL qHjrufyifum; wjcm; wyg;ç jzLqHan§mufum; wjcm;wyg; aywnf;? pifppfaomfum; jzLqHjruf yifryifvQif jzL qHan§mufudk S xkwEwtyfayonf [k todtjrif jzpf&mouJoYdk ¤if;}}f k f h þokYd ponfudk a[mawmfrtyfayonf/ qufí½Si;jyOD;tH/ þraemr,d't&mü jzL qHan§mufponfwYdk onf jzL l f h ¨d qHjrufyif ponfwYdk EiwueouJoYdk þtwlyif raemr,½kyu,onf wefc;½Si\ ½kyu,Eihf wxyfwnf; S hf l k f h f dk f dk f f dk f S wlonfomvQif jzpfonf [laom teufudk jyjcif;tusKd;iSg þok;yg;aom OyrmwkYd udk jyqkxm;ayonf/ þonf H d um; raemr,d'aywnf;/ ¨d

þonfum; olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdY\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg jyKpD&if(tyf)aom 0dok'd¨r*fusrf;0,f NyD;ajrmufrI(wefckd;zefqif;rI)trsKd;rsKd;ukd tus,fjycsuf (£'d¨0d"eda'´o)rnfaom wq,fhESpfckajrmuf tykdif;tcPf;aywnf;/ (£'d¨0d"ukd tus,fjycsuf NyD;\/)

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

46

13-tbdnmeda'´o-tbdnmOfwudk tus,jf ycsuf Ydk
'dAÁaomw"mwkuxm-'dAÁaomw"mwf jyqkdcsuf
«37» 400/ ,cktcg 'dAaomw"mwfudk tus,fjy&ef tpOfusa&mufvmNyD/ xkd ('dAaom w"mwf)ü¤if;ç Á Á ,if;rS aemufjzpfueaom tbdnmOf ok;yg;wkYd ü¤if; (aom {0H orm[daw pdawå/y/ tmaeOÆyawå 'dAm, aomw k f H Ü Á "mwk,m pdwHå tbde[&wd tbdeEmarwd) xkd (pwkwpsmef&NyD;aom &[ef;)onf þqkconftwki; pdwonf D d é ¬ d hJ h d f f (pwkwpsmeform"djzif) wnfMunfvwfaomf/y/ rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufvwfaomf 'dAaomw"mwftvkYd ig pdwudk ¬ h f I Á S f a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\) tp½Saom ygVdawmfpum; wkYd \teufudk qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif odtyf\/ d d h tvk;pkwYdk ü txl;rQukom zGijhf yuket/ H H d f hH xk'Aaomw"mwfqi&m ygVdawmfü 'dAm, aomw"mwk,m-[laom þyk'ü+ewfwYdk \ em;ESiwaom d d Á dk f Á f hf l aMumifh 'dArnf\/ xifpmjy&vQif ewfwYdk \ yom'aomw"mwfac: em;onf aumif;rIuaMumifh jzpfay:vm Á G H ayonf? (0g-jzpfay:vmojzif) onf;ajc ovdyf aoG; ponfwYdku ydwyifaESmif,ujf cif; r½Say? npfñ;aMumif; h f h S d l tnpftaMu;wkYd rS uif;vGwaomaMumifh ta0;ü tm½kuaomfvnf; cH,Ei-Mum;Ekiay\? þ&[ef;\ 0D&,jzifh f H dk l dk f d f d yGg;aptyfonfh orm"dcetm;aMumifh jzpfaom þtbdnmOf aomw"mwfonfvnf; xkewfwYdk \ em;ESihf wlonf G f d omwnf;? xkoYdk ewfwYdk \ em;ESiwaomaMumifh 'dArnf\/ wenf;tm;jzifrum; 'dA0[m&ac: psmef\tpGr;jzifh d hf l Á h l Á d f &tyfaomaMumifh rdru,wivnf; 'dA0[m&ukd rSaomaMumifvnf; 'dArnf\/ Mum;wwfaom em;[laom teuf d dk f dk f Á d D h Á oabmaMumif¤if;ç toufrhJ teufoabmaMumif¤if; aomw"mwf rnf\/ wenf;um; aomw"mwfac: em;\ h h (Mum;rI) udpuûdk yjcif;aMumifh aomw"mwfEihf wlay\? xkYd aMumifvnf; aomw"mwfrnf\/ ewfwkdY \ em;ESihf ö S h wlaom xkd (tbdnmOf) aomw"mwfjzifh ([k qkv\)/ d kd 0dok'¨g,- [lonfum; xuf0ef;usipifMu,faom tnpftaMu;uif;aom([k qkv\)/ twduErmEk f d dk ú Å odum,- [lonfum; vlwYdk \ Mum;&me,fy,fudk ausmfveí toHudk Mum;ojzifh vlwYdk \ rHoaomw"mwfac: G f em;ukd ausmfveaom ausmfveíwnfaom ([kqv\) Oabmoa'´ okPmwd- [lonfum; ESprsKd;aom toHwYdk udk G f G f dk dk f Mum;\/ tb,fEprsKd;wkYd uenf;¿[lr?l ewfavmuü toHwYdk Eihf vlUavmuü toHwYdk u?dk vlwYdk \toH ewfwYdk \ S f dk S toHwYdk u[k qkv\? (ESprsKd;aomtoHwYdk udk Mum;\[laom) þpum;jzifh t<uif;½SaomtoHwYdk udk odr;,lonf dk d dk f d f [k odtyf\/ a, 'la& oEÅdau p- [lonfum; ta0;ü wyg;aom pMum0Vmüaomfvnf; tMuif toHwYdkonf ½Sdukef\? teD;ü tMuiftoHwYdk onf teD;qk;tm;jzifh rdru,wi;u yk;aumifwYdk \toHwYdk onf aomfvnf;½Sd H d dk f G f d uke\? xkteD;ta0;ü toHwYdk udk Mum;\[k qkv\? þpum;jzifh t<uif;rJh toHwYdk udk odr;,lonf[k odtyf\/ f d d dk f þ'dAaomw"mwftbdnmOfudk tb,foYdk jzpfaptyfoenf;¿[lr/ (pwkwpsmef &NyD;aom) xk&[ef;onf Á l ¬ d tbdnmOf\ tajccHjzpfaom pwkwpsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif (xkr) xí y&duûH yaom orm"dpwjf zifh a½S;OD;pGm ¬ d S d yuwdem;jzifh Mum;Ekiavmufonfh a0;aomt&yfü awmxJujcaoFponfwYdk\ Murf;wrf; us,avmifaom toH d f h f ukd ESv;oGi;tyf\? ausmif;wduü acgif;avmif;oHuçdk pnfouçdk c½koif;oHuçdk omraPESi&[ef;i,fwYdk \ Hk f k f H hf tm;uke½wqaom pm½Gwouçdk yuwdpum;ajymolwYdk \ ]]tb,fenf;t½Sifbk&m;? tb,fenf; igh½Sif}} tp f G f dk f H ½SdaomtoHukdç iSufoHukdç avoHukdç ajceif;oHukd «38» usKduusKduqaom a&\ pdwpwjf rnfouçdk aeylxü f f l f d H J ajcmufaoGUaom xef;½Gu\ zspfzspfjrnfouçdk y½Gwqwf jcaumifwYdk \ jrnfoudk (ESv;oGi;tyf\) þenf;jzifh f H f d H Hk f tMurf;qk; tus,fq; toHrpí tpOftwki; odrarGUaomtoHwYdk udk ESv;oGi; tyfue\/ xkd a,m*D&[ef;onf H Hk S d f f Hk f k f ta½SUt&yfrsufEmü toHwYdk \ toHerwudk ESv;oGi;tyf\/ taemuft&yfrsufEmüç ajrmuf t&yfç awmift&yfç S d d f Hk f S atmuft&yfç txuft&yfrsufEmüç ta½SUawmift&yfç taemufajrmuft&yfç ta½SUajrmuft&yfç taemufawmif S t&yf rsufEmü toHwYdk \ toHerwudk ESv;oGi;tyf\/ Murf;wrf;onfvnf; jzpfueaom (toHwYdk\) odrarGU S d d f Hk f k f f onfvnf; jzpfueaom toHwYdk\ toHerwudk ESv;oGi;tyf\/ xkoYdk ESv;oGi;aom a,m*D&[ef;rSm xktoH k f d d f Hk f d Hk f d wkYd onf yuwdpwf tm;aomfvnf; xif½m;uke\? y&duûH yaom orm"dpwtm;rlum; tvGeyif xif½m;uke\/ d S f d f f S f þqkconftwki; toHerwudk ESv;oGi;aeaom xka,m*D&[ef;tm; ]],ckyif 'dAaomw"mwf ('dAÁ d hJ h d f d d f Hk f d Á aomw tbdnmOf) jzpfawmhrnf}}[k qkoifaomcPü xktoHwYdk wif wyg;yg;aom toHudk tm½kûH yí raem'Gg&m d h d G 0ZÆe;ac: ESv;oGi; qifjcifaompdwf jzpfay:\? xkd pdwcsKyfvwfaomf av;Budrf ig;Budraom aZmwkYd onf jzpfay: f Hk f f f uke\? ,if; av;Budrf ig;BudrwYdk wif a½S;aZm ok;Budrf av;BudrwYdk onf y&duH Oypm tEkvHk a*gMwblrnfaom f f G H f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

47

umrm0p&aZmwkYd aywnf;? pwkwaZm okYd r[kwf yOöraZmonf ½lyg 0p& pwkwpsmefEi,Oaom tyÜempdway ¬ ¬ S hf S f f wnf;/ xkpwwYdk wif xktyÜemaZmpdwEiwuG jzpfaom ÓPfudk 'dAaomw"mwf[k odtyf\/ xktyÜempdwf jzpf d d f G d f S hf Á d onfrS aemufrm xkÓPft,Ofü usonf jzpfavawmh\/ xkÓPfudk tm;aumif; atmif ûyvkaom a,m*Donf S d d d ]]þrQtwGi;ü toHudk Mum;vk\}}[k vufwopfrQ t&yfudk yki;jcm;í yGg;aptyf\/ xkUd aemif vufEpopfç f d d f S f av;opfç ½Spopfç wxGmç waxmifç wkucef;wGi;ç ausmif;OD;rsufEmpmç jymom'fç y&d0Pac: (ausmif;wkuBf uD; f d f f S k f d twGi;½S) ausmif;0if;i,fç oHCmhtm&mrfac: ausmif;wkuçf qGr;cH½mç Zeyk'ac: ûrdUe,f ponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm; f d d f G f f jzifh pMum0Vmtqk;wkiatmif jzpfap? xkUd xuftvGef jzpfap yki;jcm;í yki;jcm;í yGg;aptyf\/ H d f d f d f ,ck jycJonftwki; 'dAaomwtbdnmOfudk &NyD;aom þa,m*D&[ef;onf yg'upsmef\ tm½kjH zpfaom h h d f Á uokP; edrwf xd&mjyefY&m t&yftwGi;ü wnf½dS (onfvnf;) jzpfueaom toHwYdk udk wzef yg'upsmefudk r0if d f d f k f pm;rlívnf; tbdnmO ÓPfjzifh Mum;onfom/ þokYd Mum;&müvnf; jA[®mjh ynfwiatmif c½koif;pnfBuD; dk f xufpnf ponfwYdk\ toHwYdk jzifh waygif; wnf; tkwtwusufusuf qlyuaeapumrl toD;toD; yki;jcm;&ef f k f G f d f tvk½ygu þonfum; c½koif;oH þonfum; pnfBuD;oH [lí yki;jcm;od&ef pGr;Ekionfomwnf;/ þwGif d dS d f f d f w&yfNyD;\/

'dAÁaomw"mwf jyqkdcsuf NyD;\/ apawmy&d,ÓPf jyqkdcsuf
«39» 401/ apawmy&d,ÓPfudk jyqk&mwGif apawmy&d,ÓPm, [laomyk'ü (apawm)pdwudk (y&d,) d f f yki;jcm;wwfaomaMumifh apawmy&d,rnf\/ (apawmy&d,) pdwuyi;jcm; wwfonfjh yif (ÓP) odwwfaom d f f dk dk f aMumifh apawmy&d,ÓPf rnf\? xkÓPftvkUd iSg-[k qkv\/ y& owåmeH [lonfum; rdrucsef xm;í tjcm; d d dk d dk owå0gwkYd \ ([k qkv\)/ y&yk*vmeH (wyg;aomyk*Kd¾ vfwYdk \) [laom þyk'onfvnf; y&owåmeH [laomyk'f d dk ¾ f ESifh wlaomteuf½Sd\/ (xkoYdk a[mrS em;vnfEirnf) a0ae,swkYd tvktm;jzif¤if;ç a'oemukd wifw,fapaom d dk f h d h h (a'oem0dvmo) ÓPfawmftvkd tm;jzif¤if; (owåEihf yk*v=owå0gESihf yk*Kd¾ vf) o'´gxl;jcm;uGjJ ym;jcif;ukd ûyxm; h S ¾ ayonf/ apwom apawm [lonfum; rdr\pdwjf zifh xkd (tjcm;owå0g yk*Kd¾ vf)wkYd \ pdwudk ([k qkv\)/ y&dpö d f d dk yZmemwd [lonfum; yki;jcm;í wyfrufrI (&m*)ESiwuG jzpfaom pdwponf wkYd tvkd txl;xl; tjym;jym; d f hf f tm;jzifo\ ([k qkv\)/ h d d dk xkapawmy&d,ÓPfudk tb,foYdk jzpfaptyfoenf;¿ [lrl þ apawmy&d,ÓPfonf 'dApu©KÓPf\ d Á tpGr;tm;jzifh NyD;ajrmufjynfp\? xk'Apu©KÓPfonf þapawmy&d,ÓPf\ y&duH (êudwifjyifqifr) aywnf;/ f h Hk d d Á I xkUd aMumifh xka,m*D &[ef;onf tvif;uokP;ukd yGg;apí 'dApu©KtbdnmOf jzifh olwyg;\ ESv;om; ½kyudk d d f Á Hk f rSí jzpfaeaom aoG;\tqif;ukd Munfh½Ií pdwfukd ½Smtyf\/ ½SmíodEkdif ykHrSm-½Tivef;0rf;omonfpwf D f h d jzpfaeaomtcgü (ESv;aoG;onf) eD\ yanmifo;rSnhf (tqif;)ESihf wl\/ ESv;romonfpwf jzpfaeaomtcgü Hk D Hk h d rnf;euf\ oajyoD;rSnhf (tqif;) ESiw\? r½TirñI; tv,ftvwfpwf jzpfaeaomtcgü Munf\ ESr;qD hf l f d d f (tqif;)ESiw\/ xkUd aMumifh xka,m*D&[ef;onf ]]þ (eDaom) ESv;aoG;½kyonf 0rf;omrI-aomreóda`E´ hf l d Hk f aMumifh jzpf\? þ (rnf;eufaom) ESv;aoG;½kyonf ESv;romrI a'greóda`E´aMumifh jzpf\? þ (Munfvifaom) Hk f Hk ESv;aoG;½kyonf r½TirñI;-Oayu©a`E´aMumifjh zpf\}}[lí olwyg;\ ESvkH;aoG;½kyftqif;udk Munfh½Ií (olwyg;\) Hk f f d d pdwudk ½Smvsuf apawmy&d,ÓPfudk tm;½Satmif ûytyf\/ þokdYûyí xkdÓPf tm;½Sdvwfaomf tpOftwkdif; f d (wk;wufí) ESv;aoG; ½kyudk rMunf½&yJaomfvnf; pdwwckrS pdwwckoYdk omvQif ajymif;a½TUvsuf umrm0p&pdwf d Hk f h I f f tm;vk;uk¤if;ç ½lyg0p&pdwf t½lyg 0p&pdwtm;vk;uk¤if; tjym;tm;jzifh odEiay\? rSeay\-a½S;t|uxmü H d f H d dk f f atmufygpum;ukd qkxm;ayonfd ]]t½lybkHü olwyg;\ pdwuovaom (tbdnmOf&) yk*Kd¾ vfonf tb,fo\ f dk d dk l ESv;om;½kyudk Munf½&ao;oenf;? tb,fo\ £a`E´azmufjyefyudk Munf½&ao;oenf;Hk f h I l Hk h I [k ar;vQif wpkH wa,muf\ (ESv;om;½kyf £a`E´azmufjyefyu)rQ rMunfh ½I&awmhyg/ Hk Hk dk trSwf r½Swyg;yg;aom bkü (trSwr½Sd wpkwa,muf\) pdwudk ESv;oGi; qifjcifvQif d H f H f Hk f wqJajcmufyg;tjym;½Saom pdwudk odjcif;onf apawmy&d,tbdnmOf wefc;ESijhf ynfpaom h d f dk h Hk þa,m*D\ t&maywnf;/ okYd aomf ,ckqcaom (ESv;aoG;½kyudk Munfí ½Smyk) pum;onf dk hJ Hk f h H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

48

(þtbdnmOfü) ESv;oGi;avhvmrIudk rûybl;ao;aom tm;xkwcgpyk*Kd¾ vftwGuf jzpfay Hk f f onf}}[líyif/ o&m*H 0g pdw-tp½SonfwYdk ü avmbESiwuGjzpfaom pdwf½Spfckukd o&m*pdwf wyfrufrEiwuG jzpf Hå d hf I S hf aom pdw[k odtyf\/ <uif;aom bkav;yg;qki&m ukovtAsmuwpdwudk 0dw&m*pdwf wyfrufruif;aom f H d f dk f f I pdw[k odtyf\/ a'gorl pdwf 2-ckEihf arm[rlpwf 2-ck[aom þpdwav;ckwYdk onf (o&m*pdwçf 0Dw&m* f S d l f pdw[aom þpdwEpctaygif;) 'kuü a&wGujf cif;odr;,ljcif;okYd ra&mufue/ tcsKdUrax&fwYdk onfum; xkpwf f l f S f k f f k f d d 4-ckwYdkuvnf; (0Dw&m*pdwtjzpfjzif) odr;,lMuuke\? ESv;romrI-a'greóESihf ,SOaom (a'gorl) pdw2dk f h f f Hk f f ckonf oa'gopdwf pdwq;rI a'goESiwuGjzpfaom pdwrnf\/ bkHav;yg;qkdi&mukovf tAsmuwpdwtm;vk; f dk hf f f dk f H onf 0Dwa'gopdwf a'gouif;aom pdwrnf\/ <uif;aom tukovpwf q,fcwYdk onf þ'kuü a&wGujf cif;f dk f d k f odr;,ljcif;okYd ra&mufue/ tcsKdUrax&fwYdk onfum; xkpwwYdk uvnf; (0Dwa'gopdwf tjzpfjzif) odr;,lue\/ f k f d d f dk h f k f «40» oarm[H 0Dwarm[H [laom þESpy'üum; avmb a'gowkYd Eihf ra&myJ oD;oefYenf;tm;jzifh f k f S 0dpupmESiçhf O'¨pEihf ,SOaom (arm[rl) pdwf 2-ckonfomvQif (oarm[pdw) arm[ESiwuGjzpfaom pdwf d d ä ö S f f hf rnf\/ okYd aomfvnf; arm[onf tvk;pkaom tukovpwwYdk ü jzpfaomaMumifh tukovpwf 12-yg;vk;ukyif H H dk f d f dk f d H d oarm[pdw[k odtyfay\/ <uif;aom (ukovf tAsmuw) pdwonf 0Dwarm[pdwf arm[ uif;aom pdwf f dk f rnf\/ xderd'oYdk tpOfvuí jzpfaom (ysif;&davsmh vsnf;aom) pdwonf oHcwpwf usKUH aompdw-wGeYf qwf ¨ dk f f d å d f k aom pdwrnf\/ ysHUvGir-O'¨poYdk tpOfvuí jzpfaom pdwonf 0duwpwf ysUH vGiaompdwrnf\/ ½lyg0p& f hf I ö dk f f ©d å d hf f pdwf t½lyg0p&pdwonf r[*¾Kwfpwrnf\/ t<uif;onf tr[*¾Kwfpwf r[*¾Kwf r[kwaompdwrnf\/ f d f d f f umr½ly-t½ly[laom bko;yg;qki&m pdwtm;vk;onf oOwå&pdwf olUxuftvGetjrwf½aom pdwrnf\/ H Hk d f f H f dS f avmukw&m pdwonf tEkw&pdwf olUxuftvGetjrwf r½Saom pdwrnf\/ OypmokYd a&mufaompdwçf tyÜemokYd å f å f d f a&mufaom pdwonf orm[dwpdwf wnfMunfaompdwrnf\/ Oypm tyÜem 2-yg;vk;okYd ra&mufaompdwonf f f H f orm[dwpdwf rwnfMunfaom pdwrnf\/ w'*Ftm;jzifh vGwjf cif;ç 0duretm;jzifçh orkapä'tm;jzifçh y#dyó'd¨ f © Ç tm;jzifçh edó&Ptm;jzifvwjf cif;okYd a&mufaompdwonf 0drwpwf vGwaompdwrnf\/ þqkconfvwjf cif; h G f k å d f f d hJ h G ig;yg;okYd ra&mufaompdwonf t0drwpwf rvGwaompdwrnf\-[lí odtyf\/ þqkconftwki; apawm f k å d f f d hJ h d f y&d, tbdnmOf&aom &[ef;onf (o&m*ponftm;jzif) tvk;pkaom tjym;½Saom &m*ESiwuGjzpfaom þ h H H d hf pdwuvnf; &m*ESiwuGjzpfaom pdw[k tjym;tm;jzifo\/y/ rvGwaompdwuvnf; rvGwaompdw[k f dk hf f h d f f dk f f tjym;tm;jzifo\/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ h d

apawmy&d,ÓPf jyqkdcsuf NyD;\/ ykaAÁed0goÓPf jyqkdcsuf
402/ ykaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPf jyqk&mü ykaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPm, [lonfum; a½S;ü aebl;aom cE¨m d d d wkYd udk atmufarh&mü tMuifÓPfonf jzpf\? xkÓPftusKd;iSg ([k qkv\)/ a½S;twdwb0wkYd ü aebl; (jzpfb;) d d dk f l aom cE¨mwkYd onf ykaAÁe0go rnf\/ ed0waebl;[lonfum; (rdru,tjzpfjzif) odr;ykuí aecJb;ukeaom d k ¬ d dk f h f d f h l f cHpm;cJb;ukeaom rdr\oEÅmefü jzpfay:MuNyD;í csKyfavukeNf yD;aom w&m;wkYd aywnf;? wenf;um; aetyfcb; h l f d hJ l ukeaom w&m;wkYd onf ed0w¬ (ed0go) rnfue\? usufpm;&mtm½kH [laom aejcif; (tm½kûH yjcif;)jzifh aetyf f k k f (tm½kûH ytyf) ukeaom rdr\pdw0nmOfjzifotyfNyD; yki;jcm;tyfNyD;jzpfueaom w&m;wkYd onf (ed0w¬ rnfue\?) f d f d h d d f k f k k f oHo&mc&D;jywfNyD;aom bk&m; &[EÅmwkYd udk jyefvnfatmufarhjcif; ponfwYdkü olwyg;wkYd \ pdw0nmOfjzifh odtyf f d aom w&m;wkYd onfrvnf; (ed0wrnfue\)/ xkdolwyg;wkdY\ pdw0nmOfjzifh odtyfaom w&m;wkYd udk Ak'j¨ rwfpm l k ¬ k f f d G bk&m;wkYd onfomvQif &uke-atmufarhEiue\/ tMuifowdjzifh a½S;üaebl;aom cE¨mtpOfudk atmufarh\f dk f k f trSw&\? xkowdonf ykaAÁe0gomEkówd rnf\/ xkowdEi,Oaom todÓPfonf ykaAÁe0gomEkówd f d d d S hf S f d ÓPfrnf\/ xkyaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPf tusKd;iSg-xkÓPfu&&eftvkYd ig-þum; ykaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPm,d k d d dk S d yk'\ teufaywnf;/ f taeu0d[wH [lonfum; rsm;aomtjym;½Saom? wenf;um;rsm;aom tjym;wkYd jzifa[mtyf-csUJ jy d d h tyfaom ([kqv\) ykaAÁe0goH [lonfum; tjcm;rJh twdwb0rSpí xkxdk a½S;a½S;b0wkYd ü aecJb;aom cE¨m dk dk d f d h l tpOfudk ([k qkv\)/ tEkó&wd [lonfum; cE¨mtpOf\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç pkwy#doaE¨\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; d dk f h d f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

49

tpOfvkdufívkdufí atmufarh\-qifjcif\/ atmufarhqifjcifyucsJUí jy&vQif þykaAÁe0goukd (1) omoemy Hk dk d &aoh (wdw)rsm;? (2) yuwdom0ursm;? (3) r[mom0u rsm;? (4) t*¾om0ursm;? (5) yapöuAk'grsm;? (6) ¬d ¨ or®morÁK'¨b&m;½Sirsm;[laom þ 6-rsKd;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk onf atmufarhEiue\/ k f dk f k f «41» xkwif omoemy&aoh (wdw)wkYd onf uyÜgav;q,fomvQif atmufarh Ekiue\? xkUd xuf tvGef d G ¬d d f k f ratmufarhEiue/ tb,faMumifenf;? ynmtm;enf;aomaMumifaywnf;? rSeay\-xkd wdwwYdk rm emrf½yudk dk f k f h h h f ¬d S k f yki;jcm;odaom ÓPfuif;aomaMumifh ynmtm;enf;\/ yuwdom0uwkYd onf ynmtm;aumif;aomaMumifh uyÜg d f w&maomfvnf; uyÜgwaxmifaomfvnf; atmufarhEiueonfomwnf;/ ½Spusyaom r[mom0uwkYd onf uyÜg dk f k f f d f wode;wkiatmif atmufarhEiue\/ ESpyg;aom t*¾om0uwkYd onf uyÜgaygif; wpfoacsFEihf wode;wkiatmif f d f dk f k f f S f d f atmufarhEiue\/ yapuAk'gwkYd onf uyÜgaygif; ESpoacsFEiwode;wkiatmif atmufarhEiue\/ taMumif; dk f k f ¨ f S hf f d f dk f k f rlum; xkr[mom0uponfwYdk rm qkawmif;í yg&rDjznfc&mumvonf uyÜgwode;ponf þrQomtwki;t½Snf d S h hJ f d f ½SaomaMumifaywnf;/ or®morÁK'¨b&m; ½SiwYdk rmrl uyÜgtyki; tjcm;r½Say? (tvk½wi; atmufarhEiMf uay\)/ d h k f S d f d d dS dk f dk xkrwyg; wdwwYdk onf cE¨mtpOfuomvQif (avQmufí) atmufarhEiue\? cE¨mtpOfuvwí pkwy#d d S ¬d dk dk f k f dk T f d oaE¨ tvktm;jzifh atmufarh&ef rpGr;Ekiue/ Oyrmjzifjh y&vQif oluef;wkYd rm (rdrwYdk tvkv) tvk½&m t&yfoYdk d f d f k f S d d dk d dS oGm;a&mufEijf cif; r½SouJoYdk xkwwwYdk rm tvk½&mukd ckeausmfí atmufarhEijf cif; r½Say? pifppftm;jzifh dk d h d d ¬d S d dS f dk d oluef;wkYd onf 'kwawmifa0S;ukd rvTwMf urlíomvQif oGm;ukeouJoYdk xkUd twlyif xkwwwYdk onf cE¨mwkYd \ f f h d d ¬d tpOfudk rvTwMf urlíomvQif atmufarhEiue\/ yuwdom0uwkYd onf cE¨mwkYd \ tpOftm;jzifvnf; atmufarh dk f k f h Ekiue\? pkwEihf y#doaE¨tvktm;jzifvnf; ajymif;a½TU(í atmufarh)Ekiue\/ ½Spusdyaom r[mom0uwkYd d f k f d S d h d f k f f f onfvnf; xkUd twlyif/ ESpyg;aom t*¾om0uwkYd rmrl cE¨mtpOfjzifh ûyzG,upö r½SNd yD? wckaom b0\ pkwudk f S f d d jrifNyD;vQif y#doaE¨udk jrifue\? wzef tjcm;b0\ pkwudk jrifNyD;vQif y#doaE¨udk jrifue\? wzeftjcm;b0\ k f d k f pkwudk jrifNyD;vQif y#doaE¨udk jrifue\-þokYd pkwEihf y#doaE¨ tvktm;jzifomvQif ajymif;a½TUvsuf atmufarh d k f d S d h oGm;uke\/ yapöuAk'gwkYd onf xkUd twlyif/ f ¨ or®morÁK'¨b&m;½SiwYdk rmrlum; cE¨mtpOfjzifh ûyzG,upvnf;r½S?d pkwEiy#doaE¨tvktm;jzifh ajymif;a½TU k f S f d ö d S hf d í qifjcifz,f vnf;r½S?d rSeay\-xkb&m;½SiwYdk rm rsm;pGmaom uyÜguka#wkYd 0,f atmufüjzpfapç txufü jzpfap G f d k f S tvk½&m&m Xmeonf xif½m;onfomwnf;/ xkUd aMumifh rsm;pGmukeaom uyÜguka#wkYd uaomfvnf; ay,smv d dS S f dk (jr§Kyfxm;aom) ygVduuoYdk csKH;í xkxtvk½&m tvk½&müomvQif (ÓPfjzif) oufa&mufuevsuf jcaoFceom; dk hJ d dk d dS d dS h k f h k f G ykuoYdk aom oGm;yktm;jzifh atmufarhom;uke\? þokYd atmufarhom;ukeaom bk&m;½SiwYdk \ ÓPfawmfonf H hJ H G f G f f Oyrmtm;jzifh om;NrD;rQiudk xdrwatmifypfEionfh av;twwfü tavhtusifûh yNyD;aom bk&m;tavmif;awmf f S f dk f o&b*Fynm½SEihf tvm;wlaom av;orm;\ ypfvuaom jrm;onf tMum;ü opfyif EG,ponfwYkü rNidruyf d S dk f f d rlí ypfui;rSewiüom usa&mufxreouJoYdk tMum;ü Niduyfaejcif; acsmfvom;jcif; r½SouJoYdk xkUd twlyif G f f dk f d S f h JG G d h tMum;tMum; b0wkYd ü rNiduyf? racsmfvay? rNiduyf racsmfvrí tvk½&m tvk½&mXmeukomvQif ,lEiay\ JG JG l d dS d dS d dk f (atmufarhEif odEiay\)/ dk dk f xkrwyg; a½S;üaebl;onfh cE¨mtpOfudk atmufarhMuaom þyk*Kd¾ vfwYdk wif wdwwYdk \ ykaAÁe0goukd d S G ¬d d jrifjcif;onf yk;pk;MuL; ta&mifEihf wlonfjzpfí xif\/ yuwdom0uwkYd \ (tjrifonf) qDr; a&mifEiwonf d H S D S hf l jzpfí xif\/ r[m om0uwkYd \ (tjrifonf) rD;½ª;wefaqmifta&mifEihf wlonfjzpfí xif\? t*¾om0uwkYd \ S (tjrifonf) aomuf½;Mu,fa&mifEihf wlonfjzpfí xif\/ yapöuAk'¨gwkdY\ (tjrifonf) va&mifEiwonfjzpfí ª S S hf l xif\/ jrwfpmbk&m;wkYd \ (ykaAÁe0gotjrifonf) a&mifjcnfwaxmifwYdkjzifh wefqmqiftyfaom o&'Owkü G d ae0ef;ESiwonfjzpfí xifay\/ hf l «42» xkdrSwyg; wdwd¬wkdY\ ykaAÁe0goukd atmufarhjcif;onf oluef;wkYd \ awmifa0S;pGe;jzifh (axmufí d f prf;í) oGm;jcif;ESiw\/ yuwdom0uwkYd \ (atmufarhjcif;onf) wckaom opfw;jzifcif;xm;aom acsmif;i,f hf l Hk h wHwm;ukom;jcif;ESihf wl\/ r[mom0uwkYd \ (atmufarhjcif;onf) vl av;ig;a,muf oGm;avmufonfh ysOfcif; d G wHwm;ukd oGm;jcif;ESiw\/ t*¾om0uwkYd \ (atmufarhjcif;onf) vSn;vrf;wHwm;ukd oGm;jcif;ESiw\/ hf l f hf l yapöuAk'gwkYd \ (atmufarhjcif;onf) ukeonfvtrsm; oGm;&m vrf;rBuD;ukd oGm;jcif;ESiw\/ Ak'¨-jrwfpmbk&m; ¨ f l hf l G wkYd \ (atmufarhjcif;onf) vSn;tpD;ESpq,fo;q,f wûydieuf oGm;avmufonfh vSn;vrf;rBuD;ukd oGm;jcif; f f Hk f f ESiw\/ hf l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

50

þt&mürlum; om0uwkYd \ykaAÁe0goÓPfudk qkv\? xkUd aMumifh ]]tEkó&wd [lonfum; cE¨mtpOf\ d d dk tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç pkwy#doaE¨ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; tpOfvuí vkuí atmufarh\-qifjcif\}}[kziqcayonf/ f h d f h dk f d f G hf dk hJ 403/ xkUd aMumifh þokYd atmufarhjcif;iSg tvk½aom tm;xkwcgp a,m*D&[ef;onf qGr;pm;NyD;csdeü d dS f f f qGr;pm;&mrS zJcgcJNh yD;vQif qdwNf idr&mokYd uyfa&mufvsuf tjyifytm½krsm;rSzcgum (ur®|mef;ü)aumif;pGm uyfNid f G f H J G onfjzpfí tpOftwki; av;yg;aom psmefwYdk udk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif tbdnmOf\ tajccH pwkwpsmefrS xí aemufq; d f ¬ Hk jzpfaom xkiaejcif;ukd ESv;oGi; qifjciftyf\/ xkUd aemif xkibUdk ae&mcif;jcif;uk?d ausmif;cef;okYd 0ifcjhJ cif;uk?d d f Hk f d f oydwouFe;odr;xm;cJjh cif;uk?d qGr;pm;cJonfh tcsdeumvuk?d qGr;cH½mrS jyefvmcJaomumvuk?d ½Gmü qGr;cH f f f f h f f G h f vSncaom umvuk?d ½GmokYd qGr;cH&ef 0ifcaom umvuk?d ausmif;rS xGucaomumvuk?d apwD,ifjyif aAm"d hf hJ f hJ f hJ ,ifjyifü ½Sc;cJaom umvuk?d oydwf a&usif;í aq;cJaom umvukd oydwudk ,lcaomumvrS rsufEmopfonf d dk h h f hJ S wkiatmif ûycJaom udpu?dk rk;aomufumvü ûycJaomudpu?dk oefaumif,mrfü ûycJaomudpu?dk nOfO;,mrfü d f h ö d h ö h ö h D ûycJaomudpudk þokYd aemufjyeftpOfjzifh wnOfv; waeYv; ûycJaomudpudk ESv;oGi;-qifjciftyf\/ þrQukdrl h ö h Hk Hk h ö Hk f yuwdpw½otm;vnf; xif½m; ay\? y&duorm"dpw½aom oltm;rl tvGeyif xif½m;onfomwnf;/ d f dS l S H d f dS f S tu,fí þqkcaomudpwYdk wif wpkwckonf rxif½m;yJ½jdS im;tH?h wzef yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD; (xkr) d hJ ö G H S d S xí ESv;oGi;-qifjciftyf\/ þrQjzifh (arSmifxü) rD;xGe;vkuouJoYdk xif½m;avawmhonf/ þqkconfh Hk f J f d f h S d hJ aemufjyef tpOfjzifyifvQif 'kw,aeYüvnf; (ESv;oGi;qifjciftyf\)? wwd, pwkw¬ yOöraeYüvnf;? q,f&uf h d Hk f ajrmufaeYüvnf;? (vGecaom) vcGüvnf;? wvüvnf; wESpwiatmifvnf; ûycJaomudpudk ESv;oGi;-qifjcif f hJ J f dk f h ö Hk f tyf\/ þenf;jzifyifvQif q,fEpwYdk ywfv; tESpEpf q,fwYdk ywfv; þokYd ponfjzifh þb0ü rdr\ y#doaE¨ h S f Hk f S Hk d umvwkiatmif ESv;oGi;-qifjcifNyD;vQif a½S;b00,f pkwcPü jzpfcaom emrf½yudk ESv;oGi;-qifjciftyf\/ d f Hk f d hJ k f Hk f ynmxufaom&[ef;onf yXrtBudrjf zifyifvQif y#doaE¨ucgvSpí pkwcPü emrf½yudk tm½kûH yjcif;iSg pGr;Ekif h dk G f d k f f d ay\/ okYd aomfvnf; a½S;b0ü emrf½yonf t<uif;rJcsKyfcNhJ yD;jzpfonfjh yif (,ckb0ü) uHtopfaMumifh tjcm; k f h emrf½yf jzpfay:aeNyDjzpfaomaMumifh xka½S;b0 pkwXmeonf xlxpmzk;uG,f ydwavSmifxm;onfh t&yfozG,jf zpf k d d J G H f \ trkuarSmiftwduoYdk jzpf\ ynmtm;enf;olonf jrifEic\/ okUd aomf xkoUdk aom yk*Kd¾ vfonfvnf; «43» d f hJ dk f J d ]]y#doaE¨udk cGgvSpí (a½S;b0) pkwcPü jzpfcaom emrf½yudk tm½kûH yjcif;iSg igrpGr;Eki}f }[k 0efcsjcif;-vuf f d hJ k f f d ajr§mufjcif;ukd rûytyf? xkyg'psmefuyifvQif tzefwvJvJ 0ifpm;tyf\? xkpsmefrvnf; xí xí xkpwXmeukd d dk d S d k d ESv;oGi;-qifjciftyf\/ Hk f tusKd;um; þokYd ûyaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf Oyrmtm;jzifh tm;aumif;aom a,musm;onf jymom'faqmif tdr\ f f txGwtzl;tvkUd iSg BuD;pGmaomopfyifudk jzwfvwfaomf tuki;tcuf t½GuwYdk udk jzwf½rQ jzifyifvQif ykqeom; f d f f Hk h d f G ysup;cRw,i;oGm;ojzifh yifv;BuD;ukd jzwf&ef rpGr;Ekiaomfvnf; 0efcsvufajr§mufjcif;ukd rûyrlíomvQif yef;bJ f D f G f Hk f d f ½koYdkom;um ykqeudk xufatmifûyapNyD;vQif wzef jyefvmí jzwf&mouJoYdk? wzef ysup; cRw,i;jyefvQif H G d f h f D f G f vnf; xkUd twlyif wzef vnf;ûyjyifapí jzwf&mouJoYdk? þokYd jzwfaom xka,musm;onf jzwfNyD; jzwfNyD;ukd h d f wzefjzwfz,f r½Sjd cif;aMumif¤if;ç rjywfao;onfuvnf; (tzefzef) jzwfjcif;aMumif¤if; rMumrDyif opfyifBuD;ukd G h dk h vJusap&mouJoYdk þtwlyif yg'upsmefrxí a½S;ü ESv;oGi;-qifjcifNyD;ukd rqifjcifawmhyJ y#doaE¨uomvQif h S Hk f dk qifjcifonfjzpfí rMumrDyif y#doaE¨udk cGgvSpí pkwcPü jzpfcaom emrf½yudk tm½kûH yEki&m\/ xif;cGol f d hJ k f d f J qHyifudk y,fcsol (acgif;&dwo) tp½Saom OyrmwkYd jzifvnf; þqkcaom teufudk jytyfao;\/ f l d h d hJ qkcaom xkpum;xJü aemufq; xkiaejcif;rSpí y#doaE¨wiatmif tm½kûH yí jzpfaomÓPfonf d hJ d Hk d f dk f ykaAÁe0goÓPfr[kwao;ay? ,if;ÓPfonfum; y&duH orm"dEi,OaomÓPf rnfay\/ twDwHo (twdwf d f S hf S f tzkYd üjzpfaom) ÓPf[ívnf; ({au) tcsKdUq&mwkYd u qkMd u\/ xk{auq&mwkYd \ pum;onf ½lyg0p&ÓPfudk l d &nfí qkygrl roifay/ tMuiftcgürl xka,m*D&[ef;rSm y#doaE¨uausmfveí pkwcPüjzpfaom emrf½yudk d h d dk G f d k f tm½kûH yvsuf raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;ac: ESv;oGi; qifjcifpwonf jzpfay: \? xkpwcsKyfvwfaomf xkpwemrf½yuyif f Hk f d f d d f d k d k f dk tm½kûH yí av;Budrf ig;Budraom aZmwkYd onf jzpfay:uke\? ,if; av;Budrf ig;BudrwYdk wif a½S;üqkcNhJ yD;aom f f f G d enf;jzifyifvQif a½S; (ok;av;Budraom) aZmwkYd onf y&duponf trnf½ueaom umrm0p&aZmwkYd aywnf;/ h H f H dS k f aemufq; (pwkw¬ yOör) aZmonf ½lyg0p& pwkwpsmefEihf ,SOaom tyÜem pdwaywnf;/ xktcgü xk&[ef;rSm Hk ¬ S f f d d xktyÜempdwEiwuG tMuifÓPfonf jzpfay:\? þÓPfonf ykaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPf rnf\/ xkd ÓPfESifh d f S hf d ,SOaom owdjzifh rsm;aomtjym;½Saom a½S;ü aecJb;onfh cE¨mtpOfudk tpOfvuí atmufarhEi\/ f d h l dk f dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

51

«xkcE¨mtpOfum; tb,fenf;¿[lr?l b0wckuvnf; (atmufarh\) b0ESpcwYdk uvnf; b0ok;ckwYdk uvnf; d dk f k dk H dk b0av;ckwYdk uvnf; b0ig;ckwYdk uvnf ; b0q,fcwYdkuvnf; b0ESpq,fuvnf; b0ok;q,fuvnf; b0 dk dk k dk f dk H dk av;q,fuvnf; b0ig;q,fuvnf; b0w&mukvnf; b0waxmifuvnf; b0wode;ukvnf; oH0¥uyf dk dk d dk f d rsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; 0d0¥uyfrsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; oH0¥ 0d0¥uyfrsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; (atmufarh\)? ]]þrnfaom b0ü dk dk dk igonf þokdYaom trnf½SdcJh\ þokdYaom tEG,f½SdcJh\ þokdYaomtqif;½SdcJh\ þokdYaom tpm½SdcJh\ þokYd aom csr;om qif;&Judk cHpm;cJ\ þokYd aom touftyki;tjcm; ½Sc\? xkigonf ,if;b0rS pkawcJí þrnfaom f h d f d hJ d h b0ü jzpfcjhJ yefonf? xkb0üvnf; þokYd aom trnf½c\/ y/ þokdYaom touftyki;tjcm; ½Sc\? þokYd d dS hJ d f d hJ (tqif; paom) tjcif;t&mESiwuG nTejf yp&m (trnf tEG,)ESiwuG rsm;aom tjym;½Saom a½S;ü aecJb;aom hf f hf d h l cE¨mtpOfudk tpOfvuí atmufarhEi\»/ dk f dk f 404/ xkpum;&yfü b0wckuvnf; [lonfum; y#doaE¨rSpípkwd tqkH;½Sdaom wckaomb0ü twGi; d dk f 0ifaom cE¨mtpOfwckuvnf; ([k qkv\)/ b0ESpcwYdk uvnf; ponfwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif odtyf\/ oH0¥ dk d dk f k dk uyfrsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; ponfwYdkü qkw,wf ysup;aeaom uyfumvonf oH0¥uyfrnf\? wk;yGg;jzpfxe; dk f k f D d G f aeaom uyfumvonf 0d0¥uyfrnf\-[k odtyf\/ xkwif oH0¥uyfjzifh «44» (ysufp;NyD;aemuf [if;vif;jyif d G D jzpfvsuf wnfaeaom) oH0¥|m,Duyfudk ,ltyf\? taMumif;rlum;-xko0¥uyfvQif t&if;cH ½SaomaMumifh d H d aywnf;/ 0d0¥uyfjzifvnf; (jzpfxe;NyD;aemuf urÇmBuD;wnf aeaom) 0d0¥|m,Duyfudk ,ltyf\/ þokdY,lvQifh G f ]]&[ef;wkdY toacsF,s uyfwYdk onf þav;yg;wkYd aywnf;? tb,fav;yg;wkYd enf;/ oH0¥uyf oH0¥|m ,Duyf 0d0¥uyf 0d0¥|m,Duyf þav;yg;wkYd aywnf;}}[k a[mxm;aom toacsF,suyf wkYd udk t<uif;rJh odr;,l f tyfNyD; jzpfayawmhonf/ xkuyfav;yg;wkYd wif oH0¥ac: ysufuyfwYdk onf (1) rD;jzifysuaom (awaZmoH0¥) uyf? (2) a&jzifh ysuf d G h f aom (tmaygoH0¥)uyf? (3) avjzifysufaom(0ga,moH0¥)uyf[í ok;yg;½Sue\/ oH0¥oDrmac: ysu&m e,f h l H d k f f qk;wkYd onf tmbó&mbkH okbudPmbkH a0[yæKd vfb[í ok;yg;wkYd yif/ H S Hk l H urÇmonf rD;jzifysuaomtcg tmbó&mbkrS atmufzufü rD;avmifí ysufp;\ (tmbó&mbkum; h f H D H rysuf)/ a&jzifysufaomtcg okbudPmbkrS atmufzufü a&jzifh a<urGysufp;\ (okbudPmbkum; rysuf)/ h S H D S H avjzifh ysufp;aomtcg a0[yæKd vfbatmufzufü avjzifh ysufp;\ (a0[yæKd vfbum; rysuf)/ ab;ywf0ef;usif D Hk D Hk tus,ftjyefYtm;jzifrl ysuaom tcgwki;yif (pMum0Vm uka#wode;[laom) Ak'acwf wckv; ysup;\/ h f d f f ¨ Hk f D Ak'acwf rnfonfrm (1) Zmwdacwf? (2) tmPmacwf (3) 0do,acwf[í ok;yg; tjym;½S\/ xkdwGif ¨ S l H d Zmwdacwfonf pMum0Vmwaomif; tyki;tjcm;½S\? ,if;Zmwdacwfonf ypärb0du bk&m;tavmif;awmf d f d d y#doaE¨ ,laomtcg ponfwYdk ü wkevy\/ tmPmacwfonf pMum0Vm uka#wode; tyki;tjcm;½S\? f I f f d f d ,if;tmPmacwfü &weokwy&dwf cE¨y&dwf "Z*¾y&dwf tm#mem#d,y&dwf arm&y&dw[aom þy&dwawmfwYdk\ f f l f tmEkabmfonf jzpfay\/ 0do,acwfonf tqk;tyki;tjcm; r½Say? ,if; 0do,acwfudk ]]tMuifrQavmuf H d f d tvk½vQif xkrQavmuftoHjzifh odapEki\}}[k rdeYf qawmfrl (tyf)ayonf/ ,if; 0do,acwfü jrwfpmbk&m;onf d dS d d f dk G tMuif tMuif t&mukd tvk½\? xkxt&mukd odawmfrEiay\/ ,ck jyqkcaom þok;yg;aom Ak'acwfwYdk wif d dS d dk l dk f d hJ H ¨ G wckaom tmPmacwfonf ysufp;\? xktmPmacwf ysufp;vQif (xkü twGi;0ifaom) Zmwdacwfvnf; ysufp; D d D d f D awmhonfom/ ysufp;vQifvnf; waygif;wnf;yif ysufp;\? wnfvQifvnf; waygif;wnf;yif wnf\/ xkduyf D D urÇm\ ysufp;jcif; wnfjcif;ukd þqkvwHtwki; odtyf\/ D d h d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

52

rD;jzifh urÇmysufykH
405/ tMuiftcgüuyfurÇmonf rD;jzifysuf\? xktcg (ysufcgeD;) tpuyifvQif urÇmysuf rk;BuD;onf h d d wufNyD;vQif pMu0Vmuka#wode;ü wpyfwnf;aom rk;BuD;jzpfvsuf ½GmoGe;\/ vlwYdk onf 0rf;ajrmuf ½Tivef; f d f f ukevsuf tvk;pkaom rsKd;aphwYdk udk xkwí pkuysKd;uke\/ aumufyifwYdk onf EGm;pm;avmuf½rQ jzpfvmMuvQif f H H f d f f Hk jrnf;oHuoYdk jrnfvsuf csKH;vsuf rk;a&waygufrQ r½Gmawmhacs? xktcg jywfpom;aom rk;onf vk;0jywfpJ hJ d d J G d H oGm;awmhonfomwnf;/ þokYd jzpfyuyif &nfí jrwfpmbk&m;onfHk dk G ]]&[ef;wkdY þvkdtcgrsKd;onf ½Sdao;\? ,if;okYd aom tcgü rsm;pGmukeaom ESpwYdk f f ywfv; rsm;pGmukeaom «45»ESpf t&mwdYk ywfv; rsm;pGmukeaomESptaxmifwYdk ywfv; rsm;pGm Hk f Hk f f Hk ukeaom ESptode;wkYd ywfv; rd;onf r½Gmawmhay}}[kf f f Hk k a[mawmfr(tyf)ayonf/ l rk;a&ukd rSí touf½if Mu&ukeaom owå0gwkYd onf aoavukeí jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfue\? yef;opfo;ukd d D S f f k f D rSí touf½iMf u&ukeaom ewfwYdk onfvnf; (pkawukeí jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfue\)/ þokYd aom tjcif;t&mjzifh D S f f k f ½Snpmaom t"GeUf umv ukeveom;vwfaomf xkxt&yfü a&onf ukecef;jcif;okYd a&mufav\? xkdtcg f G f G f G d dk f tpOftm;jzifh ig;vdywYdkonfvnf; aoMuNyD;vQif jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfue\? i&Jom; owå0gwkYd onfvnf; (jA[®mh f k f jynfü jzpfue\)? xkowå0gwkYd wif i&Jom; owå0gwkYd onf ckepfpif;ajrmuf aexGuay:aomtcgü ysufp;Mu k f d G f D onf[k {au (tcsKUd ) q&mwkYd u qkue\/ d k f psmefr&yJ jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfjcif;rnfonf r½Sacs/ þ qkcaom vlponfwYdk wif tcsKdUowå0gwkYd onf tiwf d d hJ G ab;jzifh tESypufcae&uke\? tcsKdUowå0gwkYd onf psmefudk r&xkuue?f xkd owå0gwkYd onf tb,foYdk vQif d f H f d f k jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfuef oenf;[lr?l ewfjynfü&aompsmef\ tpGr;jzifh (jzpfMuayonf)/ jzpfEiyrm xktcgü ]]tESpf k f dk f Hk S d wode;ukeveaomtcg urÇmBuD;ysuvrrnf}}[k avmuAsL[mrnfaom umrm0p& ewfwYdkonf ajzvTwaom f f G f f d hf f aoQmifx;½Sonfjh yif z½kz&JBuJaom qHyif½uevsuf ik,aom rsufEm½Sí rsuf&nfwYdk udk vufwYdk jzifh okwuef Hk d d dS k f d dk S d f k vsuf eD&aomt0wfudk 0wfqifMuum tvGeazmufjyefonfh aMumufz,f toGiuaqmifMuonfjzpfí vlwYdkvrf; J f G f dk vlwYdk Mum;odEiaom t&yfü vSnvnfuevsuf þokYd ajymMum;a<u;aMumfue\? ]]tcsif;wkdY ,cktcgrS tESpf dk f hf k f k f wode;vGeaomtcgü urÇmysujf cif; jzpfvrrnf? þavmu wckv; ysuvrrnf? r[mork'&monfvnf; f f d hf Hk f d hf ´ cef;ajcmuf oGm;vdrrnf? þ urÇmajrBuD;a&m jrif;rk&awmifrif;a&m rD;avmifí ysup;oGm;vdrrnf? jA[®mjh ynfwif hf d f f D hf dk atmif urÇmavmu\ ysufp;jcif;jzpfvrrnf? tcsif;wkYd arwåmukd yGg;apMuukeavmh? u½kPmuk?d rk'wmuk?d tcsif; D d hf f d wkYd Oayu©mukd yGg;apMuukeavmh? rdcifudk ûypkvyauR; Muukeavmh? zcifudk ûypkvyauR; Muukeavmh? trsK;xJü f k f f k f f d toufBuD;olwYdk udk t½ktao ûyMuukeavmh}}[k ajymMum; a<u;aMumfue\/ d f k f xkd avmuAsL[m ewfwYdk\ pum;ukd Mum;ukeí trsm;tm;jzifh vlwYdk onf¤if; bkrZp;ewfwYdk onf¤if; f ® dk f xdwvefYjcif; oHa0*jzpfMuukevsuf tcsif;csif; El;nHaom pdw½MdS uonfjzpfí arwåm tp½Saom aumif;rIwYdk udk f f h f d ûyMuí ewfjynfü jzpfue\/ xkewfjynfü ewfo"mabmZOfupm;Muí 0ga,muokP;ü y&duûH yMuí psmefudk k f d k dk d f &uke\/ (vlEihf bkrZp;ewfwYdk r) wyg;aom owå0gwkYd onfum; ty&my&d,a0'eD,uHjzifh ewfjynfü jzpfuef f S ® dk f S k \? rSeay\-oHo&mü usifvnfaeaom owå0grnfonf ty&m y&d,uH uif;ol r½Sacs/ xkowå0gwkYd onfvnf; f d d xkewfjynfü xkUd twlyif psmefu&uke\/ þokYd ewfjynfü &aompsmef\ tpGr;tm;jzifh tvk;pkaom owå0gwkYd d dk f f H H onf jA[®mjh ynfü jzpfue\/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ k f urÇmysufyudk qufO;tH-urÇmysufr; jywfponfrS aemufü½Snaom t"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg Hk D h dk J f f G f G 'kw,ae wpif;xif½m; jzpfay:vm\/ rSeay\-jrwfpmbk&m; a[mxm;aom þokYd aompum;vnf; ½Say\d S f G d ]]&[ef;wkdY þvkdtcgrsKd;vnf; ½Sdao;\}} þokYd tpcsDaom owåo&,okwudk csJUí l d f odtyfay\/ xkd 'kw,ae xif½m;jzpfay:vmvwfaomf «46» nOftyki;tjcm; aeYtyki;tjcm; rxifawmhNyD? aewpif; d S h d f d f 0ifvQif aewpif;xGuay:\/ avmurSm rjywfaom aeyla&mif ½SonfomvQif jzpf\/ yuwdaeü aeewfom; f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

53

½SouJoYdk urÇmysufaeü (aeewfom;) r½Say/ xkaeESppif;wkYd wif yuwdae xGuaeaomtcg aumif;uifü d h d d f G f wdrwuwYdk onf¤if;? tck;nGeYf wYdk onf¤if;? vIy½m;oGm;vmuke\? urÇmysufae xGuaeaomtcg aumif;uifrm f dk f d f S f f S 1 tck;ESihf wdrwuf uif;\ aMu;rk0ef;uJoYdk tnpftaMu; uif;vsuf½\/ jrpfBuD;ig;oG,wYdk rS wyg;ukeaom d f dk H h dS f f jrpfi,frsm; ponfwYdkü a&onfcef;ajcmuf\/ xkUd aemifvnf; ½Snaom t"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg wwd,aewpif; xif½m; jzpfay:vmjyef\? f f G f G S ,if;wwd,ae\ xif½m;jzpfay:jcif;aMumifh jrpfBuD;wkYd onfvnf; cef;ajcmufue\/ S k f xkUd aemifvnf; ½Snaomt"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg pwkwaewpif; xif½m; jzpfay:vmjyef\? f f G f G ¬ S ,if; pwkwae\ xif½m;jzpfay:jcif;aMumifh [dr0EÅmü jrpfBuD; (ig;oG,)wkYd \ jrpfzsm;cH&m jzpfueaom ]]oD[yyg ¬ S f k f wtkif [Hoygwetkif uPÖr@tkif &xum&tkif te0wwftif q'´etif ukPmvtki}f } [laom þtkiBf uD; d d k d d dk f dk d d ckepftiwYdk onf cef;ajcmufue\/ dk f k f xkUd aemifvnf; ½Snaomt"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg yOöraewpif; xif½m; jzpfay:vmjyef\? ,if; f f G f G S yOörae\ xif½m;jzpfay:jcif;aMumifh tpOftwki; (wjznf;jznf;csif;ukecef;í) ork'&mü a&onf vufwqpf S d f f ´ pkpw½rQaomfvnf; rwnf ½Sawmhacs/ d G f Hk d xkUd aemifvnf; ½Snaomt"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg q|aewpif; xif½m; jzpfay:vmjyef\? ,if; f f G f G S q|ae\ xif½Sm;jzpfay:jcif;aMumifh tvk;pkaom pMum0Vmwwkuv;onf wpyfwnf;tck;taiGUjynfvsuf½\? H H d f Hk d h dS tck;taiGUaMumifh tpk"mwf ukecef;oGm;av\? þpMum0VmuJoYdkyif uka#wode;aom pMum0VmwkYd onfvnf; d d f h f enf;wlyif jzpfavuke\/ f xkUd aemifvnf; ½Snaomt"GeYf umv ukeveom;aomtcg owåraewpif; xif½m; jzpfay:vmjyef\? f f G f G S ,if;owårae\ xif½m;jzpfay:jcif;aMumifh uka#wode;aom pMum0VmwkYd EiwuG þpMum0Vm wckv;onf S f S hf Hk wpyfwnf; awmufavmifaom rD;vQ½onf jzpfavawmh\/ ,lZemw&mponf tjym;½Sueaom jrif;rk&awmif\ H dS d k f d f awmifxwwYdkonfvnf; ûydysuueí aumif;uifüyifvQif uG,aysmufavuke\/ xkdrD;vQHonf wufí G f f k f f f pwkr[m&mZfewfbwYdkudk avmif\? xkewfbü a½TArmef &wemAdrmef ywåjrm;AdrmefwYdkudk avmifuRr;apNyD;vQif Hk d Hk d f wm0wðombkudk pGavmif\/ þenf;jzifyifvQif yXrpsmefjA[®mjh ynfwiatmif pGavmif\? xkyXrpsmefbü ok;rsKd; H J h dk f J d Hk H aom jA[®mwkYd \ bkArmefwYdkudk avmifuRr;apNyD;vQif (y&dwmbm tyÜrmPmbmbkwYdkEihf wjyifwnf;jzpfaom) H d f å H S tmbó&mbkudk qkuíwnf\/ xkr;vQHonf tPkjrLrQaomfvnf; ½kyocFg&w&m;½Saeao;vQif rNidr;ao;? H d f d D f d f ½kyocFg&w&m;tm;vk; ukeaomtcg axmywfqwYdk udk avmifaomrD;vQHuoYdk «47» jymukaomfvnf; r<uif;usef f H f D hJ d apyJ Nidr;oGm;avawmh\/ atmufaumif;uifEihf txufaumif;uifonf wpyfwnf;jzpfvsuf trkuarSmiftwd f S d f jzpfav\/

urÇmjzpfxGef;ykH
406/ xkYd aemif ½Snpmaom t"GeYf umv ukeveaomtcg BuD;pGmaom rk;wdronf wufvmí a½S;OD;pGm f G f G f d f zGzJG zGzJG ½GmoGe;\? tpOftwki; (wk;wufí) ukr'&mMum½k;cefY usnfayGUcefY xef;vk;cefY ponf twki;t½Snf J J f d f d k ´ d H d f ½Sueaom rkC;a&,OfwYdk jzifh ½GmoGe;vsuf uka#wode;aom pMu0VmwkYd ü rD;avmifxm;&mt&yfudk jynfapNyD;vQif d k f d f f f h jywfpJ uG,aysmufav\/ (xdka&\) atmufzufü¤if; xuf0ef;usif ab;ywfvnfü¤if; avxkBuD; jzpfay:vmNyD; f vQif xka&ukd wvk;wcJwnf;jzpfap\? y'krmMumzufay:ü a&aygufuoYdk xuf0ef;usif wvk;wcJwnf;jzpfap\/ d H ® hJ H tmbó&m jA[®mjh ynfwiatmif xkrQavmufBuD;us,fpmaom a&tpkudk wvk;wcJwnf;jzpfatmif tb,foYdk dk f d G H ûyoenf; [lr?l tMum;taygufudk ay;aomtm;jzifh (wvk;wcJwnf; jzpfatmifûyonf)/ rSeay\-xkavxkonf H f d xka&xktm; xkxt&yfü tMum;taygufuay;\/ þokYd avxkuaygif;pkvsuf wvk;wcJwnf;jzpfaptyfaom d d dk dk H xka&xkonf tpOftwki;ukeíavsmhí at mufoYdk ouf\? a&onfavsmí oufvwf oufvwfaomf yXrpsmef d d f f h jA[®mjh ynfXmeü jA[®mbwYdkonf¤if; ,mrmwkiatmif txufumrm0p& ewfjynfXmewkYd ü ewfbwYdkonf¤if; h Hk d f Hk xif½m;jzpfay:uke\/ S f a½S;urÇmajrwnf&mXmeokYd a&mufatmifoufaomtcgürlum; tm;BuD;aomavwkYd onf jzpfay:ukef\? xkd tm;BuD;aomavwkYd onf xka&xkudk txufravaygufudk ydwxm;aom "r®u½kPf a&ppfü wnfaoma&uJoYdk d S f d h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

54

½ªp&mr½Satmifûyí ydwqUdk uke\/ csKdNrdeaoma&onf ukejf cif;okYd avsmhjcif; a&mufvwfaomf tay:,Hü &oyx0D d f f f ac: ajrqDt&omukd jzpfay:ap\? ¤if;onf tqif;ESivnf; jynfp\? teHYt&omESivnf; jynfp\? a&rygaom hf h Hk hf h Hk CemEkUd qGr;ûywf\ tay:,Hü rvkivmuJoYdk yifwnf;/ f d f T h xktcgü tmbó&m jA[®mjh ynfü a½S;OD;pGmjzpfcMhJ uaom owå0gwkYd onf toufwrf;ukejf cif; aMumifaomf d h ¤if;ç uHpr;ukejf cif;aMumifaomf¤if; xkjd A[®mjh ynfrS pkawcJMh uí þvlUjynfü jzpfvmuke\/ xkd urÇmOD;om; vlwYdk G f h f onf rdrwYdk \ uk,a&mifjzifyif vif;vsufjrifvsuf ½Sue\? aumif;uifü oGm;vmEkiue\/ ¤if;wkdYonf t*¾n d d f h d k f d f k f okwü a[mxm;onfenf;jzifh xkajrqD\t&omukd vsuumjrnf;prf;ukeí wyfrufom,mrI-wPSmu vTr;rk; f h d f f f d jcif;aMumifh (pm;vkaom tmomjyif;jyaomaMumif) tvkytavGUûyukevsuf pm;ok;&ef tm;xkwf uke\/ xkdtcg d h f f H f olwYdk \uk,rS ta&mifonf aysmufu,av\ tarSmifusoGm;av\? ¤if;wkYd onf trkuarSmifudk awGUMu&aom d f G f d f aMumifh aMumufue\/ k f xkUd aemifh xkurÇmOD;vlwYdk \ aMumufjcif;ukd y,fazsmufum &J&ifjh cif;ukjd zpfapvsuf tcsif;,lZem ig;q,f½dS d aom ae0ef;onf xif½m;jzpfay:vm\? xkurÇmOD;vlwYdk onf ay:vmaomxkaeukd jrifMu&í ]]tvif;a&mifudk S d d &MuayNyD}}[k ½Tivef;0rf;ajrmufueonfjzpfí ]]aMumuf½UHG aeMuaom igwkdY\aMumufjcif;ukd y,fazsmufí &J&ifjh cif; f k f ukd jzpfapvsuf xGuay:vmaomaMumifh ol&,-&J&ifapaom aernfap}}[k ESv;oGi; Muum xkaetm; ol&,f d h Hk f d d [laom trnfuomvQif ûyuke\ (trnfay;uke\)/ dk f f «48» xkUd aemuf aeonf waeYywfv; tvif;a&mifuûdk yí uG,vwf-0ifom;vwfaomf ]]igwkYd &xm;onfh Hk f G aea&mifonfvnf; aysmufu,om;avNyD}}[k BuHawG;Muí wzefaMumuf½UHG Mujyef\/ aMumuf½UHG aeMuaom xkowYdk G f G d l rSm ]]tjcm;tvif;a&mifudk tu,fí &Muygrl aumif;avpG}}[k þokYd aom tBuHjzpf\/ xkdvlwkdY\ pdwtBuHuoí f dk d ay:vmouJoYdk tcsif;av;q,fu;,lZem ½Saom v0ef;onf xif½m; jzpfay:vm\/ urÇmOD;ol xkvwYdk onf xkd h h dk d S d l vukd jrifMu&í twki;txuftvGef ½Tivef;0rf;ajrmuf Muonfjzpfí ]]igwkYd \tvkuoí ay:vmouJoYdk yif d f f d dk d h ay:vmaomaMumifh pE´-vrnfap}}[k ESv;oGi;Muum xkvtm; pE´[aom trnfuomvQif ûyuke\ (trnfay; Hk f d l dk f uke\)/ þokYd vç aewkYd xif½m; jzpfay:ukevwfaomf eu©wwYdk onf¤if; Mu,fwm&m taygif;wkYd onf¤if; f S f f xif½m;jzpfay:uke\/ S f xktcgrSpí nOfEiaewkYd onf xif½m;ukef \/ tpOftm;jzifh yu©ç vç Owkç ESpwYdk onf xif½m;uke\/ d h S hf S f S f v-aewkYd \ xif½m;jzpfay:aomaeYüyifvQif jrif;rk&awmif pMum0Vmawmif [dr0EÅmawmifwYdkonf xif½m;jzpf S d f S ay:uke\? ¤if;wkYd onfvnf; ra½S;raESmif; waygif;vjynfaeYüyifvQif xif½m;jzpfay:uke\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ f h S f qwfqefxrif;ukd csufaomtcg wûydieufyifvQif t>yufwYdk onf wufueouJoYdk tcsKdUt&yfwYdk onf pkeYf peYf f k f h k wufueouJoYdk tcsKdUt&yfwYdk onf edruecsKdiueouJoYdk tcsKdUt&yfwYdk onf tnDtrQ jzpfueouJoYdk xkUd k f h hf k f hf k f h k f h twlyif pkeYf peYf wuf&m&mt&yfü awmifrsm;jzpfue\? edr&m csKi&m&mt&yfü ork'&mrsm;jzpfue\? tnDtrQ k k f hf d hf ´ k f jzpf&m&m t&yfü uRe;rsm;jzpfue\/ f k f xkpOftcgu ajrqDt&omukd pm;ok;aeMuaom xkowå0gwkYd wif tpOftm;jzifh tcsKdUu tqif;vSue\? d H d G k f tcsKdUu tqif;rvSue/ xkvwYdk wif tqif;vSaomvlwYdk onf tqif;rvSaomvlwYdk udk rxDrjhJ rifûyuke\? xkd k f d l G f owå0gwkYd \ tvGermefwufí rxDrjhJ rifûyjcif;[laom taMumif;aMumifh xkajrqDt&omonfvnf; uG,aysmuf f d f oGm;av\/ ajrqDajrvTmonf xif½m;jzpf ay:vm\/ xkdtcgü xkdvlwkdY\ vSjcif; rvSjcif; rmefrwuf<ujcif; S l [laom xkenf;jzifyifvQif xkajrqD ajrvTmonfvnf; uG,aysmufavjyef\/ rxGe,uf rpkuysKd;&bJ tvkvdk d h d f f d f d aygufa&mufí &ifusufaom oav;qef xif½m;jzpfay:vm\? ¤if;qefo;rSm zGEzMJG urf;ryg oefY½i;í arT;êudif h S D J k S f aom teHY½Sday\/ xkUd aemif vlwYdk rm(xrif;)tk;wkYd onf jzpfay:uke\? xkvwYdk onf oav;qefudk tk;üxnfí ausmufzsm S d f d l d h rsuEm jyifay:wifxm;uke\? tvkvyif rD;vQH wufvmí xkqefudk csuf\/ xkoav;xrif;onf jrwfav;yef; f S f d dk d d ikozG,f wifw,fjzLpif\? xkxrif;rSm yJ[if;jzif¤if; vufow[if;aumif;jzif¤if; tultnDûyzG,upö r½Say? H h d h k f h f d d tcsKdtcsOf tqdrtp½Saom tMuiftMuif t&omukd pm;vkvQif xkxt&omukd xGuay:ap\/ (okYd aomf) Murf; hf d d d dk f wrf;aom xrif;tm[m&ukd pm;ok;ukeaom xkvwYdk rm xktcgrSpí usifBuD;usifi,fjzpfay:vmavawmh onf/ H f d l S d xktcg xkusifBuD;usifi,f xGu&eftvkUd iSgxkvwYdk rm (usifBuD; usifi,fxuayguf) trm0wkYd onf aygufuJG jzpf d d f d l S G f ay:uke\? a,musm;rSm a,musfm;jzpfaMumif; ½kyt*Fg jzpfay:\? rde;rrSm rde;r jzpfaMumif; ½kyt*Fg jzpfay:\/ f f f f f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

55

«49» xkoYdk jzpfay:aomtcgrde;ronf a,musfm;ukd a,musfm;onfvnf; rde;rukd Munf½; MunfpOfxuf d f f h dk h Mumjrifpm wpdrprp;pkuíMunf½\? xkoYdk wpdrprhf Mumjrifpm pl;pkuí Munf½jI cif;aMumifh xkre;r a,musfm;wkYd h G hf d hf l d f h I d hf d h G d f h d d f rSm umr&m*ylyefrI jzpfay:vm\? xkoYdkjzpfay:vmaomaMumifh arxketrIudk ûyusiue\? (to'¨r) oljrwfw&m; d f hf k f ® r[kwonfh arxketrIudk rS0jJ cif;[laom taMumif;aMumifh xkowYdk udk ynm½SwYdk u uJ&UJ uke\? (ajrrIeYfjym EGm;acs; f f D d l d h f wkYd jzifyufuef aygufuevsuf) n§O;qJue\? xkUd aMumifh xkto'¨rudk zk;uG,&eftwGuf tdrwYdk udk aqmufvyf h k k f f k f d ® H f f k uke\/ xkvwYdk onf tdrüaeukevsuf tpOftwki; (Mumjrifaomtcg) ysif;&doowå0g wa,muf\ ûyrlyudk f d l f f d f h l Hk twkvuí okr;odr;qnf;jcif;ukd ûyuke\/ xktcgrSpí zGEonf¤if; zGMJ urf;onf¤if; oav;qefudk ajr§;,Suf dk f d DS f f d J k \? &dwNf yD;t&yfüvnf; jyefí raygufa&mufvmawmhay/ xkvwYdk onf pnf;a0;ukeí nnf;ñlue\ ]]tcsif;wkYd ,kwrmaomw&m;wkYd onf owå0gwkYd ü jzpfay:vm d l f k f f Muukepwum;? igwkYd onf a½S;tcgu (Oyygwfy#doaE¨½vsuf) pdwjf zifh NyD;cJue\ (tpmr pm;&yJ) yDwvQif f G dS h k f d tpm½SdcJhukef\}} þokYd ponfudk t*¾nokwü a[mxm;aomenf;jzifh csJUí odtyf\/ xkraemufü oav;cif; f d S tydi;tjcm;ukd xm;uke\/ xktcg wa,mufaomowå0gonf tjcm;ol\ oav;cif;rS oav;ukd ck;,l\? xkd k f f d d ck;,laom oludk ESpBf udrwiwif Mudr;armif; ajymqkMd uí ok;Budrajrmuf (ck;aomtcg)ü vufwYdk jzif¤if; cJwYdk jzifh d f dk f dk f H f d h ¤if; 'kwwYdk jzif¤if; ykwcwf½uEuue\/ xkvwYdk onf þokYd ck;,ljcif; uJ&UJ ½Iwcsjcif; vdrajymjcif; 'kwf f h f dk f S f k f d l d h f f vufeuf pGuijf cif;wkYd jzpfay:Muaomtcg pnf;a0;MuNyD;vQif ]]tcsif;wkYd ? igwkYd onf wOD;aom owå0gukd J dk (tBuD;trª;tjzpf) orkwxm;Mu&vQif aumif;ayvdrrnf? ,if; orkwxm;onfh owå0gonf igwkYd xu oifavsmf f hf f J h rSeuefpm ½Iwcsoifoudk ½Iwcs&m\? uJ&UJ oifoudk uJ&UJ &m\? ESixwoifoudk ESixw&m\? igwkYd url f G f h l f h h l h f k f h l f k f xktBuD;trª;jzpfotm; oav;pyg;wkYd \ (q,fywykaom) tzkYd udk ay;qufuet}hH }[k BuHpnfaqG;aEG;Muuke\/ d l Hk H k f f þokYd BuHpnf aqG;aEG;qk;jzwfjcif;ukd ûyMuNyD;aom xkowå0gwkYd wif a½S;OD;pGm þuyfurÇmü bk&m; H d G tavmif;awmfjzpfaom þbke;uHBuD;ol t½SionfyifvQif xkpOfumvu ½SMd uonfh xkowå0gwkYd wif tqif; f f d d G tvSq; ½Icsifz,f taumif;qk;jzpfonfjh yif tNcHt&Hrsm;í bke;uH tBuD;rm;qk;vnf;jzpf\ todÓPf ynmESihf Hk G H f H jynfpí ESycsrI csD;ajr§mufrudk ûy&efpr;Ekiay\/ (xkYd aMumif) xkvowå0gwkYd onf xkb&m;tavmif;xH csOf;uyf h Hk d f I G f d f h d l d k MuNyD;vQif awmif;yefí (tBuD;trª;tjzpf) orkwMf uuke\/ xkb&m;avmif;awmfonf xkrsm;pGmaom vltaygif;u f d k d orkwtyfaomaMumifh r[mor®w rnfay\? v,fwYdk \ t½Sijf zpfaomaMumifh cwå,rnfay\? w&m;Oya'ESinD f d hf pGm wki;om;jynfol wyg;aomvlwYdkudk csr;omESporapwwfaomaMumifh &mZm-rif; rnfay\? þokYd ok;ck d f f f d hf H aom trnfemrwkYd jzifh xif½m;cJavonf/ rSeay\-avmuü tMuifthH zG,Xmeonfjzpfc\? xktz,Xmeü S h f f hJ d hH G f bk&m;tavmif;awmfonfomvQif tpqk;yk*Kd¾ vf jzpf\? xkUd aMumifh ,ckjycJonftwdi; bk&m;tavmif;awmfudk H h h k f tptOD; yk*Kd¾ vfûyí cwd,ac:rif;rsKd; todut0ef; wnfNyD;aemuf tpOftm;jzifh jAm[®P-ykPÖm; tp½Sdaom å k f trsKd;wkYd onf jzpfay:Mu wnfMuuke\/ f xkoYdk urÇmysu&m wnf&mwGif urÇmysufr;BuD; ½Gmonfrpí rD;vQHjywfponfwiatmif þwckaom d f dk S J dk f toacsF,suyfudk oH0¥uyf[k ac:qktyf\/ d «50» urÇmukd ysuapaom rD;vQjH ywfponfrpí uka#wode;aom pMu0VmwkYd udk jynfapvsuf jynfpap f J S f h h Hk onfh urÇmûyrk;BuD;½Gmonfwiatmif þESpcajrmufjzpfaom toacsF,suyfudk oH0¥|m,D[k ac:qktyf\/ d dk f f k d jynfpapaom urÇmûyrk;BuD; ½Gmonfrpí v-aewkYd xif½m;jzpfay:vmonfwiatmif þok;ckajrmuf h Hk d S S dk f H jzpfaom toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥uyf[k ac:qktyf\/ d v-aewkYd xif½m; jzpfay:vmonfrpí wzef urÇmysufr;BuD;½Gmonfwiatmif þav;ckajrmuf jzpfaom S S dk dk f toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥|m,D[k ac:qktyf\? þav;ckaom toacs,suyfwYdkonf wckaom r[muyf (r[m d F urÇmBuD;wck) jzpf \/ ,ck jyqkconftwki; a½S;OD;pGm rD;jzifh urÇmysufjcif;uk¤if;? urÇmjyefvnf wnfjcif;uk¤if; d hJ h d f d d odtyf\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

56

a&jzifh urÇmysufykH
407/ xkrwyg; tMuiftcgü urÇmonf a&jzifysuf\? xktcg (ysufcgeD;) tpuyifvQif urÇmysuf d S h d rk;BuD;onf wufNyD;vQif þokYd ponfudk a½S;ü qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyifcsJUí odtyf\/ ,ckjyqkrnfh tjcif;t&m d d h d um; txl;aywnf;? xkr;jzifysuaomurÇmü 'kw,ae0ef; ay:xGe;ouJoYdk xkUd twl þa&jzifysufaom urÇmü d D h f d f h h urÇmukysufapwwfaom a&iefr;BuD;onf ½GmoGe;\? ,if;rk;BuD;onf tpü ao;ao;i,fi,f rk;a&aygufudk ½Gm d dk f d d oGe;vsuf tpOftwki;wk;íwk;í BuD;pGmaomrd;ayguft,OfwYdk jzifh uka#wode;aom pMum0VmwkYd udk jynfapvsuf f d f d d k f h ½GmoGef;\/ tvGeiefaom rk;a&jzifh xd&mxd&m ajrBuD;awmif ponfwYdkonf aMurGysup;uke\? a&ukd f d f D f ywf0ef;usirS avwkYd u xde;aqmifxm;\? urÇmajrrS 'kw,psmefjA[®mbtxd tvGeiefaomrk;a&onf a&muf\? f f d h Hk f d xkjd A[®mjh ynfü y&dwmbm tyÜrmPmbm tmbó&m[laom ok;rsK;aom jA[®mbwYdkudk aMurGapí (y&dwmokbm å H d h Hk å tyÜrmPmokbmbkwYdk Eihf wjyifwnf;jzpfaom) okbudPmbkuquíwnf\/ tvGeiefaom xka&onf tPkjrL H S S H dk dk f f d rQaomfvnf; ½kyocFg&w&m;½Saeao;vQif rNidr;rajcmuf raysmufu,ao;/ urÇmysufa&awGU xdípm;tyfaom ½kyf f d f G f ocFg&w&m;tvk;pkudk vTr;rk;zsufq;NyD;vQif ½kww&ufvsifjrefpm csKyfNidr;uG,aysmufom; av\/ atmuf H H f d D f G f f G aumif;uifEihf txufaumif;uifonf wpyfwnf;jzpfvsuf trkuarSmiftwd jzpfavawmh\? þokYd ponf S d f tvk;pkonf qktyfcNhJ yD;ESiw\/ oufoufx;onfrm a&jzifysuNf yD;aemuf þurÇm jyefvnfxe;um;&mü H H d hf l l S h G f tmbó&mbkrpí urÇmavmuonf xif½m;jzpfay:\/ xkUd jyifvnf; okbudPmbkrS pkawí tmbó&mbkH H S S S H tp½Saom XmewkYd ü owå0gwkYd onf jzpfue\/ d k f xkoYdkurÇmysu&m jzpf&mü urÇmysur;BuD;½Gmonfrpí urÇmysua&iefr;a& jywfponfwiatmif wck d f f dk S f dk J dk f aom þtoacsF,suyfudk oH0¥uyf[k odtyf\/ a&iefr;a&jywfponfrpí urÇmûyrk;BuD;½Gmonfwiatmif dk J S d dk f þ'kw,toacsF,suyfudk oH0¥|m,Duyf[k odtyf\/ urÇmûyrk;BuD;½Gmonfrpí v-ae wkYd xif½m;jzpfay:vm d d S S onfwiatmif þwwd,toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥uyf[k odtyf\/ v-aewkYd xif½m; ay:vmonfrpí wzef dk f S S urÇmysufr;BuD;½Gmonf wkiatmif þpwkw¬ toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥|m,Duyf[k odtyf\/ þav;ckaom dk d f toacs,suyfwYdkonf wckaom r[muyf (r[murÇmBuD;wck) jzpf\/ ,ck jyqkconftwki; a&jzifh urÇm F d hJ h d f ysufjcif;uk¤if; urÇmjyefwnfjcif;uk¤if; odtyf\/ d d

avjzifh urÇmysufykH
«51» 408/ xkrwyg; tMuiftcgü urÇmonfavjzifh ysuf\? xktcg (ysufcgeD;) tpuyifvQif urÇmysuf d S d rk;BuD;onfwufNyD;vQif þokYd ponfudk a½S;üqkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyif csJUíodtyf\/ ,ckqrnftjcif; t&mum; d d h dk h txl;aywnf;? xkr;jzifysufaom urÇmü 'kw,ae0ef;ay:xGe; ouJoYdk xkUd twl þavjzifysufaom urÇmü urÇm d D h d f h h ukd ysufap&eftvkUd iSg avonf jzpfay:vm\/ xkavonftpü Murf;aomjrLukd xap\? xkUd aemif odrarGUaom d f oJv;uk¤if; Murf;aomoJv;uk¤if; ausmufp&pfcJ ausmufw;ponfwYdk u¤if; þenf;jzifh tdrxurQ ½Saom Hk d Hk d Hk dk f G f d ausmufw;wkYd u¤if; rnDnwaomt&yfü wnfaeaom opfyifBuD;wkYd u¤if; <uwufap\? ajrjyifrS aumif;uifoYdk Hk dk G f dk wufom;aom ,if;ausmufw;opfyifwYdkonf wzefjyefí rusvmukeyJ xkaumif;uifüomvQif trIeYf trIeYf jzpfuef G Hk f d k vsuf uG,aysufom;avuke\/ f G f xktcgü tpOftm;jzifh ajrBuD;\atmufü avonf jzpfay:íajrukd txufatmuf jyefveapvsuf d S f aumif;uifxoYdk ypfvivu\? ,lZemw&mcefY½aom ajrt&yfwYdk onf¤if;? ,lZem ESp&m ok;&m av;&m ig;&mcefY J T hf dk f dS f H ½Saom ajrt&yfwYdk onf¤if; ûyduuevsufav[keu wkucwfypfvityfaomaMumifh aumif;uifxüomvQif d JG k f f d f T hf J trIeYf trIeYf jzpfuevsuf uG,aysmufom;avuke\/ pMum0Vmawmifu¤if;? jrif;rk&awmifu¤if; avu yifajr§muf k f f G f dk d f dk h í aumif;uifoYdk ypfvi\? xkpMum0Vmawmif jrif;rk&awmifwYdk onf tcsif;csif;wkucuueí trIeYf reYf T hf d d f d f dk f k f I jzpfuevsuf ysuf pD;avuke\/ þokYd aomenf;jzifyifvQif ajrüwnfaom AdrmefwYdku¤if;? aumif;uifüwnfaom k f f h dk AdrmefwYdk u¤if; ysufp;apvsuf umrm0p& ewfjynf 6-xyfwYdk udk ysufp;apí pMum0Vm uka#wode;ukd ysufap\/ dk D D f xkd uka#wode;aom pMum0VmwkYd ü pMum0Vmtcsi;csi; [dr0EÅmawmiftcsif;csif; jrif;rk&awmiftcsif;csif; awGUqkH f f f d f wkucuueí trIeYf reYf jzpfuevsuf ysufp;avuke\/ ajrjyifrS wwd,psmefbwiatmif avonf ,laqmif d f dk f k f I k f D f Hk dk f wkucwf\? xkd wwd,psmefbü ok;rsKd;aom jA[®mjh ynfwYdk udk zsufq;í a0[yæKvboYdk qkuvsufwnf\/ þokYd d f Hk H D d f Hk d f ½kyocFg& w&m;tvk;pkudk zsufq;NyD;vQif avonf olUuk,wivnf; aysmufu,om;av\/ atmufaumif;uif f H H D d f dk f G f G ESihf txufaumif;uifonf wpyfwnf;jzpfvsuf trkuarSmiftwd jzpfavawmh\/ þokYd ponf tvk;pkonf d f H H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

57

qktyfcNhJ yD;ESiw\/ þü xl;onfrmum; okbudPmjA[®mjh ynfudk tpûyí urÇmavmutopfxif½m; jzpfay:\? d hf l S S S xkYd jyifvnf; a0[yæKd vfbrS pkawí owå0gwkYd onf okbudPmbkponfwYdk ü jzpfue\/ Hk S H k f xkoYdk urÇmysuf&m jzpf&mü urÇmysufr;BuD;½Gmonfrpí urÇmysufav jywfponfwiatmif wckaom þ d dk S J dk f toacsF,suyfudk oH0¥uyf[k odtyf\/ urÇmysufav jywfponfrpí urÇmûyrk;BuD;½Gmonfwiatmif þ 'kw, J S d dk f d toacsF,suyfudk oH0¥|m,Duyf[otyf\/ urÇmûyrk;BuD;½Gmonfrpí v-aewkYd xif½m;jzpfay:vmonf k d d S S wkiatmif þwwd, toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥uyf[k odtyf\/ v-aewkYd xif½m;ay:vmonfrpí wzef d f S S urÇmysuf rkd;BuD; ½Gmonfwiatmif þpwkw¬ toacsF,suyfudk 0d0¥|m,Duyf[k odtyf\/ þ av;ckaom dk f toacs,s uyfwYdkonf wckaom r[muyf (r[murÇmBuD;wck) jzpf\/ ,ck jyqkconftwki;avjzifh urÇm F d hJ h d f ysujf cif;uk¤if;? urÇmjyefvnf wnfjcif;uk¤if; odtyf\/ d d

urÇmysufjcif;taMumif; ponf
«52» 409/ tb,ftaMumif;aMumifh (urÇm) avmuonf þokYd ysuf&oenf;[lr-tukovf rlv[laom l dk taMumif;aMumifh ysuf&onf/ csJUíjy&vQif ok;yg;aom tukovrvwkYd rsm;jym;aomtcg urÇmavmuonf þ H dk f l okYd yif ysu&acsonf/ xkwif wyfpr&m*omvGersm;jym;aomtcg rD;jzifysuf\? a'goomvGersm;jym;aomtcg f d G JG I f h f a&jzifysu\/ tcsKdUurl a'goomvGef rsm;jym;aomtcg rD;jzifysuf\? &m*omvGersm;jym;aomtcg a&jzifysu\ h f h f h f [k qkMd u\/ arm[omvGersm;jym;aomtcg avjzifysuf\/ þokYd ysuf&müvnf; ckepfBudrwiwif rD;jzifysuf\? f h f dk f dk h ½SpBf udrajrmufü a&jzifysu\? wzefcepfBudrwiwif rD;jzifh ysu\? ½SpBf udrajrmufü a&jzifh ysu\? þenf;jzifh f h f k f dk f dk f f f ½SpBf udrajrmuf ½SpBf udrajrmufü a&jzifh ysuvsuf ckepf Budrwiwif a&jzifh ysuNf yD;aomtcg wzef rD;jzifh f f f f dk f dk ckepfBudrysujf yef\? þrQjzifh 63-urÇmwkYd onf vGeavuke\/ xkUd aemif a&jzifysuf&rnfh tvSnusa&muf f f f h hf aomfvnf; xktcgü avonf tcGi&í 64-urÇmtouf jynfueaom okbudPmbkwYdk udk ysufapvsuf urÇm d hf h k f S H avmuukd zsufq;avonf/ D 410/ ygVdtzGiudk qufO;tH?h a½S;ü aebl;aom cE¨mtpOfudk tpOfvuí qifjcifvsuf atmufarhaom hf D dk f &[ef;onfvnf; þqkcaom uyfwYdkwif oH0¥uyfrsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; 0d0¥uyfrsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; oH0¥0d0¥uyf d hJ G dk dk rsm;pGmwkYd uvnf; qifjcifatmufarh\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ trkMwmoð tp½Saomenf;jzifh aywnf;/ dk d xkd atmufarhypum;xJü trkMwmoð [lonfum; þrnfaom oH0¥uyfü igonf þrnfaom b0ü Hk a,medü *wdü 0dnmP|dwü owåm0goü þrnfaomowå0gtaygif;üjzpfcNhJ yD ([k atmufarh \)/ {0Hemarmd þokdYaom trnf½SdcJh\ [lonfum; wdórnfonfaomf¤if;ç zkórnfonfaomf¤if; (jzpfc\)/ {0Ha*gawåm- þ hJ okYd aom tEG,½c\-[lonfum; upömetEG,½onfaomf¤if;ç uóytEG,f ½Sonfaomf¤if;(jzpfc\)/ ({0H f dS hJ f dS d hJ emarm {0Ha*gawåm[laom) þESpy'udk xk&[ef;\ twdwb0ü rdrd trnfEitEG,udk atmufarhytaejzifh f k f d f S hf f Hk a[m(tyf)onf/ xkUd jyif xktwdwb0umvü rdr\tqif;jynfpyu¤if;ç toufarG;rI taumif;tnHu¤if;ç d f d h Hk Hk dk h dk csrf;omrsm;ykH qif;&Jrsm;yku¤if;ç touftwkt½Snu¤if; tu,fí atmufarhvygrl xktvk;pkuvnf; atmufarh H dk d f dk dk d H H dk Ekionfomwnf;/ xkUd aMumifh ]]{0H0aPÖm/y/ {0rm,ky&d,aEÅm- þokdYaom tqif;½SdcJh\/y/ þokdYaom touf d f tyki;tjcm; ½Sc\}}[k a[mawmfrayonf/ d f d hJ l xkpum;xJü þokdYaomtqif;½SdcJh\ [lonfum; jzLaomtqif;½Sc\ okdYr[kwf 0ga½Taom tqif; ½SdcJh\ d d hJ (ponfqv\)/ þokdYaomtpm½SdcJh\ [lonfum; oav;xrif; tom;ESia&maom xrif;tpm½Sc\ okYd r[kwf dk dk hf d hJ tvkvjdk zpfonfh toD;vQif tpm½Sc\ (ponfqv\)/ þokYd aomcsrf;omqif;&Judk cHpm;cJ\ [lonfum; rsm;pGm d d hJ dk dk h aom tjym;tm;jzifh umr*kPEihf pyf-rpyfponf tjym;½Sueaom uk,csrf;omqif;&J pdwcsrf;om qif;&JwYdk udk f S d k f d f f cHpm;cJ\([k qkv\)/ þokYd aom touftyki;tjcm; ½SdcJh\[lonfum; þokYd aom tESpw&m toufwrf;½Sc\ h d dk d f f d hJ okYd r[kwf urÇm½Spaomif;av;axmif toufwrf;½Sc\ (ponfqv\)/ xkd igonf ,if;b0rS pkawcJí þ f d hJ dk dk h rnfaom b0ü jzpfcjhJ yefonf- [lonfum; xkigonf «53» xkb0rS a,medrS *wdrS 0dnmP|dwrS owåm0gorS xkd d d d owå0gtaygif;rS pkawcJí wzef þrnfaomb0ü a,medü *wdü 0dnmP|dwü owåm0goü owå0g taygif;ü h d jzpfcjhJ yefonf ([k qkv\)/ xkd (b0)üvnf; jzpfc\- [lonfum; xkb0üvnf; xkd a,med-*wd-0dnmP|dwd dk hJ d d owåm0goüvnf; xkowå0gtaygif;üvnf; wzef jzpfcjhJ yefonf ([k qkv\)/ þokdYaom trnf½SdcJh\ ponfrm d d dk S qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;½Sonfomwnf;/ d d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

58

wenf; zGijhf y&vQi- trkMwmoð- þrnfaom b0ü jzpfc\-þokYd tp½Saom atmufarhyonftpOftwki; f hJ d Hk d f a½S;twdwf umvrsm;okYd wufí tvk½oavmuf tpOfvuí atmufarhyHk jzpfonf/ aomwawm pkawmd dS dk f xkigonf xkb0rS pkawcJí þokYd tp½Saom qifjcifyonf wzefjyefí qifjcifyaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifh £"ly d d h d Hk Hk yaEém- þb0ü jzpfvm\-[laompum;t& þb0\ tjcm;rJü jzpfc&mXmeukd &nfí ]]trkMw O'yg'ð-þrnf h hJ aom b0ü jzpfcjhJ yefonf}}[laom þpum;ukd a[mtyfayonf[k odtyf\/ ]]wMwmygoð-xkb0üvnf; jzpfc\}} d hJ þokYd tp½Saompum;ukrl xk&[ef;rSm þaemufq; b0\ tjcm;rJjh zpfaom b0ü trnftEG,f ponfwYdk udk d d d Hk tpOfvuí atmufarhyHk jyjcif;iSg qktyfayonf/ aom wawm pkawm £"lyyaEém [lonfum; xkigonf xkd dk f d d tjcm;rJh jzpfc&mb0rS pkawcJí þ,ckb0ü þrnfaomrif;rsKd;ü okYd r[kwf þrnfaom ykPm;rsKd;ü jzpfvm\ ([k hJ h Ö qkv\)/ þokYd [lonfum; þqkconftwki; ([k qkv\)/ tjcif;t&mESiwuG nTejf yp&mESiwuG [lonf d dk d hJ h d f d dk hf hf um; trnf tEG,tvktm;jzifh nTejf yp&mESiwuGjzpfaom? tqif; ponftvktm;jzifh tjcif;t&mESiwuG jzpf f d hf d hf aom ([k qkv\)/ rSeay\-trnftEG,jf zifh vludk wdó[k uóy[k þokYd ponfjzifh nTejf y&ayonf/ tqif; d dk f ponfwYdk jzifh tom;jzLol tom;0gol tom;rJol þokYd ponfx;jcm;jcif;jzifh xif½m;od&ay\/ xkUd aMumifh trnf l S ESihf tEG,onf nTejf yp&m (Oa'´o)rnf\/ þrS <uif;aom tqif; ponfwYdk onf uGjJ ym;aom tjcif;t&m f (tmum&) rnfue\/ taeu0d[wyaAÁe0goH tEkó&wd- [laom þed*;pum;onf ay:vGif xif½m;aom k f d H k d Hk S teuf½onfomwnf;/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ dS

ykaAÁed0goÓPf jyqkdcsuf NyD;\/ pkwlyygwÓPfac: 'dAÁpu©KÓPf jyqkdcsuf
411/ owå0gwkYd \ pkwy#doaE¨udk odaomÓPf jyqkaompum;&yfü pkwyygwÓPm, [lonfum; d d l tMuifÓPfjzifh ow å0gwkdY\b0a[mif;rS a½GUavsmjcif; aojcif;[laom pkwu¤if;ç b0opfoYdk uyfa&mufjcif; d dk jzpfjcif;[laom y#doaE¨u¤if; od\? xkd od (aMumif;jzpf) aomÓPftusKd;iSg-'dApu©K ÓPftusKd;iSg-[kqv\/ dk Á dk dk pdwtbde[&wd tbdeEmarwd [lonfum; y&duûH yaompdwudk a½S;½Ivnf;aqmif\ a½S;½Ivnf; nGwfap\/ Hå D d é f aom- xdk (&[ef;)onf [lonfum; pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmifjcif;ukd ûyNyD;aom xk&[ef;onf ([k qkv\)/ 'daAÁe f d d dk ponfwYdküum; (ewfü jzpfaom t&monf 'dArnf\) 'dAEiwaomaMumifh 'dArnf\? ewfwYdk\ 'dArnfaom Á Á S hf l Á Á yom'½kyf rsufponf okp½kuuovuaMumifh jzpfojzifh onf;ajc ovdyf aoG;ponfwYdkjzifh raESmif,utyf d d f k dk f H h S f aomaMumifh tnpftaus;rSuif;\? xkUd aMumifh ta0;üvnf; tm½kudk cHvifjh cif; jrifjcif;iSg pGr;Ekiay\? ('dApu©K H f d f Á rnfaom) þÓPfrsuponfvnf; 0D&,bm0em\ cGetm;tpGr;jzifh jzpfaomaMumifh «54» xkewfrsupEiwonf f d d f f d f d S hf l omwnf;? xkoYdk ewfrsupEihf wlaomaMumifh 'dApu©Krnfay\/ wenf;tm;jzifrl 'dA0[m&rnfaom psmef\ d f d S Á h Á d tpGr;jzifh &tyfaomaMumif¤if;ç rdru,wiuvnf; 'dA0[m&ukraomaMumif¤if; 'dArnf\? tmavmu uokP; f h d dk f dk f Á d d DS h Á d f [laomtvif;ukd odr;,ljcif;jzifh BuD;us,faom ta&miftvif;½SaomaMumifvnf; 'dArnf\? eH&wzufponf f d h Á H wkYd ü wnfaom tqif;ukd jrifojzifh tHz,om;jcif; jzpfjcif;½SaomaMumifvnf; 'dArnf \/ xktvk;pk(aom 'dA[k h G f G d h Á d H H Á ½kyNf yD;yk)ukd o'´gusrf;ukd tpOfavQmufojzifomvQif odtyf\/ H h jrifwwfaom teufoabmaMumifh pu©Krnf\? wenf;um; rsup\jrifjcif;udpudk ûyojzifh rsupEiwl f d ö f d S hf aomaMumifvnf; pu©Krnf\/ pkawjcif;-aojcif;ESihf b0opfü uyfíjzpfjcif;-y#doaE¨aejcif;wkYd udk jrifojzifh h t,lpifMu,fjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh (0do')pifMu,fayonf/ rSeay\-aojcif;ukomjrifí jzpfjcif;ukd k ¨ f d rjrifaomolonf aoNyD;aemuf jywfpom;onf[k xifaom Oapä''d|udk ,l\/ b0 topfjzpfjcif;rQukom jrifí J G d d b0a[mif;u aocJjh cif;ukd rjrifaomolonf owå0gtopf jzpfay:onf[k xifaomt,ludk ,l\/ aocJjh cif;ESihf b0topfjzpfjcif;[laom ESpyg;vk;ukd jrifaomolonfum; qkcaom rdpmt,lEpyg;vk;ukd ausmfveEiay\/ f H d hJ ä S f H G f dk f xkUd aMuifh xk&[ef;\ xkpwy#doaE¨udk jrifaomÓPfonf t,l pifMu,fjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfayonf/ þpkwEihf d d k d d S y#doaE¨Epyg;vk;ukd bk&m;\ om;awmf &[ef;wkYd onf jrifue\? xkUd aMumifh ]]pkawjcif;-aojcif;ESihf b0opfü S f H k f uyfíjkzpfjcif;-y#doaE¨aejcif;wkYd udk jrifojzifh t,l pifMu,fjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh (0do') pifMu,fay k ¨ onf}}[k igzGiqcayonf/ hf dk hJ yuwdvwYdk \ jrifEiaumif;&mt&yfEihf jrifEiaumif;aom½kyMf urf;ukd ausmfveí a0;aomtqif; l dk f S dk f G f jcm;uG,aomtqif; odrarGUaom ewftqif;wkYd udk jrifEijf cif;aMumifh vlwYdk\ jrifEi&m e,fy,fuve(í jrifEi) f f dk dk f dk G f dk f onf rnf\/ wenf;um; vlwYdk \yuwdrsupudk ausmveaomaMumifh (twduEÅ rmEkou) vlwYdk \ rsufptjrif f d f G f ú d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

59

ukd ausmfveonf rnf\/ (pifMu,faomç vlwYdk \ rsuptjrifudk ausmveaom xk'Apu©Kjzif[k qkv\)/ G f f d f G f d d Á h d dk owå0gwkYd ujdk rif\ [lonfum; vlwYdk \ yuwdrsupjd zifh jrifouJoYdk owå0gwkYd udk jrif\ ([k qkv\)/ f h d dk pkawqJjzpfueaom uyfíjzpfqJ jzpfueaom [laom þESpy'wYdk ü pkwpwjf zifh aoqJ cPüaomf¤if;ç k f k f f k f d d y#doaE¨pwjf zifh uyfí jzpfqcPüaomf¤if; 'dApu©Kjzifjh rif&ef rpGr;Ekiay? okYd aomfvnf; tMuifowYdkonf pkaw d J Á f d f l cgeD; jzpfue\? ,ckyif pkawukevwH?h xkoYdkaom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdkudk (p0rme) pkawqJ[k qk\/ tMuifowYdk onf k f f d d l ,lNyD;aom y#doaE¨½ue\ ,ckyifjzpfNyD;cgp jzpfue\? xkoYdk aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk udk (OyyZÆrme) uyfí jzpfq[k qkvdk dS k f k f d J d \/ þokYd aom pkawqJjzpfueaom uyfí jzpfqjJ zpfueaom xkowå0gwkYd udk jrifonf[k jy\/ k f k f d ,kwueaom [lonfum; arm[\tusKd;qufEihf ,SOaomaMumifh ,kwueaom ZmwftrsKd; pnf;pdrf f k f S f f k f Opöm ponfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ½Iwcstyfueaom rxDrjhJ rif ûytyfueaom/ jrwfueaom [lonfum; tarm[ f f k f k f k f \ tusK;qufEihf ,SOaomaMumifh xkt,kwrS ajymif;jyefjzpfueaom/ tqif;vS ukeaom [lonfum; ta'go d S f d f k f f \ tusK;qufEi,OaomaMumifh vkcsiEpoufjrwfE;zG,f tqif;ESihf jynfpueaom/ tqif;rvSueaom d S hf S f d f S f dk h Hk k f k f [lonfum; a'go\ tusKd;qufEihf ,SOaomaMumifh rvkcsif rESpoufz,f rke;zG,tqif;ESihf jynfpueaom/ S f d f G f f h Hk k f aumif;aom tvm;½Sueaom [lonfum; ok*wdoYdk a&mufueaom? wenf;um; tavmb\ tusKd;qufEihf d k f k f S ,SOaomaMumifh <u,f0csrf;omukeaom rsm;aomOpöm½Sueaom/ raumif;aomtvm;½Sueaom [lonfum; f f d k f d k f 'k*woYdk a&mufueaom? wenf;um; avmb\ tusKd;qufEihf ,SOaomaMumifh qif;&JEr;yg;ukeaom pm;aomuf ¾ d k f S f G f f zG,f ½Sm;yg;ukeaom/ f uHtm;avsmpmuyfa&mufueaom [lonfum; tMuiftMuifuudk ûyvkyqnf;yl;cJ\? xkxujH zifh (b0 f G k f H f h d dk opfoYdk) uyfa&mufueaom ([k qkv\)/ xkwif a½S;üjzpfueaom (p0rmae-pkaw qJjzpfueaom) tp½Sonfh k f d dk d G k f k f d 0daooeyk'wYdk jzifh 'dApu©KÓPf\ udpuqonf? (,xmur®Kya*-uHtm;avsmpm uyfa&mufueaom [laom) f Á ö dk dk f G k f þyk'jf zifrl ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf\ udpudk qkonf/ ,ck qkrnfpum;onf xkÓPf\ jzpfytpOfaywnf;/ þ h ö d d h d Hk omoemawmfü &[ef;onf atmufzufü «55» i&JjynfoYdk a½S;½I tvif;a&mifuyg;apí BuD;pGmaom qif;&Judk dk G cHpm;aeukeaom i&Jowå0gwkYd udk ½Ijrif\? xkoYdk ½Ijrifjcif;onf 'dApu©KÓPf\ udpomvQifwnf;/ xk&[ef;onf f d Á ö d ]]tb,foYdk aom uHudk ûyMuí þowå0gwkYd onf þokYd aom qif;&Judk cHpm;Mu&avukeoenf;}}[k þokYd ESv; f Hk oGi;\/ xktcg ]]þrnfaom uHudk ûyMuaomaMumif}h }[lí xkuvQif tm½k½aomÓPfonf xk&[ef;rSm jzpfay: f d d H H dS d vm\/ xkUd twlyiftxufzufü ewfjynfoYdk a½S;½I tvif;a&mifudk yGg;apí eE´0efO,smOf rdóuO,smOf zm½kou O,smOf ponfwYdkü BuD;pGmaom pnf;pdrudk cHpm;aeMuaom owå0gwkYd udk ½Ijrif\? xkoYdk ½Ijrifjcif;onfvnf; f d 'dApu©KÓPf\udpomvQifwnf;/ xk&[ef;onf ]]tb,foYdk aom uHudk ûyMuí þowå0gwkYd onf þokYd aom Á ö d pnf;pdrudk cHpm;Mu&avukeoenf;}}[k þokYd ESv;oGi;\/ xktcg ]]þrnfaomuHudk ûyMuaomaMumif}h }[k xkd f f Hk f d uHvQif tm½k½aomÓPfonf xk&[ef;rSm jzpfay:vm\? þÓPfonf ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf rnf\/ þ,xm H dS d ur®Ky*ÓPftwGuf toD;tjcm; ûy&aom y&durnfonf r½Say/ þuHrmuJoYdk yif xkUd twl tem*wHo H d S h ÓPfrmvnf; toD;tjcm; y&duH r½Say/ þESpyg;aom ÓPfwYdk onf 'dApu©KvQif tajccH½ue\? 'dApu©KESihf S d f Á dS k f Á wuGomvQif NyD;pD;jynfpue\/ h Hk k f um,'kp½wEihf ponfwYdk ü (tzGium;) raumif;qk;oGr;pGm usiftyfaom trIonf ('kp&w) 'kp½wf ö dk f S hf d f h ö d ö dk rnf\? wenf; udavomtyky½aomaMumifh ysufp;aom ûyusifronf ('kp&w) 'kp½wrnf\/ uk,jf zif(ûyonf) f dS D h I ö d ö dk f d h h 'kp½wonf um,'kp½wf rnf\/ wenf; um,'Gg&rSjzpfay:aom 'kp½wonf um,'kp½wrnf\/ þrS ö dk f ö dk ö dk f ö k f wyg;aom 0pDpp½wf ponfwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyifotyf\/ jynfpue\ [lonfum; wuGjzpfue\/ t&d,m k ö dk d h Hk k f k f yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk udk pGypwwfue\ [lonfum; bk&m; yapöuAk'gjzifh bk&m;wynfh jzpfueaom t&d,myk*Kd¾ vfwYdkudk f JG k f ¨ k f atmufxpfq;tm;jzifh vl0wfaMumif aomwmyefy*K¾ vf wkYd uaomfvnf; tusKd;rJudk tvk½MdS uonfjzpfí tEÅr0w¬K Hk k d dk h d d ac: oDv ysufaMumif;trIjzifaomf¤if;ç psmeftp½Saom *kPuzsufq;jcif;jzifaomf¤if; pGypwwfuef \? qJa&; h d f dk D h f JG k wwfue\? uJ&UJ wwfue\[kqv\/ xkd pum;&yfü ]]þolwYdk rm &[ef;w&m;r½S?d þolwYdk onf &[ef; r[kwf k f h k f dk dk S uke}f }[k qkaomolonf tEÅr0w¬Kjzifh pGyponf rnf\/ ]]þolwYdk rm psmefuaomf¤if;ç 0darmu©aomf¤if;ç r*faomf d d f JG S dk ¤if;ç zkvaomf¤if; r½S}d }[k ponfwYdk udk qkaomolonf *kPudk zsufq;onfh tpGr;tm;jzifh pGyponf rnf\[k d f d f D f f JG odtyf\/ xkpypaom olonfvnf; odvsuf pGyponfjzpfapç rodí pGyponfjzpfap? ESpyg;aom tjcif;t&m d G f JG f JG f JG f tm;jzifvnf; t&d,y0g'uH xkuonfom jzpf\/ 0efav;aom uHaywnf;? tmeEÅ&,uH ESiw\? ewf½mukd h l d f d hf l G vnf; wm;jrpfwwf\? r*fuvnf; wm;jrpfwwf\? okYd aomf ukpm;Ekiaumif;ao;\/ xkdt&d ,ly0g'uHukd xif½Sm; dk d f od&eftwGuf atmufyg0w¬Kukd odtyf\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

60

wckaom½Gmü rax&fBuD;wyg;onf¤if;ç &[ef;i,fwyg;onf¤if; qGr;cHvnMhf uuke\/ xkEpyg;wkYd onf f S f d S f yXrtdrüyifvQif ylaEG;aom ,m*kwrIwrQudk &uke\? rax&fBuD;rSmvnf; 0rf;xJravonf xk;usif ESypufvsuf f f f S d d f ½Sd\? xkUd aMumifh rax&fBuD;onf ]]þ,m*konf ightm; avsmufywf\? rat;ao;rD xk,m*kudk aomuft}hH }[k BuHNyD; d vQif xkrax&fBuD;onf wHcg;ckûH yvky&ef vl'g,umwkYd aqmif,csxm;aom opfw;ay:ü xkií aomufavonf/ d f l Hk d f &[ef;i,fonf xkoYdk aomufonfudk pufqyonfjzpfí ]]uk,awmfBuD;onf qmavmifrI tm;BuD;pG? igwkYd tm; d k f d f ½Suz,jf zpfatmif ûybd\}}[k qkd\/ «56» rax&fBuD;onf ½GmüqGr;cHNyD;aemuf ausmif;okYd oGm;í &[ef;i,fudk ]]igh f G f ½Sif þomoemü oifrmaxmufwnf&m ½Syg\avm}}[kqkd\? ]]rSefygt½Sifbk&m; tuREkfyf aomwmyefyg}}[k h S d avQmuf\? ]]igh½ioYdk jzpfvQif txufr*ftvkUd iSg tm;xkwrudk rûyESiawmh? oifonf&[EÅmukd pGyprNd yD}}[k S f f I hf f JG rax&fBuD;u rdeYf q\/ xkd &[ef;i,fonf xkrax&fBuD;ukd uefawmhawmif;yef\? xkUd aMumifh xk&[ef;i,f\ xkd dk d d pGypruonf tjypfr½SyJ yuwdtwki;yif jzpfav\/ f JG I H d d f xkUd aMumifh tjcm;wyg;aom tMuify*K¾ vonfvnf; t&d,mukd pGyprjd im;tH?h xkpypraom yk*Kd¾ vfonf k d f f JG d G f JG d tpGypc&aom t&d,myk*Kd¾ vf½&mokYd om;í tu,fí rdru ax&fBuD;jzpfygrl aqmifaMumifxií ]]igonf t½Sif f JG H dS G d h h dk f bk&m;ukd þokYd þokYd aom pum;ukd ajymqkr\? ightm; xktjypfudk onf;cHygavmh}}[k uefawmh awmif;yeftyf\/ d d d tu,fí rdru oDwif;i,fjzpfygrl (wnfjcif;ig;yg;½Saom ½Sc;jcif;jzif) ½Sc;NyD;vQif aqmifaMumifxií vuftyf d d d dk h d dk h h dk f k csDvsuf ]]t½Sib&m; tuREkyonf t½SiwYdk udk þrnf þrnfaom pum;ukd ajymqkryg\? tuREkytm; xktjypf f k f f f d d f f d ukd onf;cHawmfrMl uyg}}[k uefawmh awmif;yeftyf\/ tu,fí xkt&d,myk*Kd¾ vfonf t&yfwyg;okYd zJom;jim;tH?h d G uk,wiom;a&mufí jzpfap? twlae wynfponfwYdk udk apvTwí jzpfap uefawmhawmif;yeftyf\/ d f dk f G h f tu,fí uk,wivnf; roGm;Eki?f olwyg;ukd apvTw&efvnf; rpGr;Ekijf im;tH?h xkt&d,myk*K¾ v\ aeNrJ d f dk f d f f d d d f ausmif;ü aexkiMf uaom &[ef;wkYd \xHoYdk om;í xk&[ef;wkYd u rdratmufi,fMuvQif aqmifaMumifxií? d G d d h h dk f rdrxuf BuD;Muygrl rax&fBuD;tm; uefawmh&mü qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyifvQif t½ktaoûyusifí ]]t½Sib&m;wkYd d d h d h f k tuREkyonf þrnfaomt½Siudk þrnf þrnfaom pum;ukd ajymqkryg\? xkt½Sionf tuREkytm; onf;cH f f f d d d f f f ygap}}[kqí uefawmhawmif;yeftyf\/ rsuarSmufü onf;rcHoüvnf; þrsuu,f uefawmhawmif;yefjcif; dk f l f G rsKd;ukomvQif ûytyfayonf/ d tu,fí xkpyptyfaomyk*Kd¾ vfonf wyg;wnf;vSnvnfaom &[ef;jzpfjim;tH?h xk&[ef;\ ae&mXme d G f JG hf d rxif½m;jim;tH?h oGm;&mt&yfvnf; rxif½m;jim;tH?h okYd jzpfvQif wyg;aom ynm½S&[ef;xHoYdk om;í ]]t½Sib&m; S S d G f k tuREkyonf þrnfaom t½Siudk þrnf þrnfaompum;ukd ajymqkryg\? xkpum;ukd trSw&vsuf tuREkyf f f f d d d f f rSm ESv;romjcif;jzpfaeyg\? b,fvvy&ygrnfenf;}}[k ar;avQmuftyf\/ xkynm ½S&[ef;onf ]]oifwYdk onf Hk dk k f d d rpk;&drMf uvif?h rax&fonf oifwYdk tm; onf;cHygonf? pdwudk at;Nidr;Muapavmh}}[k qkvwH/ xkEwveraom d f f d h d I f G f d &[ef;onfvnf; t&d,myk*Kd¾ vf\ oGm;&mt&yfqoYdk a½S;½Iûyvsuf vuftycsDí ]]onf;cHawmfrlyg}}[k qkdtyf\/ D k f tu,fí xkt&d,myk*Kd¾ vfonf y&deAmefûyoGm;NyD jzpfjim;tH?h y&deAmefûyonfh anmifapmif; wnf&mXmeokYd om;í d d Á d Á G oû*Ø[&m okomefoYdk aomfvnf; oGm;í uefawmhawmif; yeftyf\/ þokYd ûyvQif ewf½mukd wm;jrpfjcif;rjzpfawmhNyD? f G r*fudk wm;jrpfjcif;vnf; rjzpfawmhNyD? yuwd twki; tjypfuif;½Si;avawmh \/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ d f f rdpm'd|um- [lonfum; azmufjyef rSm;,Gi;aom t,ltjrif½ue\/ rdpm'd|ur®orm 'gem[lonfum; ä d f dS k f ä d rdpmt,l\tpGr;tm;jzifh aqmufwnftyf ûyvkytyfaom trsKd;rsKd;aom trIuH ½Sdukef\? tMuifowYdk onfvnf; ä f f l rdpmt,lvQif t&if;cH½ueaom um,uHponfwYdk ü tjcm;olwYdk uvnf; wkuwe;uke\? (xkoYdk wkuwe;ay; ä dS k f dk d f G f f d d f G f aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdkonfvnf; rdpm'd|ur®orm'ge rnfue\/) qufí ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-þyk'wYdk wif 0pD'p½uudk qkjd cif; ä d k f f G k ö dk f jzifyif t&d,y0g'uHudk qkNd yD;jzpfayonf/ raem'kp½wudk qkjd cif;jzifyif rdpm'd|udk qkNd yD;jzpfayonf? xkoYdk qkNd yD; h l ö dk f h ä d d jzpfjim;aomfvnf; þ uH 2-yg;wkYd udk xyfí jyqkjd cif;onf «57» tjypfBuD;aMumif;jyjcif; tusKd;½Sonf[k odtyf\/ d rSeay\-t&d,mukd pGypjJG cif;onf tmeEÅ&,uHEihf wlaomaMumifh BuD;rm;aomtjypf ½Say\/ jrwfpmbk&m; f f d S d G a[mxm;aom atmufygpum;vnf; ½Say\d ]]om&dyw&m? t&[wår*fovESijhf ynfpaom t&[wår*f orm"dEijhf ynfpaom k å D h Hk S h Hk t&[wår*fynmESijhf ynfpaom &[ef;onf rsuarSmufb0üyifvQif t&[wåzvudk NyD;ap&m h Hk f dk f ouJoYdk ? om&dyw&m? þt&d,y0g'uHudk þtwlyif jzpfonf[k ig qk\? xkpypaom h k å l d d G f JG pum;ukd ry,fvQif xkjd ypfrm;aompdwudk ry,fvQif xkxifrm;aomt,ludk rpGeYf vQif aqmifchJ S f d S onfh 0efxyudk csxm;vkuouJoYkd xkUd twlyif i&Jü (xkt&d,y0g'uHu) ypfcsavawmh\}}/ k f d f h d l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

61

rdpmt,lxuf omítjypfBuD;aom tjcm; tukovurnfonfr½Sacs/ þ tqkEitnD a[mawmfraom ä dk f H d d S hf l pum;rSm atmufygyifwnf;/ ]]&[ef;wkYd ? þrdpm'd|onf tjypfBuD;ouJoYdk þtwl tMuiftukovuonf tjypf ä d h dk f H BuD;&m\/ &[ef;wkYd ? rdpm'd|rS wyg;aom xkoYdk tjypfBuD;aom tukovw&m; wckrQukd ä d d dk f aomfvnf; igbk&m; rjrifay/ &[ef;wkYd ? tjypf[orQwkYd onf rdpm'd|vQif tBuD;tjrwf ½SMd u l ä d uke\}}/ f um,ó ab'g (uk,\ysup;onfr)-[lonfum; ighu,[k xifrwpvrf;&aom cE¨muk,udk d f f D S dk f S f JG d f pGeYf onfr/ y&Hr&Pm (aoonfrS aemufü) [lonfum; xkcE¨muk,udk pGeYf onfrS tjcm;rJrm topfjzpfonfh S d d f h S cE¨mukd ,lqü/ wenf;um; um,ó ab'g-jzifh ZD0wa`E´ ac: touf½yf jywfponfrS ([k qkv\)/ y&Hr&Pm J d d k J d dk -jzifh pkwpwrS aemufü ([k qkv\)/ tyg,H-tp½Saom pum;tvk;pkonf i&Ja[mpum;csnf;om jzpf onf/ d d f d dk d H H rSeay\? i&Jonf ewf½m edAmefoYdk a&mufaMumif;jzpfaom aumif;rI[aom t,rSuif;aomaMumifh tyg, f G Á l rnf\/ csrf;omwkYd \ vmjcif;[laom tm,\r½Sjd cif;aMumifh tyg,rnf\/ qif;&J\ wnf&mjzpfaomaMumifh 'k*wrnf\? wenf; rsm;aomtjypf½jdS cif;aMumifh tukovuonf 'k|-ysup;aom uHrnf\? xkysup;aom ¾ d dk f H f D d f D uHaMumifjh zpfaom vm;a&muf&m*wdonf 'k*wrnf\? raumif;rIûyolwYdk onf tvkr½SygyJ þi&Jü usa&muf ¾ d d d &uke\? xkUd aMumifh 0deygwrnf\? (rusvyJ usa&muf&onfb-[k qkv\)/ wenf; uk,t*FgBuD;i,fwYdk f d dk h Hk d dk d f ysup;vsuf us&mjzpfaomaMumifvnf; 0deygwrnf\/ om,mzG,f csrf;om[laom t, r½SaomaMumifh ed&,f D h d d i&Jrnf\/ wenf;zGijhf y&vQif tyg,-tyg,f[aomtrnfjzifh wd&pämefbudk jy\/ rSef\-wd&pämefbonf ewfvl l Hk Hk [laom ok*wdruif;aomaMumifh tyg,-tyg,frnf\? ,if;wd&pämefwYdkxü wefc;BuD;ukeaom e*g;rif; S J dk f ponfwYdk ½SEiaomaMumifh qif;&J\wnf&m 'k*wum; rrnfay/ 'k*w[aomtrnfjzifh Nydwmbkudk jy\? d dk f ¾ d ¾ d l å H rSeay\-xkNd ydwm avmuonf ok*wdrS uif;uGmaomaMumifh tyg,vnf;rnf\? qif;&J\wnf&mjzpfaomaMumifh f å 'k*wvnf; rnf\/ okYd aomf tok&um,fuoYdk ysufp;íus&m r[kwaomaMumifh 0deygwum; rrnfay/ 0deygw ¾ d hJ D f d d [laomtrnfjzifh tok&um,fbudk jy\? rSeay\ qkcNhJ yD;aomteuft&tm;jzifh xktok&um,fonftyg,vnf; Hk f d d rnf\? 'k*wvnf;rnf\/ tvk;pkaom ewfvwYdk pnf;pdrcsrf;omtaygif;rS ysufp;qk;½I;í usa&muf&mjzpfaom ¾ d H H l f D H H aMumifh ,if;tok&um,fudk 0deygw[lívnf; qktyfay\/ ed&,[laom trnfjzifh t0Dptp½Sonf rsm;aom d d d d tjym;½Saom i&J bkuomvQif jy\/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ d H dk OyyEém [lonfum; uyfa&mufue\? jzpfue\[k qkv\/ um,okp½kwf tp½Saom tjzLyki; tzkYd udk k f k f d dk d d d f qkcNhJ yD;aom trnf;yki;tzkYd rS ajymif;jyeftm;jzifh odtyf\/ «58» ,ckqrnftcsufrQom xl;awmhonf/ xktjzLyki; d d f dk h d d f tzkYd ü ok*wd[aomtrnfjzifh vlU*wdvUl bkuvnf; ,ltyf\/ o*¾[aomtrnfjzifh ewf*wd ewfbuom l H dk l Hk dk ,ltyf\/ xkpum;ü aumif;aom vm;a&muf&m jzpfaomaMumifh ok*wdrnf\/ ½lyg½kHtp½Sdukefaom tm½kHwkdYjzifh d aumif;aom wnf&mtzkYd jzpfaomaMumifh o*¾rnf\/ xko*wdEihf o*¾tvk;pkonfyif ysufp;wwfaomaMumifh d k S H H D avmurnf\/ þonfum; o'´gteuf tzGiaywnf;/ hf £wd 'daAÁe pu©Kem tp½Saom tvk;pkonf ed*;csKyfpum;wnf;/ þqkconftwki; 'dApu©Kjzif/y/ ½Ijrif d H H Hk d hJ h d f Á h \-þonfum; þt&mü tusOf;csKyfteufaywnf;/ 412/ þqkconftwki; ½IjrifvvQif tm;xkwcgp trsKd;om;onf uokP;vQiftm½k½aom tbdnmOf\ d hJ h d f dk f d f H dS tajccHyg'upsmefudk cyfor;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh a½S;½Iaqmif&ef cHatmifûyNyD;vQif awaZmuokP; Mo'gw d f h d f uokP; tmavmuuokP;[laom þok;ckaom uokP;wkYd wif wyg;yg;ukd teD;ûytyf\? Oypm&psmef\ tm½kH d f d f H d f G ûyum yGg;apvsuf xm;tyf\? xkuokP;wkYd ü tyÜemukd rjzpfaptyfao;[k qkv\/ tjypfum; tu,fí tyÜem d d f d dk ukd jzpfapvQif yg'upsmef\rS&m jzpfav\? y&du\rS&m rjzpfawmhay/ þok;ckaom uokP;wkYd wivnf; D H D H d f G f tmavmu uokP;onfomvQif taumif;tjrwfq; jzpfayonf/ xkUd aMumifh xktmavmuuokP;ukd jzpfap? d f Hk d d f tjcm;ESpcxu wckcujdk zpfap uodPeda'´oü qkcaomenf;jzifh jzpfapí Oypm&bküomvQif wnfí yGg;aptyf f k J k d hJ H \/ ,if;uokP;y#dbm*edrwudk yGg;apykenf;ukvnf; xkuodPeda'´oü qkcaomenf;jzifyifvQif odtyf\/ d f d f H d d d hJ h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

62

yGg;aptyfNyD;aom t&yf\ twGi;üomvQif tqif;udk ½Ityf\/ xka,m*Drm tqif;½IaepOf y&duûH y&ef f d S tvSnveom;\? xkUd aMumifta&miftvif; uG,om;\? xkta&miftvif; uG,om;vQif tqif;ukvnf; rjrif& hf G f G h f G d f G d awmhacs/ xktcg þ a,m*Donf tzefwvJvJ yg'upsmefoYdk omvQif 0ifí xkrxNyD;vQif tvif;a&mifudk jzefYtyf d d S \/ þokYd ûyvQif tpOftm;jzifh tvif;a&mifonf tm;½Svmay\? xkUd aMumifh þt&yfü tvif;jzpfap[k tMuifrQ d avmufaom t&yfudk yki;jcm;jim;tH?h xkrQavmufaomt&yfü tvif;a&mifonf wnfavawmhonfomwnf;? waeY d f d vk;aomfvnf; xkivsu½aeaom a,m*Drm tqif;ukjd rifjcif; jzpfaeay\/ þt&mü nOftcgrSm jrufr;½ª;jzifh H d f f I S h D c&D;oGm;aom a,musm;onf Oyrmaywnf;/ f wa,mufaom a,musm;onf nOftcgü jrufr;½ª;jzifh c&D;oGm;owwf/ xka,musfm;\ xkjd rufr;½ª;onf f h D d D Nidr;oGm;av\? xktcg xka,musfm;rSm nDaomt&yf rnDaomt&yfwYdk onf rxif½m;Muav? xka,musfm;onf xkd f d d S d rD;½ª;ukd ajrüyGwwuí wzefawmufap\? xkr;½ª;onf awmufí ,cifu ta&mifxuf omíBuD;aom ta&mifudk f dk f d D ûy\? þenf;jzifh Nidr;Nidr;oGm;aom rD;½ª;ukd tzefzef awmufapaom olrm tpOftm;jzifh (aemufq;ü) aexGuf f f S Hk vmavonf? aexGuvmaomtcg rD;½ª;jzifh ûyzG,r½SawmhNyD? xkUd aMumifh xkr;½ª;ukpeYf í waeYv;aomfvnf; c&D; f f d d D d G Hk oGm;avonf/ xkOyrmü rD;½ª;ta&mifuoYdk y&duûH ypOfü uokP;ta&mifudk odtyf\/ «59» rD;½ª;Nidrf;oGm;aomtcg d hJ d f nDonf rnDonfudk rjrif&jcif;uJoYdk tqif;uk½aepOf y&duûH y&eftvSnhf vGeojzifh tvif;a&mifu,om;aom h d I f G f G tcg tqif;wkYd udk rjrifjcif; wlay\/ rD;½ª;ukd yGwwujf cif;uJoYdk Oypm&psmefoYdk tzefzef0ifjcif; wlay\/ rD;½ª;\ f dk h ,cifta&mifxuf omíBuD;aom tvif;a&mifudk ûyjcif;uJoYdk wzefy&duûH yaom a,m*Drm omítm;BuD;aom h S tvif;a&mifjyefYjcif;wlay\/ aexGuvmjcif;uJoYdk tm;½Saomtvif;a&mif\ yki;jcm;xm;onftwki; wnfaejcif; f h d d f h d f wlay\/ jrufr;½ª;ukd pGeYf ypfcí waeYv;aomfvnf; c&D;oGm;jcif;uJoYdk ao;i,faom tvif;a&mifudk pGeYf í D hJ Hk h tm;BuD;aom tvif;a&mifjzifh waeYv;aomfvnf; tqif;wkYd udk ½Ijrifjcif; wlay\/ Hk xkoYdk ½Ijrif&mü tMuiftcg xk&[ef;\ rHopu©Ktm; rxifEiaom 0rf;xJüwnfaom [', 0w¬Kukd d d dk f rSaomtqif;onf¤if;? ajrBuD;\atmufzuf rsufEmjyifuraom tqif;onf¤if;? eH&\wzuf awmif\wzuf D S dk DS H wHwi;\ wzufüwnfaom tqif;onf¤if;? wyg;aom pMum0Vmüwnfaom tqif;onf ¤if;-þokYd aom dk f tqif;onf ÓPfrsufptm; xifjcif;okYd a&muf\? rHorsupjd zifh jrif&ouJoYdk jzpf\? xkdtcgü 'dApu©KÓPf d f h Á jzpfonf[k odtyfay\/ qufí ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-þ ½IMunfaom pdwwYdk wif xkd 'dApu©K ÓPfonfomvQif tqif;ukd h f G Á jrifjcif;iSg pGr;Eki\? tm0ZÆe;y&du[aom a½S;tzkYd pwwYdk onf tqif;ukd jrifjcif;iSg rpGr;Ekiue/ f d f f H l d f f d f k f xk'Apu©Konf ykxZOfrm ab;&eftEÅ&m,f jzpfwwf\/ tb,faMumifenf;¿ xkyxZOfonf tMuif d d Á k S h h d k k tMuift&yfü ta&miftvif;jzpfap[k t"d|mefûy\? xkxt"d|mefûy&majr ork'&mawmifwYdkudk azmufxi;íaomf d dk ´ G f vnf; wpyfwnf; tvif;a&mifonf jzpf\? xkoYdk jzpfaomtcg xkvif;ae&mt&yfwYdk ü aMumufz,jf zpfueaom d d G k f bDv;&u©Kd ofponfwYdk \ tqif;wkYd udk jrifaom xkyxZOftm; aMumufjcif;onf jzpfwwf\? ,if;okYd aMumufjcif; l d k k aMumifh pdwysUH vGiazmufjyefjcif;okYd a&mufí psmefavQmoGm;wwf\/ xkUd aMumifh 'dApu©Kjzifh tqif;ukd ½Ijrif&mü rarh f hf Á ravsmonf jzpf&m\/ h ('dApu©KÓPf jzpfonf[k qkcaom) xkpum;&yfü ,ck qkrnfpum;onf 'dApu©KÓPf\ jzpfay:vmykH Á d hJ d d h Á tpOfaywnf;/ qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;½Saom xktqif;ukd tm½kûH yí ESv;oGi;rI raem'Gg&m0ZÆe; pdwjf zpfNyD;í csKyf d d d Hk f f vwfaomf xktqif;ukyif tm½kûH yí av;Budrf ig;Budraom aZmwkYd onf jzpfay:uke\-þokdYtp½Sdaom tvkH;pkHudk d d f f a½S;üqkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyif odtyf\/ þt&müvnf; tm0ZÆe;ESihf ok;Budrf av;Budraom a½S;tzkYd pwwYdk onf d h f H f d f 0dwuf 0dpm&ESihf wuGjzpfueaom umrm0p&pdwwYkdaywnf;? av;Budrajrmuf ig;Budrajrmuf aemufq;ü jrifjcif; k f f f f Hk udpudk NyD;apaompdwonf pwkwpsmefEi,Oaom ½lyg0p&pdwaywnf;? xdpwEiwuGjzpfaom ÓPfudk owå0g ö f ¬ S hf S f f dk d f S hf wkYd \ pkwy#doaE¨ü jzpfaom todÓPf[í¤if;? 'dApu©KÓPf[í¤if; ac:qktyfay\/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ d l Á l d

pkwlyygwÓPfac:aom 'dAÁpu©KÓPfjyqkdcsuf NyD;\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

63

NydK;>yrf;jyqkdcsuf
413/ cE¨mig;yg;wkYd udk odawmfraom uk;uG,&mtppf jzpfawmfraom jrwfpmbk&m; l d f l G onf þqkconftwki; ig;yg;ukeaom tMuif tbdnmOfwYdk udk a[mawmfrcavNyD? xkd d hJ h d f f l hJ tbdnmOfwYdkudk odNyD;vQif ,if;wkYd ü ,ckjyqkrnfh ûyd;>yrf;jyqkcsuf pum;ukvnf; odtyf d d d ao;onf/ «60» csJUíjy&vQif-þig;yg;aom tbdnmOfwYdk wif pkwyygwÓPf[k qktyfaom tMuif 'dApu©KÓPf G l d Á onf ½Sd\? xk'Apu©KÓPf\ t&HÓPfjzpfueaom tem*wHoÓPfEihf ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf[aom 2-yg;aom d d Á k f S l ÓPfwYdk onfvnf; ½SMd uao;\/ ,if;ÓPf 2-yg;ESihf £'d0"paom ÓPf5-yg;tm;jzifh tbdnmOfÓPfwYdk onf þ ¨ d t&mü 7-yg;jzpfue\/ ,cktcg ¤if;wkdY\tm½kudk a0befcjJG cm;&mü rawGa0&eftvkYd igk f H S tMuif tm&r®Pwduf av;yg;wkYd udk ("r®o*FPygVdü) jrwfpmbk&m;a[mxm; D G (tyfue)\? xktm&r®Pwduf av;yg;wkYd ü tbdnmOfÓPf 7-yg;wkdY\ jzpfyudk jy&m\/ k f d Hk xkpum;&yfü þonfum; jyykaywnf;/ av;yg;ukeaom tm&r®PwduwYdk udk jrwfpmbk&m; a[mxm; d H f f G (tyfue)\? tb,fav;yg;wkYd enf;? (1) y&dwm&r®Pwdu?f (2) r*¾g&r®Pwdu?f (3) twDwm&r®Pwdu?f (4) k f å tZÑwåm&r®Pwdu-þ av;yg;wkdYyif/ f 414/ xkdckepfyg;aom ÓPfwkdYwGif £'d¨0d"ÓPfonf (y&dwåac:) umrtm½kHç r[*¾Kwf tm½kHç twdwf tm½kHç tem*wftm½kHç ypöKyÜeftm½kHç tZÑwåtm½kHç A[d'¨tm½kHwkdYtvkdtm;jzifh 7-rsKd;aomtm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ tb,f H okYd enf;¿ xk£'d0"ÓPfonf tMuiftcgü ½kyu,udk pdwü rSonfuûdk yvsuf rxif½m;aomuk,jf zifh oGm;vkd d ¨ d f dk f f D S d onfjzpfí pdw\tpGr;tm;jzifh ½kyu,udk nGwap\? r[*¾Kwfpwü aygif;\? aumif;pGmwif\? xktcgü uH f f f dk f f d f d tjzpfjzifh qktyfaom um,onf tm½kHjzpf\-xkdUaMumifh ½kyfukd,fvQif tm½kH½Sd&um; umrw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\ d (umrw&m;ukd tm½kûH y\)/ tMuiftcgü pdwudk ½kyu,ü rSonfuûdk yvsuf xif½m;aom uk,jf zifom;vkd f f dk f D S d h G onfjzpfí ½kyf uk,\tpGr;tm;jzifh pdwudk nGwap\? yg'upsmefpwudk ½kyu,ü aygif;\? aumif;pGmwif\? d f f f f d f f dk f xkdtcgü uHtjzpfjzifh qktyfaom psmefpwonf tm½kjH zpf\-xkUd aMumifh r[*¾KwfpwvQif tm½k½&um; r[*¾Kwf d d f d f H dS w&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\ (r[*¾Kwfw&m;ukd tm½kûH y\)/ xkrwyg; ,if; £'d0"ÓPfonf csKyfavNyD;aom twdwjf zpfaom xkyg'upsmefpwuyifvQif tm½kûH y\? d S ¨ d d d f dk xkUd aMumifh twdwfw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ "mwfawmfjrwfwYdk udk tBuD;tus,f okr;Xmyemaomtcgü t½Sir[m d DS f uóyrax&fponfwYdk \ t"d|mefjcif;uJoYdk tem*wfudk t"d|mefûyolwYdk \ÓPfonf tem*wfw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd h \/ wqifMh um;bl;onfrm t½Sir[muóyrax&fonf "mwfawmfjrwfwYdk udk tBuD;tus,f XmyemrIudk ûypOftcg S f u ]]aemiftcgü 218-ESpumvywfv; þeHYomwkYd onf rajcmufygapukeownf;? þyef;wkYd onf rñI;ygapukef f Hk f d ownf;? þqDr;wkYd onf rNidr;ygapukeownf;}}[k "d|mefawmfr\/ tvk;pkyif xk"|mefwi; jzpfav\/ D f f l H H d d dk f tó*kwrax&fonf (0dOßö awm) 0wåe,ausmif;ü [if;rygyJ qGr;oufouf bkO;ay;aeaom &[ef;oHCmukjd rifí å d f f ausmufa&uefonf aeYpOf aeYpOf eHeufyi;ü EkUd "rf;t&om ½Sonfjzpfap}}[k "d|mefawmfr\/ eHeufyi;ü cyf,vQif dk f d l dk f l EkUd "rf;&nf jzpf\? naeyki;ü cyf,vQif yuwda&yif jzpf\/ xkdrSwyg; «61» ½kyfukd,fukd pdwfü rSonfuûdk yí d f l D rxif½m;aomuk,jf zifh oGm;aomumvü (£'d0d "ÓPfonf) ypöKyÜew&m;vQif tm½k½\/ S d ¨ f H dS uk,\tpGr;jzifh pdwuaomf¤if;ç pdw\tpGr;jzifh uk,uaomf¤if; nGwapaom umvü¤if;? rdru,udk d f f f dk f f d f dk f d dk f oli,foP²mef ponfzefqif;aomumvü¤if; rdr\uk,f pdwwYdk udk tm½kûH yjcif;aMumifh tZÑwåw&m;vQif tm½k½\/ d d f H dS tjyifyü qif½yf jrif;½kyf ponfwYdk udk zefqif;í jyaomumvü A[d'w&m;vQif tm½k½\? þokYd vQif a½S;OD;pGm k ¨ H dS £'d0"ÓPf\ (7) rsKd;aomtm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ ¨ d H 415/ 'dAaomwÓPfonf umrypöKyÜef tZÑwå A[d'tm½kwYdk tvktm;jzifh (4)rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ Á ¨ H d H tb,foYdk enf;¿ xkÓPfonf toHudk tm½kûH yaomaMumif¤if;? ,if;toHonf umrw&m; jzpfaomaMumifh ¤if; d h umrw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ xkUd jyif xif½m;½SqJ toHuomvQif tm½kûH yíjzpfjcif;aMumifh ypöKyÜew&m;vQif tm½k½\/ S d dk f H dS xkÓPfonf rdr\ 0rf;xJrS toHuMdk um;aomtcgü tZÑwåw&m;vQif tm½k½\/ olwyg;wkdY\ toHudk Mum;aom d d H dS tcgü A[d'¨w&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ þokYd vQif 'dAaomwÓPf\ (4)rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ Á H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

64

416/ apawmy&d,ÓPfonf umr r[m*¾Kwf tyÜrmPr*f twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef A[d'tm½kwYdk tvkd ¨ H tm;jzifh (8) rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ xkÓPfonf olwyg;wkYd \ umrm0p&pdwudk odaom H d f umvü umrw&m;vQif tm½k½\? ½lyg0p&pdwf t½lyg0p&pdwudk odaomumvü r[*¾Kwfw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\? H dS f r*fzvukd odaomumvü tyÜrmPw&m;vQif tm½k½\/ qufí ½Si;jyOD;tH?h þt&mü ykxZOfonf aomwmyef\ kd f H dS S f k pdwudk rodEi?f aomwmyefonfvnf; ou'g*grf\ pdwurodEi?f ou'g*grfonf tem*grf\ pdwudk rodEi?f f dk f dk dk f dk tem*grfonf &[EÅm\pdwudk rodEi?f &[EÅmonfum; tm;vk;wkYd \ pdwudk odEi\? txufjzpfaom tjcm; f dk H f dk f yk*Kd¾ vfonfvnf; atmufy*Kd¾ vf\ pdwudk odEi\? þ txl;ukvnf; odtyf\/ r*fpwudk odaomumvü r*fvQif k f dk f d d f tm½kH½Sd\/ tMuiftcgürl twdwcepf&uftwGi;ü¤if;ç tem*wfcepf&uftwGi;ü¤if; olwyg;wkYd \ pdwuo\? xkd f k f k f f dk d tcgü twdwfvQif tm½kH½Sdonf¤if;ç tem*wfvQif tm½kH½Sdonf¤if; jzpf\/ ypöKyÜepwvQif tm½k½aompdwonf tb,foYdk jzpfoenf;¿ ypöKyÜernfonfrm (1) cPypöye?f (2) oEÅwd f d f H dS f f S Ü ypöKyÜe?f (3) t'¨gypöKyÜe[í ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ xkwif Oyg'fXbifoYdk a&mufqw&m;onf cPypöKyÜef rnf\/ ½kyf f l H d d G D J oEÅw0g& wck ESpcü twGi;0ifaom w&m;onf oEÅwypöKyÜef rnf\/ xkpum;&yfü arSmifxrm aeNyD;í tvif; d f k f d d J S ½S&m t&yfoYdk oGm;aomoltm; ½kww&uf tm½krxif½m;rDrS xif½m;onfwiatmif «62» þumvtwGi;ü wck d f H S S dk f f ESpcaom ½kyoEÅw0g&wkYd udk odtyfue\/ tvif;xJü aeNyD;í wkucef;xJoYdk 0ifaomoltm;vnf; ½kww&uf f k f d k f d f f tqif;rxifay:ao;rDrS xifay:vmonfwiatmif þumvtwGi;ü wck ESpcaom ½kyoEÅw0g&wkYd udk odtyf dk f f f k f d uke\/ xkUd jyif a0;aomt&yfü wnfvsuf c0gonfwYdk \ vuftrlt&muk¤if;ç acgif;avmif;pnf;BuD;wkYd udk xkaom f d wD;aom trlt&muk¤if; jrifNyD;ívnf; toHuum; rMum;&ao;? (xkd jrifaomcPrS) xktoHudk Mum;&onfwif d dk d dk atmif þumvtwGi;üvnf; wck ESpcaom ½kyoEÅw0g&wkYd udk odtyfue\/ þokYd rZÑdredum,faqmifq&m f f k f d k f wkYd u a½S;OD;pGm qkue\/ d k f oH,weum,faqmif q&mwkYd onfum; ½kyoEÅwd emrfoEÅw[í ESprsKd;aom oEÅwwYdk udk qkMd uNyD;vQif k å d f d l f d a&ukeif;í oGm;aomol\ urf;pü eif;aoma&ta&;\ rMunfvifao;rD umvonf¤if;? c&D;a0;rS vmcJaomol\ d h uk,ü tylaiGUrNidr;ao;rD umvonf¤if;? aea&mifxrvmí wkucef;okYd 0ifaomoltm; tarSmif ruif;ao;rD d f f J S d f twGi;umvonf¤if;? tcef;xJü ur®|mef;ESv;oGi;NyD;vQif aeYtcg avomjyLwif;ukd zGiíMunfaomoltm; f Hk f hf h rsufpwYdk \ &Da0a0jzpfjcif; rNidr;ao;rDtwGi; umvonf¤if; ½S\? þokYd aom umvonf ½ky\ oEÅw-½kyf\ d f f d f d trsKd;wl tpOfrnf\/ aZm0g& aZm0Dxd ESpck ok;ckwYdk onf emrf\oEÅwd emrf\trsKd;wl tpOfrnf\-[lí qkMd uNyD; f H vQif xkd ½kyoEÅwd emrfoEÅwd ESprsKd;vk;ukd ]]oEÅwd ypöKyÜernfonf}}[lí qkue\/ f f H f d k f xkrwyg; wckaomb0 (y#doaE¨pw)jzifh yki;jcm;tyfaom ½kyemrftaygif;onf t'¨gypöKyÜernf\/ ,if; d S k d d f f f t'¨gypöKyÜeu&nfí ba'´u&wåowüf dk k f ]]igh½iwYdk rernfaom tMuifpwonf¤if;? tm½kjH zpfaom tMuifoabmw&m;wkYd S f d f onf¤if; (BuHoqJ cPü xif½m;uke\) þpdwEihf oabmtm½kH ESpyg;vk;onf ypöKyÜew&m; d S f f S f H f aywnf;? xkypöKyÜew&m;ü tm½kHukd odrI-pdw0nmPfonf vkcsifwyfrufr-qE´&m*jzifh d f f d d I zGUJ csnftyfonf tu,fí jzpfjim;tH?h pdw0nmPfudk qE´&m*u zGUJ csnfxm;jcif;aMumifh xkd f d ypöKyÜew&m;ukd ESpouf\? xkd ypöKyÜew&m;ukd ESpoufaomolonf ypöKyÜew&m;wkYd ü (wPSm f f f f f 'd|jd zif) tqGtiifc&\}}[lí a[mxm;(tyf)ayonf/ qufí ½Si;jytH-þ ypöKyÜewYdk wif h J H f h f G oEÅwypöKyÜeonf t|uxmwkYd ü vmonf/ t'¨g ypöKyÜef onf okwygVdawmfüvmonf/ d f f xkypöKyÜef ok;rsKd;wkYd wif (aupd)tcsKdUq&mwkYd u ]]cPypöKyÜef pdwonf apawmy&d,ÓPf\ tm½kHjzpfonf}} d H G f [k qkue\/ tb,ftaMumif;aMumifenf;¿[lr-pdwuool wefc;½Si\¤if;ç tjcm;ol\¤if; pdwonf wckaom d k f h l f dk d dk f f cPü ûydiwjl zpfaomaMumif[k qkue\/ þt&monfvnf; xkaupdwYdk \ Oyrmyifwnf;? yef;wqkyudk f h d k f d f aumif;uifü ypfvuvQif yef;wyGi\ tn§monf tjcm;yef;wyGi\ tn§mESi{uefyif pGyr&mouJoYdk þtwlyif dk f hf hf hf f d h ]]olwyg;\pdwfukd odtHh}}[k pdwftpk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh vlrsm;taygif;\ pdwudk ESv;oGi;vkuvQif wa,muf\ f f Hk f d f pdwudk wckaompdwjf zifh Oyg'fcPüaomf¤if;ç XDcPüaomf¤if;ç bifcPüaomf¤if; rcRwf{uefyif xk;xGi;od&m\ f d f [kque\/ xkaupdq&mwkYd \ pum;ukrl tESpw&maomfvnf; tESpwaxmifaomfvnf; ESv;oGi; qifjcifaom dk k f d d f f Hk f olonf tMuiftm0ZÆe;pdwjf zifh ESv;oGi;\? tMuif tbdnmOfaZmpdwjf zifh od\? xkEpcaom pdwwYdk\ waygif; f Hk f d S f k f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

65

wnf; rwnfjcif;aMumif¤if;ç tm0ZÆe;pdwEihf aZmpdwwYdk \ r*fzv0xrwyg; tvkr½Sdtyfaomt&mü tm½kHuGJjym; h f f S f dk f D d S d jcif;okYd a&mufjcif;aMumif¤if; roif[í t|uxmwkYd ü y,f (tyf)avNyD/ h h l «63» toiftm;jzifrum; oEÅwypöKyÜepwonf¤if;ç t'¨gypöKyÜepwonf¤if; apawm y&d,ÓPf\ tm½kH h h l d f d f f d f jzpfonf[k odtyf\/ xkypöKyÜeEpyg;wkYd wif jzpfqJ aZm0DxrS ESp0xd ok;0Dxd twki; t½Sn½aom twdwf d f S f G d f D H d f f dS tem*wfumvü olwyg;\ tMuifpwonf ½S\? xkpwtm;vk;onf oEÅwypöKyÜef rnf\/ t'¨gypöKyÜefukdrl d f d d d f H d aZm0g&jzifh jytyfonf[k oH,wt|uxmü qk\? xkpum;onf aumif;pGmqkxm;onfh pum;ygaywnf;/ k f d d d ,ckqrnfpum;onf xkypöKyÜepwudk od&mü txift½Sm;azmfjycsufaywnf;/ apawmy&d,ÓPf wefc; dk h d f d f dk ½Sifonf olwyg;\pdwudk odví ESv;oGi;qifjcif\? ESv;oGi;aom tm0ZÆe;pdwonf cPypöKyÜepwudk tm½kH f dk Hk f Hk f f f f d f ûyí xkpwEiyif ûydiwcsKyf\? xkUd aemif av;Budrf ig;Budraom aZmwkYd jzpfue\? ,if;aZmwkYd wif aemufq;aZm d d f S hf f l f k f G Hk onf olwyg;pdwudk odaom £'dpwaywnf; (apawmy&d,tbdnmOfpwf aywnf;)? <uif;aom aZmok;av;Budrf f ¨ d f d H wkYd onf umrm0p&aZmwkYd aywnf;? tm0ZÆe;ESiûhf ydiwcsKyfavaom xkpwonfyif xktvk;pkaom aZmav;ig;ckwYdk f f l d d f d H H \ tm½kH jzpfonf? xktm0ZÆe;ESiaZmwkYd onf tm½kvnf; ruGjJ ym;uke?f tb,faMumifqaomf-t'¨gtvkdtm;jzifh d f hf H h h dk ypöKyÜevQif tm½k½aomaMumifaywnf;/ wckwnf;aom tm½kH½Sdonf\ tjzpfwjl im;aomfvnf; tbdnmOf pdwf f H dS h onfomvQif olwyg;\ pdwuo\? tjcm;pdwwYdkonf rodue?f Oyrmjy&vQif pu©K'Gg&0Dxü pu©K0dnmPfonf f dk d f k d omvQif tqif;ukjd rifonf? tjcm;pdwwYdk onf rjrifueouJoYdk aywnf;/ okYd jzpfí þtbdnmOf pdwonf oEÅwd f k f h f ypöKyÜe\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç t'¨gypöKyÜe\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; ypöKyÜepwvQif tm½k½ay\/ wenf; qk&vQif oEÅwd f f h f f h f d f H dS d ypöKyÜeonfvnf; t'¨gypöK yÜeüomvQif usa&muf\? xkUd aMumifh þtbdnmOfpwonf t'¨gypöKyÜe\ tpGr;tm; f f d f f f jzifomvQif ypöKyÜepwf ukd tm½kûH yonf[k odtyfayonf/ h f d olwyg;\pdwudk tm½kûH yaomaMumifyifvQif A[d'vQif tm½k½ay\/ þokYd vQif apawmy&d,ÓPf\ (8) f h ¨ H dS rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ H 417/ ykaAÁe0goÓPfonf umr r[*¾Kwf tyÜrmP r*f twdwf tZÑwå A[d'¨ e0wåAÁ tm½kwYdk \ tpGr; d H f tm;jzifh (8) yg;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ xkyaAÁe0goÓPfonf umrm 0p&cE¨mwkYd udk atmufarh H d k d aom umvü umrw&m;vQif tm½k½\? ½lyg0p& t½lyg0p&cE¨mwkYd udk atmufarhaom umvü r[*¾Kwfw&m;vQif H dS tm½kH½Sd\? twdwumvü rdronfaomf¤if;ç olwyg;wkYd onfaomf¤if;ç yGg;aptyfNyD;aom r*fu¤if;? rsufarSmuf f d dk ûytyfNyD;aom zkvu¤if; atmufarhaomumvü tyÜrmPw&m;vQif tm½k½\? yGg;aptyfNyD;aom r*fuomvQif d f dk H dS dk atmufarhaomumvü r*fvQif tm½k½\? ude;aotm;jzifum; þykaAÁe0goÓPfonf twdwuomvQif tm½kûH y H dS f h d f dk \/ xkÓPfwYkd wif apawmy&d,ÓPfEihf ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfwYdk onfvnf; twdwudk tm½kûH yukeonf d G S f f tu,fíum; jzpfue\? okYd aomfvnf; xkdÓPf 2-yg;wkYd wif apawmy&d,ÓPfonf (7)&uftwGi; twdwf k f G f umvüjzpfaom pdwuomvQif tm½kûH yEki\? rSeay\-xkapawmy&d,ÓPfonf pdwrwyg;aom cE¨muk¤if;ç f dk d f f d f S d cE¨mwkYd Eipyfaomw&m;uk¤if; rodEi/ xkUd jyif r*fEi,Oonfpwudk tm½kûH yaomaMumifomvQif y&d,m,ftm;jzifh S hf d dk f S hf S f h d f h r*fvQiftm½k½onf[k qktyfayonf/ xkrwyg; ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf\ tm½konf twdwf apwemrQomvQif H dS d d S H jzpfonf? twdwcE¨mwkYd onf¤if;ç cE¨mwkYd Eipyfaom wpkwckonf¤if; ykaAÁe0goÓPf\ tm½krjzpfonf rnfonf f S hf H d H r½Sday/ «64» rSefay\-xkyaAÁe0goÓPfonf twdwcE¨mwkYd ü¤if;ç ,if;wkYd Eipyfonfw&m;wkYü¤if; oAÁñw d k d f S hf h d k ÓPf\ tvm;uJoYdk aom tvm;½Say\[laom þtxl;ukd odtyf\/ þenf;onf þt&mü t|uxmenf; h d aywnf;/ okYd aomfvnf; ]]ukovcE¨mwkYd onf £'d0"ÓPftm;¤if;ç apawmy&d,ÓPftm;¤if; ykaAÁe0gomEkówd dk f ¨ d d ÓPftm;¤if; ,xmur®Ky*ÓPftm;¤if;ç tem*wHoÓPftm;¤if; tm&r®Pypön;jzifh aus;Zl;ûy\}}[k y|mef; f ygVdawmfü a[mawmfraomaMumifh cE¨mav;yg;wkYd onfvnf; apawmy&d,ÓPf ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfwYdk\ tm½kHjzpf l uke\? xkwivnf; ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf\tm½konf ukovf tukovcE¨mwkYd onfom jzpfue\/ f d G f H dk dk f k f xkrwyg; þykaAÁe0goÓPfonf rdr\cE¨mwkYd udk atmufarhaomumvü tZÑwåvQif tm½k½\? olwyg; d S d d H dS \ cE¨mwkYd udk atmufarhaomumvü A[d'vQif tm½k½\/ ]]twdwumvü 0dyóD rnfaom jrwfpm bk&m;onf ¨ H dS f G yGiawmfravNyD? xkb&m;\ r,fawmfonf AE¨KrwDrnf\? crnf;awmfonf AE¨Krmrnf\}} þokdY paomenf;jzifh hf l d k trnf tEG,f yx0DuokP; edrwf ponfudk atmufarhaom umvü e0wåAw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ þt&mü d f d Á trnftEG,f [lonfrm cE¨mwkYd Eipyfaom ac:qkorkwjf cif;jzifh NyD;aom o'´g\teuf[k odtyf\/ o'´gum; S S hf d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

66

r[kway/ rSeay\-toHo'´gonf o'´g,wejzifh a&wGutyfaomaMumifh umrw&m;jzpfayonf/ þtqkEihf f f f d S tnD ]]ed½kwdåy#dorÇd'gonf umrw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\}}[k a[mawmfr\/ þ tqkdonf þt&mü igwkdY\ ESpouf l f oabmusaom tvkaywnf;/ þokYd vQif ykaAÁe0goÓPf\ (8) rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ d d H 418/ 'dAÁpu©KÓPfonf umr ypöKyÜef tZÑwå A[d'tm½kwYdk tvktm;jzifh av;rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk üjzpf\/ ¨ H d H tb,fwYdk enf;¿ xk'Apu©KÓPfonf tqif;uktm½kûH yaomaMumif¤if;ç ,if;tqif;onf umrw&m;jzpfaom d d Á d h aMumif¤if; umrw&m;vQif tm½k½\/ ½Sqtqif;üomvQif jzpfaomaMumifh ypöKyÜefvQif tm½kH½Sd\/ rdrd\0rf; h H dS d J ponfü wnfaomtqif;ukd jrifaomtcgü tZÑwåvQif tm½k½\/ olwyg;\tqif;ukd jrifaomtcgü A[d'vQif H dS ¨ tm½kH½Sd\/ þokYd vQif 'dApu©KÓPf\ av;rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ Á H 419/ tem*wHoÓPfonf umr r[*¾Kwf tyÜrmP r*f tem*wf tZÑwå A[d'¨ e0wåAÁ tm½kwYdk \ tvkd H tm;jzifh (8) rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ xktem*wHoÓPfonf ]]þol onf aemiftcgü umrm H d 0p&bkrm jzpfvrrnf}}[k odaomumvü umrvQif tm½k½\/ ]]½lyg0p&bkHüaomf¤if; t½lyg0p&bkHüaomf¤if; H S d hf H dS jzpfvrrnf}}[k odaomumvü r[*¾KwfvQif tm½k½\/ ]]r*fudk yGg;apvdrrnf? zkvudk rsufarSmufûyvdrrnf}}[k d hf H dS hf d f hf odaomtcgü tyÜrmPvQif tm½kH½Sd\/ ]]r*fukdyGg;apvdrfhrnf}} [líomvQif odaomtcgü r*fvQif tm½kH½Sd\/ ude;aotm;jzifrum; xktem*wHoÓPfonf tem*wfvQif tm½k½onfom jzpf\/ f h l d H dS «65» xkdÓPfwkdYwGif apawmy&d,ÓPfonfvnf; tem*wfudk tm½kûH yonf tu,fíum; jzpfay\? okYd aomfvnf; xkapawmy&d,ÓPfonf tem*wf (7) &uftwGi;ü pdwuomvQif tm½kûH yEki\? pdwrwyg;aom d f f dk d f f S cE¨muk¤if;ç cE¨mESipyfaom w&m;uk¤if; rodEi/ tem*wHoÓPfrmrl ykaAÁe0goÓPfü qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifh d hf d dk f S d d tem*wfumvü rodEiaom tm½krnfonf r½Say/ ]]igonf þrnfaomb0ü jzpf&tH}h }[k odaomtcgü tZÑwå dk f H d vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ ]]þrnfaomolonf þrnfaomb0ü jzpfvrrnf}}[k odaomtcgü A[d'vQif tm½k½\/ ]]aemif d hf ¨ H dS tcgü arawå,srnfaom bk&m;onf yGiawmfrvwH?h xkb&m;\ crnf;awmfonf okjA[®mrnfaom ykPm; hf l d k Ö jzpfvwH?h r,fawmfonf jA[®0wDrnfaom ykPm;rjzpfvwH}h } þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh trnf tEG,wYdk udk odaom Ö d f tcgü ykaAÁe0goÓPft&mwGif qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyifvQif e0wåAw&m;vQif tm½k½ S\/ þokYd vQif tem*wHo d d h Á H d ÓPf\ (8) rsKd;aomtm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ H 420/ ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfonf umr r[*¾Kwf twdwf tZÑwåA[d'tm½kwYdk \ tvktm;jzifh ig;rsKd;aom ¨ H d tm½kwYdk ü jzpf\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ xkd ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfonf umrm0p&uHudk odaomtcgü umrw&m;vQif H tm½kH½Sd\/ ½lyg0p& t½lyg0p&uHukd odaomtcgü r[*¾Kwfw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ twdwuomvQif odwwf f dk aomaMumifh twdwvQif tm½k½\/ rdrd\uHukd odaomtcgü tZÑwåvQiftm½kH ½Sd\/ olwyg;\uHudk odaomtcg f H dS ü A[d'¨vQif tm½kH½Sd\/ þokYd vQif ,xmur®Ky*ÓPf\ ig;rsKd;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukd odtyf\/ qufí ½Sif;jy H OD;tH?H þtZÑwåm&r®Pwdut&mü tZÑwåuvnf; tm½kûH y\? A[d'uvnf; tm½kûH y\[k tMuifpum;ukd a½S; f kd ¨ dk t|uxmü qkxm;\? xkpum;rSm &Hcg tZÑwåudk &Hcg A[d'udk odaomtcgü tZÑwå A[d'Epyg;vk;ukd tm½kûH y d d ¨ ¨ S f H onfvnf; jzpfao;onfom[k ESv;oGi;í qkxm;aom pum; jzpfayonf/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ Hk f d

þonfum; olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdY\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg jyKpD&if (tyf)aom 0dok'd¨r*fusrf;0,f tbdnmOfwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf (tbdnmeda'´o)rnfaom wq,fhokH;ckajrmuf tydkif;tcPf;aywnf;/ (tbdnmOfwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf NyD;\)

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

67

14-cE¨ea'´o cE¨mwkudk tus,jf ycsuf d Yd
ynmuxm-ynmukd jyqkdcsuf
«66» 421/ ,cktcg þokYd (jyqkconftwki;)tbdnmOfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh &NyD;aom (tbdnmOf d hJ h d f f [laom) tmedoiftusKd;½Sonfjzpfí omíckicaom orm"dbm0emESihf jynfpaom (a,m*D) &[ef;onf ]]ynm½Sd d d f hH h Hk aom vlonf oDvü wnfí pdwu¤if;ç ynmuk¤if; yGg;apaomf}}[laom þa'oempum;xJü pdwudk y"meûyí f dk d f nTejf yxm;aom orm"dudk cyfor;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh yGg;apNyD; jzpfavNyD/ xkd (orm"d)\ tjcm;rJürlum; d f h ynmukd yGg;aptyfay\/ xkynmrSmvnf; tvGeusOf;pGm a[mxm;aomaMumifh odem;vnf&efyif rvG,uyJ ½Sacs d f f l d onf? yGg;ap&ef (rvG,uonf)rSm qkz,yif r½SawmhNyD/ xk(ok;yg;aomtaMumif;)aMumifh xkynm\ tus,fudk f l d G f d d H d ¤if;ç yGg;ap&ef (bm0em)enf;uk¤if; jy&eftwGuf atmufyg ar;cGe;jyóemtaygif;ukd xkwjf ytyf\/ d f (u) ynm[lonf tb,fenf;? (c) tb,fteufoabmaMumifh ynmrnfoenf;? (*) xkynm\ vu©Pmç &oç ypöKy|mefç y'|mefwYdk um; tb,fonfwYdk enf;? d (C) ynmonf tb,frQ tjym;½Soenf;? d (i) ynmukd tb,foYdk yGg;aptyfoenf;? (p) ynmukd yGg;apjcif; (ynmbm0em)\ tusKd;um; tb,fenf;? 422/ xkd ar;cGef;taygif;\ tajzrSm atmufyg twki;yifjzpfonf/ d f (u) ]]ynm[lonf tb,fenf;}}[laom ar;cGe;ü ynmonf (ukovynm ponftm;jzif) rsm;aom f dk f h (tzkdYtpk tuGJ) tjym;½Sd\/ (okwr,ynm ponftm;jzif) txl;xl;tjym;jym; (tao;pdwtuGtjym;)½S\/ xkd h f J d tuGtjym; tvk;pkudk jy&eftm;xkwvQif (xkoYdk aom) ajz½Si;csufonf tvk½tyfaom tusKd;ukvnf; rNyD;apEkif J H H f d f d dS d d &m? xkUd jyif ysUH vGi(vsuf rqki&ma&muf)oGm;zkYd &efvnf; jzpfav&m\/ xkUd aMumifh þt&mü tvk½tyfaom ynm hf d f d dS ukomvQif qkuet?hH ukovpwEi,Oaom 0dyóemÓPfonf ynmrnf\/ d d k f dk f d f S hf S f 423/ (c) ]]tb,fteufoabmaMumifh ynmrnfoenf;}}[laom ar;cGe;ü tjym;tm;jzifh odjcif; teuf f oabmaMumifh ynmrnf\/ þtjym;jzifh odjcif;[lonf tb,fenf;? trSwûf yí odjcif;ç txl;odjcif;wkYd rS xl;jcm; aom txl;xl;tjym;jym; tm;jzifh cGjJ cm;í odjcif;aywnf;/ csJUíjy&vQif-onm 0dnmPf ynmwkYd \ tm½kHukd odonf\tjzpf (tm½kHudk odjcif;)onf wlnaomfvnf; onmonf ]]tñkd ta½T}} þokYd (ponfjzif) tm½kudk D h H rSwo½rQomjzpfonf/ ]]rNrJç qif;&Jç twår[kw}f }[k vu©Pmok;yg; xk;xGi;odjcif;okYd a&mufap&efum; rpGr;Ekif f d Hk H d f f d ay/ 0dnmPfonf ]]tñkd ta½T}} þokdY (ponfjzifh) tm½kHukdvnf; od\? vu©Pmok;yg; xk;xGi;odjcif;okYd vnf; H d f a&mufap\? okYd aomfvnf; tqifqifwufí t&d,r*fjzpfay:jcif;okYd a&mufap&efum; rpGr;Ekiay/ ynmonfum; h h f d f qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifh tm½kuvnf; od\? vu©Pmok;yg; xk;xGi;odjcif;okYd vnf; a&mufap\? tqifqifwufí d H dk H d f h h t&d,r*f jzpfay:jcif;okYd vnf; a&mufap\/ Oyrmjzifjh y&vQi?f (a½TaiG&mjywf) yGrif;\ ysOcsyf (pm;yGc)ü wifxm;aom aiGtojymtpkudk (a&mif;0,f J f J Hk a&;ü) todÓPf rjzpfao;aom oli,fwa,mufç ½Gmom;jzpfaom a,musfm; (vlBuD;) wa,mufç (a½TaiG&m jywf) yGrif;wa,muf[aom ok;OD;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk «67» jrifMu&mwGif (a&mif;0,f a&;ü) todÓPf rjzpfao;aom oli,f J l H onf aiGtojymwkYd \ trsKd;rsKd; taxGaxG qef;Mu,fjcif;ç ½Snvsm;jcif;ç av;axmifoP²mef½jdS cif;ç 0ef;0ki; jcif;rQ f h d f ukom od\? ]]þt&monf vlwkdY\ twGif;tokH;taqmifç tytokH;taqmif(ukd &xkuaom) &wem[k orkwf d d f tyfaom 0w¬Kwnf;}} [líum;rod? ½Gmom;jzpfaom a,musfm;onf txl;xl; taxGaxG qef;Mu,fjcif; ponfudk vnf; od\? ]]þt&monf vlwkdY\ twGi;tok;taqmifç tytok;taqmif (uk&xkuaom) &wem[k orkwf f H H d d f tyfaom 0w¬Kwnf;}} [lívnf; od\? okdYaomf ]]þtojymonf aiGppfwnf;? þtojymum; aiGwwnf;? þ k tojymum; xuf0uftESp½aom aiGwnf;}}[k þokYd aom tuGtjym;ukum; rod? (a½T aiG&mjywf) yGrif;onfum; f dS J d J xktxl;tjym;wkYd udk tvk;pkyifo\? xkoYdk o&müvnf; tojymukMd unf½ívnf;od\? wD;acguftyfaom tojym d H H d d d h I \ toHudk Mum;ívnf; od\? teHYuerf;ívnf; od\? t&omukd vsufívnf;od\? vufjzifh csdeqívnf; dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

68

od\? þrnfaom ½Gmüaomf¤if;? ed*;üaomf¤if;? ûrdUüaomf¤if;? awmifüaomf¤if;? þrnfaom jrpfurf;üaomf¤if;? Hk ûyvkyaom aiG[ívnf; od\/ þrnfaomq&mûyvkyaom aiG[ívnf; od\/ (þum; Oyrmwnf;)/ f l f l þ (onmç 0dnmPfç ynmwkYd \ ody) ukd þOyrmESitwlyif jzpfonf[k odtyf\/ Oyrm Oyar,s Hk hf ES;aESmí jy&vQif onmonf tñkponftm;jzifh tm½kxifay:vmaom tjcif;t&mrQukom ,lwwfaomaMumifh D d H d todÓPfrjzpfao;aom oli,f\ tojymukd jrifjcif;ESiw\? 0dnmPfonf tñkponftm;jzifh tm½kH\ hf l d tjcif;t&mukd ,lwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç xkUd jyif vu©Pmok;yg;ukd xk;xGi;odjcif;okYd a&mufapwwfaomaMumif¤if; h H d f h ½Gmom; a,musfm;\ aiGtojymukd jrifjcif;ESihf wl\? ynmonf tñkponftm;jzifh tm½k\ tjcif;t&mukd ,lí d H vu©Pm ok;yg;ukd xk;xGi;odjcif;okYd a&mufaponfjh yif t&d,r*f xif½m; jzpfjcif;okYd vnf; a&mufapaomaMumifh H d f S (a½T aiG &m jywf) yGrif;\ aiGtojymukd jrifjcif;ESiw\/ xkUd aMumifh trSwerwûf yí odaom tjcif;t&mç txl; J hf l f d d odaom tjcif;t&mwkYd rS xl;jcm;aom þtxl;xl; tjym;jym;tm;jzifh cGjJ cm;í odjcif;ukd tjym;tm;jzifh odjcif; (yZmee)[k odtyf\? þokYd aom odjcif;ukyif&nfí ]]tjym;tm;jzifh odjcif;teufaMumifh ynmrnf\}}[laom þ d pum;ukd igqkd cJayonf/ h xkynmonf onmç 0dnmPfwYdk ½&m&m pdwKå yÜg'fwi;fü {uef½onfcsnf; r[kway? okYd aomf ynmjzpfaom d dS dk dS f tcg (ynm,SOaompdwKå yÜg'f)ürlum; xkd (onmç 0dnmPf) w&m;wkYd rS ,if; (ynm)ukd toD;tjcm; rcGjJ crf;Eki?f f d ]]þonfum; onmwnf;? þonfum; 0dnmPfwnf;? þonfum; ynmwnf;}}[k toD;tjcm; cGjJ crf;í r&Ekif d aom xl;jcm;jcif;½S\? odrarGUvS\? jrifEic\? xkUd aMumifh t½Siem*odeonfd f dk f J f f ]]jrwfaomrif;BuD;? bke;awmfBuD;aom jrwfpmbk&m;onf cJ,Of;pGmaom trIuûdk ycJayonf}}[kreYf awmfr\/ f G h d l ]]t½Siem*odeb&m;? bke;awmfBuD;aom jrwfpmbk&m;onf tb,foYdk cJ,Of;pGmaomtrIudk ûycJygoenf;}} f f k f G h [k ar;avQmuf\/ ]]jrwfaom rif;BuD;? wckwnf;aom tm½küjzpfueaom ½kyoabm (txnfj'Af) r½Sueaom pdwf H k f f d k f apwoduw&m;wkYd \ tMuifujJG ym;jcif;ukd þonfum; zó? þonfum; a0'em? þonfum; onm? þ f onfum; apwem? þonfum; pdw[í a[mMum;awmfrcay\? þokYd cJ,Of;pGmaomtrIudk bke;awmfBuD;aom f l l hJ f jrwfpmbk&m;onf ûyawmfrcayonf}}[k rdeYf awmfr\/ G l hJ l «68» 424/ (8) ]]xkynm\ vu©Pm &oç ypöKy|mefç y'|mefwYdk um; tb,fonfwYdk enf;}} [laom þ d ar;cGe;ü ynmonf (½kyemrf)w&m;wkYd \ oabmukd xk;xGi;odjcif; vu©Pm½S\? (½kyemrf)w&m;wkYd \ oabmukd f f d f d f zk;vTr;wwfaom arm[wnf;[laom tarSmifudk zsufq;jcif;udp½\? rawGra0 odjcif;[laom ypöKy|mef (ÓPfü H f D ö dS a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m)½Sd\? ]]pdwwnfMunfaomolonf [kwwi;rSepm od\ jrif\}}[k a[mawmfraom f f dk f f G l aMumifh orm"d (pdwwnfMunfjcif;)onf xkd (ynm)\ y'|mef (eD;aomtaMumif;)aywnf;/ f

ynmtjym;ukd jyqkdcsuf
425/ (C) ]]ynmonf tb,frQ tjym;½Soenf;}} [laom ar;cGe;ü ynmonf (½kyemrf) w&m;wkYd \ d f f oabmukd xk;xGi;odjcif; vu©Pmtm;jzifh tuGtjym;r½Sd wyg;wnf;omwnf;/ d f J avmuDynmç avmukw&mynmtm;jzifh ESpfyg;tjym;½Sd\? xkUd twl omo0ynmç temo0ynm ponf å tm;jzif¤if;? emr00w¬myeynmç ½ly00w¬myeynmtm;jzif¤if;? aomreóo[*kwf ynmç Oayu©mo[*kwf ynm h h tm;jzif¤if;? 'óeblrynmç bm0emblrynmtm;jzif¤if; ESpyg;pD tjym;½S\/ h d d h f d pdEmr,ynmç okwr,ynmç bm0emr,ynmtm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\? xkUd twly&dwm&r®Pynmç Å H d å r[*¾wm&r®Pynmç tyÜrmPm&r®Pynmtm;jzif¤if;? tm,aumov’ç tyg,aumov’ç Oyg,aumov’ h tm;jzif¤if;? tZÑwåmbdea0oynm ponftm;jzif¤if; ok;yg;pDtjym;½S\/ h d h H d opömav;yg;wkYd ü jzpfaom ÓPf\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;? av;yg;aom y#dyrÇ'gÓPf\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; f h d f h av;yg;pD tjym;½Sd\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

69

426/ xkdwGif wyg;wnf;tzkdYonf ay:vGifxif½Sm;aom teuf½Sd\/ ESpyg;tzkYd ü avmuDr*fEi,Oaom f S hf S f ynmonf avmuDynmrnf\? avmukw&mr*fEi,Oaom ynmonf avmukw&mynmrnf\? þokYd vQif avmuD å S hf S f å ynmç avmukw&mynmtm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ å f d 'kw,'kuü tmoa0gw&m;wkYd \ tm½kjH zpfaom ynmonf omo0 (tmoa0g½Saom) ynmrnf\/ ¤if; d f d tmoa0gwkdY\ tm½kr[kwaom ynmonf temo0 (tm0a0gr½Saom) ynmrnf\/ o½kyw&m;uk,f tm;jzifh H f d f d rlum; þ(ESprsKd;aomynm)onf avmuDynm avmukw&mynmomvQif jzpfay\/ ]]tmoa0gESifh r,SOfrlí f å tmoa0g½Saomynmç tmoa0gESivnf; r,SOf tmoa0gvnf; r½Saom ynm}} þokYd tp½Saom 'kuwYdk üvnf; d hf d d f enf;wlyif (odtyf\)/ þokYd vQif omo0ynmç temo0ynm ponftm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ f d wwd,'kuü 0dyóemukd tm;xkwvaom yk*Kd¾ vf\ emru©Emav;yg;wkYd udk yki;jcm;aom ynmonf f f dk ¨ d f emr00w¬myeynm rnf\? ½lyu©Emukd yki;jcm;aomynmonf ½ly00w¬myeonm rnf\? þokYd vQif emr00w¬mye ¨ d f ynmç ½ly00w¬myeynmtm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ f d pwkw'uü (aomreóo[*kw) umrm0p&ukovpwf 2-ckwYdk ü¤if; yOöuenf;t& psmefav;yg; ¬ k f f dk f d taygif;ESihf ,SOaom r*fpwf 16-ckwYdkü¤if; ynmonf aomreóo[*kwynm rnf\? (Oayu©m o[*kw) f d f f umrm0p&pdwf 2-ckwkdYü¤if;ç yOörpsmefESifh,SOfaom r*fpdwf 4-ckwYdkü¤if; ynmonf Oayu©mo[*kwynm rnf\/ f þokdYvQif aomreóo[*kwynmç Oayu©mo[*kwynmtm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ f f f d «69» yOör'kuü yXrr*fü ynmonf 'óeblrd (edAmefudk jrifaom tqifü) ynmrnf\? <uif;aom r*f f Á h ok;yg;ü ynmonf bm0emblrd (yGg;aptyfaomtqifü) ynmrnf\? þokYd vQif 'óeblrynmç bm0emblrd H h d ynmtm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ f d 427/ wduwYdk wif yXrwduü olwyg;xHrS (nTeMf um;csufu) rMum;&rlí &aomynmonf rdr\ BuHpnf f G f dk d jcif;rQ\ tpGr;tm;jzifh NyD;aomaMumifh pdEmr,ynmrnf\? olwyg;xHrS (nTeMf um;csuu) Mum;&í&aom ynm f Å f dk onf Mum;bl;aom okw\ tpGr;tm;jzifh NyD;aomaMumifh okwr,ynm rnf\/ (olwyg;xHrS Mum;&onf jzpfap f rMum;&onfjzpfap) wpkwckaom tjcif;t&mjzifh bm0em\ tpGr;tm;jzifNh yD;aom tyÜemokYd a&mufaom ynmonf H f bm0emr,ynm rnf\/ xkUd aMumifh ]]xkd (ok;yg;aom ynmwkYd )wGif pdEmr, ynmonf tb,fenf;? ynmjzifh pD&iftyf H Å ukeaom trIt&mwkYd üaomf¤if;? ynmjzifp&iftyfueaom twwft&mwkYd üaomf¤if;? ynm f h D k f jzifh pD&iftyfueaom (aq;ynmpaom) 0dZmXmewkYd üaomf¤if;? ur®ouwÓPfaomfvnf; k f Æ jzpfaom? ]½kyonfrNrJ [líaomf¤if;? a0'emonf? onmonf? ocFg&wkYd onf rNrJue[í f k f l aomf¤if;? 0dnmOfonf rNrJ[íaomf¤if; (jzpfaom) opömEkavmrdu ÓPfaomfvnf;jzpfaom l þokYd oabm½Saom (trIt&mponfwYdk Ei) avsmfaom tMuifoYdk aom ½Ipr;Ekiaom (cEÅ) d S hf G f d f d ÓPfu¤if;? jrifwwfaom ('d|) ÓPfu¤if;? ESpoufaom (½kp) ÓPfu¤if;? odaom (rkw) dk d dk f d dk d ÓPfu¤if;? ½Iaom (ayu©) ÓPfu¤if;? (ur®m,wepaom) w&m;wkYd \ t½IcH aMumif;jzpf dk dk aom ("r®eZÑmecEÅ) ÓPfu¤if; olwyg;xHrS (nTeMf um; csufu) rMum;&bJ &jim;tH?h þtod d d dk dk ÓPfudk pdEmr,ynm[k qktyf\/ y/ olwyg;xHrS (nTeMf um;csufu) Mum;í &jim;tH?h þ Å d dk todÓPfudk okwr,ynm[k qktyf\/ orm ywfoYdk a&mufaom yk*Kd¾ vf\ tvk;pkaom d H H ynmonf bm0emr,ynm rnf\}} [laomþpum;ukd a[mawmfr\/ þokYd vQif pdEmr,ç okwr,ç bm0emr,tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ l Å H d 'kw,wduü umrm0p&w&m;wkYd udk tm½kûH yíjzpfaom ynmonf y&dwm&r®Pynm rnf\? ½lyg0p& d f å t½lyg0p&w&m;wkYd udk tm½kûH yí jzpfaom ynmonf r[*¾wm&r®Pynm rnf\? ¤if; (ynm ESpyg;)onf avmuD f 0dyóem aywnf;/ edAmefudk tm½kûH yíjzpfaom ynmonf tyÜrmPm&r®Pynm rnf\? ¤if; (ynm)onf Á avmukw&m 0dyóemaywnf;/ þokYd vQif y&dwm&r®Pynmç r[*¾wm&r®Pynmç tyÜrmPm&r®Pynmtm;jzifh å å okH;yg; tjym;½Sd\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

70

wwd,wduü tm, rnfonfum; BuD;yGg;jcif;yifwnf;? xkBd uD;yGg;jcif;onf tusKd;rJ\ qkw,wjf cif;ç f h f k tusKd;pD;yGg;\ jzpfjcif;tm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ xkd (ESpyg;aom BuD;yGg;jcif;)ü uRr;usivrmjcif;onf tm, f d f f f d ® aumov’ rnf\/ tb,fuoYdk a[mawmfroenf;[lrhJ l l ]]xk(ok;yg;aom aumov’ÓPfwYdk )wGif tm,aumov’ (BuD;yGg;jcif;ü uRrf;usif d H vdrmjcif;)onf tb,fenf;? þw&m;wkYd udk ESv;oGi;aom ightm; rjzpfao;aom tukovf ® Hk f dk w&m;wkYd onfvnf; rjzpfay:vmuke?f jzpfNyD;aom tukovw&m;wkYd onfvnf; aysmufuif; dk f uke\? wenf;tm;jzifh þw&m;wkYd udk ESv;oGi;aom ightm; rjzpfao;aom ukovw&m; f Hk f dk f wkYd onfvnf; jzpfay:vmuke\? jzpfNyD;aom ukovw&m;wkYd onfvnf; vGepmjzpfjcif;iSg f dk f f G jyefYyg;jcif;iSg bm0emjynfpjHk cif;iSg jzpfue\ ([lí) xk(tukovf rjzpfjcif;ponf)ü tMuif G h k f d dk okYd aom ynmonf tjym;tm;jzifh odjcif;onf/y/ rawGa0jcif;onf? w&m;wkYd udk pdppfjcif; onf? rSepmjrifaom or®m'd|onfjzpf\/ þokYd aom todÓPfudk tm,aumov’ (BuD;yGg; f G d jcif;ü uRrf;usifvrmjcif;)[lí qktyf\}}[k a[mawmf rl\/ d ® d «70» xkdrSwyg; tyg, rnfonfum; rBuD;yGg;jcif; ysup;jcif;yifwnf;? xkysup;jcif;onfvnf; tusK; f D d f D d pD;yGg;\ qkw,wjf cif;tusKd;rJ\ jzpfay:jcif;tm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\/ xkd (ESpyg;aom ysufp;jcif;)ü uRrf;usif f k h f d f D vdrmjcif;onf tyg,aumov’ rnf\? tb,fuoYdk a[mawmfroenf; [lr® hJ l l ]]xkd (ok;yg;aom aumov’wYdk )wGif tyg,aumov’ (ysufp;jcif;ü uRrf;usif vdrm H D ® jcif;)onf tb,fenf;/ þw&m;wkYd udk ESv;oGi;aom ightm; rjzpfao;aom ukovw&m; Hk f dk f wkYd onfvnf; rjzpfay:vmuke}f }-þokdY ponfjzifh a[mawmfr\/ l tvk;pkaom udpwYdk ü xkxdk (pD;yGg;csrf;om) w&m;wkYd \ Oyg,rnfueaom jzpfaMumif; enf;vrf;wkYd ü xkd H H ö d k f cPcsif;jzpfaom csufcsif;jzpfay:vmaom uRrf;usifvrmaom todÓPfonf Oyg,aumov’ rnf\? tb,f d ® uJoYdk a[mawmfroenf;[lrh l l ]]xkdxdk udpwYdk ü taMumif;rSeuoaom tvk;pkaom ynmonf Oyg,aumov’ ö f dk d H H rnf\}}[k a[mawmfr\/ l þokYd vQif tm,aumov’ç tyg,aumov’ç Oyg,aumov’tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ H d pwkwwuü rdr\cE¨mwkYd udk ,lvsuf (½Ivsuf) tm;xkwpûyaom 0dyóemynmonf tZÑwåm bdea0o ¬ d f d f d ynmrnf\? olwyg;\ cE¨mwkYd uaomf¤if;? owå0g\ cE¨mrS jyifyjzpfaom £a`E´Eihf rpyfaom ted`E´,A'¨½yudk dk S d k f aomf¤if; ,lvsuf (½Ivsuf) tm;xkwpûyaom 0dyóemynmonf A[d'g bdea0oynmrnf\/ rZÑwåA[d'¨ ESpyg; f ¨ d f pkudk ,lvsuf (½Ivsuf) tm;xkwpûyaom 0dyóemynmonf tZÑwåA[d'gbdea0oynm rnf\? þokYd vQif H f ¨ d tZÑwåmbdea0oynmponftm;jzifh ok;yg; tjym;½S\/ d H d 428/ pwkuwYdk wif yXrpwkuü 'kuopömukd tm½kûH yíjzpfaomÓPfonf 'kuüÓPfrnf\? 'kuork', ú G ú © © © opömukd tm½kûH yíjzpfaomÓPfonf 'kuork',ü ÓPfrnf\? 'kuea&m"opömukd tm½kûH yíjzpfaom ÓPfonf © © d 'kuea&m"ü ÓPfrnf\? 'kuea&m"okYd qkua&mufaom tusifjh zpfaom r*¾opömukd tm½kûH yíjzpfaom ÓPfonf © d © d d f 'kuea&m"okYd qkua&mufaom tusifü ÓPfrnf\? þokYd vQif av;yg;aom opömwkYd ü ÓPf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh © d d f h f av;yg; tjym;½Sd\/ 'kw, pwkuü av;yg;aom y#dord'gwkYd rnfonfum; tusKd;ponfwYdk ü txl;tjym;ukoaom av;yg; d ú Ç d d aom ÓPfwYdk wnf;/ xkUd aMumifh ]]tusKd;üodaom ÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'g rnf\? taMumif;ü odaomÓPfonf Ç "r®y#dord'g rnf\? xkd (tusK;taMumif;)ü (jzpfaom) obm0ed½ wdå (rSeuefaom bmom Ç d k f o'´g)ukd ajymqk&müodaomÓPfonf ed½wdå y#dord'grnf\? ÓPfwYdk ü odaomÓPfonf d k Ç y#dbmey#d orÇ'grnf\}} d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

71

[laom þpum;ukd a[mawmfr\/ l xk(a'oempum;xJ)ü tw¬ [laom þtrnfonf tusOf;tm;jzifh taMumif;\ tusKd;jzpfaomw&m;\ d trnfwnf;? taMumif;\tusKd;ukd taMumif;rS tpOfavQmufojzifh odtyf a&muftyfaomaMumifh tw¬[qtyf\? k dk tus,ftao;pdwf tjym;tm;jzifum;h (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) taMumif;aMumifjh zpfaom wpkwckaom tusK;w&m;? H d edAmef? Á a[mqkd (tyf)aom bmomygVd\ teuf? 0dyguf? ud&,m[laom þig;yg;aomw&m;wkYd udk tw¬[otyf\/ d k d

xktw¬ (tusKd;)ukd qifjcifaom yk*Kd¾ vftm; xktusKd;ü txl;tjym;ukd odaom ÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'g rnf\/ d d Ç "r® [laom þtrnfonfvnf; tusOf;tm;jzifh taMumif;w&m;\ trnfwnf;? taMumif;w&m;onf xkxtusKd;ukd jzpfapwwfa&mufapwwfaomaMumifh ¤if;ukd "r® [k qktyf\/ «71» tus,f tao;pdwf tjym;tm; d dk d jzifum;h (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) tusK;ukd jzpfapwwfaom wpkwckaom taMumif;w&m;? d H t&d,mr*f? a[mqkd (tyf)aom bmomygVd? ukov?f dk tukov[aom þig;yg;aom taMumif;w&m;wdYk udk dk f l

"r®[k odtyf\/ xk"r® (taMumif;w&m;uk) qifjcifaom yk*Kd¾ vftm; xktaMumif; w&m;ü txl;tjym;ukd odaom d d d ÓPfonf "r®y#dorÇ'g rnf\? rSeay\-þ jyqdcaom teufuyifvQif tbd"r®0bif;ygVdawmfüd f k hJ dk d ]]'kuü odaomÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'g rnf\/ 'kuork',ü odaom ÓPfonf © Ç © "r®y#dorÇ'grnf\/ taMumif;ü odaom ÓPfonf "r®y#dord'grnf\? taMumif;\tusKd;ü d Ç odaom ÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'grnf\? tMuif (tusK;) w&m;wkYd onfjzpfue\? xif½m; Ç d k f S jzpfue\? aumif;pGmjzpfue\? topfjzpfue\? xif½m; jzpfay:vmuke\? þ(tusKd;) k f k f k f S f w&m;wdYk ü odaomÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'g rnf\/ xkd (qkchJ aomtusKd;) w&m;wkYd onf Ç d tMuif(taMumif;)w&m;rS jzpfue\? xif½m;jzpfue\? aumif;pGm jzpfue\? topfjzpfuef k f S k f k f k \? xif½m; jzpfay:vmuke\? xkd (taMumif;) w&m;wkYd üodaom ÓPfonf "r®y#dord'g S f Ç rnf\/ Z&mr&Pü odaom ÓPfonf tw¬y#dord'grnf\? Z&mr&PjzpfaMumif;ü odaom Ç ÓPfonf "r®y#dord'grnf\/y/ ocFg&wkdY\csKyfjcif;ü odaomÓPfonf tw¬y#dordÇ'g Ç rnf\? ocFg&wkYd \csKyfjcif;okYd qkua&mufaom tusifü odaomÓPfonf "r®y#dord'g d f h Ç rnf\/ þ omoemawmfü &[ef;onf w&m;awmfudk od\? okwu¤if;? a*,suk¤if;/y/ f dk d a0'v’u¤if; od\? þokYd aom todÓPfudk "r®y#dord'g[k qktyf\/ xk&[ef;onf xkxdk dk Ç d d d a[mtyfaom w&m;awmf\ teufudk ]]þonfum; þa[mtyfaom ygVd\ teufwnf;? þonfum; þa[mtyfaom ygVd\ teufwnf;}}[k od\? þokYd odaomÓPfudk tw¬y#d ord'g[k qktyf\/ ukovw&m;wkYd onf tb,fonfwYdk enf;? tMuiftcgü umrm0p& Ç d dk f ukovf pdwonf jzpfay:\/y/ þw&m;wkYd onf ukovwYdk aywnf;/ þukovw&m;wdYk ü dk f dk f dk f todÓPfonf "r®y#dorÇ'grnf\/ ¤if; (ukovw&m;)wkYd \ tusKd;0dygufü todÓPf d dk f onf tw¬y#dord'grnf\}}þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh a0befí jyawmfr\/ Ç d l xkd (tusKd;taMumif;)ü (jzpfaom) "r®e½wudk ajymqk&mü odaomÓPf [lonfum; xkd (qkcaom) d k åd d d hJ tusKd;ü¤if; taMumif;ü¤if; obm0ed½w[k qktyfaom pifppf {uef rSeaom tMuif a0g[m&o'´gonf jzpf\? k åd d f xkreuefaom o'´gukd ½Gw&majymqk&mü xk½wtyf ajymqktyfaom toHuMdk um;íyifvQif ]]þonfum; obm0 d S f f d d G f d ed½wåd (rSeuefaomo'´g)wnf;? þonfum; obm0ed½wdå (rSeuefaom o'´g)r[kw}f }[lí "r®e½w[qtyfaom k f k f d k åd k dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

72

obm0ed½wrnfaom cyfor;aom owå0gwkYd \ rlvbmomjzpfaom xkd rm*"bmom\ txl;tjym;ukd odaom k åd d f ÓPfonf ed½wy#dorÇ'g rnf\/ ed½wåd y#dord'gokYd a&mufaom yk*Kd¾ vfonf ]]zaómç a0'em}} þokYd ponfjzifh k åd d k Ç ajymqkaom pum;oHudk Mum;íyifvQif ]]þonfum; obm0ed½wwnf;}}[k od\/ ]]zómç a0'aem}}2 þokdY d k åd ponfjzifh ajymqkaom pum;oHurum; (Mum;íyifvQif) ]]þonfum;ç obm0ed½wr[kw}f }[k od\/ d dk l k då «72» ÓPfwYdk ü odaomÓPf [lonfum; tvk;pkH (aomtusKd;taMumif;ç o'´g)wkYd ü jzpfaomÓPfudk tm½kH H ûyí qifjcifaom yk*Kd¾ vftm; ÓPfvQiftm½k½aom ÓPfaywnf;/ wenf;um; qkcwi;aom xkÓPfwYdk ü H dS d hJ dk f d usufpm;&m tm½kwYdk EiwuG udpponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh tus,f0wm&odaomÓPfonf y#dbmey#dord'g H S hf ö f d ¬ Ç rnf\? þ onfum; vk&if;teufwnf;/ d 429/ þ av;yg;aom y#dord'gwkYd onf aou©btqifçh taou©btqifh [laom ESpyg;aom XmewkYd ü Ç Hk Hk f txl;tjym;(ukd odjcif;okYd ) a&mufue\/ xkwif t*¾om0u r[mom0uwkYd tm; taou©bHk (&[EÅm tjzpfü) k f d G txl;tjym;(ukd odjcif;)okYd a&mufue\/ t½SitmeE´mrax&fç pdwo<l u,fç "rd® uOygoumç Oygvd ol<u,fç k f f å ckZKÆ wå&mOygodumr tp½Saom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk tm; aou©bHk (aou©y*Kd¾ vftjzpf)ü txl;tjym; (ukojd cif;)okYd a&muf d k d uke\/ f þqkconftwki; ESpyg;aombkwYdk ü txl;tjym; (ukojd cif;)okYd a&mufueaom þ y#dord'g ÓPfwYdk d hJ h d f f H d k f Ç onf (1) t"d*r- w&m;xl;uk&jcif;? (2) y&d,wå- oif,jl cif;? (3) o0e- emMum;jcif;? (4) y&dypm- ar;jref;jcif;? d d k ä (5) ykAa,m*- a½S;ü tm;xkwb;jcif;[laom þig;yg;aom taMumif;wkYd jzifh oefY½i; xufjruf uke\/ xkdwGif Á f l S f f t"d*r rnfonfum; t&[wåzvoYdk a&mufjcif;wnf;/ y&d,wdå rnfonfum; jrwfpmbk&m;\ pum;awmfudk dk f G oif,jl cif;wnf;/ o0ernfonfum; pD;yGg;uJoYdk ESv;oGi;í olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd ½kaopGm emMum;jcif;wnf;/ h Hk f d y&dypmrnfonfum; ygVd t|uxmponfwYdk ü (teuf todcufaom) *P²y'f (t"dyg,f todcufaom) teufy'f k ä d k Ü k wkYd \ tqk;tjzwfudk ar;aom pum;wnf;/ ykAa,m* rnfonfum; a½S;a½S;bk&m;½SiwYdk \ omoemü *wypöm*w H Á f (qGr;cH toGm;tjyefü ur®|mef;tm;xkwjf cif;) usif0wf½onf\tjzpfjzifh a*gMwblteD; tEkavmrÓPfwiatmif f h dS dk f 0dyóemukd tm;xkwjf cif;wnf;/ wyg;aom q&mwkYd url atmufygtwki; qkue\d f d k f (1) ykAa,m*-a½S;ütm;xkwb;jcif;? (2) Am[kopö- tMum;tjrifrsm;jcif;? (3) Á f l a'obmom- xkxt&yf a'oü ok;pGaom bmompum;ukd wwfoem;vnf;jcif;? (4) tm*r - d dk H J d - bk&m;pum;awmfudk EIwwuftm*kraqmifxm;jcif;? (5) y&dypm- ar;jref;jcif;? (6) t"d*rf f k ä w&m;xl;uk&jcif;? (7) *½koEédó,- q&muktrSûD yíaejcif;? (8) rdwå or®w- uvsmP d d åd rdwwYkd Eihf jynfpjHk cif;[laom þ½Spyg;wkYd onf y#dord'gÓPfudk &jcif;\ taMumif;wkYd wnf;/ å S h f Ç xkwif ykAa,m* rSm qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;½Sonfomwnf;/ Am[kopö rnfonfum; xkxusrf;*efwYdk ü¤if;ç d G Á d d d dk xkxtwwft&mwkYd ü¤if; wwfuRrf;onf\ tjzpfwnf;/ a'obmom rnfonfum; w&mhwyg;aom bmom d dk a0g[m&wkYd ü wwfuRrf;onf\ tjzpfwnf;/ txl;tm;jzifrum; rm*"bmoma0g[m&ü wwfuRrf;onf\ h l tjzpfwnf;/ tm*rrnfonfum; atmufxpfq;tm;jzifh Moyr®0*frQavmufaomfvnf; jrwfpmbk&m;\ pum;awmf Hk G ukd EIwwufoif,jl cif;wnf;/ y&dypm rnfonfum; wckaom*gxm\aomfvnf; teuf tqk;tjzwfudk ar;jcif; f k ä H wnf;/ t"d*r rnfonfum; aomwmyeftjzpfuaomf¤if;/y/ &[EÅmtjzpfuaomf¤if; &jcif;wnf;/ *½koEédó, dk dk rnfonfum; tMum;tjrif y#dbmefÓPfrsm;ukeaom q&mwkYd \ txHü aejcif;wnf;/ rdworÜwåd rnfonfum; f å xkoYdk oabm½SonfomvQif jzpfueaom uvsmPrdwwYdkudk &jcif;wnf;/ d d k f å xkwif jrwfpmbk&m;wkYd onf¤if;ç yapöuAk'gwkYd onf¤if; ykAa,m*ESihf t"d*rukd rSueí y#dord'gÓPfoYdk d G G ¨ Á D k f Ç a&mufue\/ wynfom0uwkYd onf qkcNhJ yD;aom þ taMumif;tvk;pkwYdk uvnf; (rSueí y#dord'gÓPfoYdk k f h d H H dk D k f Ç a&mufue\)/ okYd aomfvnf; y#dord'gÓPfoYdk a&muf&eftwGuf «73» toD;tjcm; ur®|mef;bm0emukd tm;xkw& k f Ç f jcif;rnfonf r½Sacs? pifppfaomfum; aou©y*Kd¾ vfwYdk tm; aou©zv[aom 0darmu©\tqk;üyifvQif y#dord'g d k dk f l H Ç okYd a&mufjcif;udpö NyD;pD;\? &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vfwYdk tm; t&[wåzv[aom 0darmu©\ tqk;üyifvQif y#dord'gokYd a&muf dk f l H Ç jcif;udpö NyD;pD;\/ rSeay\? jrwfpmbk&m;wkYd tm; 'oAvÓPfawmfwYdkonf (t&[wåzvjf zif) NyD;pD;ukeouJoYdk f G dk h f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

73

t&d,mwkYd tm; t&d,mzkvjf zifyifvQif y#dord'gÓPfwYdk onf NyD;pD;uke\/ xkUd aMumifh þy#d ord'gwkYd udk &nfí d h Ç f Ç ]]av;yg;aom y#dord'gwkYd \ tpGr;jzifh av;yg;tjym;½S\}}[k igqkdcJhayonf/ Ç f d

(ynmtjym;ukd jyqkdcsuf NyD;\)/ ynm\ bkH-rlv-ukd,fxnfwkdYukd ykdif;jcm;csuf
430/ (i) ]]ynmukd tb,foYdk yGg;aptyfoenf;}}[laom þar;cGe;ü cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç £a`E´ç f opömç y#dporkyg'f ponftjym;½Sueaom w&m;wkYd onf þ (0dyóem) ynm\ jzpf&mbkH (tm½k)jzpfonf/ ö Ü d k f H oDv0do'¨d pdw0o'[aom þ0do'¨d ESpyg;wkYd onf (þ0dyóem ynm\)rlv tajctjrpfjzpfonf/ 'd|0o'¨d k å d k ¨d l k f d d k ucFg0dw&P0dok'd¨ç r*¾gr*¾ÓP'óe0dok'd¨ç y#dy'gÓP 'óe0dok'd¨ç ÓP'óe 0do'[aom þig;yg;aom k ¨d l 0do'wYdk onf (þynm\) uk,xnfjzpfonf/ xkUd aMumifh (þynm\) jzpf&mbkH tm½kjH zpfueaom xk(cE¨mpaom) k ¨d d f k f d w&m;wkYd ü oif,jl cif; ar;jref;jcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ÓPftavhtusufudk ûyNyD;vQif rlvtajctjrpf jzpfueaom f k f 0do'Epyg;wkYd udk jynfpapNyD;í uk,xnfjzpfueaom 0do'ig;yg;wkYd udk jynfpapvsuf (þ0dyóemynmuk) k ¨d S f h Hk d f k f k ¨d h Hk d yGg;aptyf\/ þqkcaom pum;onf (ynmbm0emukd jyaom) þt&mü tusO;csKyfaywnf;/ d hJ f 431/ ,ckjyqkrnfh pum;onfum; tus,faywnf;/ ]]cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç £a`E´ç opömç y#dporkyg'f d ö Ü ponf tjym;½Sueaom w&m;wkYd onf þ (0dyóem)ynm\ jzpf&mbkH (tm½k) jzpfonf}}[k qkcaomxkpum;&yfü d k f H d hJ d cE¨m[lonfrm ½lyu©Em a0'emu©Emonmu©Em ocFg&u©Em 0dnmPu©Em [laom ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd aywnf;/ S ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨

½lyu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf
432/ xkd (ig;yg;aom cE¨m)wkYd wif tat; (tyl) ponfwYdk aMumifh azmufjyefjcif; vu©Pm½Saom oabm G d w&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí ½lyu©Em (½kytzkYd tpk)[k odtyf \/ H H h ¨ f xk½yu©Em[k qktyfaom þ½kyonf azmufjyefjcif;vu©Pmtm;jzifh wyg;wnf; (wrsKd;wnf;)om jzpf d l ¨ d f jim;aomfvnf; blw½kyçf Oyg'g,½kyf tjym;tm;jzifh 2-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ xkwif blw½kyonf yx0D"mwf tmayg"mwf awaZm"mwf 0ga,m"mwf[í 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ ¤if;wdkY\ d G f l vu©Pm &o ypöKy|mefwYdkudk pwk"mwk00w¬mefur®|mef;jy&mü qk(tyf) cJueNf yD/ y'|meftm;jzifrum; xk"mwf 4d h k h l d yg;vk;wkYd yif <uif;aom"mwfo;yg;vQif eD;aomtaMumif; (y'|mef)½Sue\/ H Hk d k f ½lyg'g½kyfonf (1) pu©Kyom'-rsufptMunf½y?f (2) aomwyom'-em;tMunf½y?f (3) Cmeyom'd k k ESmacgif;tMunf½y?f (4) Zd0gyom'-vQmtMunf½y?f (5) um,yom'-ukd,ftMunf½kyf? (6) ½lyg½kH-tqif;½ky?f (7) k S k o'´g½kH-toH½kyf? (8) *E¨m½kH-teHY½kyf? (9) &om½kH-t&om½ky?f (10) £wda`E´-trjzpfa&; tpk;&½ky?f (11) yk&oa`E´ ¬ d d d -tzkdjzpfa&; tpk;&½ky?f (12) ZD0wa`E´-touf½Sifa&; tpkd;&½kyf? (13) [',0w¬K½ky?f (14) um,0dnwf½y?f (15) d d d k 0pD0nwf½y?f (16) tmumo"mwf? (17) v[kwm½ky?f «74» (18) rk'wm½ky?f (19) ur®nwm½ky?f (20) Oyp,½ky?f d k k (21) oEÅwd½kyf? (22) Z&wm½kyf? (23) tedpwm½kyf? (24) uAVDum& tm[m&½kyf [lí 24-yg; tjym; ½Sd\/ ö 433/ xkdOyg'g½kyf 24-yg;wkYd wif pu©Kyom'ac: rsufptMunf½yonf tqif;xifxuaom blw½kywYdk G d k f dk f f \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? wenf;um; jrifvonfwPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kyf d dk h d k f wkYd \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\/ tqif;tm½krsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk jcif;udpö (&o)½S\? pu©K0dnmPfac: jrifopw\ d H J d d d f wnf&mtjzpfjzifh (½IoÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m (ypöKy|mef)½S\? jrifvonfwPSmvQif taMumif; d d dk h ½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif; (y'|mef)½S\/ d k f f d aomwyom'ac: em;tMunf½yonf toHxifxuaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? wenf; k f dk f f d um; Mum;vkonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½SaomuHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm ½S\? toH d d k f f d tm½krsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk jcif;udp½\? aomw0dnmPf ac: Mum;odpw\ wnf&mtjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½Sd H J ö dS d f \? Mum;vkonfwPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk vQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ d h d k f f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

74

Cmeyom'ac: ESmacgif;tMunf½yonf teHYxifxuaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? wenf; k f dk f f d um; eHvonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifjh zpfueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? teHYtm½kH dk d k f f d rsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk jcif;udp½\? Cme0dnmPfac: eHopw\ wnf&mtjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½S\? eHvdk J ö dS d d f d onfwPSmvQif taMumif;½SaomuHaMumifjh zpfueaom blw½kywYdk vQife;aomtaMumif; ½S\/ h d k f f D d Zd0gyom'ac: vQmtMunf½yonf t&omxifxuaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? wenf; S k f dk f f d um; t&omcHpm;vkonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif; vu©Pm½Sd d d k f f \? t&omtm½krsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk jcif;udp½\? Zd0g0dnmPfac: t&omodpw\ wnf&mtjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixifaom H J ö dS S d f tjcif;t&m½Sd\? t&omcHpm;vkonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifjh zpfueaom blw½kywYdk vQif eD;aom d d k f f taMumif;½Sd\/ um,yom'ac: uk,tMunf½yonf awGUxdp&m azm|AÁm½kxifxuaom blw½kyfwkdY\ Munfjcif; d f k f H dk f vu©Pm½Sd\? wenf;um; awGUxdvonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munf dk d k f f jcif;vu©Pm ½S\? awGUxdp&m tm½krsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk jcif;udp½\? um,0dnmPfac: xdopw\ wnf&mtjzpfjzifh d H J ö dS d d f a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½Sd\? awGUxdvonfwPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uHaMumifh jzpfueaom blw½kywYdk vQif dk h d k f f eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ d 434/ (aupd) tcsKdUq&mwkYd onfum; pu©Kyom'ac: rsufptMunf½yonf ]]awaZm "mwfveuueaom d k f G f J k f blw½kyfwkdY\ Munfjcif; oabmaywnf;/ em; ESmacgif; vQm tMunf½ywYdk onf 0ga,myx0D tmayg"mwf vGeuJ k f f ukeaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;oabmwkYd aywnf;? uk,tMunf½yonf (nDrQukeaom) blw½kyf tm;vk;wkYd \ f f d f k f f H vnf; Munfjcif;oabmaywnf;}}[k qkue\/ (tya&) wyg;aomq&mwkYd onf ]]rsufptMunf½yonf awaZm d k f d k f "mwf vGefuJaomblw½k yfwYdk \ Munfjcif;oabmaywnf;? em; ESmacgif; vQm uk,tMunf½ywYdk onf tmumo d f k f 0ga,m tmayg yx0D"mwf vGeuueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;oabmaywnf;}}[k qkue\/ xkd (aupd f J k f f d k f tya&) q&mwkYd udk ]]om"uokwygVdudk aqmifjyMuyg}}[k qk&rnf? (xkoYdk qvQif) om"uokwygVduyif rawGU f d d dk f dk jrifyJ ½SMd urnfrm {uefyif/ okYd aomfvnf; olwYdk xrS tcsKdUu ]]awaZm ponfwYdk \ *kPjf zpfueaom tvif;a&mif S J k f tqif; ponfwYdku (jrif&mponfü) axmufyjhH cif;? aus;Zl;ûyjcif;aMumif}h }[k taMumif;ukd jyuke\/ xktaMumif;jy f d olwYdk udk ]]tvif;a&mifponfwYdk udk awaZm ponfwYdk \ *kPrsm;[k b,fou qkygoenf;}}[k ar;&rnf/ rSeay\? f l d f toD;tjcm;rcGjJ cm;Ekiatmif waygif;wnf;jzpfaeMuaom blw½kywYdk wif ]]þonfum; þ"mwf\*kPfç þ d f f G onfum; þ"mwf\*kP}f }[k qk&efr&Eki-rjzpfEiay? þwGif ½Si;csufw&yf/ tu,fí þokYd rvnf; qkuejf im;tHh d d f dk f f l d k -]]xkxtaqmufttkH (½kytpOf)wkYd ü «75» xkxdk (yx0Dpaom) blw½ky\ vGeujJ cif;aMumifh yx0D ponfwYdk\ d dk f d f f (twljzpfzuf½ywYdk u) aumif;pGmaqmifxm;jcif; tp½Sueaom udpwYdk udk (oift|uxm q&mwkYd onf) tvk½MdS u k f dk d k f ö d ukeouJoYdk þtwlyif awaZmponf vGeuueaom taqmufttkH (½kytpOf)wkYd ü tqif;ponfwYdk \ vGeuJ f h f J k f f f onf\tjzpfudk jrifawGU&jcif;aMumifh ]tvif;a&miftqif;ponfwYdkonf awaZmponfwYdk\ *kPrsm;yif} [laom f þteufudk (oift|uxmq&mwkYd onf) tvk½oif-vufcH oifygonf}}[k tu,fí qkuejf im;tH/ ¤if;wkYd udk d dS h h d k h acsyajymqk&efrm-tmaygvGeuaom t&uf\ teHYxuf yx0Dveuaom 0g*Gr;ü teHYu omvGeygrl? xkUd jyif d S f J G f J f f awaZm vGeuaom a&aEG;\ tqif;atmuf a&at;\ tqif;u ,kwavsmhygrl (oif aupdwYdk \tqku)ESpouf f J f d dk f vufcEiyguke\([k acsyajymqk&rnf)/ okYd aomf (0g*Gr;ü teHYu omvGejf cif;ç a&at;\ tqif;u ,kwavsmh H dk f f d f f jcif; [laom) þESprsKd;vk;yifr½Sacs? xkUd aMumifh þrS&m blw½kywYdk \ xkveuJ xl;jcm;[ef BuHjcif;uky,fpeYf í f H d D f d G f d G ]]wckaom ½kyuvmyfü blw½kywYdk \ xl;jcm;jcif; r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; tqif;t&om ponfwYdk onf tcsif;csif; f f rwlMuouJoYdk þtwlyif pu©Kyom' rsufpd tMunf½yponfwYdk onf wyg;aom taMumif;xl; r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; h k f tcsif;csif; rwlMu}} [laom þteufoabmukd (oifaupd tya&wkYd ) ,loifay\/ h tcsif;csif;ESihf rqufqaomtaMumif;um; tb,fygenf;[lr-rsufptMunfpaom ,if;yom'½kywYdk \ H l d f xl; (onfudk ûywwf)aom taMumif;um; uHomvQif jzpfayonf/ xkUd aMumifh ]]uH\ xl;jcm;jcif;aMumifh þrsupd f tMunf ponfwYdk \ xl;jcm;jcif; jzpfonf/ blw½kywYdk \ vGeux;jcm;jcif;aMumifh r[kw}f }([k odtyf\)/ rSea f f J l f y\? blw½kywYdk \ xl;jcm;jcif;½SvQif Munfvifjcif;onfyifvQif rjzpf/ rSeay\-]]yom'½kyonf nDrQaomblw½kyf f d f f wkYd \ Munfjcif;aywnf;? rnDrQaom blw½kywYdk\ Munfjcif;rjzpf}}[k ayg&mP-a½S;q&mwkYd u (qkMd u\)/ f 435/ þqkdcJhonfhtwkdif; uH\ xl;jcm;jcif;aMumifh xl;jcm;jcif;½Sueaom þig;yg;aom yom'½kywYdk wif d k f f G rsupEiem;wkYd onf (rdrxoYdk ) ra&mufvmaom tm½kudk ,lwwfue\/ tb,faMumifqaomf rdr\ rS&mblw½kyf f d S hf d H H k f h h dk d D

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

75

ukd ruyfNidonfh rS&m½SonfomvQifjzpfaom tm½kü tod0nmPfjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfMuaomaMumifh aywnf;/ D d H d ESmacgif; vQm uk,tMunf½ywYdk onf (rdrxoYdk ) a&mufvmaom tm½kudk ,lwwfue\? tb,faMumifqaomfd f k f d H H k f h h dk rS&mblw½kywYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; (awGUxdp&m-azm|AÁ½y) uk,wi¤if; (ESm vQm uk,tMunf[aom) rdr\ D f f h k f d f dk f d f l d rS&m blw½kyudk uyfNidonfomvQif jzpfaom (teHY t&om awGUxdp&m) tm½kü tod0nmPf jzpfjcif;\ taMumif; D f H d jzpfaomaMumifwnf;/ h 436/ þig;yg;aom yom'½kywYdk wif rsufptMunf-yom'½kyonf ñkaom rsuawmifarG;wkYd jzifh f G d f d f ywf0ef;usif NcH&vsuf rsueuf0ef; rsujf zL0ef;wkYd jzifh qef;Mu,faom MumñkyicsyEiwaom tMuiftom;pkiudk H f d G hf f S hf l d f rsufp[k avmuü ac:qktyf\? (tjcm;½kytaygif; [laom taqmufttkwYdk EiwuG jzpfí) oorÇm&pu©K d d f H S hf rnfaom xkrsufptom;pki\ rsujf zL0ef;jzifh NcH&vsu½aom rsueuf0ef;\ tv,fü (0g-tv,fjzpfaom) d d d f H f dS f a½SUwnfwnfh t&yfrm wnfowYdk \ uk,oP²mef t&dyxifay:&mt&yfü *Gr;vTmckepfcxrm oGe;xnfvuonfh h S l d f f f k J S f h dk f qDonf (,if;*Gr;vTmwkYd udk jyefYvsufwnfouJoYdk ) rsufvmckepfcwYdk udk jyefYEYHS vsuf csy;jcif; a&csK; ay;jcif; f h T k D dk d wefqm qifay;jcif; ,yfavcyfay;jcif; udp½ueaom txde;awmf av;a,mufwYdk u ûypkapmifa½Smuf&aom ö dS k f f h rif;om;uJoYdk cHvsuaqmifxm;jcif; pkpwapvsufzUJG jcif; &ifusufapjcif; vIy½m;jcif; udp½ueaom "mwfav;yg; h f d G f h f S ö dS k f wkYd u aus;Zl;ûyjcif;ukd &onfjzpfí Owkpwf tm[m&wkYd u axmufyhH (tyf)onfjzpfí touf½yu «76» apmifh d k f a½Smuf(tyf)onfjzpfí (twljzpfMuonf) 0PÖ (tqif;) *E¨ (teHY) &o (t&om)tp½Saom ½kywYdk u NcH&tyfonf h d f H jzpfí yrmPtm;jzifh oef;OD;acgif;rQ½SvQuf pu©K0dnmPf ponfwYdk \ xkuonftm;avsmfpm 0w¬Ktjzpf 'Gg& d d f G tjzpfudk NyD;apvsuf wnf\/ rSeay\-atmufyg*gxmukd w&m;ppfoBl uD;jzpfaom t½Siom&dyw&m rax&f f f k å a[mMum;awmfravNyD/ l ]]a,e pu©Kyoma'e? ½lyged rEk yówd/ y&dwHå okcrH {wH? ODumod& orlyrH/ k a,epu©Kyoma'e-tMuifrsufptMunfjzif?h ½lyged-tqif;wkYd u/ rEk-vlonf? yówd-jrif\/ {wH-þ d dk rsufptMunf½yonf? y&dw-okcr-ao;i,f odrarGUvS\? ODumod&orlyrH-oef;OD;acgif;ESihf wlnaom Oyrm d k f Hå k H f D ½Sday\/}} em;tMunf-yom'½kyonf (taqmufttkwYdk Eihf wuGjzpfí) oorÇm&aomw rnfaom em;ayguf f H S twGi;rSm eDaomtarG;wkYd pD&&D ayguf&mjzpfaom vufpyui;oP²mef½onft&yfü qkcNhJ yD;aom udp½ueaom f G f G f dS h d ö dS k f "mwfav;yg;wkYd u aus;Zl;ûyjcif;ukd &onfjzpfí Owkpwf tm[m&wkYd u axmufy(tyf)onfjzpfí touf½yu d hH k f apmifa½Smuf(tyf)onf jzpfí 0PÖponfwYdk u NcH&(tyf)onf jzpfí aomw0dnmPf ponfwYdk \ xkuonftm; h H d f avsmfpm 0w¬Ktjzpf 'Gg&tjzpfudk NyD;apvsufwnf\/ G ESmacgif;tMunf-yom'½kyonf oorÇm&Cme rnfaom ESmacgif;ayguf\ twGi;rSm qdwcgoP²mef f f f G ½Saom t&yfü qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;½Saom aus;Zl;ûyjcif; axmufyjhH cif; apmifa½Smufjcif; NcH&jH cif;½Sonfjzpfí Cme d d d h d 0dnmPfponfwYdk \ xkuonftm;avsmfpm 0w¬Ktjzpf 'Gg&tjzpfudk NyD;apvsuf wnf\/ d f G vQmtMunf-yom'½kyonf oorÇm&rnfaom vQmtv,f\ txuf-tay:,Hrm MumyGicsyf\tzsm;yki; f S hf d f oP²mef½aom t&yfü qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;½Saom aus;Zl;ûyjcif; axmufyjhH cif; apmifa½Smufjcif; NcH&jH cif; ½Sonf jzpfí dS d d h d Zd0g0dnmPfponfwYdk \ xkuonftm;avsmfpm 0w¬Ktjzpf 'Gg&tjzpfudk NyD;apvsufwnf\/ S d f G xkrwyg; þuk,xrm Oyg'dE½yrnfaom ur®Z½ky½&m tvk;pkaom t&yfwYdk ü uk,tMunf-um, d S d f J S é k f f dS H H d f yom'½kyonf 0g*Gr;vTmü qDjyefYouJoYdk jyefYEYHS vsuf qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;½Saom aus;Zl;ûyjcif; axmufyjhH cif; f f h d d apmifa½Smufjcif; NcH&jH cif; ½SonfomvQif jzpfí um,0dnmPfponfwYdk \ xkuonftm;avsmfpm 0w¬Ktjzpf 'Gg& h d d f G tjzpfudk NyD;apvsuf wnf\/ Oyrmtm;jzifh a>rç rdausmif;ç iSuçf acG;ç ajracG;wkYd onf awmykUd acgif;ç a&euf&mç aumif;uifç ½Gm (olao aumifrsm;ukd rjr§Kyf? pGeYf ypfxm;&m) okomef[k qktyfaom rdrwYdk \ usupm;&mokYd nGwueonfomvQif jzpfMu d d f f k f ouJoYdk þ rsufptMunf ponfwYdk onf tqif;½lyg½kH tp½Saom rdrwYdk \ usupm;&mokYd nGwueonfomvQif h d d d f f k f jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyfue\/ f k f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

76

437/ xkraemufjzpfueaom tqif;½lyg½kH ponfwYdk wium; tqif;½lyg½konf rsufpd tMunfü xdcuf d S k f G f H dk xifay:jcif;vu©Pm ½S\? jrifor-pu©K0dnmPf\ tm½kjH zpfjcif; (tm½kûH ycHjcif;) udp½\? xkpu©K0dnmPf\yifvQif d d I ö dS d usufpm;&mtaejzifh xifaomtjcif;t&m½S\? rS&mr[mbkwav;yg;vQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ þtqif;½kyf d D f d uJhokdY <uif;aom Oyg'g½kyf tm;vk;wkYd onfvnf; xkUd twlyif rS&mr[mbkwf av;yg;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;(y'|mef) H D ½Sdukef\/ okdYaomfvnf; xl;&mürl xkdtxl;ukd jyqkdygukeftHh/ xkdtqif;½lyg½kHonf tñkd ta½T ponfwkdY\ tpGr; f tm;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ d «77» toHo'´g½kHonf em;tMunfü xdcuxifay:jcif; vu©Pm½S\? Mum;odr-aomw0dnmPf\ tm½kH dk f d I jzpfjcif; (tm½kûH ycHjcif;) udp½\? xkaomw0dnmPf\yifvQif usufpm;&m taejzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½S\? ö dS d d pnfBuD;oH r½k;pnfoH þokYd tp½Saom enf;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ d d d teYH *E¨m½kHonf ESmacgif;tMunfü xdcuf xifay:jcif; vu©Pm½S\? eHor-Cme0dnmPf\ tm½kjH zpfjcif; dk d d I (tm½kûH ycHjcif;) udpö ½S\? xkCme0dnmPf\yifvQif usufpm;&mtaejzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½S\/ tjrpfeYH d d d tESpeYH þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ f d d t&om-[laom &om½konf vQmtMunfü xdcuxifay:jcif;vu©Pm½S\/ t&omodr-Zd0Sg 0dnmPf\ H dk f d I tm½kjH zpfjcif; (tm½kûH ycHjcif;)udp½\? xkZ0g0dnmPf\yifvQif usufpm;&mtaejzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½S\/ ö dS d d S d tjrpft&om yifpnft&om þokYd tp½Saom enf;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ d d 438/ £wda`E´onf rde;rjzpfaMumif; vu©Pm½S\? rde;r[kjyjcif;udpö ½S\? £wdv*çF £wderwçå £w¬d ¬ f d f d ¬ d ¬ d d ukwçå £wdtmuyÜwYdk \ taMumif;tjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m ½S\/ yk&oa`E´onf a,musm;jzpfaMumif; ¬ d d d f vu©Pm ½Sd\? a,musfm;[k jyjcif;udpö ½S\? yk&ovd*çF yk&oedrwçå yk&oukwçå yk&o tmuyÜwYdk \ taMumif; d d d d d d tjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m ½S\/ xk£wda`E´½yçf yk&oa`E´½yf ESpyg;vk;yif uk,tMunf-um,yom'½kyf d d ¬ k d d k f H d f uJoYdk wuk,v;ukd jyefYEUHS onfomwnf;/ okYd aomfvnf; um,yom' wnf&mt&yfü wnfonf[í¤if;ç um, h d f Hk l yom' rwnf&mt&yfü wnfonf[í¤if; rqktyf-rqkoifay? tqif;½kyEihf t&om½kyponfwYdk uoYdk tcsif;csif; l d d h f S f hJ a&m,Sujf cif;r½Say/ d 439/ ZD0wa`E´onf twljzpfzufur®Z½kywYdk udk apmifa½Smufjcif;vu©Pm½S\? ,if;(twljzpfzufur®Z½ky) d d f h d f wkYd udk jzpfNrJjzpfom;apjcif;rQapjcif; udp½\? ,if;twljzpfzuf ur®Z½kywYdk uyifvQif wnfNrJwnfaponfh tae G ö dS f dk tm;jzifh a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½Sd\? oGm;aptyf rQaptyfaom blw½kywYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ qufí f d ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-apmifa½Smufjcif;tp½Saom tpDt&if½jdS im;aomfvnf; (tapmifa½Smufc½ywYdk \) ½SqcPüomvQif ,if; h d h H k f d J ZD0w½kyu twljzpfzuf ur®Z½kywYdk udk apmifa½Smufwwf\? a&onf MumponfwYdk udk apmifa½SmufouJoYdk yif/ d f f h h h qki&mqki&m taMumif;uH\ tusKd;jzpfuejf im;aomfvnf; (,if; tusKd;½ky) w&m;wkYd udk (ZD0w½kyu) apmifa½Smuf d f d f k f d f h \? txde;awmfonf (olwyg;\om; jzpfaom) oli,fudk apmifa½SmufouJoYdkyif/ rdru jzpfNrJjzpf oGm;aptyff h h d rQaptyfaom ½kyw&m;wkYd EipyfojzifomvQif (rdrvnf;) jzpfNrJjzpfom;\-rQ\/ avSoBl uD;onf (rdravSmcwf f S hf h d G d f aom avSEitwl oGm;o)uJoYdk yif/ bifcPrSaemufüum; jzpfroGm;awmh rrQawmh? tb,faMumifqaomf rdra&m S hf h h h dk d jzpfom;aptyf-rQ aptyfonfh ½kywYdk a&m r½Sawmhjcif;aMumifyif/ bifcPü (twljzpfzuf ½kywYdk u) rwnfapEki?f G f d h f dk d tb,faMumifqaomf rdru,wif ysuqjJ zpfjcif;aMumifyif/ Oyrmtm;jzifh ukeqjJ zpfaom rD;pmESihf qDonf rD;vQH h h dk d dk f dk f h f ukd rwnfapEkiouJoYdk yif/ okYd aomf apmifa½Smufjcif;ç jzpfom;ap-rQapjcif;ç wnfapjcif; pGr;&nfruif;onfvnf; d f h h G f S r[kway/ tb,faMumifqaomf-qkcwi;aom cPü xkxapmifa½Smufjcif;ponfudk NyD;apjcif;aMumifyif[k f h h dk d hJ dk f d dk h h rSwtyf\/ f 440/ [',0w¬K½kyonf raem"mwf raem0dnmP"mwfwYdk \ rS&mvu©Pm½S\ (0g-rS&m[k rSwtyfaom f D d D f oabmaywnf;)? xk"mwf2-yg;wkdY\yifvQif wnf&mudp½\? (,if;wkYd u) xrf;½Guaeonfh tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh d ö dS dk f (½Iqifjcifonfh ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ ESv;om;\twGi;ü «78» um,*wmowd jyqkcsufrm qkconftjym; Hk f d S d hJ h ½Saom aoG;ukrí cHvsufaqmifxm;jcif; paomudpö ½SMd uonfh blw½kywYdk u aus;Zl;ûyjcif; ½Sonfjzpfí Owkpwf d d DS f d d tm[m&wkYd u axmufytyfonfjzpfí touf½yu apmifa½Smuftyfonfjzpfí raem"mwf raem0dnmP"mwfwYdk \ hH k f h ¤if;? ,if;wkYd Ei,OMf uaom apwoduw&m;wkYd \¤if; wnf&m0w¬Ktjzpfudk NyD;apvsuf wnf\/ S hf S f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

77

441/ a½SUokYd om;jcif; ponfwYdk udk jzpfapwwfaom pdwZ0ga,m"mwf\ twljzpfzuf ½kytaygif; uk,udk G å f d f awmifwif;apjcif; aumif;pGmwnfapjcif; vIyapjcif;tm; aus;Zl;ûyaom (0g-vIyapjcif;\taMumif; taxmuftyHh h f f jzpfaom) trlt&mtxl;onf um,0dnwf rnf\/ (¤if;onf) ûyoly*Kd¾ vf\ tvkudk jyjcif;udp½\? uk,vy½m; k d ö dS d f I f S jcif;\ taMumif;tjzpfjzifh (½IoÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? pdwZ 0ga,m"mwfvQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ qufí d å d ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-xkqcaom þum,0dnwfonf uk,\ vIy½m;jcif;jzifh (vIy½m;ol\) tvkudk odapwwfonfh d dk hJ d f f S f S d taMumif;jzpfjcif;aMumif¤if;? 0dnwf½y[aom rdru,wiuvnf; uk,\vIyjf cif;[k qktyfaom (0g-vIyaom h k f l d dk f dk f dk d f d f uk,[k qktyfaom) xkum,jzifh odtyfaomaMumif¤if; (,if;uk) um,0dnwf[k ac:qkdtyf\/ qufOD;tHh-,if; d f d d h d um,0dnwfu vIyap(tyf)ukeaom pdwZ½kywYdk Eihf qufpyfueaom OwkZ½kyf ponfwYdk \vnf; vIy½m;jcif; f f å f S k f f S aMumifh a½SUokYd om;jcif; paomtrIwYdkonf rjywfjzpfaeMuonf[k odtyf\/ G EIw>f rufjcif;ukd jzpfapwwfaom pdwZyx0D"mwf\ ur®Zyx0D"mwfudk wkucujf cif;tm; aus;Zl;ûywwf å d f dk aom trlt&mtxl;onf 0pD0nwfrnf\? (¤if;onf) ajymqko\ tvkudk jyjcif;udpö ½S\? EIwjf zifh ajymqko\ d d l d d d H taMumif;tjzpfjzifh (½IoÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? pdwZyx0D"mwfvQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ qufí ½Sif;jyOD;tHhd å d xkqcaom þ0pD0nwfonf EIw>f rufajymqkaompum;oHjzifh ajymol\ tvkudk odapwwfonfh taMumif;jzpf d dk hJ d d d jcif;aMumif¤if;ç 0dnwf½y[aom rdru,wiuvnf; EIw>f rufo[k qktyfaom xkpum;jzifh odtyfaomaMumifh h k f l d dk f dk f dk H d d ¤if; (,if;uk) 0pD0nwf[k ac:qkdtyf\/ Oyrmjzifjh y&vQif-awmt&yfü pkuxí zGUJ csnfxm;aom EGm;acgif;½k;tp d d d f l d ½Saom a&½SaMumif; odaponfh edrwudk jrifí þt&yfü a&½Sonf[k od&ouJoYdk þtwlyif uk,\vIy½m;jcif; d d d f d h d f f S uk¤if;? EIw>f rufajymqkou¤if; ,lNyD;-odNyD;vQif um,0dnwf 0pD0nwfwYdkuvnf; od&uke\/ d d H dk d dk f 442/ tmumo"mwfonf ½kywYdk udk yki;jcm;jcif;vu©Pm ½S\ (0g½kyfwkdY\ tyki;tjcm; vu©Pm ½S\)/ f d f d d f d uvmyf½ywYdk \tpGe;tqk; tyki;tjcm;ukd jyjcif;udpö ½S\/ uvmyf½kyfwkdY\ e,fq; tyki;tjcm;taetm;jzifh k f f H d f d Hk d f (½IodÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ wenf;um; rawGUxdtyfonf\tjzpf tayguf tMum;tjzpfjzifh a½S;½Ixif\? yki;jcm;tyfaom uvmyf½yvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ ,if; tmumo"mwfjzifh yki;jcm;tyfaom uvmyf½ywYdk ü d f k f d d f k f (0g-uvmyf½ywYdk wi) þuvmyf½yonf þuvmyf½yrS txufusonf[í¤if; þuvmyf½yrS atmufusonf k f G f k f k f l k f [lí¤if; þuvmyf½yrS a½SUaemuf0,m zDvmusonf[í¤if; xif½m;ay\/ k f J l S 443/ edyæEé½kyf\ayghyg;onf\tjzpf-ayghyg;jcif;[laom v[kwm½kyonf ayghyg;onf vsifjrefonf\ f tjzpfvQif vu©Pm½S\? edyE½ywYdk \ av;onf\tjzpfudk aysmufuif; apjcif;udpö ½S\/ vsifaom tjyef½Sdonf d æ é k f d \tjzpfjzifh (½IodÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ayghyg;aom edyEé ½kywYdk vQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ æ f d edyE½y\ El;nHonf\tjzpf-El;nHjh cif;[laom rk'wm½kyonf Murf;wrf;cufwa&mf r½Sonf\tjzpf El;nHh æ é k f h k f d onf\tjzpfvQif vu©Pm½S\? edyE½ywYdk \ Murf;wrf;cufwa&mf½jdS cif;ukd aysmufuif;apjcif; udp½\? tvk;pkH d æ é k f ö dS H aom ûyvkyajymqkjd cif; uk,Ewtrlt&mwkYd ü rqefYusionf\ tjzpfjzifh (½IodÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? El;nHaom f d f I f f h edyE½ywYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ æ é k f d edyE½y\ trIü cHonf\tjzpf-cHuse;jcif;-[laom ur®nwm½kyonf uk,jf zifh ûytyfaom trIupwYdk æ é k f h h f f d d ö tm;avsmfonf\ tjzpf[k qktyfaom trIü cHonf\tjzpf-cHusef;jcif;vQif vu©Pm ½S\? «79» trIü rcHusef; d h h d h jcif;ukd aysmufuif;apjcif;udpö ½S\? tm;renf;onf\tjzpf? tm;renf;jcif;-oefpr;jcif;taejzifh (½IoÓPftm;) d G f d a½S;½Ixif\? trIü cHusef;aom edyE½ywYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ h æ é k f d qufí ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-(v[kwm rk'wm ur®nwm [laom) þok;yg;aom ½kywYdk onf tcsif;csif; rpGeYf Mu k H f ukef (yl;wGvsuyif jzpfMuuke\)? þokYd waygif;wnf; yl;wGvsuf jzpfaomfvnf; a&m*gr½Sd yuwd use;rmaom J f f J f ol\ uk,vufayghyg;jcif;uJoYdk ½kywYdk \ ayghyg;onf\tjzpf-ayghyg;jcif; [laom rav;jcif; ayghyg; vsifjrefpm d f h f G ajymif;a½TU jyefveEijf cif; txl;tjym;½Saom ½kywYdk udk av;vHatmifûywwfonfh "mwfacsmufcsm;jcif;\ qefYusif S f dk d f zuf taMumif;aMumifh jzpfaom tMuif½ywYdk \ trlt&m txl;onf½Sd\ xktrlt&m txl;onf edyE½y\ ayghyg; k f d æ é k f onf\tjzpf-ayghyg;jcif; (v[kwm½ky) aywnf;/ xkrwyg; aumif;pGme,fNyD;aom om;a&\ El;nHjh cif;uJoYdk f d S h El;nHjh cif; [laom tvk;pkaom uk,trl t&mtxl;wkYd ü tvktwki;jzpfjcif; El;nHjh cif;tjym;½Saom ½kyfwkdYukd H H d f d d f d Murf;wrf; cufwa&mf½atmif ûywwfonfh "mwfacsmufcsm;jcif;\ qefYusibuftaMumif;aMumifjh zpfaom tMuif dS f ½kyfwkdY\ trlt&mtxl;onf ½Sd\? xktrlt&m txl;;onf edyE½y\ El;nHonf\tjzpf-El;nHjh cif; (rk'wm½ky) d æ é k f h k f aywnf;/ xkrS wyg; aumif;pGmOD;NyD;aom a½Tpif\ (tvk½&mûy&ef) cHjh cif;-avsmfjcif;uJoYdk ½kywYdk \ cHjh cif;d d dS h f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

78

avsmjf cif;[laom uk,trlt&mwkYd tm;avsmfjcif;tjym;½Saom uk,trlt&mwkYd tm; ravsmfatmifûywwfonfh d f d d f "mwfacsmufcsm;jcif;\ qefYusifbuftaMumif;aMumifjh zpfaom tMuif½ywYdk \ trlt&mtxl;onf½Sd\? xktrlt&m k f d txl;onf edyE½y\ trIücHonf\tjzpf-trIücHjh cif; (ur®nwm½ky) aywnf;/ þokYd aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh æ é k f f þokH;yg;aom ½kyfwkdY\ xl;jcm;jcif;ukd odtyfay\/ 444/ edyæEé½kyf\ a½S;OD;pGmjzpfjcif;[laom Oyp,½kyonf a½S;OD;pGmjzpfjcif; vu©Pm½Sd\? rjzpfay:vm f ao;rD a½S;tzkdY-tem*wftzkYd rS ½kywYdk udk ay:vmapouJoYdk jzpfjcif;udp½\? (þonfwYdk um; ½kywYdk yif[) f h ö dS f k tyfESif;bdouJhokdY (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ wenf;um; (½kyftaygif;\) vk;0jynfponf\tjzpfukd a½S;½I H h Hk jzpfapwwf\? jzpfyg;aom½kyvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ edyæEé½kyf\ jzpfpOf[aom (0g-tqufqufjzpfjcif; G f d l [laom) oEÅw½yonf tqufrjywfjzpfjcif; vu©Pm½S\? a½S;aemufrjywf qufpyfapjcif;udpö ½S\? a½S;aemuf d k f d d rjywf qufpyfonfh taetm;jzifh xifaomtjcif;t&m½S\? a½S;aemufrjywf qufpyfaom ½kytaygif;vQif eD;aom d f taMumif;½Sd\/ Oyp,ESifh oEÅwd[laom þtrnf 2-yg;vkH;yif ½kyfwkdY\Oyg'f[aom Zmwd½y\omvQif trnf l k f jzpfonf/ okYd aomfvnf; (a½S;OD;pGmjzpfjcif;ç tqufrjywfxyfí jzpfjcif;[laom) jzpfytjcif;t&mwkYd \ uGjJ ym;jcif; Hk tm;jzif¤if;ç a0ae,swkYd \ tvktm;jzif¤if; Oyp,½kyf oEÅw½y[í tusOf;csKyf acgif;pOfa'oemukd ûyawmf h d h d k f l rlayonf/ xkdokdY acgif;pOfa'oemü cGJjcm;í a[mcJhjim;aomfvnf; þ½kyf 2-yg;wkYd ü teuft&tm;jzifh uGjJ ym;jcif; r½Sday? xkdUaMumifh þ 2-yk'wYdk udk tus,fjy&m eda'´oü ]]½kytm,wewkYd \ a½S;OD;pGmjzpfjcif;[laom tMuiftmp, f f onf ½Sd\? xkd tmp,onf edyE½y\ tMuifOyp,onf ½S\? ¤if;onf edyE½y\jzpfpOf oEÅwaywnf;}}[lí æ é k f d æ é k f d a[mawmfrayonf/ t|uxmüvnf; ]]tmp,rnfonfum; edAw-a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif;aywnf;? Oyp, l Á då rnfonfum; 0¹k-yGg;jcif;aywnf;? oEÅwrnfonfum; y0wåtqufrjywfjzpfjcif;aywnf;}}[k zGiqNdk yD;vQif d d d hf ]]jrpfurf;aomifjyifü vufjzif,ufíwl;aom wGi;i,frm a&xGuvm&mumvuJoYdk edAwdå a½S;OD;pGm jzpfay:jcif; h f S f h Á [laom tmp,ukd odtyf\? a&jynfaom umvuJoYdk 0¹k-yGg;jcif;[laom Oyp,ukd odtyf\? ausmfvevQHwufí h h d G f oGm;aom umvuJoYdk y0wå-tqufrjywf jzpfjcif;[laom oEÅwudk odtyf\}}[lí Oyrmukd ûyawmfr-jyawmfray h d d l l onf/ OyrmjyNyD;aemuf tqk;üvnf; ]](½kytm,wewkYd \ a½S;OD;pGmjzpfjcif; [laom tMuif tmp,onf½\ H f dS tp½Saom) þ eda'´otus,fjycsufjzifh tb,fteufoabmukqdk (tyf)oenf;¿ tm,wejzifh tmp,ukd d d qk(tyf)onf? tmp,jzifh tm,weukd qk(tyf)onf}}[k rdeYf qxm;ayonf/ xkUd aMumifh ]]½kywYdk \ tMuif d d dk f a½S;OD;pGmjzpfay:vmjcif;onf ½S\? ¤if;onf tmp,rnf\}}/ xkda½S;OD;pGm jzpfaom ½kyfwkdY\ txufumv-aemuf d umvü jzpfay:vmukeaom tjcm;½kywYdk \vnf; tMuifjzpfay:jcif;onf ½S\? ¤if;onf yGg;aomtjcif;t&m f f d tm;jzifh xifaomaMumifh Oyp,rnf\/ xkd aemufxyfjzpfMuonfh ½kywYdk \ txufjzpfaom aemufumvüvnf; f «80» tzefzefxyfí jzpfay:vmukeaom tjcm;½kywYdk \ tMuifjzpfay:jcif;onf ½S\? ¤if;onf tpOfrjywf f f d qufpyfaom tjcif;t&m tm;jzifxifaomaMumifh oEÅwd rnf\/ þokYd vnf; qktyfonf[k odtyfayonf/ h d &ifa,mf tkrif;onf\ tjzpf[aom Z&wm½kyonf edyE½ywYdk \ &ifusufjcif; vu©Pm ½S\? ysujf cif; h d l f æ é k f h d bifcPqDoYdk aqmifyYdk jcif;udp½\? cufrmjcif;paomoabm ruif;ruG,jf im;aomfvnf; topftjzpf\ uif;jcif; ö dS taejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? pyg;\a[mif;jcif;uJoYdk yifwnf;/ &ifq½ywYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½S\/ oGm; h h J k f d ponfwYdkü oGm;usK;jcif; ponftvktm;jzifh azmufjyefjcif;ukd awGUjrif&aomaMumifh xif½m;aom tk&ifjh cif;[laom d d S d ygu#Z&mukd &nfí þZ&wmukd a[mawmfrl (tyf)ayonf/ emrfw&m;wkYd rmrl y#dpEZ&mrnfaom zk;uG,aom S ä é H f tk&ifjh cif;onf ½S\? ¤if;rSm þokYd aom azmufjyefjcif; r½Say? urÇmajr a& awmif v ae-ponfwYdk üvnf; tyki; d d d d f tjcm;rxifaom t0DpZ&mrnfonf ½S\? xkZ&m üvnf; þokYd aom azmufjyefjcif; r½Say/ d d d d edyE½y\ rNrJonf\tjzpf-rNrJaMumif; bif[aom tedpwm½kyonf vk;0ysufjcif; vu©Pm½S\? æ é k f l ö f H d epfjrKyfom;ouJoYdk uG,apjcif;udp½\? ukejf cif; aysmufu,jf cif;tm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ysufq½ywYdk G h f ö dS G J k f vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ d 445/ uAVDum&ac: tm[m&½kyonf tqDtESpMf oZmvu©Pm½S\? tm[m&Z½kywYdk udk aqmifjcif;-jzpfap f d f jcif; udp½\? ½kyu,udk axmufyonftaetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? tvkytavGUûyí pm;rsKdtyfaom ö dS f dk f hH h f 0w¬KvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ tMuifMoZmjzifh owå0gwkYd onf touf½nNf rJ½napaomtm;jzifh oGm;NrJ oGm;ap d S S f uke\-rQapuke\? uAVDum& tm[m&[laom þtrnfonf xkrQwEkiaMumif; MoZm\ trnfaywnf;/ f f d d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

79

446/ þ jyqkcaom ½kywYdk onf tbd"r®mygVdawmfü vmaom½kywYdk om jzpfMuayonf/ t|uxmüum; d hJ f f Av½kyf orÇ0½kyf Zmwd½yf a&m*½kyf tcsKdUq&mwkYd \tvktm;jzifh rd'½y[í þokYd tjcm;½kywYdk uvnf; aqmifjyNyD; k d ¨ k f l f dk vQif]]t½Sib&m;onf uk,wiyifoaom udavomNidr;ol &[ef;tppf trSeyif jzpfay\? f k d f dk f d f f t½Sifbk&m;rSm eD0&PwkdY r½Sdukef}} þokYd tp½Saom ygVdawmfpum;wkYd udk jyqkí rd'½yrnfonf r½S[k y,fom;avNyD/ þrd'rS wyg;aom ½kyf d d ¨ k f d G ¨ wkYd wif a&m*½kyudk Z&wm tedpwm½kywYdk udk ,ljcif;-qkjd cif;jzifh ,lNyD;-qkNd yD;om jzpfonf? Oyp, oEÅw½ywYdkudk G f ö f d k f ,lojzifh Zmwd½yudk ,lNyD;om jzpfonf? tmayg"mwfudk ,lojzifh orÇ0ac: oku½yudk ,lNyD;omjzpfonf? 0ga,m k f f k f "mwfu,ojzifh Av-cGetm;½kyudk ,lNyD;omjzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh xka&m*½kyf ponfwYdk wif wckrQaomvnf; dk l f f d G toD;tjcm;&aumif;aom ½kyr½S[í NrJNrHpm qk;jzwfjcif;ukd ûy(tyf)avNyD/ f d l G H þokYd tm;jzifh ,ckqcaom 24-yg;aom þOyg'g½kyfESifh a½S;üqkcaom 4-yg;aom blw½kytm;jzifh dk hJ d hJ f ½kyonf r,kwrvGef 28-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ f f

½kyftjym;ukd jyjcif;
447/ xk½ytm;vk;yif (ea[wk)[dwrrnf? (ta[wku) [dwr½S?d (a[wk0y,w) [dwwYdk Eir,SO?f d k f H f f d Ü k å f S hf (oyÜp,) uHpaom taMumif;½S\? (avmud,) avmuDw&m;om? (omo0) tmoa0gwkYd \ tm½kom jzpfonfö d H þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh wyg;wnf;om/ d tZÑwdu½kyf Am[d&½ky?f MoVm&du½kyf okcr½ky?f 'la&½kyf oEÅau½ky?f edyE½yf tedyE½y?f yom'½kyf eyom' då k d æ é k æ é k ½kyf? £`Ed´,½kyf ted`Ed´½kyf? Oyg'dPÖ½kyf tEkyg'dPÖ½kyf-þokYd ponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh 2-yg;pD tjym;½Sd\/ f «81» xkwif rsufppaom 5-yg;aomtMunf½yonf twåabmukprí jzpfaomaMumifh tZÑwdu d G d k f d JG DS å (uk,wi;)½kyf rnf\? t<uif;½kyf 23-yg;onf xdrtyjzpfaomaMumifh Am[d&½kyrnf\/ d f G f k S f rsufpdtMunfpaom ½kyf 9-yg;ESihf yx0D awaZm 0ga,m [laom þ½kyf 12-yg;onf rsufpEihf tqif; d S ponf tcsif;csif;xdcujf cif;tm;jzifh ,ltyf-odtyfaomaMumifh MoVm&du-odv,í Murf;aom½kyrnf\? t<uif; dk G f f 16-yg;onf xkrtjyefjzpf (í todcuf)aomaMumifh okcr-odrarGUaom½kyf rnf\/ d S k f ,if; okcr½kyonfyifvQif odEiconfoabm ½SaomaMumifh 'la&-a0;aom½kyrnf\? þrSwyg;aom k f dk f J h d f (MoVm&du)½kyf 12-yg;onf odv,onfoabm½SaomaMumifh oEÅau-eD;aom½kyf rnf\/ G f h d d "mwf 4-yg;ç rsufpdtMunf½kyfponf 13-yg;ç tm[m&½kyf 1-yg;[laom 18-yg;aom ½kyfonf tjcm;½kyf wkYd \ tyki;tjcm;rQtjzpf trlt&mxl;tjzpf rSwaMumif;vu©PmrQtjzpfudk vGeajrmufí rdr\ cufrm jcif;paom d f f f d oabmtm;jzifyifvQif ÓPfjzifyi;jcm;í ,ltyfor;qnf;tyf-odtyfaomaMumifh edyE-rdroabmjzifh NyD;pD;aom h h dk f d f æ é d ½kyfrnf\? t<uif; 10-yg;aom½kyonf xkrtjyefjzpf (í rdroabmtm;jzifh rNyD;)aomaMumifh tedyE½yf rnf\/ f d S d æ é k rsufpdtMunftp½Sdaom½kyf 5-yg;onf tqif;½lyg½kH ponfwYdk udk ,l&mü taxmuftyHtjzpfjzifh aMu;rkH h jyifuoYdk MunfvifaomaMumifh yom'½kyrnf\/ t<uif; 23-yg;onf xkrtjyefjzpf(í rMunfvif)aomaMumifh hJ f d S eyom'½kyrnf\-yom'½kyrrnf/ f f yom'½kyf 5-yg;ESihf £w¬a`E´paom½kyf 3-yg;onf olUqki&mü BuD;rª;tpk;&jcif; teufoabmtm;jzifh d d f d £`E´,-tpk;&aom½kyf rnf\? t<uif; 20-onf xkrS tjyefjzpf (í tpk;r&) aomaMumifh ted`E´,½kyrnf\/ d d d d d f aemufü ur®Z½ky[k jyrnf½yonf wPSm'd|wYdk u uyftyf-tm½kûH ytyfaom avmuDuu ol\tusKd; f h k f d H tjzpfjzifh ,ltyfaomaMumifh Oyg'dP½yrnf\? t<uif;onf xkrtjyefjzpfaomaMumifh (0g-avmuDu\tusKd; Ö k f d S H r[kwfaomaMumifh) tEkyg'dPÖ½yrnf\/ kf

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

80

448/ wzef ur®Ztp½Sdaom wduf (okH;yg;taygif;)wkdY\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ok;yg;pDtjym;½S\/ xkdwGif f H d MoVm&du½kyf 12-yg;xJu tqif;½kyonf oed'óeoyÜ#C-jrifjcif;ESiwuGç xdcujf cif;ESiwuG jzpfaom½kyf d hf dk hf f jrifvnf; jrif&ç xdvnf; xdcuwwfaom½kyrnf\/ <uif;aom MoVm&du½kyf 11-yg;onf ted'óeoyÜ#Cdk f f d jrifjcif;r½Srí xdcujf cif;ESiwuG jzpfaom½ky-rjrif&rlí xdcuwwfaom½kyrnf\/ okckr½kyftm;vkH;onf d l dk hf f dk f f ted'óetyÜ#dC-jrifjcif;r½Sd xdcujf cif;r½Saom½ky-jrifvnf;rjrif& xdvnf; rxdcuwwfaom ½kyrnf\/ dk d f dk f f þokdY a½S;OD;pGm oed'óewdu\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ f f H d ur®Ztp½Saom wduwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifrum; uHaMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf ur®Z½kyf rnf\? xkrS d f f h l f d wyg;aom (pdwf Owk tm[m&) taMumif;aMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf tur®Z½kyrnf\? (0g-ur®Z½kyf rrnf)? f f wpkwckaom taMumif;aMumifh rjzpfaom ½kyonf ae0ur®Z emur®Z-ur®Zvnf;r[kwf tur®Zvnf; r[kwf H f aom ½kyrnf\/ f pdwaMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf pdwZ½kyf rnf\? xkrwyg;aom (uHO[m) taMumif;aMumifh jzpfaom f f å d S ½kyfonf tpdwåZ½kyf rnf\? wpkwckaom taMumif;aMumifh rjzpfaom ½kyonf ae0pdwZ empdwZ½kyf rnf\/ H f å å tm[m&aMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf tm[m&Z½kyf rnf\? xkrwyg;aom (uH pdwO) taMumif;aMumifh f d S f jzpfaom ½kyonf tem[m&Z½kyf rnf\? wpkwckaomtaMumif;aMumifh rjzpfaom½kyonf ae0tm[m &Zetem f H f [m&Z½kyf rnf\/ OwkaMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf OwkZ½kyrnf\ ? xkrwyg;aom (uH pdwf tm[m&) taMumif;aMumifh jzpf f f d S aom ½kyfonf tEkwkZ½kyf rnf\/ wpkwckaom taMumif;aMumifrjzpfaom ½kyonf ae0OwkZe tEkwZ½kyf rnf H h f k \/ þokdY ur®Ztp½Sdaom wdufwkdY\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ok;yg;pDtjym;½S\/ f H d 449/ wzef 'd|½kyf ponf ½ly½kyf ponf 0w¬K½kyf ponf pwkuwYdk \ tpGrf;tm;jzifh 4-yg;pD tjym; ½Sd\/ ú xkwif ½lyg,weac: tqif;½kyonf jrifr\ tm½kjH zpfaomaMumifh 'd|-jriftyfaom½kyf rnf\? o'´g,weac: d G f I toH½yonf Mum;rI\ tm½kjH zpfaomaMumifh okwMum;tyfaom ½kyrnf\? teHYç t&omç awGUxdp&m1 [laom k f f ½kyo;rsKd;onf a&mufvmonftm½kudk ,lwwfonfh £a`E´wYdk \ tm½kjH zpfaomaMumifh rkw- a&muftyfaom½kyf f Hk h H rnf\? (½lyg,wepaom tm,we ig;yg;½kycepfyg;wkYd r) <uif;aom 21-yg; aom½kyonf raem0dnmP\ f k S f omvQif tm½kjH zpfaomaMumifh 0dnmw-BuHotyfaom½kyf rnf\/ þokYd a½S;OD;pGm 'd|paom pwku\tpGr;tm;jzifh d ú f 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xkrwyg; þqkcaom ½kywYdk wif edyE½yonf ½ly½kyf rnf\? tmumo"mwfonf y&dapä'½kyf (tyki; d S d hJ f G æ é k f d f tjcm;½ky)rnf\? um,0dnwftp ur®nwmtqkH;½Sdaom (ig;yg;aom)½kyonf 0dum&½kyf (edyE½ywYdk \ azmuf f f æ é k f jyefaom trlt&mrQjzpfaom½ky) rnf\? Zmwd½kyf 2-yg;ESifhZ&m r&P[laom ½kyf 4-yg;onf vu©P½kyf (edyEé f æ ½kywYdk udk rSwaMumif;vu©P½ky) rnf\/ þokdY ½ly½kyfpaom pwkuú\ tpGr;tm;jzifh 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ f f f f «82» þüqkdcaom½kywYdk wif ESv;½kyonf (pdw\wnf&mjzpfaomaMumif) 0w¬Krnf\? (0DxpwwYdk \ jzpf hJ f G Hk f f h d d f aMumif; r[kwaomaMumif) 'Gg&um; rrnf/ 0dnwf½yf 2-onf (uHjzpfaMumif;jzpfaomaMumif) 'Gg&rnf\ (pdw\ f h k h f wnf&mr[kwaomaMumif) 0w¬Kum; rrnf/ yom'½kyf 5-ckonf 0w¬Kvnf;rnf\ 'Gg&vnf;rnf\/ <uif;aom½kyf f h 20-onf 0w¬Kvnf;rrnf 'Gg&vnf;rrnf/ þokYd 0w¬Kpaom pwku\ tpGr;tm;jzifh 4-yg; tjym; ½Sd\/ ú f 450/ wzef {uZ½kyfç 'GdZ½kyfç wdZ½kyfç pwkZ½kyfç eukawmpdZmw½kyfwkdY\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh 5-yg;tjym; ½Sd\/ xkwif uHaMumifomjzpfaom½kyonf¤if;ç pdwaMumifomjzpfaom ½kyonf¤if; {uZ taMumif;wyg;wnf;aMumifh d G h f f h f jzpfaom½kyrnf\? xkd{uZ½kyf 2-rsKd;wkYd wif [',½kyEiwuG £`Ed,½kyf ½Spyg;onf uHaMumifomjzpfaom½kyf G f S hf ´ f h f {uefur®Z½kyrnf\/ 0dnwf½kyf 2-yg;onf pdwaMumifomjzpfaom ½ky-{uefpwZ½kyrnf\/ pdwaMumif¤if; f f h f d å f f h OwkaMumif¤if; jzpfaom½kyonf 'GZ-taMumif; 2-yg;aMumifh jzpfaom½kyrnf\? ¤if;rSmo'´g,weac: toH½kyf h f d f wyg;wnf;om½Sonf/ Owk pdwtm[m&wkYd aMumifh jzpfaom½kyonf wdZ-taMumif; 3-yg;aMumifh jzpfaom½kyrnf d f f f \? ¤if;rSm v[kwm rk'wm ur®nwm þok;yg;yif/ uHtp½Sdaom 4-yg;aom taMumif;wkYd aMumifh jzpfaom½kyf k H onf pwkZ½kyrnf\? ¤if;rSm blw½kyf 4-yg;ESifh tqif; teHY t&om MoZm tmumo[laom þ½kyf 9-yg;yif f jzpfonf/ vu©P½kyf 4-yg;onf wpkwckaom taMumif;aMumifrQ rjzpfaom eukawmpdZmw½kyrnf\ / tb,fh H h f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

81

aMumifenf; (Oyp, oEÅwd[laom Zmwd½kyf 2-yg;onf ½kyfwkdY\jzpfjcif; Oyg'fyifjzpfonf) ,if; Oyg'frm jzpfjcif; h S -Oyg'f r½Sday? Z&wm tedpwm[laom tjcm;½kyf 2-yg;onfvnf; jzpfNyD;aom½ky\ &ifjh cif; XDrQç ysujf cif;-bifrQ ö f om jzpfonf/ xkUd aMumifyifwnf;/ h ]]½lyg,we-tqif;ç o'´g,we-toHç *E¨m,we-teHYç &om,we-t&omç azm|AÁm,we-awGUxd p&mç tmumo"mwfç tmayg"mwfç ½lyó v[kwm-½kyf\ ayghyg; jcif;ç ½lyó rk'kwm-½kyf\El;nHjH cif;ç ½lyó ur®nwm-½kyf\ trIü cHjh cif;ç ½lyó Oyp,½kyf\ a½S;OD;pGm jzpfjcif;ç ½lyó oEÅw-½kyf\ tqufrjywf pyfvsujf zpfjcif;ç uAVDum& d tm[m&-þw&m;wkYd onf pdwaMumifjh zpfaom pdwork|mef rnfue\ þokdYtp½Sdaom f å k f tbd"r®mygVdwYdk üZmwd½kyf\ wpkwckaom taMumif;aMumifh jzpfjcif;ukd todtrSwûf yvsuf vufcxm;\? xkoYdk todtrSwf H H d ûyvsuf vufcjH cif;ukvnf; ½kyujdk zpfapwwfaom taMumif;wkYd \ jzpfapjcif;udpö pGr;&nf½qJ cPü awGUjrif& d f f dS aomaMumifyif[í odtyf\/ h l þqkcaom pum;onf ½lyu©Emü tus,fjyqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ ¨ d

0dnmPu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf
451/ xkrwyg; þrSwyg;aom cE¨mwkYd wif cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) d S G d H H h waygif;wnf;ûyí a0'emu©Em (a0'emtzkYd tpk) [lí¤if;? ¨ rSwom;jcif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif)waygif;wnf;ûyí onmu©Em (onm f d H H h ¨ tzkdYtpk)[lí¤if;? ûyvkyjf cif; aMumifMh upkujf cif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí d d H H h ocFg&u©Em (ocFg& tzkYd tpk) [lí¤if;? ¨ tm½kudk txl;odjcif;vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí 0dnmPu©Em H d H H h ¨ (0dnmPftzkdYtpk)[lí¤if; odtyf\/ xkcE¨mav;yg;wkYd wif 0dnmPu©Emukd odem;vnfvQif tjcm; cE¨mwkYd udk d G ¨ vG,upm odem;vnfEiay\? xkUd aMumifh 0dnmPu©Emuktpûyí zGijhf yjcif;ukûd yyguket/ f l G dk f ¨ d f Hh ]]tm½kudk txl;odjcif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m; tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí H d H H h 0dnmPu©Em (0dnmPf tzkYd tpk) [k odtyf\}}[lí qkdcNhJ yD/ (xkoYdk q&mü) tm½kudk txl;odjcif; vu©Pm½Saom ¨ d dk H d 0dnmPf[onf tb,fenf;¿ ]]igh½Sif (trSwfûy odjcif;-rSwom;jcif;rS) txl;odwwf\ txl;odwwf\/ l f xkUd aMumifh 0dnmPf[k qktyfonf}}[lí ajz½Si; a[mMum;onfh pum;awmf twki;yif (odtyf\)/ 0dnmPfç pdwfç d f d f raem-[laom þtrnfo;ckonf teuft&tm;jzifh wyg;wnf;yif/ xkd 0dnmPfpwonf txl;odjcif;vu©Pm Hk d f [laom «83» oabmtm;jzifh wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ okYd aomfvnf; trsKd;Zmwftm;jzifh (1) ukovpwf (2) dk f d tukovpwf (3) tAsmuwpdw[í ok;yg;tjym; ½Sd \/ dk f d f l H 452/ xko;yg;wdYk wif ukovpwonfjzpf&mbk\tjym;tm;jzifh (1) umrm0p&pdwf (2) ½lyg0p&pdwf (3) d Hk G dk f d f H t½lyg0p&pdwf (4) avmukw&mpdwf [lí 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xkwif umrm0p& ukovpwonf aomreó å d G dk f d f Oayu©mÓPf ocFg&wkYd \tjym;tm;jzifh (8) yg;tjym;½S\/ tb,foYdk enf;[lrl aomreóo[*kwf (pdw½ird f T f I aomreóESihf wuGjzpfaom) ÓPorÜ,wf (ÓPfEi,Oaom) tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1- yg;? k S hf S f xkdUtwl aomreóo[*kwf ÓP0dyÜ,kwf (ÓPfESifhr,SOf aom) tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg& pdwf 1-uyg;? Oayu©mo[*kwf (r½TirñI;-Oayu©mESiwuGjzpfaom) ÓPorÜ,wf tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? f d hf k Oayu©mo[*kwf ÓP0dy,wf tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;/ (þokdY ½Spfyg;tjym;½Sd\)/ Ü k ,if;pdwrsm;\ jzpfyrm-tMuiftcgü vªz,0w¬KESihf tvªcy*Kd¾ vf ponfwYdk \ jynfpaumif;rGejf cif;ukd f Hk S G f H k h Hk pGríjzpfapç tjcm;wyg;aom aomreójzpfaMumif;ukd pGríjzpfap ½Tivef;0rf;omvsuf ]]ay;vªjcif; (tusKd;)onf J DS J DS f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

82

½Sd\}} þokYd tp½Saom enf;jzifh jzpfaom ur®óuwmor®m'd|udk a½SUoGm;ûyí qkwepfavsmhvsnf;jcif; r½SyJ d d f d olwyg;wkYd u rwkuwe;&yJ ay;vªjcif; tp½Saom aumif;rIwYdk udk ûy\? xktcgü xkûd yolrm aomreóo[*kwf d f G f d d S ÓPorÜ,wtocFg& pdwonfjzpf\/ tMuiftcgürlum; qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifh ½Tivef;0rf;ajrmufvsuf k f f d f or®m'd|udk a½SUoGm;ûyíyif vGwvwf rpGeYf Eijf cif;ponf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh qkwepfavsmhvsnf;vsufjzpfapç ol d f G dk f f wyg;wkYd u wkuwe;ay;íjzpfap (ay;vªjcif;tp½Saom aumif;rIwYdk u) ûy\? xktcgü xkûd yolrm aomreó d f G f d dk d S o[*kwf ÓPorÜ,wf oocFg&pdwonf jzpf\/ þt&mü ocFg& [laom þtrnfonf rdru,wijf zpfapç k f d dk f dk olwyg;wkYd ujzpfap a½S;tzkYd u tm;ay;wkuwe;rI [laom ykAÁ ya,m*\ trnfaywnf;/ xkrwyg; tMuiftcgü d f G f d S (rdb) aqGrsK;rsm;\ ûyusiMhf uykudk jrif&ojzifh tavhtusi&aeMuaom uav;oli,fwYdkonf &[ef;rsm;ukjd rifvQif d H hf ½Tivef;0rf;om jzpfuevsuf vufü½Saom wpkwckuyif taqmwvsif ay;vªue\? okYd r[kwf ½Sc;uke\? f k f d H dk k f d dk f xktcg (xkoi,fwYdk rm) aomreóo[*kwf ÓP0dy,wtocFg&ac: wwd,pdwonf jzpf\/ tMuiftcgürl d d l S Ü k f f ]]vªMu½Sc;Mu}}[k aqGrsKd;rsm;u wkuwe;aomaMumifh xkUd twlyif ûyuke\? xktcg aomreó o[*kwf ÓP0dyÜ d dk d f G f f d ,kwf oocFg&ac: pwkwpwonf jzpf\/ xkrwyg; vªb,0w¬KESihf tvªcy*Kd¾ vf ponfwYdk \ rjynfpHk ¬ d f d S G f H k h raumif;rGejf cif;ukd pGríjzpfap tjcm;wyg;ukeaom aomreójzpfaMumif;wkYd \ r½Sjd cif;ukd pGríjzpfap qkcNhJ yD;aom J DS f J DS d ukovpwjf zpfyHk BuHpnfcsuav;yg;wkYd ü aomreóuif;vsuf Oayu©mESiwuG jzpfue\? xktcgü <uif;aom dk f d f hf k f d Oayu©mo[ *kwpwf av;yg;wkYd onf jzpfue\/ þokdYvQif aomreó Oayu©mÓPf ocFg&wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzifh f d k f (8)yg;tjym;½Saom umrm0p&ukovpwudk odtyfayonf/ d dk f d f xkrwyg; ½lyg0p&ukovpwonf psmeft*FgwkYd Eihf ,SOjf cif;\ tjym;tm;jzifh 5-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ tb,fokdY d S dk f d f S enf;[lr-0dwuf 0dpm& yDwd okc orm"d ([laom psmeft*Fgig;yg;)ESihf ,SOaom yXrpsmefpwf 1-yg;? 0dwufudk l f d ausmfvec(í t*Fgav;yg;ESi,O)aom 'kw,psmefpwf 1-yg;? xk'w,psmefpwrS 0dpm&ukd ausmfvec(í t*Fg G f hJ hf S f d d d k d d f G f hJ ok;yg;ESi,O)aom wwd,psmefpwf 1-yg;? xkwwd,psmefpwrS yDwuausmfvechJ (ít*Fg ESpyg;ESi,O)aom H hf S f d d d f d dk G f f hf S f pwkw¬psmefpdwf 1-yg;? okccsKyfuif;vsuf Oayu©m orm"d ([laom psmeft*FgESpyg;ESihf ,SO)aom yOörpsmefpwf 1f f d yg;? þokdY 5-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ t½lyg0p&ukovpwonf av;yg;aom t½lypsmefwYdk Eihf ,SOjf cif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh 4-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ kd f d f S f tb,foYdk enf;[lr-(q,fcajrmuftm½kyea'´oü) qkcNhJ yD;aom tjym;½Saom tmumomeOöm,wepsmefEi,Oaom l k Ü d d d S hf S f yXrt½lyg0p&psmefpwf 1-yg;? 0dnmPOöm,wetp½SaompsmefwYdk Eihf ,SOueaom «84» 'kw, t½lyg0p&psmef d d S f k f d pdwf wwd,t½lyg0p&psmefpwf pwkwt½lyg0p&psmefpwwYdk 3-yg; þokdY 4-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ d ¬ d f avmukw&mukovpwonf r*fav;yg;wkYd Eihf ,SOjf cif;\ tjym;tm;jzifh 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ þokdYvQif å dk f d f S a½S;OD;pGm ukov0nmPfpwonf 21-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ dk f d d f 453/ xkdrSwyg; tukokdvfpdwfonf bkHtm;jzifh umrm0p&pdwwyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ rlvtm;jzifh f avmbrlpwf a'gorlpwf arm[rlpwf [lí 3-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ d d d xkwif avmbrlpwonf aomreó Oayu©m'd|ocFg&wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzifh (8)yg; tjym;½S\/ tb,fokdY d G d f d d enf;[lr-aomreóo[*kwf 'd|*worÜ,wf (rdpm'd|Ei,Oaom) tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? l d k ä d S hf S f xkUd twl (aomreóo[*kw) 'd|*w0dy,wf (rdpm'd|Eir,SOaom) tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;/ f d Ü k ä d S hf f Oayu©mo[*kwf 'd|d*worÜ,kwf tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? xkUd twlOayu©mo[*kwf 'd|*w0dyÜ d ,kwf tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;/ (þokdY ½Spfyg;tjym;½Sd\)/ ,if;pdwwYdk \ jzpfyum;-tMuiftcgü ]]umr*kPwYdk ü tjypfr½S}d } þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh jzpfaom f Hk f d rdpm'd|udk a½SUoGm;ûyí ½Tivef;0rf;ajrmufvsuf wkuwe;ay;&jcif;r½SyJ olUtvkvyif xufoefaompdwjf zifh umr ä d f d f G f d d dk *kPwYdk urvnf; ok;aqmif\? 'd|r*Fvm ponfwYdkurvnf; tESpom& tppftrSetaetm;jzifh ,kMH unf\? xkd f dk l H dk l f f tcgü yXrtukovpwonf jzpf\/ tMuiftcgürl rxufoefonfjzpfí wkuwe;ay;&aom pdwjf zifh umr*kPf dk f d f d f G f wkYd urvnf; ok;aqmif\? 'd|r*Fvm ponfwYdkurvnf; ,kMH unf\? xktcgü 'kw,tukovpwonf jzpf\/ dk l H dk l d d dk f d f tMuiftcgü rdpm'd|udk a½SUoGm;rûyrlí oufouf ½Tivef; 0rf;ajrmufvsuf wkuwe;ay;&jcif;r½SyJ olUtvkvyif ä d f d f G f d d dk xufoefaompdwjf zifh arxker0jJ cif;ukrvnf;ûy\? olwyg;pnf;pdrurvnf; &vkorI a½S;½IBuH\? olwyg;Opömukd f DS d l f dk l d rlvnf; ck;,l\/ xktcg wwd,tukovf pdwonfjzpf\/ tMuiftcgü rxufoefonfjzpfí wkuwe;ay;& d d dk f d f G f aompdwjf zifh (xkoYdkaomtrIuûdk y\ BuH\)? xktcgü pwkwtukovpwonf jzpf\/ tMuif tcgürl umr*kPf d d ¬ dk f d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

83

wkYd \rjynfpjHk cif;ukd pGíjzpfap? tjcm;wyg;ukeaom aomreójzpfaMumif;wkYd \ r½Sjd cif;aMumifh jzpfap qkcNhJ yD;aom h J f d tukovjf zpfyHk BuHpnfcsuf av;yg;wkYd üvnf; pdw½ivef;jcif; r½Sue?f xktcgü <uif;aom Oayu©mo[*kwpwf dk f T f d k d f d av;yg;wkYd onf jzpfue\/ þokYd vQif aomreóOayu©m'd|d ocFg&wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzifh (8)yg; tjym;½Saom k f d avmbrl pdwudk odtyfayonf/ f a'gorlpwonfum; a'greóo[*kwf (ESv;romrIEiwuGjzpfaom) y#dCorÜ,wf (a'goESihf ,SOf d f Hk S hf k aom) tocFg&pdwf 1-yg;? oocFg&pdwf 1-yg;[lí 2-yg;omvQif jzpfonf/ ,if;pdwf 2-yg;\ jzpfjcif;ukd owå0gukd owfjcif;ponfwYdkü xufoefpmjzpfaomtcgç rxufoefyjJ zpfaomtcgü odtyf\/ G arm[rlpwonf Oayu©mo[*kwf 0dpupmESi,Oaompdwf 1-yg;? O'¨pESifh,SOfaompdwf 1-yg; [lí 2d f d d ä hf S f ö yg; tjym;½Sd\/ ,if;pdwf 2-yg;\ jzpfjcif;ukd tm½kudk rqk;jzwfEiaomtcgç ysHUvGiaomtcgü odtyf\/ þokdY H H dk f hf vQif tukovpwf 0dnmPfonf 12-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ dk f d 454/ tAsmuwpdwonf Zmwftjym;tm;jzifh 0dygu 0dygufpwf ud&,mpdwf [l í 2-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ f d d xkwif 0dygufpwonf bktm;jzifh umrm0p&pdwçf ½lyg0p&pdwçf t½lyg0p&pdwçf avmukw&m pdw[í 4-yg; d G d f H å f l tjym;½Sd\/ «85» xkwif umrm0p&0dygufpwonf ukov0dyguf tukov0dyguf [lí 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ d G d f ukov0dygufpwonfvnf; t[dwpwf o[dwpwf [lí 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ d f f d f d xkwif tavmb tp½Saom 0dyguf[wuif;aom pdwonf t[dwuov 0dygufpwf rnf\? ,if;pdwf d G d d f f f k d onf (1) pu©K0dnmPf? (2) aomw0dnmPf? (3) Cme0dnmPf? (4) Zd0g0dnmPf? (5) um,0dnmPf? (6) orÜ#pKäd ef; S d udp½aom raem"mwf? (7?*) oED&Ppaom udp½ueaom raem0dnmP"mwfwYdk 2-yg; [lí (8)yg; tjym;½Sd\/ ö dS Å ö dS k f xk½pyg;wkYd wif pu©K0dnmPfpwonf rsufptMunfurí tqif;ukjd rifojd cif; vu©Pm½S\? tqif;rQom d S f G d f d dk DS d tm½kHûyjcif;udp½S\? tqif;qDoYdk a½S;½Iûyaeonfh tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? tqif;vQif tm½kH½Sdaom ö d ud&,m raem"mwfac: yOö'g&m0ZÆe;pdw\ uif;jcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif; (y'|mef)½S\/ d G f f d aomw0dnmPf Cme0dnmPf Zd0g0dnmPf um,0dnmPf pdwwYdk onf (toD;toD; tpOftwki;) em;ç ESmç S f d f vQmç uk,tMunf½ywYdk urí toHç teHYç t&omç tawGUwkYd udk Mum;odjcif;ç eHojd cif;ç pm;odjcif;ç xdojd cif; d f k f dk DS vu©Pm½Sdukef\? toHponfrQom tm½kûH yjcif;udp½ue\? toHpaom tm½kqoYdk a½S;½Iûyonftjzpfjzifh (ÓPf ö dS k f H D h tm;) a½S;½Ixifukef\? toHtm½kponf½aom ud&,m raem"mwfwYdk \ uif;jcif;vQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ H dS d d (orÜ#pKdä ef;ac:) ukov0dygufraem"mwfonf pu©K0dnmPfponfwYdk \ tjcm;rJü tqif; ponfudk odjcif; d h vu©Pm½Sd\? tqif;ponfudk vufcjH cif; (orÜ#pKäd ef;)udpö ½S\? tqif;ponfudk vufconftjzpfjzifh (ÓPf d d H h tm;) a½S;½Ixif\? pu©K0dnmPfponfwYdk \ uif;jcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ d oEDÅ&Ppaomudp½Sdaom t[dwfukov0dyguf raem0dnmP"mwf 2-yg;onf 6-yg;aom tm½kudk odjcif; ö H udp½Sd\? oED&Ppaom udp½Sd\? xkoYdk aomudprsm; ½Sonf\tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? [', 0w¬K½kyf ö Å ö d ö d vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ qufí ½Sif;jyOD;tHh-aomreó Oayu©mwkYd Ei,Ojf cif; tjym;tm;jzif¤if;? ESpXmeç ig; d S hf S h f XmewkYd \ tjym;tm;jzif¤if; xkt[dwuov0dyguf raem0dnmP"mwf\ uGjJ ym;jcif;ukd odtyf\/ uGjJ ym;ykum; h d f k H þraem0dnmP"mwfEpyg;wkYd wif wyg;onf £|m½ktppfüom jzpfjcif;½SaomaMumifh aomreóESi,Oí jzpf\? S f G H d hf S f pkprf;jcif;-oED&Pudp\ tvktm;jzifh yOö'g&ü¤if;ç xkaZm\tm½ku,jl cif;-w'g½kHudptvkdtm;jzifh aZm\ H Å ö d G d H dk ö tqk;ü¤if; jzpfjcif;aMumifh Xme 2-yg;½Sd\/ tjcm; "mwfwyg;onf £|rZÑwåm½kac: omref£|m½kü jzpfjcif;½Saom H H H d aMumifh Oayu©mESi,Oíjzpf\? oEÅ&Pudpö w'g½kupö y#doaE¨upö b0ifupö pkwupwYdk tvktm;jzifh jzpfjcif; hf S f D H d d d d d ö d aMumifh Xmeig;yg;½S\/ d qufO;tH-½Spfyg;tjym;½Sdaom þt[dwuov0dyguf0nmPfonf ude;aoNrJaomtm½kH ½Sçd r½Stm;jzifh D h f k d f d 2-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ Oayu©mokcaomreówkdYESifh,SOfjcif; tjym;tm;jzifh 3-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ csJUíjy&vQif þ0dnmPf ½Spyg;wkYd wif pu©K0dnmPfpaom 0dnmPfig;yg;onf tpOftwki; tqif;tm½kponfwYdk üomvQif jzpfjcif;aMumifh f G d f H udef;aoNrJaomtm½kH½\? <uif;aom0dnmPfo;yg;onf ude;aoNrJaomtm½kH r½S-rNrJaom tm½kH½Sd\/ xkd 3-yg; Sd Hk f d wkYd wif raem"mwfac:orÜ#pKäd ef;pdwonf tqif;paom tm½kH ig;yg;vk;wkYd ü jzpf\/ raem0dnmP"mwfac: G d f H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

84

oEÅ&Ppdwf 2-yg;onf tm½kH 6-yg;wkYd ü jzpf\/ xkUd jyif þ0dnmPf½pyg;wkYd wif um,0dnmPfonf okcESihf D S f G ,SO\? Xme 2-yg;½Saom raem0dnmP"mwfonf aomreóESi,O\? <uif;aom0dnmPf 6-yg;onf Oayu©mESihf f d hf S f ,SO\/ þokYd vQif a½S;OD;pGm ½Spyg;tjym;½Saom t[dwuov0dyguf pdwudk odtyf\/ f f d f k f xkrwyg; tavmbtp½Saom 0dyguf[wwYdk Eihf ,SOaompdwonf o[dwuov0dygufpwrnf\/ d S d d f S f f f k d f ,if;o[dwuov0dygufpwonf umrm0p&ukovpwuoYdk aomreó ponfwYdk\ tjym;tm;jzifh ½Spyg; f k d f dk f d f hJ f tjym;½Sd\/ txl;um; ukovpwonf «86» 'geponf\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh 6 dk f d f -yg;aom tm½kwYdk ü jzpfouJoYdk þ H h 0dygufpwonf xkUd twl rjzpfay/ rSeay\-þ 0dygufpwonf y#doaE¨b0if pkwd w'g½kupwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh d f f d f H d ö f umrw&m;üomvQif twGif;0ifukefaom tm½kH 6-yg;wkYd ü jzpfayonf/ þ0dygufpwwYdk ü oocFg& tocFg&tjzpf d f ukrl vmcJ&m ukovf ponfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh odtyf\/ ,SOzufw&m;wkYd \ xl;jcm;jcif; r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; d h dk f f aMu;rkjH yif ponfwYdkü rsuEm&dyuoYdk 0dygufpwrm tm;xkwjf cif;-aMumifMh uûyjcif;r½S?d t&dy\t½Sif rsufEmuJoYdk f S f hJ d f S f S h ukovpwrm tm;xkwjf cif; -aMumifMh uûyjcif;½S\ [k odtyf\/ dk f d f S d xkrwyg; tukov0dygufpwonf oufouf t[dwomvQifjzpfonf? ,if;tukov0dyguf pdwonf d S d f f f (1) pu©K0dnmPf? (2) aomw0dnmPf? (3) Cme0dnmPf? (4) Zd0g0dnmPf? (5) um,0dnmPf? (6) orÜ#pKäd ef; udpö S d ½Saom 0dygufraem"mwf? (7) oED&Pudp½aom ig;Xme½Sonfh raem0dnmP"mwf[lí (7)yg; tjym;½Sd\/ ,if; d Å ö dS d pdwf (7)yg;ukd vu©Pmtp½Saomtm;jzifh t[dwuov0dyguf pdwü qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyif odtyf\/ d f k f d h txl;rSm ukov0dygufpwwYdk onf £|m½ktppfEihf £|rZÑwåtm½kudk tm½kûH yuke\? þtukov 0dyguf d f H S H f pdwwYdk onf ted|m½ktppfEihf ted|rZÑwåtm½kudk tm½kûH yuke\/ xkuov0dygufpwf wkYd onf Oayu©m f H S H f d k d okcaomreó tjym;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½Sue\? þtukov0dygufpwwYdk onf 'ku© Oayu©mwkYd \ tpGr; H d k f d f f tm;jzifh ESpyg; tjym;½Sue\/ rSeay\-þtukov0dygufpwf (7)yg;wkYd wif um,0dnmPfonf 'kuEiomvQif f d k f f d G © S hf wuGjzpf\? <uif;aompdwf (6)yg;wkYd onf Oayu©mo[*kwwYdk aywnf;/ xktukov0dygufpwwYdk ü ,if;Oayu©m f d d f onf ,kwn\ (okYd aomf) 'kuuoYdk (um;) rxufjrufvay/ ukov0dygufpwwYdkü Oayu©monf aumif;jrwf f hH © hJ S d f ay\ (okYd aomf) okcuJoYdk (um;) rxufjrufvay/ þokYd vQif þ (7) yg;aom tukov0dygufpwwYdk Eihf h S d f S a½S;üjycJaom (16) yg;aom ukov0dygufpwwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh umrm0p&0dygufpwonf (23) yg;tjym;½S\/ h d f f d f d xkrwyg; ½lyg0p&0dygufpwonf ½lyg0p&ukovpwuoYdk ig;yg;tjym;½S\/ txl;um; ½lyg0p& d S d f dk f d f hJ d ukovpwonf 0ifpm;aom ormywftvktm;jzifh aZm0Dxüjzpf\? þ½lyg0p&0dygufpwonfum; uyfa&mufí dk f d f d d d f jzpf&m ½lyb0ü y#doaE¨ b0ifpwpwwYdktvktm;jzifjh zpf\/ ½lyg0p&0dygufpdwfuJhokdY t½lyg0p&0dygufpdwfonf k d d f d vnf; t½lyg0p&ukovpwuoYdk yif av;yg;tjym;½S\/ ,if;0dygufpw\ jzpfytjym;onfvnf; ½lyg0p&0dyguf dk f d f hJ d d f Hk pdwü qkcaomenf;twki;yif/ avmukw&m0dygufonf r*fpwav;yg;\ tusKd;jzpfaomaMumifh av;yg;tjym; f d hJ d f å d f ½Sd\/ xkdzkdvfpdwfav;yg;onf r*f0Dxdtvkdtm;jzifh¤if;ç zvormywf tvkdtm;jzifh¤if; 2-yg;tjym;tm;jzifh jzpf\/ þokYd vQif bkav;yg;wkYd ü 0dyguf0nmPf-pdwtm;vk;onf (36) yg; tjym;½S\/ H d f H d xkrwyg; ud&,mpdwonf bktjym;tm;jzifh umrm0p&pdwçf ½lyg0p&pdwçf t½lyg0p&pdw[í ok;yg; d S d f H f l H tjym;½Sd\/ xkdwGif umrm0p&ud&d,mpdwfonf t[dwfpdwfç o[dwfpdwf[lí 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xkd 2-yg;wkYd wif G tavmbtp½Saom ud&,m[dwf uif;aompdwonf t[dwu&,mpdwf rnf\? ¤if;onf raem"mwf d d f f d d raem0dnmP"mwf tjym;tm;jzifh 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xk d 2-yg;wkYd wif (yOö'g&m0ZÆe;ac:) raem"mwfonfpu©K0dnmPfponfwYdk \ a½SUoGm;jzpfí tqif; ponf G G f wkYd udk odjcif;vu©Pm½S\? (rsufpponfwYdk ü xifvmaomtm½kudk bmygvdr[) ESv;oGi; qifjcifjcif;udp½\? d d H hf k Hk f ö dS tqif;paom tm½kHqDokdY a½S;½Iûyonfh tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? b0ifpw\ jywfpjJ cif;vQif eD;aom d f taMumif;½Sd\? ¤if;ud&,mraem"mwfonf Oayu©mESiom ,SO\/ d hf f «87» ud&,mraem0dnmP"mwfonfum; trsm;ESiqiaom om"m&Ppdwçf rqkiaom tom"m&P pdwf d hf dk f d f [lí 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xkwif om"m&Ppdwonf Oayu©mo[*kwf t[dwu&,mraem 0dnmP"mwfac: d G f f d d raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;pdwaywnf;? ¤if;onf 6-yg;aomtm½kHwkdYukd odjcif;vu©Pm½S\? udptvktm;jzifh yOö'g&ü f f d ö d G 0ka|mudpö ½S\? raem'Gg&ü tm0ZÆe;udp½\? xk0a|mudpö tm0ZÆe;udp½onfh tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;)a½S;½Ixif\? d f ö dS d k f ö dS hf G d oEÅ&P ESib0ifwYdk wif wyg;yg;\csKyfuif;jcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ D

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

85

tom"m&Ppdwonf aomreóo[*kwf t[dwu&,mraem 0dnmP"mwfac: [odwyg'fpwf f f d d k Ü d aywnf;? ¤if;onf 6-yg;aomtm½kHwkdYukd odjcif;vu©Pm½S\? udptvktm;jzifh &[EÅmwkYd tm; r½keYf &if;aom tm½kH d ö d 0w¬KwkYd ü ûyH;jcif;ukd jzpfapjcif;&o (udp) ½S\? xkoYdk jzpfaponftjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? {uefyif ö d d h [',0w¬KvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ þokYd vQif umrm0p&ud&,m t[dwpwonf ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ d d f d f H d umrm0p&ud&,m o[dwpwonfum; aomreótp½Saom tjym;tm;jzifh ukovpwuoYdk yif ½Spyg; d f d f d dk f d f hJ f tjym;½Sd\/ oufoufx;onfrm ukovpwonf aou©Eihf ykxZOfwYdk tm; jzpf\? þo[dwf ud&,mpdwonf l S dk f d f S k d f &[EÅmwkYd tm;om jzpf\-þonfum; þud&,mo[dwpwü txl;aywnf;? þokYd vQif a½S;OD;pGm umrm0p& d f d f ud&,mpdwonf 11-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ d f xkdrSwyg; ½lyg0p&ud&d,mpdwfonf ukokdvfuJhokdYyif 5 -yg; tjym;½Sd\/ t½lyg0p&ud&d,mpdwfonfvnf; ukokdvfuJhokdYyif 4-yg; tjym;½Sd\/ txl;um; &[EÅmwkYd tm; jzpfonf\tpGrf;tm;jzifhomvQif þ½lyg0p& t½lyg 0p&ud&,mpdw\ ukovrx;jcm;jcif;ukd odtyf\/ þokYd vQif bko;yg;wkYd ü ud&,m0dnmPf-pdwf tm;vk;onf d f dk f S l H Hk d H (20)tjym;½S\/ d 455/ ,ckjyqkconftwki; ukovpwf (21)yg;? tukovpwf (12)yg;? 0dygufpwf (36)yg;? ud&,m d hJ h d f dk f d dk f d d d pdwf (20)? þokYd tm;jzifh tvk;pkaom pdw-0dnmPfwYdkonf wck,wu;q,f (89) jzpfue\/ ,if; (89)yg;aom H H f k f dk k f pdwwYdk onf (1)y#doaE¨-b0a[mif;ESihf qufpyfjcif;? (2) b0*F- b0ifç b0\tpdw?f (3) tm0ZÆe-tm0ZÆe;f f ESv;oGi; qifjcifjcif;? (4) 'óe-jrifjcif;? (5) o0e- Mum;jcif;? (6) Cm,eeHojd cif;? (7) om,e-vsujf cif;Hk f t&omodjcif;? (8) zkoe-xdojd cif;? (9)orÜ#pe - vufcjH cif;? (10) oEÅ&P-pl;prf;jcif;? (11) a0g|AÁe-0ka|md ä D qkH;jzwfjcif;? (12) Z0e-aZm- vsifaomt[kejf zifjh zpfjcif;? (13) w'g&r®P-w'g½kH-xkaZm\ tm½ku,jl cif;? (14) d H dk pkwpawa½TUvsm;jcif;udpwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh 14-yg;aomtjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh jzpfue\/ d k ö f k f tb,foYdk enf;¿ tMuiftcgü ½Spyg;aom umrm0p&ukovwYdk \ tpGr;tmEkabmfaMumifh owå0gwkYd onf f dk f f ewfvwYdkü jzpfue\? xktcg xkowå0gwkYd tm; aocgeD;umvü a½S;½Ixifay:vmaom uH ur®erwf *wderwf l k f d d d d d d wkYd wif wyg;yg;ukd tm½kûH yí ½Spyg;aom o[dwumrm0p&0dygufpwwYdk onf¤if;ç vlUavmuü y@Kuf ponf G f f d f tjzpfoYdk a&mufqy*Kd¾ vfwYdk tm; tm;enf;aom 'G[wuov\ tusKd;jzpfaom Oayu©mo[*kwf t[dwf 0dyguf J k d d f k dk f raem0dnmP"mwf (oEÅ&Ppdw)onf¤if; þ (9)yg;aom 0dygufpwwYdk onf y#doaE¨\tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfue\/ D f d f f k f tMuiftcgü ½lyg0p& t½lyg0p&ukokdvfwkdY\ tpGr;tmEkabmfaMumifh ½lyb0 t½lyb0wkYd ü jzpfue\? xkdtcg f k f xkowå0gwkYd tm; aocgeD;umvü a½S;½Ixifay:vmaom ur®erwuomvQif tm½kûH yí (9)yg;aom ½lyg0p& t½lyg d d d f dk 0p&0dygufpwwYdk onf y#doaE¨\tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfue\/ d f f k f «88» tMuiftcgürl tukokdvf\tpGr;tmEkabmfaMumifh tyg,fbü jzpfue\? xktcg xkowå0gwkdYtm; f Hk k f d d aocgeD;umvü a½S;½Ixifay:vmaom uH ur®erwf *wderwwYdk wif wyg;yg;ukd tm½kûH yí wckaom tukov d d d d f G 0dyguf t[dwraem0dnmP"mwf (oEÅ&Ppdw)onf y#doaE¨\tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpf\/ þokYd vQif (89)yg;aom þ f D f f pdwwYdk wif (19)yg;aom 0dygufpwwYdk \ y#doaE¨\tpGr;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ f G d f f Hk xkrwyg; ,if;y#doaE¨pwf csKyfom;vQif xkxy#doaE¨pwoYdk tpOfvuvsuf xkxy#doaE¨udk jzpfap d S d G d dk d f dk f d dk onfh uH\omvQif tusK;jzpfaom xky#doaE¨\ tm½küomvQif xky#doaE¨pwEihf wlonfomvQif jzpfaom d d H d d f S b0ifrnfaompdwonf jzpf\/ wzefvnf; xkoYdkaompdwonf jzpfjyef\? þykþenf;jzifh b0iftpOfudk epfap f d f H jywfapwwfaom tjcm;pdwjf zpfjcif;r½SvQif jrpfa&t,OfuoYdk (rjywfjzpfae\) tdyrufrjrifrufyJ tdyarmusae d hJ f f aom umvponfwYdk ü twki;rod ra&wGuEiatmifvnf; rjywfjzpfaeonfomwnf;/ þokYd vQif xkd (19)yg; d f f dk f aom 0dygufpwwYdk \omvQif b0if\tpGr;tm;jzifvnf; jzpfyudk odtyf\/ d f f h Hk xkrwyg; ,ckjyqkconftwki; b0ifpwtpOfoEÅmef rjywfjzpfaepOf tMuiftcgü owå0gwkYd \ rsufpd d S d hJ h d f d f paom£a`E´wYdk onf tm½kudk cH,&ef cHue-avsmufywfue\? xktcg rsufptm; tqif;xifvQif (xk) tqif;ukd H l h k f k f d d d pGí rsufptMunftm; xdyg;wkucujf cif; jzpf\? xkdtcgü xdyg;wkucujf cif;\ tpGr;tmEkabmfaMumifh b0if J d d f dk d f dk f vIyjf cif;jzpf\? b0ifvyonfh tjcm;rJü b0ifcsKyfvwf-jywfpvwfaomf xifay:vmonfh xktqif;ukyif I f h J d d tm½kûH yí b0ifujdk zwfbouJoYdk ESv;oGi;qifjcifr-tm0ZÆe;udpudk NyD;apvsuf ud&,mraem"mwfac: yOö'g&m d h Hk f I f ö d G 0ZÆe;pdwonf jzpf\/ aomw'Gg& ponfwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif? raem'Gg&üum; 6-yg;aomtm½kxifvQif b0*F f f H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

86

pve (b0ifvyonf)\ tjcm;rJü b0ifujdk zwfbouJoYdk ESv;oGi; qifjcifr-tm0ZÆe;udpudk NyD;apvsuf I f h d h Hk f l f ö Oayu©mo[*kwf t[dwu&,m raem0dnmP"mwfac: raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;pdwonf jzpf\/ þokYd vQif ESpyg;aom f d d f f f (Oayu©mo[*kwf t[dw) ud&,m0dnmPfwYdk \ tm0ZÆe;udp\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ f d f ö f Hk xkrwyg; tm0ZÆe;\tjcm;rJü pu©K'Gg&rSm jrifr-'óeudpuNdk yD;apvsuf rsufptMunfvQif wnf&m d S f h I ö d ½Saom pu©K0dnmPf (jrifopw)onf jzpf\? aomw'Gg& Cme'Gg& Zd0g'Gg& um,'Gg&wkYd ü Mum;jcif;udpö eHjcif;udpö d d d f S vsujf cif;-t&omodjcif;udpö xdojd cif;udpwYdk udk NyD;apukevsuf aomw0dnmPf Cme0dnmPf Zd0g0dnmPf um, ö f S 0dnmPfpwwYdk onf jzpfue\/ ,if;pdwwYdk onf £|m½kH £|rZÑwåm½kwYdk ü ukov0dygufwYdk jzpfMuonf? ted|m½kH d f k f f H ted|rZÑwåm½kwYdk ü tukov0dygufwYdk jzpfMuonf/ þokYd vQif q,fyg;aom 0dyguf0nmPfwYdk \ 'óeudpö o0e H d udpö Cm,eudpö om,eudpö zkoeudpwYdk\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ ö Hk xkrwyg; ]]pu©K0dnmP"mwf jzpfí csKyfonf\tjcm;rJü xkd 0dnmPftm;avsmfpm jzpfaom ]pdwf raem d S h G rmeo} [lívnf; ac:tyfaom raem"mwfonf jzpf\}} þokYd ponfudk a[mawmfraomaMumifh pu©K0dnmPf l ponfwYdk \ «89» tjcm;rJü ,if;0dnmPfwYdk \omvQif tm½kuvufcvsuf ukov0dyguf0nmPf\ tjcm;rJü h H dk H d h ukov0dygufraem"mwfonf jzpf\? tukov0dyguf0nmPf\ tjcm;rJü tukov0dygufraem"mwfonf jzpf\/ d h þokYd vQif ESpyg;aom 0dyguf (raem"mwf) 0dnmPfwYdk \ orÜ#pKdä ef;udp\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ f d ö f Hk xkrwyg; ]]raem"mwf\vnf; jzpfícsKyfonf\ tjcm;rJü xkraem"mwftm;avsmpm jzpfaom ]pdwf raem d S h d f G rmeo} [lívnf; ac:tyfaom raem0dnmP"mwfonf jzpf\}}[k a[mawmfraomaMumifh raem"mwfu vufcH l xm;NyD; tm½kuyifvQif pl;prf;qifjcifvsuf tukov0dyguf raem"mwf\ tjcm;rJü tukov0dyguf t[dwraem H dk h f 0dnmP"mwfonfjzpf\/ ukov0dygufraem"mwf\tjcm;rJü £|m½krm aomreóo[*kwjf zpfaom £|rZÑwåm½kH h H S rSm Oayu©mo[*kwjf zpfaom ukov0dyguft[dwraem 0dnmP"mwfonf jzpf\/ þokdYvQif okH;yg;aom f t[dw0ygufraem0dnmP"mwfwYdk \ oEÅ&Pudp\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ f d D ö f Hk xkrwyg; oEÅ&P\ tjcm;rJü xkp;prf;NyD;tm½kuyifvQif yki;jcm;qk;jzwfvsuf Oayu©mo[*kwf ud&,m d S D h d l H dk d f H d t[dwraem0dnmP"mwf (raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;pdw)onf jzpf\/ þokYd vQif wyg;aom t[dwu&,mraem0dnmPf\ f f f f d d 0ka|mudp\tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ ö f Hk xkrwyg; 0ka|m\tjcm;rJü tqif;tp½Sdaom (xkd)tm½kHonf r[EÅm½kH tu,fíjzpfjim;tH?h okYd jzpfvQif d S h yki;jcm;qk;jzwfNyD;aom xktm½kü umrm0p&ukovpwf (8) yg;ç tukovpwf (12) yg;ç <uif;aom umrm0p& d f H d H dk f d dk f d ud&,mpdwf (9) yg; ([laom þ 29-yg;) wkYd wif wyg;yg;aompdwonf aZmudpudk NyD;apvsuf (6) Budraomf¤if; d G f ö f (7) Budraomf¤if; vsiaomt[kejf zifh jzpf\/ þonfum; ig;'Gg&ü jzpfyudk odaMumif;enf; aywnf;/ f f Hk raem'Gg&ürlum; raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;\ tjcm;rJü xkd (29)yg;aom aZmpdwwYdk onfyif jzpfue\? a*gMwbl f h f k f pdwrS aemufü ½lyg0p&ukovf ud&,maZmpdwf (10)yg;ç t½lyg0p&ukovf ud&,maZmpdwf (8)yg; avmukw&m f dk d dk d å r*fzvaZmpdwf (8) yg;[laom þ (26) yg;wkYd wif taMumif;ypön;uk&aom xkxaZmpdwonf vsifaomt[kef dk f G f d d dk f jzifjh zpf\/ þokYd vQif (55) yg;aom ukovf tukovu&,m 0dyguf 0dnmPfwYdk \ aZmudpö tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyHk dk dk f d d f ukd odtyf\/ xkUd jyif aZm\tqk;ü yOö'g&rSm twdr[EÅm½kjH zpfvQifç raem'Gg&rSm 0dbwm½kH jzpfvQif umrm0p& owå0g H G l wkYd tm; umraZmpdw\tqk;ü £|m½kponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; a½S;uHEihf aZmpdwponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm; f H H f h S f f jzif¤if; tMuif tMuif taMumif;uk&\? xkxtaMumif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh o[dwumrm0p&0dygufpwf ½Spyg;ESihf h d d dk f f d f t[dw0ygufraem0dnmP "mwfac: oEÅ&Ppdwo;yg;[laom þpdwwYdk wiwyg;yg;aom 0dyguf 0dnmPf f d D f Hk f G f pdwonf a&qefom;aomavSoYdk umvtenf;i,frQ tpOfvuom;aom a&uJoYdk b0if\tm½kHrS wyg;aom «90» f G dk f G h tm½kHü vsifaomt[kejf zifh oGm;aomaZmokYd tpOfvuygvsuf ESpBf udrf okYd r[kwf wBudrf jzpf\/ xkdokdYvkdufygí dk f jzpfaom þ0dygufpwonf aZm\tqk;ü b0if\tm½krm jzpfoifygvsuf (xkoYdk rjzpfrí) xkaZm\ tm½kHukd d f H H S h d l d tm½kûH yvsuf jzpfaomaMumifh (¤if;uk) w'g½k[k ac:qktyfayonf/ þokYd vQif (11) yg;aom 0dyguf0nmPfpwf d H d d d wkYd \ w'g½kupö tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk odtyf\/ H d f Hk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

87

w'g½kH\ tqk;ürlum; wzef b0ifpwomvQif rjywfjzpfom;\? b0ifjywfvwfaomf wzef tm0ZÆe; H d f G f ponfwYdk jzpfue\? þokYd vQif taMumif;ypön;uk&aom pdwtpOfoEÅmefonf b0if\tjcm;rJü tm0ZÆe;ç k f f d f h f tm0ZÆe;\tjcm;rJü 'óe (jrifopw) ponfwYdk-[laom pdwe,r (pdw\ ude;aojzpfpOf)\ tpGr;tm;jzifh f h d d f å d f f f omvQif wckaomb0ü b0if\ukejf cif; ([laom pkw)wkiatmif tzefwvJvrjywf jzpfvsuf½avonf/ rSeay d d f J dS f \-wckaomb0ü b0iftm;vk;wkYd \ aemufq;üjzpfaom tMuifpwonf½\? xkaemufq; b0ifpwudk xkb0rS H Hk d f dS d Hk d f d a½GUavsmaMumif; jzpfaomaaMumifh pkwpw[k ac:qktyf\/ xkUd aMumifh xkpwpwonfvnf; (b0if uJoYdk yif) d d f d d k d d f h 19-yg; tjym;½SdonfomvQif jzpf\/ þokYd vQif (19)yg;aom 0dyguf0nmPfwYdk \ pkwupö tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfyudk d d d f Hk odtyf\/ pkwrS aemufüwzef y#doaE¨pw?f y#doaE¨pwrS wzef b0ifpw-þokYd paom tjcif;t&mjzifh b0ok; d d d f d f H yg; *wdig;yg; 0dnmP|dwcepfyg; owåm0gouk;yg;wkYd ü ajym if;a½TUusifvnfaeukeaom owå0gwkYd \ pdwtpOf d k d f f oEÅmefonf rjywfrpJ jzpfvsuf½aeonfomwnf;/ qufí½Si;jyOD;tH-wajymif;jyefjyef usivnfaeMuaom þ dS f h f owå0gwkYd wif tMuifowå0gonf (r*¾i½pyg;[laom or®my#dywf tusifvrf;rSeudk pGrí) t&[wåzvoYdk G f S f h f J DS dk f a&muf\? xky*Kd¾ vf\ (pdwtpOfonfum;) pkwpwf csKyfNyD;vwfaomf tNyD;wkicsKyfjywfavonfom jzpfay\/ d k f d d d f þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ þqkcaompum;onf 0dnmPu©Emü tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ ¨ d

a0'emu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf
456/ ,cktcg ]]cHpm;jcif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m; tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí d H H h a0'emu©Em (a0'emtzkYd tpk)[lí odtyf\}}[k tMuifpum;ukd qkcNhJ yD? xkpum;üvnf; cHpm;jcif; vu©Pm ¨ d d rnfonfrm a0'emyifjzpfonf/ þtqkonf ]]igh½if cHpm;wwf\ cHpm;wwf\? xkUd aMumifh a0'em[k ac:qktyf S d S d onf}}[lí ajz½Sif; a[mMum;awmfronfEihf tnDyif/ xka0'emonf cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm [laom oabmtm;jzifh l S d wyg;wnf;omjzpfonf? okYd aomfvnf; trsKd;Zmwf\tpGr;tm;jzifh ukova0'emç tukova0'emç tAsmuw f dk f dk f a0'em [lí okH;yg; tjym;½S\/ d xko;yg;wkYd wif ]]umrm0p&ukovpwonf aomreó Oayu©mÓPf ocFg&wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzifh (8) yg; d Hk G dk f d f tjym;½Sd\}} þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh qkcNhJ yD;aom ukovpwf (21) yg;ESi,Oaom a0'emonf ukovf a0'em d d dk f d hf S f dk rnf\/ tukovpwf (12) yg;ESi,Oaom a0'emonf tukova0'em rnf\/ (0dygufu&,m) tAsmuwpdwf dk f d hf S f dk f d d (56)yg;ESihf ,SOaom a0'emonf tAsmuwa0'em rnf\/ xkd (89) yg;aom a0'emonf obm0 tjym;tm;jzifh f okc 'ku© aomreó a'greó Oayu©m[lí (5) yg; tjym;½S\/ d «91» xkig;yg;wkYd wif ukov0dyguf um,0dnmPfEi,Oaom a0'emonf okcaywnf;/ tukov0dyguf d G S hf S f um,0dnmPfEi,Oaom a0'emonf 'kuaywnf;/ S hf S f © umrm0p&pdwf 54-yg;xJrS ukovpwf 4-yg;? o[dw0ygufpwf 4-yg;? (oEÅ&P[laom) t[dwf dk f d f d d D 0dygufpdwf 1-yg;? o[dwfud&d,mpdwf 4-yg;? ([odwyg'f[aom) t[dwu&,mpdwf 1-yg;? tukovf (avmb k Ü l f d d dk rl) pdwf 4-yg;? (aygif; aomreóo[*kwumrpdwf 18-yg;) ½lyg0p&pdwf 15-yg;xJrS yOörpsmefpwf 3-yg;ukd csef f d xm;í ukokdvfpdwf 4-yg;? 0dygufpdwf 4-yg;? ud&d,mpdwf 4-yg;? (aygif; aomreó o[*kwf ½lypdwf 12-yg;) avmukw&mpdwonfum; psmefEir,SOonf[í r½S?d xkUd aMumifh avmukwpwf ½Spyg;wkYd onf psmefig;yg;wkYd Eihf å f S hf f l å d f S ajr§mufyg;aomtm;jzifh av;q,fjzpfue\/ xkav;q,fwYdk wif yOörpsmefpw½pyg;ukd csefxm;í <uif;aom G k f d G d f S f avmukw&m ukovpwf 0dygufpwf 32-yg;[laom 62-yg;aom pdwwYdk Eihf ,SOaoma0'emonf aomreóay å dk f d d f S f wnf;/ tukokdvf (a'gorl) pdwf 2-yg;wkYd Eihf ,SOaom a0'emonf a'greóaywnf;/ <uif;aom 55-yg;aom S f pdwwYdk Eifh ,SOaom a0'emonf Oayu©maywnf;/ f S f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

88

xkig;yg;aom a0'emwkYd wif okca0'emonf £|azm|AÁm½kH ac:aumif;aomtawGUukd cHpm;jcif; vu©Pm d G ½Sd\? ,SOzuf (pdwapwodu) orÜ,ww&m;wkYd uyg;apjcif;-oefpr;zGUH xGm;apjcif; udp½\? uk,xüjzpfaom f f f k f dk G G f ö dS d f J om,mzG,[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? uk,tMunf½y[aom um,da`E´vQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\/ f d f k f l d 'kua0'emonf ted|azm|AÁ½ac: raumif;aom tawGUukd cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm½S\? ,SOzuf (pdwf © Hk d f apwodu) orÜ,ww&m;wkYd udk ñI;EGr;-tm;avsmhapjcif;udp½\? uk,xüjzpfvsuf ESypufwwfonfh tcHcuf f k f d f ö dS d f J d f aom oabm[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? um,da`E´vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ d aomreóa0'emonf £|m½kac: tvk½tyfaom tm½kaumif;ukd cHpm;jcif; vu©Pm½Sd\? [kwonf H d dS H f jzpfap r[kwonfjzpfap tvk½tyfaom tjcif;t&m-aumif;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ok;aqmifjcif;udp½\? pdwf f d dS H ö dS xJüjzpfaom om,mzG,[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? uk,pw\ Nidr;at;rI-yó'dvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ f d f d f f ¨ d a'greóa0'emonf ted|m½kac: tvkdr½Sdtyfaomtm½kHqkd;udk cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm½S\? [kwonf jzpfap H d f r[kwonfjzpfap tvkr½Styfaom tjcif;t&m - qk;aomtjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ok;aqmifjcif; udp½\? pdwxüjzpf f d d d H ö dS f J vsuf ESypufwwfonfh tcHcufaom oabm[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? {uefyif [',0w¬KvQif eD;aom d f taMumif;½Sd\/ Oayu©ma0'emonf raumif;rqk; tv,ftvwf oabm½Saomtm½kudk cHpm;jcif;vu©Pm ½S\? ,SOzuf d d H d f (pdwf apwodu) orÜ,ww&m;wkYd udk r½TirñI;apjcif;udpö ½S\? Nidroufonftjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? f k f f d d f h yDwuif;aompdwvQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½S\/ þwGiw&yfNyD;\/ d f d f þqkcaompum;onf a0'emu©Emü tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ ¨ d

onmu©E¨m jyqkdcsuf
457/ ,cktcg ]]rSwom;jcif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) waygif;wnf;ûyí f d H H h onmu©Em (onmtzkYd tpk)[lí odtyf\}}[k tMuifpum;ukd qkcNhJ yD? xkpum;üvnf; rSwom;jcif; vu©Pmrnf ¨ d d f onfrm onmyifjzpfonf/ þtqkonf ]]igh½irwom;wwf\? rSwom;wwf\? xkUd aMumifh onm[kac: qktyf S d S f S f f d onf}}[lí ajz½Si;a[mMum;awmfronfEitnDyif/ «92» xkonmonf rSwom;jcif; vu©Pm[laom oabm f l S hf d f tm;jzifh wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf? okYd aomfvnf; trsKd;Zmwf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ukovonm tukovonm f dk f dk f tAsmuwonm[lí ok;yg;tjym;½S\/ H d xko;yg;wkYd wif ukovpwf (21-yg;)ESihf ,SOaomonmonf ukovonmrnf\/ tukokdvfpdwf (12d Hk G dk f d f dk f yg;)ESihf ,SOaomonmonf tukovonmrnf\/ (0dygu ud&,m) tAsmuwpdwf (56-yg;)ESihf ,SOaom f dk f d f onmonf tAsmuwmonmrnf\/ onmESihf r,SOaompdw-0dnmPfrnfonf r½Sacs/ xkUd aMumifpw-0dnmPf f f d h d f \ tjym;½Soavmuf onm\ tjym;½Sdayonf/ d xkonmonf þqkconftwki; pdw-0dnmPfEihf wlnaomtjym;½Sjd im;aomfvnf; vu©Pmponf d d hJ h d f f S D tm;jzifh tm;vk;yif rSwom;jcif;vu©Pm½S\/ ]]þt&monf ,cifuawGUbl;aom xkt&myif}}[k wzefrwrjd cif; H f d d S f \ taMumif;edrwudk ûyjcif;udpö (&o) ½S\? opfw;ponfudk a½GcwaomolwYdk onf opfw;ponfwYdk ü trSwf d f d Hk k f Hk tom;edrwudk ûyMuouJoYdk yif/ rSw,rwi;aom edrw\ tpGr;tm;jzifh NrJNrHpm ESv;oGi;jcif;ukd ûyonfh d f h f l d dk f d f f G Hk f taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? qif½yyujdk yaom oluef;wkYd uoYdk yif/ xifwi;aom tm½kvQif eD;aom k f Hk hJ dk f H taMumif;½Sd\? jrufwYdkjzifh ûyvkyxm;aom vl½ywYdkü orifi,fwYdkrm vl[k jzpfaom rSwxifjcif;uJoYdk yifwnf;/ f k f S f h þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ þqkcaom pum;onf onmu©Emü tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ ¨ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

89

ocFg&u©E¨m jyqkdcsuf
458/ xkrwyg; ]]ûyvkyjf cif; aMumifMh upkujf cif; vu©Pm½Saom oabmw&m;tvk;pkudk (ÓPfjzif) d S d d H H h waygif;wnf;ûyí ocFg&u©Em (ocFg&tzkYd tpk)[lí odtyf\}}[k tMuifpum;udqcNhJ yD? xkpum;ü ûyvkyjf cif; ¨ k dk d vu©Pm rnfonfrm tpkûyjcif; aygif;pkay;jcif; vu©Pmaywnf;/ xkaygif;pkay;jcif;onf tb,fenf;[lrS d l ocFg&wkYd yifwnf;/ þtqkonf ]]ocFwrbdocFa&mEÅwd acgbdua0 wo®mocFg&mwd 0kpE/ bdu©a0-&[ef;wkYd ? d D © ö dÅ ocFw-tnDtnGwf pkaygif;íûytyf-NyD;aptyfaom w&m;uk?d tbdocFa&mEÅ-pkaygif;íûywwfue\ (0g-topf H d k f jzpfapwwfue\)? £wd acg wo®m-þokYd aom xktaMumif;aMumif?h ocFg&mwdocFg&wkYd [í? 0kpE-ac:qkd k f d l ö dÅ tyfue\}}[k a[mawmfronfEitnDyif/ xkocFg&wkYd onf (tbd ocF&P) pkaygif;ay;jcif;-pkaygif;í ûyjcif; k f l S hf d vu©Pm½Sdukef\? (tm,l[e) pkaygif;jcif;-tm;xkwjf cif; udpö (&o)½Sue\? (0dyg&) vIyvy½½G aMumifMh uûy d k f æ f I f G onftaetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? <uif;aom cE¨mok;yg;taygif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½S\/ h H d þokYd vu©Pmponftvktm;jzifh (ocFg&csnf;om) wyg;wnf;jzpfjim;aomfvnf; trsKd;Zmwftm;jzifh d ukovocFg& tukovocFg& tAsmuwocFg&[lí ok;yg;tjym;½Sue\/ xko;yg;wkYd wif ukovpwf (21-yg;) dk f dk f H d k f d Hk G dk f d ESihf ,SOaomocFg&wkYd onf ukovocFg& rnfue\/ tukovpwf (12-yg;)ESihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf f dk f k f dk f d f tukovocFg&rnfue\/ (0dyguf ud&,m) tAsmuwpdwf (56-yg;)ESihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf tAsmuw dk f k f d f ocFg& rnfue\/ k f xkd ocFg&wkYd wif umrm0p& yXrukovpwEihf ,SOueaom ocFg&wkYd onf (ed,w ted,w tm;jzifh G dk f d f S f k f 2-yg;tjym½Sdukef\? xkwi) tNrJ,OaomaMumifh ed,wrnfaom ocFg&wkYd onf ("r®o*FPD ygVdawmfü zóonf d G f S f jzpf\/ apwemonf jzpf\-ponfjzifh xkwazmfa[mxm;í) o½kytm;jzifvmukeaom ocFg&wkYd u 27-yg;? a, f f h f 0g yejzifh a[mxm;í a, 0g yeurnfaom ocFg&wkdYu 4-yg;? (aygif;ed,wocFg& 31-yg;) tNrJ r,SOaom f aMumifh ted,wrnfaomocFg&wkYd u 5-yg; þokYd tm;jzihf 36-yg; tjym;½Sdukef\/ xkwif zó? apwem? 0dwuf? 0dpm&? yDw?d 0D&,? ZD0w? orm"d? o'¨g? owd? [d&?D Mowåy?Ü tavmb? d G d d ta'go? tarm[? um,yó'd?¨ pdwyó'd?¨ um,v[kwm? pdwv[kwm? um,rk'wm? pdwå rk'wm? um,ur® å å k k nwm? pdwur®nwm? um,yg*knwm? pdwyg*knwm? um,kZuwm? pdwKå Zkuwm-[laom þ 27-yg; wkYd onf å å k «93» o½kytm;jzifvmaom ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ f h qE´? t"darmu©? reodum&? wMwrZÑwwm[laom þ 4-yg;wkYd onf a,0gyeuocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ å u½kPm? rk'wm? um,'kp&w0d&wd? 0pD'p&w0d&wd? rdpmZD00d&wd[aom þ 5-yg;wkYd onf ted,w d ö d k ö d ä l ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ rSe\? þ 5-yg;wkYd onf w&Hwcgüom jzpfue\? jzpfMuvQivnf; waygif;wnf; rjzpfue?f f k f f k (wyg;csi;om jzpfMuonf)/ f 459/ xkdocFg&wkYd wif (tm½ku) awGUxdwwfaomaMumifh zórnf\/ xkzóonf (tm½ku)awGUxdjcif; G H dk d H dk vu©Pm ½Sd\? wkucujf cif;udpö (&o)½S\? 'Gg& tm½kH 0dnmPf[aom þok;yg;wkYd aygif;qkronfh taetm;jzifh d f dk d l H H d (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? xifay:vmaom tm½kvQif eD;aomtaMumif; (y'|mef) ½S\/ rSeay\-þzóonf ½kyf H d f r[kwonfh emrfw&m;yif jzpfaomfvnf; tm½kü awGUxdaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifomvQif jzpf\/ xkYd jyif wpdwf f H h wydi;tm;jzifh xdNidjcif; r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; tqif;onf rsufpudk xdcuouJoYdk ¤if;ç toHonf em;ukd xdcuf k f d dk f h dk ouJoYdk ¤if;ç pdwfukd¤if;ç tm½ku¤if; xdcuwwf\ (0g-xdcuapwwf\)/ ('Gg&tm½kH 0dnmPf) okH;yg; h H dk dk f dk f taygif;\ qkrjd cif;[k qktyfaom rdrtaMumif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh odaptyfonf\tjzpfaMumifh 'Gg&tm½kH 0dnmPf H d d f [laom ok;yg;aygif;qkronfh taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ xkzótm; avsmfaomESv;oGi;rI (tm0ZÆe;) H H d d Hk f f ESihf pu©Kpaom £a`E´u ûyjyifay;aom tm½kü tEÅ&m,fr½SyJ {uefyif jzpfjcif;aMumifh xifay:vmaom tm½kvQife; H d H D aomtaMumif;½S\ [lí qktyfayonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh a0'em\wnf&mjzpfaomaMumifh ta&r½Saom EGm; (r)uJoYdk d d d h rSwtyf\/ f 460/ aphaqmf wkuwe;ay;wwfaomaMumifh apwem rnf\? (tm½kü ,SOzufwYdk u) qufpyfay;wwf d f G f H f dk \-þum; aphaqmfwuwe;ay;wwf\ [laomyk'\ teuf/ xkapwemonf aphaqmfwuwe;jcif; vu©Pm dk f G f f d dk f G f ½Sd\? tm;xkwjf cif; aMumifMh uûyjcif; udp½\? pDrHonfhtaejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? tb,fuoYdk enf;[lrl ö dS hJ

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

90

(uk,wiu aMumifMh uûyjcif;jzif) rdr\udpö olwyg;wkYd \ udpwYdk uNdk yD;apaomwynfBh uD;ç vufom;q&mBuD;wkYd uhJ d f dk f h d ö ® okYd yifwnf;/ xkYd jyif taqmwvsifûyoifonfh trIupwYdk udk atmufarhqifjcif&m ponfwYdk ü þ apwemonf h d ö twljzpfzuf (orÜ,w)w&m;wkYd udk tm;xkwaponf\ tjzpfjzifh rjywfjzpfvsuf (txl;) xif½m;ay\/ k f f S 0dwuf 0dpm& yDwwYdkü qkoifaom pum;tm;vk;ukd yx0DuodPeda'´o yXrpsmef\tzGiü qkcNhJ yD; ½Sav d d h H hf d d NyD/ 461/ (ûyvky&ef) &J&ifonf\tjzpfonf 0D&, rnf\/ ¤if;onftm;xkwjf cif; vu©Pm½S\? twljzpfzuf f h d d w&m;wkYd tm; axmufytm;ay;jcif;udpö ½S\? rqkwepfonf\ tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ]]xdwvefYrhH d f f I oHa0*&olonf taMumif;rSe-enf;rSetm;jzifh tm;xkw\}}[k a[mawmfraomaMumifh xdwvefYr-oHa0*vQif f f f l f I eD;aomtaMumif;½S\? wenf;um; 0D&,m&rÇ0w¬KvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\? aumif;pGm-rSepm tm;xkwaom d d d f G f 0D&,onf tvk;pkaom jynfpjHk cif; -pnf;pdrcsr;omwkYd \ t&if;rlv jzpfonf[k rSwtyf\/ d H H h f f f 462/ ,SOzufw&m;wkYd \ touf½iaMumif;oabmonf ZD0wrnf\? wenf;um; touf½if wwfaom f S f d S oabmonf ZD0wrnf\? wenf;um; touf½ijf cif;rQ oabmonf ZD0wrnf\/ ,if;ZD0w\ vu©Pmponf d S d d wkYd url ½kyZ0wü qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifyif odtyf (uke)\/ rSef\-xdk ½kyZ0wonf ½kyw&m;wkYd \ touf dk fD d d h f f D d f (½SiaMumif;) jzpf\? þZD0wonf pdwapwoduemrf w&m;wkYd \ (touf½iaMumif;aywnf;) þrQom þESpyg; f d f f S f f aom ZD0wwkYd ü xl;jcm;jcif; ½Sayonf/ d d «94» 463/ tm½kü pdwudk tnDtnGwxm;wwfaom oabmonf wenf; aumif;pGmxm;wwfaom H f f oabmonf orm"d rnf\? wenf;um; pdwuaumif;pGm xm;jcif;rQoabmonf orm"drnf\/ ¤if;onf tm½kH f dk wyg;okYd ra½GU½Sm;rysHUoGm;jcif; vu©Pm½S\? wenf;um; ,SOzufw&m;wkYd udk rysHUvGiapjcif;vu©Pm½S\? d f hf d twljzpfzufw&m;wdYk udk aygif;pkapjcif;udpö ½S\? a&u qyfjymrIeYf wYdkudk aygif;pkv;cJapouJoYdkyif? Nidroufonfh d Hk h f taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? txl;tm;jzifh (0g-a,bk,s omrntm;jzif) okcvQif eD;aomtaMumif; h ½Sd\? avNidr&mt&yfü qDr;wkYd \ wnfNidrjf cif;uJoYdk pdw\ wnfNidrjf cif; oabm[k rSwtyf\/ f D h f f 464/ (,SOzufw&m;wkYd \) MunfvifaMumif;jzpfaom w&m;onf o'¨grnf\? wenf;um; Munfvif f wwf-,kMH unfwwfaom w&m;onf o'¨grnf\? wenf;um; Munfvifjcif;-,kMH unfjcif;rQ oabmonf o'¨g rnf\/ ¤if;onf (&wemok;wefEihf uHç uH\tusKd;uk) ,kMH unfjcif; vu©Pm ½S\? wenf;um; ouf0ifí H S d d BuHpnfjcif;-,kMH unfq;jzwfjcif; vu©Pm½S\? (,SOzufwYdk u) Munfapjcif;udpö ½S\? a&ukMd unf apaom ywåjrm; Hk d f dk d &wemuJoYdkyif? wenf;um; (,kMH unfz,ü) ajy;0ifjcif;udp½\? a&,Ofudk ul;cyf0aom oluoYdkyif? raemufusK h G f ö dS hH hJ onfhtaetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? wenf;um; ,kMH unf qk;jzwfjcif; taejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? H ,kMH unfz,0w¬KvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½Sd\? wenf;um; olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd em&jcif; tp½Saom aomwmywåd G f d ,*F av;yg;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\? vufEiwonf OpömESiwonf rsKd;aphEihf wlonf[k rSwtyf\/ d S hf l hf l S f 465/ (,SOzufw&m;wkYd \) atmufarhaMumif;-trSw&aMumif;oabmonf owdrnf\? wenf;um; f f atmufarhwwf-trSw&wwfaom oabmonfowdrnf\? wenf;um; atmufarhjcif;-trSw&jcif;rQoabmonf f f owdrnf\? ¤if;onf (rdr\ tm½ktjzpfr) ray:rxGuapjcif; (tydvmye) vu©Pm½S\? rarhapjcif;udpö ½S\? d H S f d d tapmifhta½Smuf taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif \? wenf;um; tm½kqoYdk a½S;½Iûyaeonftjzpfjzifh ÓPftm; H D h a½S;½Ixif\/ ckiNf rJaom trSwonmvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\? wenf;um; um,tp½Saom owdy|meftm½kvQif d f d d H eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ Oyrmtm;jzifh tm½kü NrJNrHpmwnfaomaMumifh (ûrdUayguf0ü xlpuxm;aom) wHcg;wkiBf uD; d H G dk f d uJoYdk ¤if;ç pu©K'Gg&ponfudk apmifa½SmufwwfaomaMumifh wHcg;apmifh 'g&0rfuoYdk ¤if; rSwtyf\/ h h hJ f 466/ um,'kp½kwf ponfwYdk rS ½SuwwfaomaMumifh [d&rnf\? þtrnfonf ½Sujf cif; oabm\ d f D trnfaywnf;/ xkd um,'kp½kwponfwYdk ryifvQif aMumufvefYwwfaomaMumifh Mowåyrnf\/ þtrnfonf d f S Ü raumif;rIrS xdwvefYjcif;\ trnfaywnf;/ xkd ESpyg;wkYd wif [d&onf raumif;rIrS pufqyjf cif;vu©Pm½S\? f f G D k d Mowåyonf aMumufvefYjcif;vu©Pm½S\/ [d&onf ½Suaomtjcif;t&mtm;jzifh raumif;rIwYdk udk rûyjcif;udpö Ü d D f ½Sd\? Mowåyonf aMumufvefYaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh rûyjcif;udpö ½S\/ þ[d&Eihf MowåywYdk onf qkcNhJ yD;aom Ü d D S Ü d ½Suonftjcif;t&m vefYonftjcif;t&mtm;jzifyifvQif raumif;rIrS wGeYf qwaomtm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif f h h h k f uke\? rdru,udk tav;ûyjcif; olwyg;uktav;ûyjcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½Sue\/ rdru,udk tav;ûyí f d dk f d d k f d dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

91

[d&jD zifh raumif;rIudk y,fpeYf \? trsKd;aumif;orD; acR;ruJoYdk yif/ olwyg;ukd tav;ûyí MowåyjÜ zifh raumif;rIudk G h y,fpeYf \? jynfwefqmruJoYdk yif/ txl;rSwz,um; þw&m;ESpyg;wkYd udk avmuukd apmifa½Smufwwfonfh G h h f G f f h (avmuygvu) w&m;wkYd [í rSwtyf (uke)\/ l f f 467/ (,SOzufw&m;wkYd \) rvkcsif rrufarmaMumif; oabmonf tavmb rnf\? wenf;um;-rvkd f d csiwwf-rrufarmwwfaomoabmonf tavmbrnf\? wenf;um; rvkcsijf cif; rrufarmjcif;rQoabmonf f d tavmbrnf\/ ta'go tarm[wkYd üvnf; þenf;twki;yif/ xkwif tavmbonf tm½kHü pdwf\ rrufarm d f d G rvkcsifjcif; vu©Pm½S\? wenf;um; ruyfNidjcif; vu©Pm½S\? Mum½Guüa&aygufonf rNiduyfouJoYdk yif/ (igh d d d f h Opöm[kpvrf;aomtm;jzif) rodr;ykujf cif; udp½\? udavomrSvwNf yD;aom &[EÅmuJoYdkyif/ rNidw,onf\ JG h f d ö dS G h G f tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;)a½S;½Ixif\? rpifwi;üusaom olonf (rpifü rNidw,)ouJoYdkyif/ G f G f h «95» 468/ ta'goonf rMurf;wrf;jcif;-El;nHjh cif;vu©Pm½S\? wenf;um; (tm½kEi) rqefYusifjcif; d H S hf vu©Pm½Sd\? olUtvkoYdk vuaom rdwaqGuoYdk yif/ &efNidK;ukd y,fazsmufjcif;udpö ½S\? wenf;um; (a'go) d dk f f hJ d tyludk Nidr;apjcif;udp½\? pE´u;onf (tyludk Nidr;ap) ouJoYdk yif/ at;csrf;onf\tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½I f ö dS l f h xif\? vjynf0ef;uJoYdk yif/ h h 469/ tarm[onf oabmrSetwki; xk;xGi;odjcif; vu©Pm½S\? wenf;um; rcRwrvGJ xk;xGi; f d f d f d f d f odjcif; vu©Pm½S\? uRr;usiaomav;orm;u ypfvuaomjr§m;\ wnfwnfrwfrwf xdreazmufxi;jcif;uJh d f f dk f h h S f G f okYd yif/ tm½kudk xifvif;apjcif;udpö ½S\/ qDr;uJoYdk yif/ awGa0rIuif;aomtm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\?awmü H d D h usifvsifaom c&D;nTeaumif;uJoYdk yif/ tavmb ta'go tarm[[laom þok;yg;vk;wkYd onf tvk;pkaom f h H H H H ukovwYdk \ rlv&if;jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf\/ dk f f 470/ apwodutaygif;um,\ Nidr;jcif;onf um,yó'drnf\/ pdwf\Nidr;jcif;onf pdwyó'd¨ f f ¨ f å rnf\/ qufOD;tHh-þt&mü um,[lonfrm a0'emtp½Saom emrfcE¨mok;yg;wkYd aywnf;/ ESpyg;ukefaom þ S d H f um,pdwyó'dwYdk onf waygif;wnf; jzpfuevsuf apwodutaygif; uk,EipwwYdk \ ylyefjcif;ukd Nidr;ap å ¨ k f f d f S hf d f f jcif; vu©Pm ½Sue\? uk,EipwwYdk \ ylyefjcif;ukd ESreif;zsufq;jcif;udpö ½Sue\? uk,EipwwYdk \ ylyef d k f d f S hf d f d f D d k f d f S hf d f wkevyf jcif;uif;í at;csrf;onf\ tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif uke\? (at;Nidr;aom) uk,Eihf pdwvQif f I f f d f S f eD;aomtaMumif; ½Sue\/ uk,EipwwYdk \ rNidroufjcif;ukd ûywwfaom O'¨ptp½Saom udavomwkYd \ d k f d f S hf d f f ö d qefYusizuf jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf(uke)\/ f f f um,\ ayghonf\ tjzpfonf um,v[kwm rnf\/ pdwf\ayghonf\ tjzpfonf pdwv[kwm å rnf\/ xkEpyg;aom v[kwmwkYd onf uk,EipwwYdk \ xki;rIi;av;vHjcif;ukd Nidr;apjcif; vu©Pm½Sue\? d S f d f S hf d f d f d f f d k f uk,f ESipwwYdk \ xki;rIi;av;vHjcif;ukd ESreif;zsufq;jcif; udpö ½Sue\? uk,EipwwkdY\ rEkUH aES;onf\ d hf d f d f d f d f D d k f d f S hf d f tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifue\? (ayghyg;aom) uk,EipwvQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½Sue\/ uk,Eipwf k f d f S hf d f d k f d f S hf d wkYd \ xki;rIi;av;vHjcif;ukd ûywwfonfh xderd'tp½Saom udavomwkYd \ qefYusizuf jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf d f d f ¨ d f f (uke)\/ f um,\ El;nHonf\tjzpfonf um,rk'wmrnf\/ pdwf\ El;nHonf\tjzpfonf pdwr'wm rnf\/ h k h å k k xkEpyg;aom rk'wmwkYd onf uk,EipwwYdk \ cufxefawmifwif;jcif;ukd Nidr;apjcif; vu©Pm½Sue\? uk,Eihf d S f k d f S hf d f h f d k f d f S pdwwYdk \ cufxefawmifwif;jcif;udk ESreif;zsufq;jcif;udpö ½Sue\? (wpkwckaom tm½kü) rxdyg;aom tm;jzifh f h d f D d k f H H (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifukef\ (0g-,SOzufw&m;wkYd u) tm½kürxdyg;jcif;ukd a½S;½Ijzpfapwwfue\? (El;nHaom) f dk H k f h uk,EipwvQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½Sue\? uk,EipwwYdk \ cufxefawmifwif;jcif;ukd ûywwfonfh 'd|d rme d f S hf d f d k f d f S hf d f h tp½Saom udavomwkYd \ qefYusizufjzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf (uke)\/ d f f f um,\ trIü aumif;onf\ tjzpf-avsmfonf\ tjzpfonf um,ur®nwm rnf\/ pdwf\ trIü aumif;onf\tjzpf-avsmfonf\tjzpfonf pdwur®nwm rnf\/ xkEpyg;aom ur®nwmwkYd onf uk,Eihf å d S f d f S pdwwYdk \ trIü raumif;jcif; ravsmjf cif;ukd Nidr;apjcif;vu©Pm½Sue\? uk,EipwwYdk \ trIü raumif;jcif; f f d k f d f S hf d f ravsmfjcif;ukd ESreif;zsufq;jcif; udp½uef \? uk,EipwwYdk \ tm½kûH yrI jynfpjHk cif; aumif;jcif;ukd a½S;½Ijzpfap d f D ö dS k d f S hf d f h wwfue\? (trIü aumif;aom avsmaom) uk,Eihf pdwvQif eD;aom taMumif;½Sue\/ uk,Eihf pdwwYdk \ k f f d f S f d k f d f S f trIü raumif;jcif;-ravsmfjci;fudk ûywwfaom (qkcNhJ yD;rS) <uif;aom eD0&Ptp½Saom tukovwYdk \ d d dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

92

qefYusifzuf jzpfMuonf[í¤if;? Munfñz,f 0w¬KwkYd ü Munfñjdk cif;ukd aqmifwwfMuonf[í¤if;? a½TpifuhJ l dk G l okYd yif tusKd;pD;yGg; ukd ûyrIwYdk ü ,SOap&ef cHjh cif; oifavsmfjcif;ukd aqmifwwfMuonf [lí¤if; rSwtyf (uke)\/ f h f f «96» ukd,f\avhvmoefpr;jcif; cHuse;jcif;onf um,yg*knwm rnf\/ pdwf\avhvmoefpr;jcif; G f h f G f cHuse;jcif;onf pdwyg*knwmrnf\/ xkEpyg;aom yg*knwmwkYd onf uk,Eihf pdwwYdk \ use;rmonf\tjzpfh f å d S f d f S f f usef;rmjcif;vu©Pm½Sue\? uk,Eihf pdwwYdk \ ruse;rmjcif;ukd ESreif;zsufq;jcif; udp½ue\? (ruse;rmjcif; d k f d f S f f d f D ö dS k f f [laom) tjypfuif;aomtm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifue\? (use;rmoefpr;aom) uk,Eihf pdwvQif eD;aom k f f G f d f S f taMumif; ½Sue\/ uk,EipwwYdk \ rusef;rmjcif;ukd ûywwfaom r,kMH unfjcif; tp½Saom tukovwYdk\ d k f d f S hf d f d dk f qefYusizufjzpfMuonf[k rSwtyfue\/ f f k f uk,\ ajzmifrwfonf\ tjzpfonf um,kZuwm rnf\/ pdwf\ajzmifrwfonf\ tjzpfonf d f h k h pdwKå Zkuwm rnf\/ xkEpyg;aom OZkuwmwkYd onf uk,Eihf pdwwYdk \ ajzmifrwfjcif; vu©Pm½Sue\? uk,Eihf d S f d f S f h d k f d f S pdwwYdk \ aumufuspfjcif;ukd ESreif; zsufq;jcif; udp½ue\? taumuftuspf uif;aomtm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) f d f D ö dS k f a½S;½I xifukef\? (ajzmifrwfaom) uk,Eihf pdwvQif eD;aom taMumif;½Sdukef\/ uk,EipwwYdk \ aumufuspf h d f S f d f S hf d f jcif;ukd ûywwfaom rm,momaX,sponfwYdk\ qefYusizuf jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf(uke)\/ f f f 471/ qE´[aom þtrnfonf ûy&eftvk½onf \tjzpf-ûyvkjd cif;\ trnfaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifh ,if; l d dS qE´onf ûyvkjd cif;vu©Pm½Sd\? tm½kHukd ½Smjcif;udp½Sd\? tm½kHukd tvkd½Sdonfhtjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ö xktvk½aom tm½konfyif ,if;qE´\ eD;aomtaMumif; y'|mefaywnf;? pdw\ tm½kudk ,l&mü þqE´onf d d dS H f H vufqefYjcif;ESihf wlonf[k rSwtyf\/ f 472/ tm½kHukd qkH;jzwfjcif;onf t"darmu©rnf\? ¤if;onf tm½kudk qk;jzwfjcif;vu©Pm½S\? rqk;jzwf H H d H Ekijf cif;\ qefYusifzufup½\? qk;jzwfaomw&m;[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? qk;jzwftyfaom tm½kw&m;vQif d d ö dS H H H eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ tm½kü vIy½m;jcif;uif;onf\ tjzpfjzifh wHcg;wkiEihf wlonf[k rSwtyf \/ d H f S d f S f 473/ ûyjcif;onf um&rnf\? reod-pdwü um&-(tm½ku) ûyjcif;onf reodum&rnf \? a½S;rerS f H dk xl;aomre-pdwudk ûywwfaomaMumifvnf; reodum&rnf\/ xkoYdk aom-þreodum&onf (1) tm&r®P f h d y#dyg'u (2) 0Dxy#dyg'u (3) Z0ey#dyg'u[lí ok;yg;t jym;½S\/ d H d xkwif tm&r®Py#dyg'uac: tm½küoGm;apaom reodum&onf reod-pdwü + um&-ûyjcif;-xm;jcif;d G H f ESv;oGi;jcif; aywnf;/ ¤if;onf (,SOzufw&m;wkYd udk tm½kqoYdk ) oGm;apjcif; vu©Pm½S\? ,SOzuf w&m;wkYd udk Hk f f H D d f tm½kü ,SOapjcif; udp½\? tm½kHokdY a½S;½Iûyaeonfh tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? tm½kvQif eD;aom H f ö dS H taMumif;½Sd\/ ocFg&u©Emü tusKH;0if\? tm½küoGm;apwwfonf\ tjzpfjzifh ,SOzufw&m;wkYd udk armif;ESiol ¨ H f f (&xm;xde;)uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ xkrwyg; 0Dxy#dyg'uac: 0DxpwtpOfudk jzpfapwwf pD&ifwwf aomreodum& f h f d S d d d f [laom þtrnfonf yOö'g&m0ZÆe;\ trnfaywnf;/ Z0ey#dyg'uac: aZmukd jzpfapwwf pD&ifwwfaom G f reodum& [laom þtrnfonf raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;\ trnfaywnf;/ xkdESpfyg;wkdYukd þt&mü tvkd r½Sdtyfukef/ f 474/ wMw-xk,Ozufw&m; wkYd ü+rZÑwwm-tv,f tvwfoabm½Sonf\ tjzpfonf wMwrZÑwwm d S f å d å rnf\/ ¤if;onf ,SOzufpwapwoduwYdk udk tnDtrQaqmifjcif; jzpfapjcif; vu©Pm½S\? avsmjh cif; vGejf cif;ukd f d f f d wm;jrpfjcif;udp½\? wenf;um; wzufowfvujf cif;ukd y,fjzwfjcif;udp½\? tv,ftvwf oabm½Sonf\ ö dS dk ö dS d tjzpfjzifh ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\? pdwapwoduwYdk udk tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ionf\tjzpfjzifh tnDtrQ oGm;aeaom f f tmZmenfjrif;wkYd udk vspfvsL½Iaeaom &xm;armif;orm;uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ h f (97) u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd udk jA[®0[m&eda'´oü qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifyif odtyf (uke) \/ rSeay\ xkü d d d h f f d qkcaom u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd onf oufouf tyÜemokYd a&mufMuaom ½lyg0p&w&m;wkYd aywnf;? ,ck þt&mü d hJ d jyaom u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd onf umrm0p&w&m;wkYd om jzpfMuonf? þrQomvQif xl;jcm;jcif; ½Sayonf/ d d aupd-tcsKdUq&mwkYd onfum; arwåmESihf Oayu©mwkYd uvnf; ted,wwkYd ü (xnfoi;,l&ef) tvk½ue\? dk h G f d dS k f xktqkudk vufrcHtyf? taMumif;rlum; arwåm[lonfrm teufw&m;uk,tm;jzifh ta'go apwoduomvQif d d S d f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

93

jzpfonf? Oayu©m[lonfrmvnf; wMwrZÑwwmapwoduf [laom Oayu©momvQif jzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh vufrcH S å tyfay/ 475/ um,'kp½kwrS MuOfjcif;onf um,'kp&w0d&wdrnf\/ <uif;aom 0d&wdEpyg;wkYd üvnf; enf;wl d f ö d S f yif/ vu©Pm ponftm;jzifrl þ0d&wdo;yg;vk;yif um,'kp½kwf ponfwYdk \ 0w¬KwkYd udk rusL;vGejf cif; h Hk H d vu©Pm½Sdukef\? reif;e,fjcif; vu©Pm½SMd uonf[k qkv\? um,'kp½kwponfwYdk \ 0w¬KrS wGeYf qwjf cif; d dk d f k udp½Sdukef\? ,if;'kp½kwwYdk udk rûyjcif; oabm[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifue\? o'¨g [D&d MowåyÜ tyÜpwm ö d f k f d ä (tvkenf;jcif;) tp½Saom *kPwYdk vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½Suef \/ raumif;rIudk ûyjcif;rSpw\ rsuEmvTjJ cif; d d f d k d f f S oabmrsm; jzpfMuonf[k rSwtyf (uke)\/ f f 476/ ,ck jyqkconfh twki; 36-yg;aom þ ocFg&wkYd onfomvQif umrm0p&ukovf yXrpdwEihf d hJ d f dk f S ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\/ 'kw,pdwEivnf; xkUd twlyif odtyf\? þ 'kw,pdwü oocFg& tjzpfrQomvQif d f S hf d f xl;onf/ wwd,ukovf pdwEirl tarm[rSwyg; <uif;aom (35-yg;aom) ocFg&wkYd ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\/ dk f S hf pwkwpwEihf xkUd twlyif? þpdwü oocFg& tjzpfrQomxl;onf/ ¬ d f S f xkrwyg; yXrpdwüqkcaom ocFg&wkYd wif yDwr<S uif;aom (35 -yg;aom) ocFg&wkYd onf yOörpdwEihf d S f d hJ G d f S ,SOue\/ q|pdwEivnf; xkUd twlyif/ þq|pdwü oocFg&tjzpfrQom xl;onf/ owårpdwEirl tarm[ f k f f S hf f f S hf ukd csefxm;í <uif;aom (34 -yg;aom) ocFg&wkYd ,OMf uonf[k odtyf\/ t|rpdwEivnf; xkUd twlyif/ þ S f S hf t|rpdwü oocFg& tjzpfrQomxl;onf/ f umrm0p& yXrukovpwü qkcaomocFg&wkYd wif 0d&wdo;yg;ukd csefxm;í <uif;ukeaom (33-yg; dk f d f d hJ G Hk f aom) ocFg&wkYd onf ½lyg0p&ukovf yXrpsmefpwEi,Oue\/ xkd 33- yg;xJrS 0dwufMuOfaom 32-yg;aom dk d f S hf S f k f ocFg&wkYd onf 'kw,psmefpwEihf ,SOue\/ xkd 32-yg;xJrS 0dpm&MuOfaom 31-yg;wkYd onf wwd,psmefpwEihf d d f S f k f d f S ,SOue\/ xkd 31-yg;xJrS yDwMd uOfaom 30-wkYd onf pwkwpsmefpwEihf ,SOue\/ xkd 30-xJrS ted,w f k f ¬ d f S f k f rnfonfh u½kPmrk'wmwkYd MuOfaom 28-yg;wkYd onf yOörpsmefpwEihf ,SOue\/ xkd 28-yg;wkYd onfyifvQif d d f S f k f t½lyg 0p&ukokdvfpdwf 4-yg;wkYd ü ,SOue\/ þt½lyg0p&psmefpdwfwkdYü t½lyg0p& tjzpfrQonfom xl;onf/ f k f avmukw&mukovpwwYdkwif yXrpsmefEihf ,SOaom r*fpwf (4-yg;)ü ½lyg0p&yXrpsmefpwf üqkcaom å dk f d f G S f d d d hJ enf;jzifh (u½kPm rk'wmwkYd udk Ekwy,fum 0d&wdo;yg;wkYd udk xnfí ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd udk odtyf\? 'kw, d f Hk h f d psmefEihf ,SOaom pdwponf tjym;½Saom r*fpwf (4-yg;)ü ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd udk ½lyg0p& 'kw,psmefpwf S f f d d f d d ponfwYdk ü qkcaomenf;jzifyifvQif (u½kPm rk'wmwkYd udk Ekwy,fum 0d&wdo;yg;wkYd udk wnfí) odtyf (uke) d hJ h d f Hk h f \/ txl;um; þavmukw&mpdwwYdk ü u½kPm rk'wmwkYd r½Sjd cif;ç «98» 0d&wdo;yg; tNrJ,Ojf cif;ç avmukw&m å f d Hk S å jzpfjcif;[laom þonfomvQif xl;ayonf/ ,ck qkconftwki; a½S;OD;pGm ukovomvQif jzpfueaom ocFg& d hJ h d f dk f k f wkYd udk odtyfue\/ k f 477/ tukovpwwYdk wif avmbrl yXrtukovpwEihf ,SOaom ed,w ocFg&wkYd onf o½kytm;jzifh dk f d f G dk f d f S f f vmaom ocFg& 13 -yg;? a,0gyejzifha[maom ocFg& 4-yg; þokYd tm;jzifh 17-yg; wkdYaywnf;/ xkdwGif zóç apwemç 0dwufç 0dpm&ç yDwçd 0D&,ç ZD0wç orm"dç t[d&uç taemwåyçÜ avmbç arm[ç rdpm'd|d [laom þ d d d ä 13-yg;wkYd onf o½kytm;jzifvmaom ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ qE´ç t"d armu©ç O'¨pçö reodum& [laom þ 4-yg; f h wkYd onf a,0gyejzifh a[maom a,0gyeuocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ 478/ xkwif r½Suwwfaomolonf t[d&urnf\? r½Suwwfaomol\ jzpfaMumif;oabmonf d G f d f t[d&urnf\/ raMumufvefYwwfaomoabmonf taemwåyrnf\/ xkd ESpyg;wkYd wif t[d&uonf um, d Ü f G d 'kp½wf ponfwYdk udk rpufqyjf cif;vu©Pm ½S\? wenf;r½Sujf cif; vu©Pm½S\/ taemwåyonf xk'p½kwwYdk rS ö dk k d d Ü d k d f yifvQif raMumuf½UHG jcif; vu©Pm½S\? wenf; rxdwvefYjcif; vu©Pm½S\/ þonfum; þt&mü tusOf;ay d f d wnf;? tus,url [d&D MowåywYdkudk jy&mü qkcaom pum;\ qefYusifzuftpGr;tm;jzifh odtyf\/ f dk Ü d hJ f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

94

479/ vkcsirufarmaMumif;oabmonf avmbrnf\? wenf; vkcsirufarmwwfaom oabmonf d f d f avmbrnf\? wenf; vkcsijf cif; rufarmjcif;rQonf avmb rnf\/ awGa0aMumif;ç trSm;ukd odaMumif; oabm d onf arm[rnf\? wenf; awGa0wwfç trSeurodwwf trSm;ukd odwwfaom oabmonf arm[rnf\? f dk wenf;awGa0jcif; trSeurodjcif; trSm;ukd odjcif;rQoabmonf arm[rnf\/ xkwif avmbonf tm½kudk f dk d G H odr;,ljcif;vu©Pm ½S\? arsmufEap;uJoYdk yif? tm½kü a½S;½I Niduyfjcif; udp½\? tk;uif;ylü ypfcsvuaom f d JS h H ö dS d dk f om;wpfuoYdk yif? rpGeYf vwEionfh taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½I xif\? qDrifpe;jcif;uJoYdk yif/ oHa,mZOf hJ T f dk f G f h êud;\ csnfwitm½kwYdk ü om,mzG,[k jrifjcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ wPSmjrpftjzpfjzifh wk;yGg;vwfaomf dk f H f d d vsifaom a&,Of½onfh jrpfonf ork'&mokYd aqmifom;ouJoYdk tyg,foYdk omvQif aqmif,í oGm;wwfonf[k dS ´ G h l rSwtyf\/ f 480/ arm[onf pdw\ ÓPfjrifuef;jcif;vu©Pm ½S\? wenf;trSerodjcif;-trSm;odjcif; vu©Pm f d f ½Sd\? xk;xGi;í rodapjcif;udp½\? wenf; tm½kH\oabmrSeudk zk;uG,jf cif; udp½S\? trSeroGm; trSm;jrifonfh d f ö dS f H ö d f taejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? wenf; ÓPfjrifuef;atmif ûyonfh trkuwuf taejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½I d f dk xif\? ta,medaomreodum&vQif eD;aomtaMumif; ½S\/ tukokdvftm;vkH;wkdY\ t&if;rlv[k rSwtyf\/ d f 481/ rSm;,Gi;pGm jrifaMumif; oabmonf rdpm'd|d rnf\? wenf;-rSm;,Gi;pGm jrifwwfaom oabmonf f ä f rdpm'd|d rnf\/ wenf;-rSm;,Gi;pGm jrifjcif;rQonf rdpm'd|rnf\/ ¤if;onf roifrrSeaom taMumif;enf;vrf; ä f ä d h f jzifh ESv;oGi;jcif;vu©Pm ½Sd \? trSeudk ausmfveí trSm;tm;jzifh ok;oyfjcif; udp½Sd\? rSm;,Gi;pGm Hk f f G f H ö f tckitrmESv;oGi;-,lpaeonf[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? t&d,mwkYd udk rzl;jrifvjdk cif; ponfvQif eD;aom d f Hk f JG taMumif; ½Sd \/ tvGetuJq;tBuD;qk;tjypf[k rSwtyf\/ f Hk H f «99» 482/ tm½kü rpl;pkuEiyJ wuf<uonf\ tjzpfonf O'¨prnf\? ¤if;onf rNidroufjcif; vu©Pm H d f dk f ö f ½Sd\? avwkucwfí vIyaeaoma&ESiw\? rwnfwjhH cif;udp½\? avwkucwfí vIy½m;aeaom wHcef tvHEihf d f f hf l ö dS d f f S G S wl\? csmcsmvnfonf\ tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ausmufcusvmí cwfrojzifh yswufaeaom jymESihf J d H wl\? pdwf rNidroufatmif roifrawmfpm ESv;oGi;jcif;vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ pdwudk ypfvijhf cif;oabm f h G Hk f d f T 0g -pdw\ ysUH vGiaMumif; oabm[k rSwtyf\/ <uif;ukeaom zóponfwYdk udk ukovf ocFg&t&mü qkcNhJ yD; f hf f f dk d aom enf;jzifyif odtyfue\/ rSeay\-tukovrQ tjzpfonfomvQif¤if;ç tukovjf zpfaomaMumifh ,kwnhH h k f f dk f dk f onf\ tjzpfonfomvQif¤if; þtukovf zóponfwYdk \ xkuovzóponfwYdk rS xl;jcm;jcif;½Sayonf/ dk d k dk f d 483/ ,ckjyqkconftwki; 17-yg;aom þocFg&wkYd onf yXrtukovpwEihf ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf d hJ d f dk f d f S \/ 'kw,tukovpwEivnf; xkUd twlyif odtyf\? txl;um; þ 'kw,tukovpwü oocFg& tjzpfonf d dk f d f S hf d dk f d f ¤if;ç xderd'\ ted,w tjzpfonf¤if; (0g-ted,w jzpfaom xderd'Eihf ,SOjf cif;onf¤if;) txl;aywnf;/ ¨ ¨ S xkxerd'wYdkwif wGeYf qwjf cif; ysi;&djcif;onf xdernf\? (rpGr;Ekijf cif; yifyef;jcif; tvktm;jzif)rkijf cif; d d ¨ G k f f d d h d ikiaejcif;onf rd'rnf\/ tm;xkwjf cif;r½SyJ wGeYf qwjf cif;onf xde\teuf? pGr;Ekijf cif; uif;vsuf yifyef;jcif; d f ¨ d k f d onf rd'-\teuf jzpfonf/ xdeESir'wí xderd'[k ac:onf/ xkwif xdeonf tm;rxkwjf cif;-tm;xkwrI ¨ hf d ¨ JG ¨ d G f uif;jcif;vu©Pm½S\? vkUH v0D&,ukd y,fazsmufjcif; udp½\? wGeYf qwjf cif;oabm[k (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ d d ö dS k rd'onf trIü raumif;jcif; ravsmfjcif; vu©Pm½S\? (0dnmP'Gg&wkYd u) ydwjf cif;udpö ½S\? wGeYf qwonf\ ¨ d dk d k f tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? wenf; rSe;jcif; tdyiujf cif;ukd jzpfapwwf\/ xkd xderd'¨ ESpyg;vk;yif d f f dk f H ukovtvkyü raysmjf cif;ç uk,vufwYdkudk ypfEjJT cif; ponfwYdkü (0g-ponfwYdkjzpfatmif roifpm ESv;oGi;rIdk f f d f h G Hk f ta,medaom reodum&vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ d yXrtukovpwü qkcaom 17-yg;wkYd wif rdpm'd|udk csefxm;í <uif;aom ocFg&wkYd onf wwd, dk f d f d hJ G ä d tukovf pdwEihf ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\? txl;um; þ wwd,tukovpwü ted,wjzpf aomrmeonf dk f S dk f d f jzpf\-þum; txl;/ ,if;rmeonf wuf<u axmifvm;jcif; vu©Pm½S\? uk,u,udk csD;ajr§mufjcif;udp½\? T d d hf dk f ö dS wrf;cGeuoYdk jrifwufyvTm;vkonf\ tjzpfjzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\/ 'd|0y,wf avmbvQif eD;aom f hJ h d d d Ü k taMumif;½Sd\? ½l;oGyjf cif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ h f 'kw,tukovpwü qkcaom 19-yg;wkYd wif rdpm'd|udk csefxm;í <uif;aom ocFg&wkYd onf pwkw¬ d dk f d f d hJ G ä d tukovpwEihf ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\? þ pwkwpwüvnf; ted,wjzpfaom rmeonf jzpfonfomwnf;/ dk f d f S ¬ d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

95

xkrwyg; yXrtukovpwü qkcaom 17-yg;wkYd wif yDwudk csefxm;í <uif;aom ocFg&wkYd onf yOör d S dk f d f d hJ G d tukovpwEihf ,SOue\/ q|pdwEivnf; xkUd twlyif? þq|pdwü oocFg& tjzpfonf¤if; ted,w jzpf dk f d f S f k f f S hf f aom xderd'\ ,SOjf cif;onf¤if; þrQomxl;onf/ ¨ yOörtukovpwü qkcaom 16-yg;wkYd wif 'd|udk csefxm;í <uif;aomocFg&wkYd onf owår tukovf dk f d f d hJ G d dk pdwEihf ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\? txl;um; þowårpdwü ted,wjzpfaom rmeonf jzpf\ þum; txl;/ f S f q|pdwü qkcaom 18-yg;wkYd wif 'd|udk csefxm;í <uif;aomocFg&wkYd onf t|rtukovpwEihf ,SOMf uonf[k f d hJ G d dk f d f S odtyf\? þt|rpdwüvnf; ted,wjzpfaomrmeonf jzpfonfomwnf;/ þwGif w&yfNyD;\/ f 484/ xkdrSwyg; a'gorlpdwf 2-yg;wkYd wif yXrpdwEi,Oaom e,wocFg&wkYd onf o½kytm;jzifh G f S hf S f f vmaom ocFg&wkYd u 11-yg;? a,0gyeu ocFg&wkdYu 4-yg; (aygif; 15-yg;wkdYwnf;)? ted,w ocFg&wkdYu 3yg; wkYd wnf;? þokYd tm;jzifh «100» a'gorl yXrpdwEi,Oaom ocFg&wkYd onf 18-yg;wkdYaywnf;/ xkdwGif zóç f S hf S f apwemç 0dwufç 0dpm&ç 0D&,ç ZD0dwç orm"dç t[d&duç taemwåyÜç a'goç arm[ç [laom þ 11-yg;wkYd onf d o½kytm;jzifvmaom ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ qE´ç t"darmu©ç O'¨pçö reodum&[laom þ 4-yg;wkYd onf a,0g f h yeu-ocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ £ómç rpä&,ç ukuKú pö [laom þ 3-yg;wkYd onf ted,wocFg&wkYd aywnf;/ d 485/ xkwif zsufq;aMumif;oabmonf a'gornf\? wenf;zsuq;wwfaom oabmonf a'gornf d G D f D \? wenf; zsuq;jcif; jypfrm;jcif; pdwq;jcif;rQonf a'gornf\/ ¤if;onf trsufxujf cif; Murf;wrf;jcif; f D S f dk G vu©Pm½Sd\ ykwcwfc&aom a>rqk;a>ra[mufuoYdkyif? rdrjd zpfytm;jzif¤if; ted|½kywYdk udk jzpfapaomtm;jzif¤if; f H d hJ Hk h f h azmufjyefpm jyefYom;jcif;udp½\? 0g-uk,udk wkevyapjcif; udp½\0g-uk,\ wkevyjf cif;[laom jynfpHk G G ö dS d f f I f ö dS d f f I h aom &o½S\? tqdyusa&mufouJoYdk yif/ wenf; rdr\rS&m½kyudk avmifjcif;udpö ½S\? awmrD;avmifouJoYdk yif/ d f h d D f d h rdru¤if; olwyg;uk¤if; zsufq;wwfonfh taetm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½I xif\? tcGi&aom &efouoYdk yif/ d dk d D hf l hJ &efNidK;zGUJ aMumif; tmCmw0w¬KvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ tqdyEihf a&mxm;aom usifi,fa&ykyuoYdk rSwtyf\/ d f S f hJ f 486/ jiLpl (jcif;ukd ûy)jcif;onf £óm rnf\/ ¤if;onf olwyg;\ pnf;pdrwYdkudk jiLpljcif; (remvkjd cif;) f vu©Pm½Sd\? ,if; olwyg;\ pnf;pdrwYdk üyifvQif raysmfarGUjcif; udp½\? ,if;wkYd rS rsuEmvTonfh tjzpfjzifh f ö dS f S J (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? olwyg;pnf;pdrvQif eD;aom taMumif;½S\? oHa,mZOfêud;wacsmif;[k rSwtyf\/ f d f 487/ 0efwojl zpfaMumif;oabmonf rpä&,rnf\/ ¤if;onf &NyD;aomf¤if;ç &vwHaomf¤if; jzpfueaom dk d h k f rdr\ pnf;pdrwYdk udk vQKdU0Sujf cif;vu©Pm ½S\? ,if;pnf;pdrwYdk\yifvQif olwyg;wkYd Eihf qufqjH cif;ukd onf;rcH d f d f S Ekijf cif;udpö ½S\? (uk,yipnf;pdrwYdk \ olwyg;wkYd Eihf qufqjH cif;ukd rESpoufaomtm;jzif) wGeYf jcif;vQif d d d f dk f f S f h (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m½Sd\? wenf; cg;pyfaom tjcif;t&m jzpfjcif;vQif a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m ½Sd\? rdr\pnf;pdrvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\? pdw\ rvSyjcif; azmufjyefjcif; oabm[k rSwtyf\/ d f d f f 488/ uk-pufqyz,jf zpfaom+ uw-ûytyfNyD;aom trIonf ukuw rnf\? xkuuw\jzpfaMumif; k f G d k oabmonf ukuKú pörnf\? ¤if;onf aemifwwzef ylyefjcif;vu©Pm½S\? ûyrdaomraumif;rI rûyrdaom aumif;rI d ukd jyefvnfatmufarhvsuf pk;&dryyefjcif;udpö ½S\? ESv;romonfh taejzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½Ixif\? ûyrd d f l d Hk rûyrdaom trIvQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ uRef\tjzpfuoYdk rSwtyf\/ <uif;aom zóponfwYdk rm qkcNhJ yD;aom d hJ f S d tzGitjym; ½Sueonfomwnf;/ þwGiw&yfNyD;\/ hf d k f f þokdYvQif þ18-yg;aom ocFg&wkYd onf yXra'gorlpwEihf ,SOMf uonf[otyf\/'kw,pdwEivnf; d f S k d d f S hf xkUd twlyif? txl;um; þ'kw,pdwü oocFg&tjzpfonf¤if;? ted,wocFg& wkYd wif xderd'\ jzpfoifjh cif; d f G ¨ onf¤if;-þrQom xl;onf/ 489/ arm[rlpwf 2-yg;wkYd wif 0dpupmorÜ,wpwEihf ,SOueaom ocFg&wkYd onf zóç apwemç d G d d ä k f d f S f k f 0dwufç 0dpm&ç 0D&,ç ZD0wç pdw|wçd t[d&uç «101» taemwåyçÜ arm[ç 0dpupm[lí o½kytm;jzifvmaom d d å d d d d ä f h ocFg&wkdYu 11-yg;? O'¨pEihf reodum&[laom a,0gyeu ocFg&wkYd u 2-yg;? þokdYtm;jzifh 13-yg;wkYd aywnf;/ ö S 490/ xkwif pdw|w[onfrm jzpfqü wnfjcif;rQjzpfaom tm;enf;aom orm"daywnf;/ 0d-uif; d G å d d l S J aom+pdupm-ukpm;jcif;½Sonfh oabmonf 0g-ukpm;&efc,Of;aom oabmonf 0dpupmrnf\/ ¤if;onf d ä d J d d ä

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

96

(,kMH unfoifaom bk&m;ponfwYdk ü) ,krm;jcif; vu©Pm½S\? wkevyjf cif;udpö ½S\? rqk;jzwfEijf cif; ESv;ESpcG h H S d f I d H dk Hk f jzpfjcif;ukd jzpfapwwf\? wenf; tm½kü {uefr[kwonfh txl;xl;aom oabmukd ,lonftaejzifh (ÓPftm;) H f h a½S;½Ixif\? ,krm;jzpfatmif roifaomESv;oGi;rI ta,medaomreodum&vQif eD;aomtaMumif;½S\/ tusifh H S h Hk f d y#dywf\ tEÅ&m,fudk ûywwfaomw&m;[k rSwtyf\/ <uif;aom zó ponfwYdk rm qkcNhJ yD;aom tzGitjym; f S d hf ½Sueonfomwnf;/ d k f 0dpupmorÜ,wpwü qkcNhJ yD;aom ocFg&wkYd wif 0dpupmukd csefxm;í <uif;aom 12-yg;wkYd onf O'¨pö d d ä k f d f d G d d ä orÜ,wpwEi,Oue\? qufO;tH?h þO'¨porÜ,wpwü 0dpupmr½Sjd cif;aMumifh t"darmu©onfvnf; jzpfao; k f d f S hf S f k f D ö k f d f d d ä \? xkt"darmu©EiwuG 13-yg;wkYd yif ,SOue\/ txl;um; t"darmu© ½Sjd cif;aMumifh orm"donf (0dpupmpdwf d S hf f k f d d ä rSmxuf)omí tm;½Sd\? xkUd jyif þpdwü O'¨ponfvnf; o½kytm;jzifyifvm\/ t"darmu©Eihf reodum&wkYd onf f ö f h S um; a,0gyeu\ tpGr;tm;jzifh vmuke\/ þokYd tm;jzifh tukovocFg&wkYd udk odtyfue\/ f f dk f k f 491/ tAsmuwocFg&wkYd wif a½S;OD;pGm 0dygutAsmuwwkYd onf t[dwf o[dwtjym;tm;jzifh 2-yg; G f tjym;½Sue\/ xkwif t[dw0ygufpwEihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf t[dwf rnfue\/ xkd t[dw0yguf d k f d G f d d f S f k f f d ocFg&wkYd wif a½S;OD;pGm ukov0dyguf tukov0dyguf pu©K0dnmPfpwwYdk Eihf ,SOueaom ocFg&wkYd onf zó G d f S f k f apwem ZD0w pdw|w[í o½kytm;jzifh vmaom ocFg&wkYd u 4-yg;? a,0gyeu jzpfaom reodum&-u 1d å d d l f yg;? þokYd tm;jzifh ig;yg;wkYd aywnf;/ aomw0dnmPf Cme0dnmPf Zd0g0dnmPf um,0dnmPfpwwYdk Eihf ,SOuef S d f S f k aom ocFg&wkYd onfvnf; þig;yg;wkYd yifjzpfonf/ ESpyg;aom ukov0dyguf tukov0dyguf raem"mwf (ac: f orÜ#pKdä ef;)ESihf ,SOueaom ocFg&wkYd onf þqkcaom ig;yg;ESihf 0dwufç 0dpm&ç t"darmu©tm;jzifh ½Spyg;wkYd d f k f d hJ f aywnf;/ t[dwraem0dnmP"mwf (ac: oEÅ&P) ok;yg;ESivnf; xkUd twlyif ½Spyg;wkYd ,SOue\? txl;um; f D H hf f f k f ,if;ok;yg;wkYd wif aomreóo[*kwf oEÅ&PpdwEihf yDwvnf;,SOao;\[lí odtyf\/ H G D f S d f xkrwyg; o[dw0yguf0nmPfwYdk Ei,Oaom ocFg&wkYd onf o[dwrnfue\/ xkwif a½S;OD;pGm d S f d d S hf S f f k f d G o[dwumrm0p& 0dygufpw½pyg;ESi,Oueaom ocFg&wkYd onf umrm0p&ukovpwf ½Spyg;ESi,Oaom f d f S f hf S f k f dk f d f hf S f ocFg&wkYd Eihf wlueonfomwnf;/ txl;um; ted,wwkYd wif u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd onf owå0gynwfvQif tm½kH S k f G d ½SaomaMumifh 0dygufwYdk ü r½Sue?f rSeay\ umrm0p&0dygufwYdk onf {uefyifumrw&m;vQif tm½k½ue\/ d d k f H dS k f oufouf u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd omvQif r½SMd uonf r[kwao;? 0d&wdo;yg;wkYd onfvnf; 0dygufwYdk ü r½SMd uuke/ d f Hk f rSeay\ ]]ig;yg;aom odumyk'wYdk onf ukovwYdk omvQifwnf;}}[k a[mawmfraom pum;½Say\/ f © f dk f l d «102» xkrwyg; ½lyg0p& t½lyg0p& avmukw&m0dygufpwwYdk Eihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onfum; ,if; d S å d f S f ok;rsKd;aom 0dygufwYdk \ (taMumif;jzpfueaom) ukovpwwYdkEihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd Eihf wlueonfomwnf;/ H k f dk f d f S f S k f 492/ ud&,mtAsmuwocFg&wkYd onfvnf; t[dwf o[dwftjym;tm;jzifh 2-yg; tjym;½Sdukef\/ xkdwGif d t[dwu&,mpdwEi,Oaom ocFg&wkYd onf t[dwrnfue\/ ,if;t[dwu&,mocFg&wkYd onfvnf; ukov f d d f S hf S f f k f f d d 0dyguf (orÜ#pKdä ef;[laom) raem"mwfEi¤if;ç ukov0dyguf (oEÅ&P[laom) t[dwraem0dnmP"mwf 2-yg;ESihf d S hf D f ¤if; ,SOueaom ocFg&wkYd Eihf wlue\? txl;um; (raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;ESi[odwyg'f [laom) t[dwu&,mraem f k f S k f f hf k Ü f d d 0dnmP"mwf 2-yg;ü 0D&,onfyve\ 0D&,½Sjd cif;aMumifh tm;½Saomorm"donf jzpf\? þonfum; þraem d dk G f d d 'Gg&m0ZÆe;ESihf [odwyg'fpwwYdk ü txl;aywnf;/ f k Ü d f xkrwyg; o[dwu&,mpdwwYdk Eihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf o[dwf rnfue\/ xkd o[dwf ud&,m d S f d d f S f k f d ocFg&wkYd wif a½S;OD;pGm o[dwumrm0p&ud&,mpdwf ½Spyg;ESihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf 0d&wdo;yg;wkYd udk csefxm; G f d f f Hk í umrm0p&ukovpw½pyg;wkYd Eihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd Eihf wlue\/ xkdrSwyg; ½lyg 0p& t½lyg0p&ud&d,m dk f d f S f S f S k f pdwwYdk Ei,Oaom ocFg&wkYd onf ,if;½lyg0p& t½lyg0p&ukovpwwYdk Eihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd Eihf tcsif;cyfor; f S hf S f dk f d f S f S d f wlueonfomwnf;/ þokYd vQif tAsmuw ocFg&wkYd uvnf; odtyfue\/ þwGiw&yfNyD;\/ k f dk k f f þqkdcJhaom pum;onf ocFg&u©E¨mü tus,fjyqkdcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ þqkdcJhaom cE¨mig;yg;a0befjyqkdcsufonf a½S;OD;pGm tbd"r®mü y'bmZeDrSmjyqkdxm;aomenf;jzifh cE¨m wkdYü tus,fjyqkdcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

97

twdwfponf a0befjyqkdcsuf
493/ jrwfpGmbk&m;onf]]twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef jzpfaom uk,wi;ürlvnf; jzpfaom uk,yürlvnf; jzpfaom d f G f d f Murf;wrf;onfrvnf; jzpfaom odrarGUonfrvnf; jzpfaom ,kwnonfrvnf; jzpfaom aumif; l f l f hH l jrwfonfrvnf; jzpfaom ta0;ürlvnf; jzpfaom teD;ürlvnf; jzpfaom tvkH;pkHaom ½kyfonf ½Sd\? l xkdtvkH;pkHaom½kyfukd waygif;wnf;pkí csKH;í þ½kyftaygif;ukd ½lyu©E¨m-½kyftpk[k ac:qkdtyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜejf zpfaom/y/ teD;ürlvnf;jzpfaom tvk;pkaom a0'emonf½\? xktvk;pkH H H dS d H aom a0'emukd waygif;wnf; pkícsKH;í þa0'emtaygif;ukd a0'emu©Em-a0'emtpk[k ¨ ac:qkdtyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜejf zpfaom/y/ teD;ürlvnf;jzpfaom tvk;pkaomonmonf½\? H H dS xktvk;pkaom onmukd waygif;wnf;pkí csKH;í þonmtaygif;ukd onmu©Emonmtpk[k d H H ¨ ac:qkdtyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef jzpfueaom uk,wi;ürlvnf; jzpfueaom/y/ teD;ü k f d f G f k f rlvnf; jzpfueaom tvk;pkueaom ocFg&wkYd onf ½Sue\? xktvk;pkaom ocFg&taygif;ukd k f H H k f d k f d H H waygif;wnf;pkí csKH;í þocFg&taygif;ukd ocFg &u©E¨m-ocFg& tpk[kac:qkdtyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜejf zpfaom/y/ teD;ürlvnf; jzpfaom tvk;pkH aom 0dnmPfonf½\? xktvk;pkaom H dS d H H 0dnmPfudk waygif;wnf;pkí csKH;í þ0dnmPftaygif;ukd 0dnm Pu©Em 0dnmPftpk[k ac:qktyf\}} ¨ d [lí -cE¨mwkYd udk þokYd tus,fa[mjyawmfrayonf/ l xkb&m;pum;awmfü (,HuO) tvk;pkaom qkonfpum;onf t<uif;rJh tukeor;,laom pum;ay d k d öd H H d h f d f wnf;/ ½kyfonf qkonfpum;onf a&mufve;jyefYve;aom teufudk owfrwwm;jrpfaompum;wnf;/ þokdY d h G f G f S f vQif (tvk;pkaom ½kyonf[aom)yk'Epctaygif;jzif½yudk t<uif;rJor;,ljcif;ukd ûyawmfronf/ xkUd aemif ,if; H H f l f S f k h k f h d f l ½kyudk «103» twdwpaom pum;jzifh a0bef&ef tm;xkwawmfravonf/ rSeay\-xk½yonf tcsKdUu twdwf f f l f d k f f vGecNhJ yD; jzpfonf? tcsKUd u tem*wf-rvmao;-vmvwHh ponftjym;½Sonf/ a0'emponfwYdk üvnf; þenf; f d twkdif;yif/ 494/ xkdwGif ½kyfonf t'¨gç oEÅwdç or,ç cPwkYd tvkd av;yg;tjym;tm;jzifh twdwf rnfonf jzpf\/ xkUd twlyif tem*wf ypöKyÜernfonfvnf; jzpf\/ f xkt'¨gponfwYdk wif t'¨gtvktm;jzifh wa,mufaomyk*Kd¾ vftm; wckaomb0ü y#doaE¨ra½S;ü twdwf d G d S rnf\? pkwraemufü tem*wfrnf\? y#doaE¨Eihf pkwd 2-yg;wkdY\ tv,fMum;ü 0g-twdwtem*wf 2-yg;wkdY\ d S S f tv,fMum;ü ypöKyÜernf\/ f oEÅwtvktm;jzifh oabmwlonfh wrsKd;wnf;aom OwkaMumifh jzpfaom½kyonf¤if;ç wckaom tm[m& d d f aMumifjh zpfaom ½kyonf¤if; a½S;aemufusonftvktm;jzifh jzpfjim;aomfvnf; ypöKyÜernf\? xkra½S;ü oabmrwl f h d f d S onfh Owktm[m&aMumif;jzpfaom½kyonf twdwrnf\? (xkypöKyÜer)aemufü tem*wfrnf\/ pdwåZ½kyfonf f f d f S wckaom yOö'g&0Dxd wckaomraem'Gg&aZmtpOf wckaomormywfaMumifh jzpfaom ½kyonf ypöKyÜernf\/ xkdrS G f f a½S;ü twdwfrnf\? xkraemufü tem*wfrnf\/ ur®Z½kyf\ oD;jcm;oEÅwd tvktm;jzifh twdwponf tjym; d S d f r½Sd? xkOwkZ tm[m&ZpdwZ½kywYdk \ taxmuftyHtvktm;jzifh ,if;ur®Z½ky\ twdwf ponftjzpfuotyf\/ d å f h d f dk d or,tvktm;jzifh wckaomrk[wf wckaomeHeufcif; wckaomnaecif; wckaomnOfaeY tp½Sueaom d k h d k f tcgor,wkYd ü tpOfoEÅmeftvktm;jzifh rjywfjzpfaeaom wrk[wpaom xkxtcgor,ESipyfqiaom½kyonf d k f d dk hf dk f f ypöKyÜernf\? xkra½S;ü twdwrnf\? aemufü tem*wfrnf\/ f d S f cPtvktm;jzifh jzpfqOyg'ftp½Saom cPok;yg;ü twGi;0ifaom½kyonf ypöKyÜernf\? xkra½S;ü d J d H f f f d S (cPok;yg;okYd ra&mufao;rD½yonf) tem*wfrnf\? aemufü (cPok;yg;ukd vGeNf yD;aom½kyonf)twdwrnf\/ H k f H f f wenf;jy&vQif jzpfapwwfonfh a[wktaMumif;udpö axmufywwfonfh ypö,taMumif;udpwYdkudk vGecNhJ yD;aom hH ö f ½kyonf twdwrnf\? a[wkupNö yD;pD;í ypö,udprNyD;ao;aom ½kyonf ypöKyÜernf\? ,if;udpö 2-yg;vk;okYd f f d ö f f H ra&mufao;aom ½kyonf tem*wfrnf\? wenf;um; rdrupudk ûyqJcPü ypöKyÜernf\? xkûd yqJ cPrS a½S;ü f d d ö f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

98

(rdrupudk rûy&ao;rD) tem*wfrnf\? xkupûö yNyD;onfraemufü (csKyfNyD;jzpfí) twdwrnf\/ þtwdwf d d ö d d S f ponfudk cGjJ y&mü cPuxm udpuxmonfomvQif rkcspum;jzpfonf? <uif;aompum;onf y&d,m,f pum;ay ö wnf;/ 495/ tZÑwå-uk,wi;½kyf A[d'-uk,y½kywYdk \ tjym;rSm qkcNhJ yD;aomenf; ½Sonfomwnf;/ okdYaomf d f G f ¨ d f f d d vnf; þt&mü ed,uZÑwåac: yk*K¾ vtoD;toD;\ oEÅmefüjzpfaom ½ky[orQonfvnf; tZÑwå-uk,wi;üjzpf d f f l d f G f aom ½kyrnf\? tjcm;ol\oEÅmefüjzpfaom (rsufptMunfpaom) ½kyonfvnf; A[d'-tjyifyüjzpfaom f d f ¨ ½kyfrnf\ [lí odtyf\/ Murf;wrf;aom MoVm&du½kyf odrarGUaomokcr½kywYdk \ tjym;onf qkcNhJ yD;aom enf; f k f d ½Sonfomwnf;/ d 496/ ,kwnaom [De½kyf aumif;jrwfaom yPDw½kywYdk \tjym;onf y&d,m,frcstm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym; f hH f k f ½Sd\/ xkwif tued|jA[®mwkYd \½kyatmuf ok'óDjA[®mwkYd \½kyonf ,kwn\? xkd ok'óDwYdk \ ½kyonfyifvQif d G f f f hH f ok'ómjA[®mwkYd \ ½kyxuf aumif;jrwf\/ þenf;jzifh i&Jowå0gwkYd \ ½kywiatmif y&d,m,ftm;jzifh ,kwnhH f f dk f f onf\tjzpf aumif;jrwfonftjzpfudk odtyf\/ rkcstm;jzifrum; tMuif½yü tukov0dygufpwonf tm½kH h l k f d f ûyvsuf jzpf\? xk½yonf ,kwn\/ tMuif½yü ukov0dygufpwonf tm½kûH yvsuf jzpf\/ xkd½kyfonf d k f f hH k f d f aumif;jrwf\/ «104» ta0;ü½kyf teD;ü ½ky[aom þ½kyf ESprsKd;onfvnf;qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;½Sonfomwnf;/ okYd aomf f l f d d vnf; þt&mü ta0;teD; wnf&mt&yf tm;jzifvnf; tcsif;csif; axmufí axmufí ta0;½kyf teD;½ky\ h f tjzpfudk odtyfao;\/ 497/ xktvk;pkaom ½kyudk waygif;wnf;pkí csKH;í [lonfum; twdwtp½Saom yk'wYdk jzifh toD;toD; d H H f f d f tus,fjytyfaom xk½ytvk;pkudk azmufjyefjcif; vu©Pm½Sonf[k qktyfaom wyg;wnf;tzkYd ½Sonf\tjzpfü d k f H H d d d ynmjzifh tpkûyí ½lyu©Em-½kyftpk[lí ac:qkdtyf\-þonfum; þpum;ü qkvaomteuf aywnf;/ þpum; ¨ d dk jzifh ½kytm;vk;ukvnf; azmufjyefjcif; vu©Pmü tpktjzpfoYdk a&mufojzifh ½lyu©Em-½kytpk rnfonf[k jytyfay f H d ¨ f onf/ rSe\ ½kyfrSwyg; ½lyu©E¨m-½kytpkrnfonf r½Say/ f f d 498/ ½kyuoYdk yif a0'emponfwYdk onfvnf; cHpm;jcif;vu©PmponfwYdk ü tpktjzpfoYdk a&mufojzifh f hJ a0'emu©Em-a0'emtpkponfwYdkrnfue\/ rSeay\-a0'emponfwYdkrwyg; a0'emu©Em-a0'emtpkrnfonfwYdk ¨ k f f S ¨ r½SMd uay/ xl;onfudk jy&vQif twdwponfudk a0bef&mü þ a0'emponfwYdkwif oEÅwd tvktm;jzif¤if;ç cP f G d h ponfwYdk \ tvktm;jzif¤if; a0'em\ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜetjzpfudk odtyf\/ xkwif oEÅwtvktm;jzifh d h f d G d d wckaom yOö'g&0Dxd wckaom raem'Gg&aZmtpOf wckaom ormywfü twGi;0ifaom a0'emonf¤if;? wckaom G f tzkYd ½aom (bk&m; w&m;)tp½Saom tm½kü aumif;pGm,SOvsufjzpfaeaom a0'emonf¤if; ypöyernf\? xkrS dS d H f Ü f d a½S;ü twdwfrnf\? aemufü tem*wf rnf\/ cPponf\ tvktm;jzifh cPok;yg;taygif;ü twGi;0ifaom d H f a½S;tzkdY aemuftzkdYwkdY\ tv,fü wnfaom rdrupuvnf; ûyqJjzpfaom a0'emonf ypöKyÜef rnf\? xkrS a½S;ü d d ö dk d (cPok;yg;okYd ra&mufao;rD a0'emonf) tem*wfrnf\? xkrS aemufü (cPok;yg; okYd a&muNyD; rdrupudk H d H d d ö ûyNyD;jzpfaom a0'emonf) twdwrnf\/ uk,wi;a0'em uk,ya0'emtjym;ukd ed,uZÑwå ac: yk*Kd¾ vf f d f G f d f toD;toD;\ uk,wi;w&m; tvktm;jzifh odtyf\/ d f G f d 499/ Murf;aom (MoVm&du) a0'em odrarGUaom (okcr) a0'emtjym;ukd 0dbif;ygVdawmfü ]]tukovf f k dk a0'emonf Murf;\? ukovtAsmuw a0'emonf odrarGU\}} þokYd paomenf;jzifh a[mxm;onftwki; dk f f h d f Zmwfç oabmç yk*Kd¾ vf avmuD avmukw&mwkYd tvktm;jzifh odtyf\/ (xkwi) a½S;OD;pGm Zmwftvktm;jzifh å d d G f d tukovf a0'emonf tjypf½onfh trIudk ûyjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç udavom tyl½jdS cif;aMumif¤if; dk dS h h rNidroufaomjzpfjcif;½S\? xkUd aMumifh ukova0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\/ aMumifMh uAsmyg& ½SaomaMumif¤if;ç f d dk f d h tm;xkwrI ½SaomaMumif¤if;ç tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç udavomtyl½jdS cif;aMumif¤if;ç tjypf f d h h h ½SaomaMumif¤if; 0dyguf tAsmuwa0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\/ tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç d h h udavomtyl ½Sjd cif;aMumif¤if;ç udavom qif;&J½jdS cif; aMumif¤if;ç tjypf½aomaMumif¤if; ud&,m tAsmuw h h dS h d a0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\/ ukova0'em tAsmuw a0'emwkYd onfum;qkcNhJ yD; (aom tjypf½onfh trIuûdk yjcif;\ dk f d dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

99

taMumif;ponf)rS jyefaomtm;jzifh tukova0'emxuf odrarGUuke\/ ukovtukovf a0'em 2-yg; dk f f f dk f dk wkYd onfvnf; aMumifMh uAsmyg&½SaomaMumif¤if;ç tm;xkwrI ½SaomaMumif¤if;ç tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapwwfaom d h f d h aMumif¤if; ,SOoifonftm;avsmfpm 2-yg;tjym;½Saom tAsmuwa0'emxuf «105» Murf;wrf;uke\/ qkcNhJ yD;rS h f h G d f d jyefaomtm;jzifh 2-yg; tjym;½Saom tAsmuwa0'emwkYd onf xkuovf tukovf a0'emwkYd xuf odrarGUuke\/ d d k dk dk f f þqkconftwki; a½S;OD;pGm Zmwftvktm;jzifh Murf;wrf; odrarGUonftjzpfudk odtyf\/ d hJ h d f d f h 500/ oabmtvktm;jzifrum; 'kua0'emonf om,mzG,uif;aomaMumif¤if;ç vIyvIyf½G½G jyefYum; d h l © f h f x<ujcif; ½SaomaMumif¤if; acsmufcsm;jcif;ukd ûywwfaomaMumif¤if;ç xdwvefYz,f jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç vTr;rk; d h h f G h f d ESypufwwfaomaMumif¤if; tjcm;a0'em 2-yg;wkYd xuf Murf;wrf;\/ tjcm;a0'em 2-yg;wkYd onfum; om,mzG,f d f h jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç NidroufaomaMumif¤if;ç rGejf rwfaomaMumif¤if;ç pdwEv;ukd yGg;apwwfaomaMumif¤if; (0gh f h h f S Hk h jrwfE;zG,jf zpfaomaMumif¤if;) tv,ftvwf oabm½SaomaMumif¤if; ,SOoifonftm;avsmpm 'kua0'emxuf dk h d h f h f G © odrarGUuke\/ okc 'ku© a0'em 2-yg; wkYd onfum; vIyvyf ½G½G jyefYum;x<ujcif; ½SaomaMumif¤if;ç acsmufcsm; f f f I d h jcif;ukd ûywwfaomaMumif¤if;ç xif½m;aomaMumif¤if; Oayu©ma0'emxuf Murf;wrf;uke\-xkOayu©ma0'em h S h f d onf qkdcJhNyD;rS jyefaomtm;jzifh xkd 2-yg;aom okc 'ku© a0'emwkYd xuf odrarGU\/ þqkconftwki; oabm f d hJ h d f tvktm;jzifh Murf;wrf;odrarGYonftjzpfudk odtyf\/ d f h 501/ yk*Kd¾ vf tvktm;jzifrum; ormywfr0ifpm;aom yk*Kd¾ vf\a0'emonf tm½ktrsKd;rsKd;ü ysHUvGiaom d h l H hf aMumifh ormywf0ifpm;aomyk*Kd¾ vf\ a0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\? xkrjS yefaomtm;jzifh 0ifpm;aom yk*Kd¾ vf\ a0'em d onf odrarGU\/ þqkdconftwki; yk*Kd¾ vftvktm;jzifh Murf;wrf; odrarGUonftjzpfudk odtyf\/ f hJ h d f d f h avmuD avmukw&mtvktm;jzifrum; tmoa0gw&m;wkYd \ tm½kjH zpfEiaomaMumifh omo0 rnfaom å d h l dk f a0'emonf avmuDaywnf;? ¤if;onf tmoa0gwkYd \ jzpfaMumif; jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç MoCwkYd \ tm½kjH zpfaom h aMumif¤if;ç a,m*wkYd \tm½kH jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç *E¦wYdk \tm½kjH zpfaomaMumif¤if;ç eD0&PwkYd \ tm½kjH zpfaom h h h aMumif¤if;ç Oyg'gefwYdk \ tm½kjH zpfaomaMumif¤if;ç ylyefapwwfaom udavomwkYd \ tm½kjH zpfaomaMumif¤if;ç h h h ykxZOfwYdk Eihf qufqaomaMumif¤if; temo0 rnfaom a0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\/ temo0a0'emonfum; k S H h qkcNhJ yD;rS jyefaomtm;jzifh omo0a0'emxuf odrarGU\/ þqkconftwki; avmuD avmukw&mtvktm;jzifh d f d hJ h d f å d Murf;wrf;odrarGUonftjzpfudk odtyf\/ f h 502/ qkcNhJ yD;aom xktMurf;tEkcyü Zmwfponftvktm;jzifh a&m,Sujf cif;ukd a½Smifvtyf\/ a½SmifvTJykH d d JG Hk d JT rSm tukov0dyguf um,0dnmPfEi,Oaoma0'emonf Zmwftvktm;jzifh tAsmuwjzpfaomaMumifh odrarGU S hf S f d f onfh okcrjzpfjim;aomfvnf; oabm ponftvktm;jzifh Murf;wrf;onfh MoVm&dujzpf\/ rSef\- ]]tAsmuw k d a0'emonf odrarGU\/ 'kua0'emonf Murf;wrf;\/ ormywf0ifpm;ol\ a0'emonf odrarGU\/ r0ifpm;ol\ f © f a0'emonf Murf;wrf;\/ omo0 a0'emonf Murf;wrf;\/ temo0 a0'emonf odrarGU\}}[laom þ f pum;ukd a[mawmfrl (tyf)ay\/ 'kua0'emuJoYdkyif okca0'emponfwYdkonfvnf; Zmwftvktm;jzifh MoVm&du © h d jzpfaomfvnf; oabmponfwYdk tvktm;jzifh okcr jzpfue\/ xkUd aMumifh ZmwfponfwYdk tvktm;jzifh a&m,Suf d k k f d jcif; rjzpfatmifa0'emwkYd \ Murf;wrf;odrarGUonfh tjzpfudk odtyf\/ odyrm-tAsmuwa0'emonf Zmwftvkd f Hk S tm;jzifh ukovf tukova0'emwkYd xuf odrarGU\? xkoYdk q&mü tAsmuwa0'em[lonf tb,fenf;¿ 'ku© dk dk f f d dk a0'emavm okca0'emavm-ormywf 0ifpm;ol\ a0'emavm r0ifpm;ol\a0'emavm «106» omo0a0'em avm temo0a0'emavm þokYd oabmponf tjym;ukd rok;oyftyfay/ tvk;pkaom a0'emwkYd ü þenf;twki; H H H d f yif odtyf\/ wenf;aomfum; ]]xkxa0'emukd axmufí axmufí a0'emukd MoVm&du okcr[k rSwtyf\}}[k d dk k f a[mawmfraomaMumifh tukova0'em ponfwYdküvnf; a'gorla0'emonf rD;uJoYdk rdr\rS&mukd avmifwwf l dk f h d D aomaMumifh avmbrla0'emxuf Murf;wrf;\? avmbrla0'emonf odrarGU\/ a'gorl a0'emonfvnf; f (tmeEÅ&, uHEi,Oí) ed,wjzpfrl Murf;wrf;\? ted,wjzpfrl odrarGU\/ ed,wa0'emonfvnf; (wuyf d S hf S f f ywfv; t0Dpü wnfapaomuHEi,Oonf) uyÜ|wua0'emjzpfrl Murf;wrf;\? okYd r[kwygrl odrarGU\/ xkd Hk d S hf S f h d d f f uyÜ|wd ed,w a0'emwkYd wivnf; tocFg&dujzpfvQif Murf;wrf;\? oocFg&dujzpfvQif odrarGU\/ avmbrl d G f f a0'emonfum; 'd|Ei,OvQif Murf;wrf;\? r,SOvQif odrarGU\/ xka0'emonfvnf; ed,wuyÜ|wu d S hf S f f f d d d tocFg&dujzpfvQif Murf;wrf;\? okYd r[kwvQif odrarGU\/ omrntm;jzifrum; tukova0'emonf tusKd; f f h l dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

100

0dygufrsm;vQif Murf;wrf;\? tusKd;0dygufenf;vQif odrarGU\/ ukova0'emonfum; tusKd;0dygufenf;vQif f dk f Murf;wrf;\? tusKd; 0dygufrsm;vQif odrarGU\/ f axmufq,lywenf;um; umrm0p&ukovf a0'emonf Murf;wrf;\? ½lyg0p&ukova0'emonf odrf Hk dk dk f arGU\? xkUd xuf t½lyg0p&ukova0'emonf odrarGU\? xkUd xuf avmukw&mukova0'emonf odrarGU\/ dk f f å dk f f umrm0p&ukova0'emwkYd wif 'ger,a0'emonf Murf;wrf;\? oDvr,a0'emonf odrarGU\? xkYd xuf dk f G f bm0emr,a0'emonf odrarGU\/ bm0emr,a0'emonfvnf; 'G[wonf Murf;wrf;\? wd[wonf odrarGU f d d f d f f 2 \/ wd[wf a0'emonfvnf; oocFg&duonf Murf;wrf;\? tocFg&duonf odrarGU\? ½lyg0p&a0'emonf d f vnf; yXrpsmefa0'emonf Murf;wrf;\? 'kw,psmefa0'emonforf arGU\/y/ yOörpsmefa0'emonforarGU\/ d d d f t½lyg0p&a0'emonfvnf; tmumomeOöm,wea0'emonf Murfwrf;\/y/ ae0onmemonm,wea0'em onf odrarGUonfomvQiwnf;/ avmukw&m a0'emonfvnf; aomwmywår*fa0'emonf Murf;wrf;\/y/ f f å d t&[wår*fa0'emonf odrarGUonfomvQifwnf;/ þqkcaomenf;ukd xkxbqi&m 0dygufa0'em ud&,m f d hJ d dk Hk dk f d a0'emwkYd ü¤if;ç 'kuponf ormywfr0ifpm;ol ponf omo0ponfwYdk tvktm;jzifqcaom a0'emwkYd ü¤if; © d h dk hJ odtyf\/ wnf&m Moumotvktm;jzifvnf; i&Jü 'kuonf Murf;wrf;\? wd&pämefbü 'kuonf odrarGU\/y/ d h © Hk © f y&edrw0o0wåbü 'kuonf odrarGUonfomwnf;/ xkUd twlyif okcukvnf; tvk;pkaom wnf&mXmewkYd ü ®d d Hk © f d H H xkuonftm;avsmfpm ,SOaptyf\/ tm½kûH yí jzpf&m0w¬Ktvktm;jzifvnf; ,kwnaom 0w¬K½Saom trSwfr½Sd d f G f d h f hH d wpkwckaom a0'emonf Murf;wrf; \? aumif;jrwfaom 0w¬K½Saom a0'emonf odrarGU\/ H d f ,kwnhH aumif;jrwf a0'emtjym;ü Murf;wrf;aom a0'emukd ,kwnonf[í¤if;? odrarGUaom a0'em f f hH l f ukd aumif;jrwfonf[í¤if; rSwtyf\/ l f 503/ ta0;[laomyk'udk ]]tukova0'emonf ukovtAsmuwa0'emwkYd rS a0;onf}} [lí¤if;? teD; f dk f dk f [laomyk'udk ]]tukova0'emonf tukova0'emESihf «107» eD;onf}}[lí¤if; þokYd tp ½Saomenf;jzifh 0dbif; f dk f dk f d ygVdü a0befxm;onf/ xkUd aMumifh tukova0'emonf uGjJ ym;onfh tzkYd ½aomaMumif¤if;ç ra&maESmaomaMumifh dk f dS h ¤if;ç rwlaomaMumif¤if; ukovtAsmuw a0'emwkYd rS a0;onf/ xkUd twl ukovtAsmuwa0'emwkYd onf h dk f dk f tukova0'emrS a0;Muonf/ tm;vk;aom 0g&wkYd ü þenf;yifwnf;/ xkrwyg;tukova0'emonf wlaom dk f H d S dk f tzkYd ½aomaMumif¤if;ç wlaomaMumif¤if; tukova0'emESie;onf þokYd ponfjzifh odtyf\/ þqkdcJhaom dS h h dk f hf D pum;onf a0'emu©Emukd twdwponfjzifh a0bef&mü tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ ¨ f d xkrwyg; xkxa0'emwkYd Eihf ,SOueaom onm ocFg& 0dnmPfwYdk \ Murf;wrf;odrarGUonfh tjzpfudk d S d dk S f k f f vnf; þa0'emtwlyif odtyfayonf/

tpOfponf tqkH;tjzwf jyqkdcsuf
504/ þqkconftwki; odNyD;vQif wzef xkcE¨mwkYd üyifvQifd hJ h d f d cE¨mwkYd ü ÓPftxl;jzpfyg;&eftwGuf tpOftm;jzif¤if;? xl;jcm;jcif;tm;jzif¤if;? ig;yg;rS G h h r,kwf rvGejf cif;tm;jzif¤if;? Oyrmtm;jzif¤if;? ESpyg;tjym;jzifh ½Ityfaomtm;jzif¤if;? þokYd ½ol h h f h I tm; tusKd;NyD;aom tm;jzif¤if; tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd ynm½Sonf aumif;pGm odtyfao;\/ h H d xkwif tpOftm;jzif[&mü Oywåur-jzpfpOf? y[meuúr-y,fpOf? y#dywåur- usipOf? blrur-bkH d G h l d ú d ú hf d ú tpOf? a'oemuúr-a[mMum;onfa'oemtpOf[í tpOfonf rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ h l d xkrsm;jym;aomtpOfwYdk wif ]]a½S;OD;pGm uvvac:aoma&Munfjzpfonf? uvva&MunfrS tAÁK'ac: d G tjr§Kyfjzpfonf}} þokYd ponfjzifh jyqkaomtpOfonf OyÜwur-jzpfpOfaywnf;/ ]]'óernfaom aomwmywår*f d åd ú d ÓPfjzifh y,ftyfaom w&m;rsm; bm0emrnfaom txufr*fÓPfo;yg;jzifh y,ftyfaom w&m;rsm;}} þokYd Hk ponfjzifjh yqkaom tpOfonf y[meuúr-y,fpOfaywnf;/ ]]oDv0do'-oDv pifMu,fjcif;? pdw0o'-pdwf d k ¨d å d k ¨d pifMu,fjcif;}} þokYd ponfjzifh jyqkaomtpOfonf y#dywåur-usifpOfaywnf;/ ]]umrm0p& w&m;rsm;? ½lyg0p& d d ú h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

101

w&m;rsm;}} þokYd ponfjzifh jyqkaomtpOfonf blrur-bktpOf aywnf;/ ]]owdy|mefav;yg;? or®y"mef d d ú H Ü av;yg;}} [líaomf¤if;? ]]'gepum;ukd oDvpum;uk}d } [líaomf¤if; þokYd ponfjzifh jyqkaom tpOfonf d a'oemuúr a'oemtpOf-a[mpOfaywnf;/ xktpOfwYdk wif þt&mü jzpfpOfonf roifay? tb,faMumifqaomf d G h h h dk -uvvponfwYdk uoYdk cE¨mwkYd rm a½S;aemuf tyki;tjcm;tm;jzifh rjzpfjcif;aMumifaywnf;/ y,fpOfvnf;roif?h hJ S d f h tb,faMumifqaomf ukovtAsmuwcE¨mwkYd udk ry,ftyfaomaMumifaywnf;/ usifpOfvnf;roif?h tb,fh h h dk dk f h h aMumifqaomf-tukovcE¨mwkYd udk rusiftyfaomaMumifaywnf;/ bktpOfvnf; roif?h tb,faMumifqaomf h dk dk f h h H h h dk a0'emponfwYdk onf bkav;yg;ü twGi;0ifaomaMumifaywnf;/ a'oempOf-a[mpOfom oifay onf/ H f h h oifyucsJUíjy&vQif-cE¨mig;yg;wkYd ü waygif;wnf;,lojzifh twåpJG 'da|mCü usa&mufaeaom a0ae,s h Hk dk owå0gtaygif;ukd wvk;wcJwnf;-wa,mufwnf;[k xif&aom ½kyemrftaygif; (orl [Ce)\ toD; toD; H f uGjJ ym;jcif;ukd jyojzifh twåprvwapawmfrvonfjzpfí owå0gwkYd \ tusKd;pD;yGg;ukd vkvm;awmfraom jrwfpm JG S G f l dk d l G bk&m;onf «108» xkxowå0gtaygif;\ tvG,wul rSw,Eijf cif; tusKd;iSg rsufpd ponfwYdk \aomfvnf; d dk f f l dk tm½kjH zpfí Murf;wrf; xif½m;aom ½lyu©Emukd a½S;OD;yXr a[mjyawmfrayonf/ xkUd aemif £| ted|½kyudk cHpm; S ¨ l f wwfaom a0'emu©Emukd (a[mawmfronf)? ]]tMuif tm½kudk cHpm;\? xktm½kudk rSwom;\}}[laom þtjcif; ¨ l H d H f t&mjzifh cHpm;&aom tm½k\ tjcif;t&mukd ,lwwfaom onmu©Emukd (a[mawmfronf)? trSwonm\ H ¨ l f tpGr;jzifh ûyvkywwfueaom ocFg&wkYd udk (a[mawmfronf)? (xkYd aemif) xka0'emponfwYdk \ rS&mjzpfaom f f k f l d D ¤if;wkYd \ tBuD;trª;vnf; jzpfaom 0dnmPu©Emukd (a[mawmfronf)[k þokYd aom tpOfjzifh tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd ¨ l H odtyf\/ 505/ xl;jcm;jcif;tm;jzifh [lonfum;cE¨mESihf Oyg'geu©EmwkYd \ xl;jcm;jcif;tm;jzif/ ,if;wkYd \ xl;jcm; ¨ h jcif;um; tb,fenf;[lr-cE¨mwkYd udk omrntm;jzifh a[mawmfronf? Oyg'geu©EmwkYd url tmoa0gwkYd \ tm½kH l l ¨ dk (omo0) tjzpfOyg'gefwYdk \ tm½kH (Oyg'ged,)tjzpfjzifh txl;ûyí a[mawmfronf? a[mawmfryrml l Hk S ]]&[ef;wkYd ig;yg;ukeaomcE¨mwkYd udk a[mrnf? ig;yg;ukeaom Oyg'geu©Em wkYd udk f f ¨ vnf; a[mrnf? xkw&m;ukemMu/ &[ef;wkYd -ig;yg;ukeaom cE¨mwkYd onf tb,fonfwYdk d d f enf;? &[ef;wkYd twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef jzpfaomuk,wi;ürlvnf; jzpfaom/y/ teD;ü d f G f rlvnf;jzpfaom tvk;pkaom½kyonf½\? &[ef;wkYd þtvk;pkaom ½kyudk ½lyu©Em[k H H f dS H H f ¨ ac:qkdtyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜejf zpfaom/y/ tvkH;pkHaoma0'emonf ½S\/y/ tvkH;pkH d aom onmonf½\/y/ tvkH;pkHaomocFg&wkdYonf ½Sdukef\/y/ tvk;pkaom 0dnmPfonf dS H H ½Sd\/ &[ef;wkYd þtvk;pkaom 0dnmPfudk 0dnmPu©Em[k ac:qktyf\/ &[ef;wkdY þig;yg; H H ¨ d wkYd udk ig;yg;ukeaom cE¨mwkYd [í ac:qktyfue\/ &[ef;wkYd ig;yg; ukeaom Oyg'geu©Em f l d k f f ¨ wkYd onf tb,fonfwYdk enf;? &[ef;wkYd twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef jzpfaom/y/ teD;ürlvnf; jzpfaom omo0Oyg'ged, jzpfaom tvk;pkaom ½kyonf ½S\? &[ef;wkYd omo0Oyg'ged, H H f d jzpfaom þtvk;pkaom ½kyudk ½lyyg'geu©Em[k ac:qktyf\/ twdwf tem*wf ypöKyÜef H H f k ¨ d jzpfaom/ y/ omo0 Oyg'ged,jzpfaom tvk;pkaom 0dnmPfonf ½S\? &[ef;wkYd omo0 H H d Oyg'ged,jzpfaom þ tvk;pkaom0dnmPfudk 0dnmPkyg'geu©Em[k ac:qktyf\/ &[ef;wkYd H H ¨ d omo0Oyg'ged,jzpfaom þig;yg;wkYd udk ig;yg;ukeaom Oyg'geu©Em wkYd [í ac:qktyfuef f ¨ l d k \}}[k a[mawmfr\/ l þygVdawmfü a0'emponfwYdk onf temo0vnf;½SueouJoYdk ½kyonfum; temo0rnfonf r½Say? d k f h f d okYd aomfvnf; xk½yrm tpk[aom teuftm;jzifh cE¨mtjzpfonf oif\? xkUd aMumifh ,if;ukd cE¨mwkYd ü a[mawmfrl d k f S l h ayonf/ xkUd jyif tpk[aomteuftm;jzif¤if;ç tmoa0gwkdY\ tm½k(omo0)[laom teuftm;jzif¤if;ç Oyg'g l h H h eu©Emtjzpfonfvnf;oif\? xkUd aMumifh ,if;ukd Oyg'geu©EmwkYd ü a[mawmfrayonf/ a0'emponfwYdk url ¨ h ¨ l dk tmoa0gwkdY\ tm½kr[kwonfwYdk uomvQif cE¨mwkYd ü a[mawmfronf? tmoa0gwkYd \ tm½kH jzpfaoma0'em H f dk l ponfwYdk udk Oyg'geu©EmwkYd ü a[mawmfronf/ þt&mü Oyg'geu©EmwkYd [lonfrmvnf; Oyg'gefwYdk \ tm½kHjzpf ¨ l ¨ S aom cE¨mwkYd yifjzpfonf[í þteufudk rSwtyf\/ þ0do'r*f þt&mürl xktvk;pkaom omo0 temo0 l f k ¨d d H H w&m;wkYd udk waygif;wnf;ûyí cE¨mwkYd [k tvk½tyf\/ d dS 506/ r,kwrvGejf cif;tm;jzifh [l&mü jrwfpmbk&m;onf cE¨mwkYd udk r,kwrvGef twdtus ig;yg;wkYd udk f G f omvQif tb,faMumifh a[mtyfueoenf; [lr-tvk;pkaom ocFww&m;wkYd udk wlaomtzkYd ½onfh oabmjzifh h k f l H H dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

102

waygif;wnf; odr;,ljcif;aMumif¤if;? twåpJG twåe,pG\ wnf&m0w¬Konf þig;yg;rQ twkdif;t½Snf ½Sdaom f h d J aMumif¤if;? oDvu©Empaom tjcm;cE¨mwkYd onfvnf; xkig;yg;ü twGi;0ifaomaMumif¤if; xkoYdk a[mawmfray h ¨ d f h d l onf/ csJUíjy&vQif rsm;aomtjym;½Sueaom «109» ocFww&m;wkYd udk wlaomtzkYd ½onfh oabmtvktm;jzifh d k f dS d odr;,ltyfueonf½aomf ½kyonfvnf; ½kyf (azmufjyefjcif;) [laom wlaomtzkYd ½onfoabmjzifh waygif;wnf; f k f dS f dS h odr;,ljcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh wyg;aomcE¨m jzpfonf/ a0'emonf a0'em (cHpm;jcif;) [laom wlaomtzkYd ½onfh f f dS oabmjzifh waygif;wnf;odr;,ljcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh wyg;aomcE¨m jzpfonf/ onmponfwYdk ü þenf;yif f f odtyf\/ xkoYdk tvk;pkaom ocFww&m;wkYd udk wlaomtzkYd ½onfoabmjzifh waygif;wnf;odr;,ljcif;aMumifh d H H dS h f cE¨mwkYd udk ig;yg;wkYd omvQif a[mawmfrl (tyfue) ayonf/ xkUd jyif twåpJG twåe,pG\ wnf&m0w¬Kjzpfaom xkd k f d J tm½kHonf ½kyfponf ig;yg;aom þw&m;vQiftwkdif;t½Snf½Sd\/ rSeay\-atmufygpum;ukd jrwfpmbk&m; f G a[mawmfray\/ l ]]&[ef;wkdY ½kyf½SdvQif ½kyfukdtpGJûyí ½kyfukdESvkH;oGif;í ]þt&monf ighOpömwnf;? þ t&monf igyifjzpfonf? þt&monf ig\twåwnf;}[k þokYd aom t,lrm;onf jzpf\/ S a0'em½SdvQif/y/ onm½SdvQif /y/ ocFg&wkdY½SdvQif/y/ 0dnmPf½SdvQif 0dnmPfukd tpGJûyí 0dnmPfudk ESv;oGi;í ]þt&monf ighOpömwnf;? þt&monf igyifjzpfonf? þt&monf Hk f ig\twåwnf;}[k þokYd aom t,lrm;onf jzpf\}} [lí yifwnf;/ S xkoYdk twåpJG twåe,pG\ wnf&m0w¬Konf ½kytp½Saom þw&m;ig;yg;vQif twkdif;t½Snf ½Sdaom d d J f d aMumifvnf; cE¨mwkYd udk ig;yg;wkYd omvQif a[mawmfrl (tyfue) ayonf/ xkUd jyiftjcm;wyg;ukeaom oDv tp½Sd h k f f ukeaom tMuifig;yg;ukeaom w&m;tpkwYdk uvnf; a[mxm;onf ½Say\? xkig;yg;ukeaom w&m;tpkwYdk onf f f dk d d f vnf; ocFg&u©Emü twGi;0ifMuaomaMumifh þcE¨mig;yg;wkYd üomvQif ouf0ifue\/ xkoYdk oDvu©Em paom ¨ f k f d ¨ tjcm;cE¨mwkYd onf xkcE¨mig;yg;wkYd ü twGi;0ifaomaMumifvnf; ig;yg;wkYd uomvQif a[mawmfr(tyfue)ayonf/ d f h dk l k f þokYd vQif ig;yg;rS r,kwrvGejf cif;tm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd odtyf\/ f H 507/ Oyrmtm;jzif[&mü tus,um;-½kyfOyg'geu©E¨monf olem½kH-aq;½kEiw\? taMumif;rSm-olem h l f H S hf l ESiwaom 0dnmPfOyg'geu©Em\wnf&m 'Gg&tm½ktvktm;jzifh ae&mXmejzpfaomaMumifaywnf;/ a0'emOyg'g hf l ¨ H d h eu©Emonf tema&m*gESiw\? taMumif;rSm-ESypufwwfaomaMumifh aywnf;/ onmOyg'geu©Emonf tem ¨ hf l d f ¨ a&m*gjzpfaMumif; ork|mefEiw\? taMumif;rSm-umronmponf\tpGr;tm;jzifh &m*ponfEi,Oaom a0' S hf l f S hf S f em\ jzpfoifjh cif;aMumifaywnf;/ ocFg&Oyg'geu©Emonf roifravsmfaom Owktpmponfudk rS0jJ cif;ESiw\? h ¨ h D hf l taMumif;rSm-a0'em[laom tema&m*g\ taMumif;&if;jzpfaom aMumifaywnf;/ rSeay\-]]cHpm;rIa0'emukd h f cHpm;rItusKd;iSg (ocFg&wkYd u) ûyvkywwfue\}}[k a[mawmfr(tyf)ay\/ xkUd jyif ]]tukovf uH\ ûytyfNyD; f k f l dk qnf;yl;tyfNyD; jzpfjcif;aMumifh tusK;jzpfaom 'kuo[*kwf um,0dnmPfonf jzpfay:\}} [lívnf; a[mawmfrl d © (tyf)ay\/ 0dnmPf Oyg'geu©Emonf olemESiw\? taMumif;rSm-a0'em[laom tem a&m*grS rvGwuif;aom ¨ hf l f aMumifaywnf;/ wenf;aomfum; þ½kytp½Saom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd onfaxmifç 32-rsKd;aomn§O;qJrçI usL;vGef h f d ¨ f onfjh ypfrçI n§O;qJonfh tmPmom;ç jypfr½owYdk Eihf tpOftwki;wlue\? pm;cGuçf abmZOfç [if;aumif;ç auR; f I dS l S d f k f arG;olç pm;olwYdk Eivnf; wlue\/ þokYd vQif Oyrmtm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd odtyf\/ S hf k f H 508/ ESpyg;tjym;jzifh ½Ityfaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh [l&mü tusOf;ESifh tus,fESpfyg; tjym;jzif½tyfaom f h I tm;jzifvnf; þ cE¨mwkYd ü tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd odtyf\/ csJUí jy&vQif-tusOf;tm;jzifh Oyg'geu©Emig;yg;wkYd udk h H ¨ tmoD0aomyrokwü a[mxm;aomenf;t& ckwowf&ef csDr;onfh oefvsuf"m;½Saom &efotaetm;jzifh ½Ityf d f f dk d l (uke)\? bm&okwtvkd av;vHaom0efxyf taetm;jzifh ½Ityf (uke)\? cZÆe,a'oemtvkd pm;0g;wwfonfh f f k f D bDv;taetm;jzifh ½Ityf (uke)\? ,ruokwetvkd tedpçö 'kuç© tewåç ocFw (ûyjyif tyfonf) w&m;ç olowf l f å f h o®m;tjzpfjzifh ½Ityf(uke)\/ tus,ftm;jzifrum; þ cE¨mig;yg;wkYd wif tESyte,f rcHaomaMumifh ½kyudk a&jr§Kyf f h l G d f f pkdifuJhokdY ½Ityf\? «110» wcPrQom arGUavsmfz,½aomaMumifh a0'emuka&yGuf (a&ylazmif;)uJoYdk ½Ityf\/ G f dS d h trSm;rSm; t,Gi;,Gi; ajymapwwfaomaMumifh onmukd wHvyuoYdk ½Ityf\/ tESpraomaMumifh ocFg&wkYd udk f f S f hJ f hJ iSuaysmwk;uJoYdk ½Ityf\/ vSnpm;wwfaomaMumifh 0dnmPfudk rsufvnuoYdk ½Ityf\/ txl;tm;jzifrum; f H h hf S hf hJ h l tvGeaumif;jrwfjim;aomfvnf; uk,wi; ½kyudk (tokb) pufqyz,f rwifw,f[k ½Ityf\? (wu,fqif;&Jç f d f G f f k f G h azmufjyefqif;&Jç ûyjyif&onfqif;&J-[laom) ok;rsK;aom qif;&JwYdkrS rvGwaomaMumifh a0'emukd ('ku) qif;&J[k h H d f © ½Ityf\/ rpDrrcefYcEiaomaMumifh onmESihf ocFg&wkYd udk (tewå) twår[kwf oabmw&m;rQ[k ½Ityfue\? H JG dk f k f jzpfjcif; ysufjcif;oabm ½SaomaMumifh 0dnmPfudk (tedp) rNrJ[k ½Ityf\/ d ö

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

103

509/ þokYd ½otm; tusKd;NyD;aomtm;jzifh [lonfum; ,ckjyqkconftwki; tusOf;tus,ftvkd ESpyg; I l d hJ h d f f tjym;jzifh ½Iaomoltm; tMuiftusKd;\NyD;jcif;onf ½S\? xkd tusKd;NyD;jcif;tm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfenf;ukd d h H odtyf\/ ¤if;um; tb,fenf;[lrl tusOf;tm;jzifh ig;yg;aom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd udk csDr;aom oefvsuf½onf&efol ¨ dk dS h ponftjzpfjzifh ½Iaomolonf cE¨mwkYd aMumifh ryifyef;&ay/ tus,ftm;jzifh ½kyponfwYdk udk a&jr§KyfpiponfEihf f dk f S wlonf\ tjzpfjzifh ½Iaomolonf tESpraomcE¨mwkYd ü tESp½onf[k xifjrifavhr½Sawmhay/ f hJ f dS d xkUd jyif txl;tm;jzifh uk,wi;½kyudk tokb[k ½Iaomolonf tvkytavGUûyí pm;tyfaom tm[m&ukd d f G f f f yki;jcm;íod\? rwifw,faom½kyü wifw,fonf[k xifrm;aom 0dyv’moukd y,f\? umarmCukd ausmve\? d f h f h S f G f umra,m*ESihf r,SOawmhay? umrmo0jzifh ,kp;rI-tmoa0guif;\? tbdZÑmum, *E¦uzsufq;\? umrkyg'gef f d D dk D ukd rpGrawmhay/ J DS a0'emukd 'ku[k ½Iaomolonf zó[laom tm[m&ukd yki;jcm;íod\? qif;&Jü csr;om[k xifrm;aom © d f f S 0dyv’moukd y,f\? ba0gCukd ausmfve\? b0a,m*ESihf r,SOawmhay? b0go0jzifh ,kp;rI-tmoa0g uif;\? G f f d D Asmyg'um,*E¦udk zsufq;\? oDvAÁwyg'gefudk rpGrawmhay/ D k J DS onmESihf ocFg&wkYd udk tewå[k ½Iaomolonf apwem[laom raemoaOöwem[m&ukd yki;jcm;íod\? d f twår[kwonfü twå[k xifrm;aom 0dyv’moukd y,f\? 'da|mCukd ausmve\? 'd|a,m*ESihf r,SOawmhay? f S f G f d f 'd|mo0jzifh ,kp;rI-tmoa0guif;\? £'Hopömbdea0oum,*E¦udk zsuq;\? twå0g'kyg'gefudk rpGrawmhay/ d D d f D J DS 0dnmPfudk tedp[k ½Iaomolonf pdw[aom 0dnmPm[m&ukd yki;jcm;í od\? rNrJonfü NrJonf[k ö f l d f xifrm;aom 0dyv’mouky,f\? t0daZÆmCukd ausmfve\? t0dZma,m*ESihf r,SOawmhay? t0dZmo0jzifh ,kp;rIS d G f Æ f Æ d D tmoa0guif;\? oDvAÁwy&mrmoum,*E¦udk zsuq;\? 'd|Kyg'gefudk rpGrawmhay/ f D J DS «111» þqkdcJhonfhtwkdif; olowform;ponftvkjd zifh ½Ijcif;onf BuD;rm;aom tusKd;tmedoif ½Say\? d xkUd aMumifh ynm½Sonf cE¨mwkYd udk olowform;ponf tvktm;jzifh ½I&m\/ þum;Oa,smZOfaywnf;/ d d

þonfum; olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdY\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg jyKpD&if (tyf) aom 0dok'd¨r*fusrf;0,f ynmbm0emt&mü cE¨mwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf (cE¨eda'´o)rnfaom wq,fh av;ckajrmuf tykdif;tcPf;aywnf;/ (cE¨mwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf NyD;\)

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

104

15-tm,we"mwkea'´o-tm,we"mwfwudk d Ydk tus,jf ycsuf
tm,we0dw¬m&uxm-tm,wewkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
«112» 510/ tm,wewkYd [lonfrm pu©m,weç ½lyg,we aomwm,weç o'´g,weç Cmem ,weç S *E¨m,weç Zd0g,weç &om,weç um,m,weç azm|AÁm,weç rem,weç "r®m,we [laom 12-yg;aom S tm,wewkYd aywnf;/ xktm,wewkYd üd o'´geufç vu©Pmç xkd (12-yg;)rQ½Sdonfhtjzpfç tpOfç tusOf; us,ftm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfonfh jzpftm;jzifh h ¤if; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H xkwif xl;aom o'´gwkYd \ teuftm;jzifh (pu©w) tqif;ukd om,mwwf\ 0g-tqif;ukd jywwf\? d G d xkUd aMumifh pu©K-rsuprnf\/ (½ly,wd)jywwf\? xkUd aMumifh ½ly-tqif; rnf\? tqif;onf½ijf cif;ñI;jcif; f d T d ponfjzifh azmufjyefjcif;okYd a&mufvsuf ESv;ü wnfaompdwtvkudk jywwf\-þonfum; (½ly,wd-jywwf\ Hk f d -qk&mü) qkvaomteuf/ (okPmwd) Mum;wwf\? xkUd aMumifh aomw-em;rnf\/ (oyÜwd)½Gwfqkdtyf\? d d dk xkUd aMumifh o'´-toHrnf\/ (Cm,wd)erf; ½ªwwf\? xkUd aMumifh Cme-ESmacgif;rnf\/ (*E¨,wd)rdr\ wnf&m d 0w¬Kukd jywwf \? xkUd aMumifh *E¨-teHY rnf\/ (ZD0dwH t0S,wd) toufudk ac:ouJoYdk jzpfwwf\? xkUd aMumifh h Zd0Sg-vQmrnf\/ owå0gwkYd onf xktm½kudk (&oEÅ) om,mwwfue\? xkoYdk owå0gwkYd u om,mtyfaom d H d k f d aMumifh ,if;tm½konf &o-t&omrnf\/ uk-pufqyz,f tmo0w&m;wkYd \ + tma,m - jzpf&mt&yfonf H k f G um, uk,rnf\/ (zko,wd) awGUxdtyf\? xkUd aMumifh azm|AÁ-awGUxdp&mrnf\/ 0g-tawGUrnf\/ d f d (rkemwd) odwwf\? xkUd aMumifh re-pdw-ESv;rnf\/ rdrd\ oabmvu©Pmukd ("ma&EÅ) aqmifwwfue\? f Hk d k f xkUd aMumifh "r®m-oabmtm½kwYdk rnfue\/ H k f 511/ rxl;aomtm,weo'´g\ teuftm;jzifrum; (tm,weawm) tm;xkw&mjzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç h l f h (tm,meHweeawm) tm,rnfaom pdwf apwoduf w&m;wkYd udk us,jf yefY BuD;yGg;apwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç h (tm,w) ½Snaom oHo&mqif;&Judk (e,eawm) aqmifwwfaomaMumif¤if; tm,we rnfonf[k odtyf\/ f h csJUíjytH-rsufp[aom pu©K'Gg&ç tqif;[laom ½lyg½kH ponfwYdk ü xkx'g& xkxtm½kEihf pyfqiaom h d l d dk G d dk H S dk f pdwapwoduw&m;wkYd onf cHpm;jcif;tp½Saom rdrd rdrqi&mudpjö zifh (tm,wEÅ) tm;xkwue\? (xkoYdk f f d d dk f d f k f d tm;xkw&mjzpfaomaMumifh tm,we rnfue\)/ 'Gg&tm½kwYdk ü jzpfMuaomaMumifh tm,rnfueaom xkpwf f k f H k f d d apwoduw&m;wkYd udk (waemEÅ) us,jf yefYBuD;yGg;apwwfue\? (xkoYdk tm,ac:pdwapwoduwYdk udk us,fjyefY f d k f d f f BuD;yGg;apwwf MuaomaMumifh tm,we rnfue\)/ rodtyfonftp½Saom 0g-tprxifaom oHo&mü k f h d tvGeyif (tm,w) ½Snpmaom þoHo&mqif;&Judk rqkwepf r&yfpao;orQ umvywfv; (e,EÅ{0) f f G f J Hk d aqmifwwf-jzpfap wwfuef onfomwnf;? (xkoYdk tvGe½naom oHo&mqif;&Judk aqmifwwfMu jzpfapwwf k d f S f MuaomaMumif¤if; tm,we rnfue\)/ þokYd vQif tm;xkw&m jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç tm,rnfaom pdwap h k f f h f woduw&m;wkYd udk us,fjyefY BuD;yGg;apwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç ½SnaomoHo&mqif;&Judk aqmifwwfaomaMumif¤if; f h f h ]]tm,we tm,we}}[lí ac:qkdtyf (ukef)\/ 512/ wenf;aomfum; ae&mXme[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç >yrf;&mwnf&m [laom teufaMumif¤if;ç h h pka0;&m[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç jzpf&m[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç taMumif;[laom teufaMumif¤if; tm,we h h h rnfonf[k odtyf\/ csJUíjy&vQif avmuü ]]£ó&m,weH-£ó&ew-y&rD oGmewf\ae&m 0goka'0g,weH -0goka'0ewf-AdóEk;ewf\ae&m}} tp½Saom pum;wkYd ü ae&mXmeukd «113» tm,we[kqtyf\/ ]]ok0PÖm d d dk ,weH a½T\>yrf;&m wnf&mç &Zwm,weH-aiG\>yrf;&mwnf&m}} tp½Saom pum;wkYd ü >yrf;&m wnf&m (a½TaiG d xGu&m a½Twi; aiGwi;ponfajrt&yf)ukd tm,we[k qktyf\/ omoemawmfüum; ]]ESv;arGUavsmfz,f f G f G f d Hk G aumif;aom (tm,wae) pka0;&mü tuki;tcuf t½GutoD;ESijhf ynfpaom xkyanmifyifBuD;ukd iSuwYdk onf rS0J d f f h Hk d f D uke\}} tp½Sdaompum;wkdYü pka0;&mXmeukd tm,we[k qktyf\/ 'u©Pmyxt&yfonf EGm;wkYd \jzpfyg;&m f d d G

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

105

(tm,we)aywnf;}} tp½Saom pum;wkYd ü jzpf&mt&yfudk tm,we[kqtyf\/ ]](owd owd tm,wae) d dk taMumif; ½Swi; ½Swi; (ÓPfx;jzifh rsufarSmufûytyfaom) xkxw&m;üyifvQif rsufjrifu,awGU jzpfjcif;okYd d dk f d dk f l d dk dk f a&muf\}} tp½Saom pum;wkYd ü taMumif;ukd tm,we[k qktyf\/ d d om"uESihf ES;aESmjy&vQif xkxpu©K0dnmPfpaom pdwapwoduw&m;wkYd onf xkd rsufpçd tqif; ponf D d dk f f wkYd Eihf pyfíjzpfjcif;aMumifh pu©K-rsupd ponfwYdkü aeonfrnfue\? xkUd aMumifh pu©K-rsufpd ponfwYdk onf S f k f vnf; pu©K0dnmPfpaom ,if;pdwapwoduf w&m;wkYd \ ae&mXmejzpfonf/ xkUd jyif xkrsupd ponfwYdkudk f d f rSMD uaomaMumif¤if;ç xktqif;ponfwYdk udk tm½kûH yMuaomaMumif¤if; xkpwapwoduwYdk onf rsufpponfwYdk ü h d h d d f f d >yrf;vsuf½ue\? xkUd aMumifh pu©K-rsupponfwYdk onf ,if;pdwapwoduwYdk \ >yrf;&mwnf&mjzpfonf/ xkUd jyif dS k f f d f f xkxdk rsufptqif;ponfwYdk ü wnf&m0w¬Kç 'Gg&ç tm½ktvktm;jzifh pka0;jcif;aMumifh pu©K-rsufpd (½ly tqif;) d d H d ponfwYdk onf ,if;pdwapwoduwYdk \ pka0;&mXme jzpfonf/ xkrsup-tqif;ponfvQif rS&m-tm½kH½Sdonf\ f f d f d D tjzpfjzifh xkrsup-tqif; ponfwYdküom jzpfjcif;aMumifh rsup(tqif;) ponfwYdkonf ,if;pdwapwoduwYdk\ d f d f d f f jzpf&m aywnf;/ xkrsufp-tqif; ponfwYdk r½SvQif pdwapwoduwYdk r½SEirjzpfEijf cif;aMumifh rsufpd (tqif;) d d d f f d dk f dk ponfwYdk onf ,if;pdwapwoduwYdk \ taMumif;aywnf;/ þokYd vQif ae&mXme[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç >yrf;&m f f h wnf&m[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç pka0;&m[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç jzpf&m[laom teufaMumif¤if;ç taMumif; h h h [laom teufaMumif¤if;-þtaMumif;wkYd aMumifvnf; rsufp-tqif;tp½Sdaom þw&m;wkdYukd ]]tm,we h h d tm,we}}[lí ac:qkdtyf(ukef)\/ okYd jzpfí qkcorQaomteufaMumifh pu©K-rsufpvnf; [kw\? ¤if;onf tm,wevnf; [kw\? xkEpf d hJ d f f d S yg;aom taMumif;aMumifh pu©m,wernf\/y/ oabmw&m;wkYd vnf; [kwMf u\? ¤if;wkYd onf tm,wevnf; [kwMf u\? xkEpyg;aom taMumif;aMumifh "r®m,wernf\/ þokdYvQif þtm,wewkdYü a½S;OD;pGm o'´gteuf d S f tm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 513/ vu©Pmtm;jzifh [lonfum; pu©K-rsufptMunf ponfwYdk \ vu©Pmtm;jzifvnf; þtm,we d h wkYd ü tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ xkpu©K-rsufptMunfponfwYdk \ ,if;vu©PmwkYd udk cE¨ea'´oü qkcNhJ yD;aom H d d d d enf;jzifyifvQif odtyf (uke)\/ h f xkrQ½Sonftjzpf[&mü qkvonfrm-pu©K-rsupd ponfwYdkonfvnf; ("r®)oabm w&m;wkYd yifjzpfMu\? d d h l d dk S f okYd jzpfygvsuf (tm;vk;uk) "r®m,we[líom ra[mrlí tb,faMumifh 12-yg;aom tm,wewkYd udk a[m(tyf H d h uke)ygoenf;[k ar;vQif-6-yg;aom 0dnmPum,-0dnmPf taygif;wkdY\jzpf&m 'Gg&wkYd Eihf tm½kwYdk udk yki;jcm; f S H d f jcif;aMumif[k ajztyf\/ (csJUíjytHh) þtm,wewkdYukd tus,fjy&mü 6 h -yg;aom 0dnmPum,wkYd \ 'Gg&tjzpf jzif¤if;ç tm½ktjzpfjzif¤if; yki;jcm;jcif;aMumifh ,if;tm,wewkYd \ þtuGtjym;onf jzpfayonf/ xkUd aMumifh h H h d f J 12-yg;wkYd udk a[m(tyfue)ay\/ xyfícsJUjyOD;tH-pu©K0dnmPf0xü twGi;0ifaom 0dnmPum, 0dnmPf k f h D d f taygif;\ jzpf&m'Gg&onf pu©,weomvQif jzpfonf? tm½konfvnf; tqif;½lyg½komvQif jzpfonf/ xkUd twl H H þrSwyg;aom aomw0dnmPf0xponfwYdk ü twGi;0ifaom 0dnmPum,wkYd \ (jzpf&m'Gg&ESihf tm½kwYdk onf) þ D d f H rsufpEitqif;wkYd rS wyg;ukeaom em;ESitoHponfwYdk omvQif jzpfMuonf/ txl;rSm raem0dnmPf0xü d S hf f hf D d twGi;0ifaom q|0dnmPum,\ jzpf&m'Gg&onf b0ifpw[k qktyfaom rem,wewpdwomvQif jzpfonf? f d f d f tm½konfvnf; pu©K0dnmPfponfwYdk Eihf rqufqaom "r®m,weomvQif jzpfonf/ «114» þokYd 6-yg;aom H S H 0dnmPum,wkYd \ jzpf&m'Gg&ESihf tm½kwYdk udk yki;jcm;jcif;aMumifh 12-yg;wkYd udk a[m(tyfue) ayonf/ þokYd vQif H d f k f þtm,wewkYd ü xk(12-yg;)rQ½Sonfh tjzpftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d d H 514/ tpOftm;jzifh [laom þt&müvnf; a½S;cE¨ea'´oü qkcaom jzpfpOfponfwYdk wif a'oemuúrd d hJ G a'oemtpOfonfomvQif oifayonf/ oifyrm tZÑwåutm,we 6-yg;wkYd wif jrif&jcif;vnf;½Sd xdyg; h h Hk S d G wkucujf cif;vnf;½Sonfh tqif;vQif tm½k½aomaMumifh pu©m,weonf xif½m;\? xkUd aMumifh ,if;tm,we d f dk d H dS S ukd a½S;OD;pGm a[m(tyf)ayonf/ xkUd aemif jrif&jcif;r½Srí xdyg;wkucujf cif;½Sonfh toHponfvQif tm½kH d l d f dk d ½Sueaom aomwm,weponfwYdkudk a[m(tyfue)ayonf/ wenf;um; tjrwfq;jrifjcif; tjrwfq; Mum;jcif; d k f k f Hk Hk wkYd \ taMumif;tjzpfjzifh aus;Zl;rsm;aomaMumifh tZÑwutm,wewkYd wif pu©m,we aomwm,wewkYd udk då G a½S;OD;pGm a[m(tyf)ukeayonf/ xkUd aemif Cmem,wepaom ok;yg;aom tm,wewkYd udk a[m(tyfue)ayonf/ f H k f pu©Kpaom tm,weig;yg;vk;wkYd \usufpm;&m tm½k½aomaMumifh rem,weukd tqk;ü a[m(tyf)ayonf/ H H dS H xkYd jyif pu©m,weponfwYdk\ usufpm;&m tm½kjH zpfaomaMumifh Am[d&tm,wewkYd wif ½lyg,weponfwYdk udk G

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

106

xkxdk pu©m,weponf\ tjcm;rJü a[m(tyfue)ayonf/ wenf;aomfum; 0dnmPf 6-yg;jzpfjcif;\ d h k f taMumif;ukd yki;jcm;aomtm;jzifvnf; ,if;tm,wewkYd \ þtpOfukd odtyf\/ rSeay\-]]rsufpEitqif;wkYd udk d f h f d S hf pGrí pu©K0dnmPfonf jzpf\? em;ESitoHwYdk udk pGrí aomw0dnmPfonf jzpf\? ESmacgif;ESiteHYwYdk udk pGrí J DS hf J DS hf J DS Cme0dnmPfonf jzpf\? vQmESihf t&omwkYd udk pGrí Zd0g0dnmPfonf jzpf\? uk,EitawGUwkYd udk pGrí um, J DS S d f S hf J DS 0dnmPfonf jzpf\? (b0ifpw)reESihf oabmwkYd udk pGrí raem0dnmPfonf jzpf\}}[laom þpum;ukd d f J DS a[mawmfr(tyf)ay\/ þokYd vQif tpOftm;jzifvnf; þtm,wewkYd ü tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ l h H 515/ tusOf;tus,ftm;jzifh [l&mü tusOf;tm;jzifh rem,weESihf "r®m,wewpdwudk emrfjzifçh <uif; f aom tm,wewkYd uvnf;½kyjf zifh odr;,ltyfaomaMumifh tm,we 12-yg;vk;wkYd onf emrfEi½yrQomvQif dk f H S hf k f jzpfue\/ tus,ftm;jzifrum; tZÑwåum,wewkYd wif a½S;OD;pGm pu©m,weonf trsKd;Zmwf tvktm;jzifh pu©K k f h l d G d yom'rQom jzpfonf? taMumif;ç *wdç edum,ç yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk \ tjym;tm;jzifrl teEÅ tjym;½Sd\/ aomwm,we h tp½Saom av;yg;wkYd onf xkUd twlyif/ rem,weonf ukovf tukovf 0dyguf ud&,m0dnmPfwYdk \ tjym; d dk dk d tm;jzifh wck,wu;q,f tjym;½S\ 121-yg; tjym;vnf;½Sd\/ pu©Kpaom 0w¬Kç 'kupaom y#dy'g (psmefç k f dk d © t"dywdç bkHç tm½kH) ponfwkdY\ tjym;tm;jzifrl teEÅtjym;½S\/ ½lyg,weç o'´ç *E¨ç &om,wewkdYonf (tñkd h d ponfEihf rwlaom tqif;paom) 0dobm*ç uHpaom taMumif;wdYk \ tjym;tm;jzifh teEÅtjym;½Sue\/ S d k f azm|AÁm,weonf yx0Dç awaZmç 0ga,m"mwfwYdk \ tvktm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½Sd\? taMumif;ponfwYdk\ tjym; d H tm;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ "r®m,weonf a0'emç onmç ocFg&u©Emç okcr½kyçf edAmefwYdk \oabmtjym; d ¨ k Á xl;jcm;jcif;tjym;tm;jzifh rsm;aomtjym;½S\/ þokYd vQif tusOf;ttus,ftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d H 516/ ½Ityfaomtm;jzifh [laom þt&müum; tvk;pkH (omvQifjzpf)ukeaom ocFwtm,wewkYd udk H f wjcm;rSrvmaom tm;jzif¤if;ç wjcm;okYd roGm;aomtm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfue\/ csJUíjy&vQif xktm,wewkYd onf h h k f d jzpfonfra½S;ü wpkwckaomt&yfrS vmMuonf r[kwue?f ysuonfrS aemufü wpkwckaom t&yfoYdk S H f k f H oGm;Muonf vnf;r[kwue?f pifppfaomfum; jzpfonfra½S;rjzpfao;rDü «115» rdr\ oabmukr&ao;yJ½ue\? f k S d d dS k f ysufonfrS aemufü vk;0 ysufp;uG,aysmufom;onfh oabmtxnfu,f ½Sue\? r½Sdao;aom a½S;tzkdY H D f G dk d k f uG,aysmufom;aom aemuftzkYd wYdk \ tv,fü taMumif;ESipyfaom jzpfjcif;½SaomaMumifh (0g-taMumif; f G hf d tm;avsmpm jzpfMu&aomaMumif) wpkwa,muf\tvkEihf rywfoufueyJ jzpfay:uke\? xkUd aMumifh wjcm;rS f G h H d S k f f rvmaomtm;jzif¤if;ç wjcm;okYd roGm;aomtm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfue\/ xkUd twltm;xkwrI uif;aomtm;jzif¤if;ç h h k f f h aMumifMh u Asmyg&uif;aom tm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfue\/ csJUíjytHh rsufpEitqif;ponfwYdk rm ]] ('Gg&ESitm½k[aom) h k f d S hf S hf H l igwkYd tnDtnGwqrvQif (jriforpaom) 0dnmPfonf jzpfygrl aumif;avpG}}[k þokYd aomBuHrI aMumifMh uûyrI f Hk d d I onf r½Say? (rsufpEihf tqif;paom) xktm,wewkYd onfvnf; 'Gg&tjzpf wnf&m0w¬K tjzpfjzifaomf¤if;ç tm½kH d d S d h tjzpfjzifaomf¤if; (jriforpaom) 0dnmPfjzpf&ef tm;rxkwMf uukef aMumifMh uûyjcif;okYd ra&mufue?f pifppf h d I k aomfum; rsufpEihf tqif;ponfwYdk tnDtnGwqrvQif pu©K0dnmPfponfwYdk jzpfay:uke\? þokYd jzpfay:Mu d S f Hk d f jcif;onf jzpfNrJ½;&m "r®wmomvQif jzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh tm;xkwruif;aom tm;jzif¤if;ç aMumifMh uAsmyg& dk f I h uif;aomtm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfue\/ wenf;aomfum; tZÑwådum,we 6-yg;wkYd udk vlraeonfh ½GmysufuoYdk ½Ityf h k f hJ uke\? taMumif;rSm-ckiNf rJonftjzpf wifw,fonftjzpf csrf;omonftjzpf twåtjzpfwYdk rS uif;aom f d h h h h aMumifyif/ Am[d&m,we 6-yg;wkYd udk ½Gmukd vk,ufzsufq;aom ck;olwYdk uoYdk ½Ityfue\? taMumif;rSmh D d hJ k f tZÑwdum,wewkYd udk xdyg; wkucuwwfMuaomaMumifyif1/ rSeay\- ]]&[ef;wkYd rsufpudk ESpoufz,tqif; å d f dk f h f d f G f rESpoufz,f tqif;wkYd u ESypuftyf\}} þokYd tp½Saom pum;ukd a[mawmfr(tyf)ay\/ wzefwenf; f G d f d l aomfum; tZÑwdåum,we 6-yg;wkYd udk (a>r rdausmif; iSuf acG; ajracG; arsmuf [laom) owå0g 6-aumifwYdk uoYdk hJ ½Ityfukef\? Am[d&m,we 6-yg;wkYd udk ,if;owå0g 6-aumifwYdk \ usupm;&mtm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk f H odtyf\/ þqkcaom pum;onf a½S;OD;pGm tm,wewkYd udk tus,fjyqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

107

"mwk0dw¬m&uxm-"mwfwkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
517/ xkrwyg; tm,wewkYd \ tjcm;rJü "mwfwYdk [lonfrm pu©K"mwfç ½ly"mwfç pu©K 0dnmP"mwf? d S h S aomw"mwfç o'´"mwfç aomw0dnmP"mwf? Cme"mwfç *E¨"mwfç Cme0dnmP"mwf? Zd0g"mwfç &o"mwfç Zd0g S S 0dnmP"mwf? um,"mwfç azm|AÁ"mwfç um,0dnmP"mwf? raem"mwfç "r®"mwfç raem0dnmP"mwf[aom 18l yg;aom "mwfwYdk aywnf;/ xk"mwfwYdk üd o'´geuftm;jzif¤if;? vu©Pm ponfwYdk jzif¤if;? tpOfç xk(18-yg;)rQ ½Sdonfhtjzpfç h h d ac:qka&wGuf jcif;tm;jzif¤if;? aus;Zl;ûyjcif; (ypön;)tm;jzif¤if;? ½Ityfaomtm;jzif¤if; d h f h h tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H xkwif o'´geuftm;jzifh [l&mü (pu©ww)tqif;ukd om,mwwfjywwfaomaMumifh pu©K-rsupd rnf\? d G D d f (½ly,wDw) ESv;tvkudk jywwfaomaMumifh ½ly-tqif;rnf\? pu©K-rsufp\+0dnmPfonf pu©K0dnmPfrnf\? d Hk d d þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh a½S;OD;pGm pu©K ponfwYdk \ xl;aom teuftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ rxl;aom d H ("mwk\) teuftm;jzifrum; (0d'[wd)pD&ifwwf\? xkUd aMumifh "mwk-"mwfrnf\? ("D,aw) aqmiftyf\? h l xkUd aMumifh "mwfrnf\? (0d"meH) pD&ifjcif; oabmonf "mwk-"mwfrnf\? (0d",aw {wm,) þoabmjzifh pD&if D tyf\? xkoYdk pD&ifaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh "mwk- "mwf rnf\? ({w¬ 0g "D,wDw) wenf; þü xm;tyf\? d d xkoYdk xm;&m jzpfaomaMumifh "mwk-"mwfrnf \/ csJUíjytHh (pu©Ktp½Saom) avmuD"mwfwYdk onf taMumif;\ d d tjzpfjzifh toD;tjcm; wnfuevsuf rsm;aomtjym;½Saom oHo&mqif;&Judk pD&ifwwf-jzpfapwwfue\/ Oyrm k f d k f tm;jzif-a½Tausmuf aiGausmuf tp½Saom "mwfwYdk onf a½TaiGtp½Sdonfukd jzpfap MuukeouJoYdk yifwnf;/ h d f h 0efxrf;o®m;wkYd onf 0efxyudk xrf;aqmifMuouJoYdk «116» owå0gwkYd onf (,if;"mwfwYdk u) xrf;aqmifMu& k f h dk uke\/ "mwf[aom þoabmonf qif;&Judk pD&ifjcif;rQomjzpfonf? tb,faMumifqaomf tvkoYdk rvkuf f l h h dk d d apEkiaomaMumifaywnf;/ (uwåm;\ tultnD) u½kP;jzpfueaom þ ("mwfoabm) wkYd jzifh oHo&mqif;&Judk d f h d f k f owå0g wkYd onf pD&iftyf\/ xkoYdk p&iftyfNyD;aom ,if;qif;&Jonf þ"mwfoabm wkYd üomvQif ("D,wdX d D yD,wd)xm;tyf\/ þokYd vQif pu©K ponfwYdk wif wck wckaom oabmw&m;onf jzpfoifonftm;avsmfpm G h G pD&ifwwf\ aqmiftyf\-þokYd tp½Saom teuftvktm;jzifh (,if;uk) "mwk-"mwf [lí qktyf\/ d d d d 518/ wenf;aomfum; wdwwYdk \ twårnfonfrm oabmtxnfu,tm;jzifh r½SouJoYdk þ"mwfwYdk ¬d S dk f d h onfum; xkoYdk r½SMd uonfr[kwue?f pifppftm;jzifh þ"mwfwYdk onf rdr\ (tqif;ukd jywwfjcif;ç tqif; d f k d xifavmufatmif Munfvifjcif;-paom) oabmukd aqmifwwfue\? xkUd aMumifh "mwk-"mwfrnfue\/ k f k f avmuü qef;Mu,fueaom aq;'ef;jrif;oDvm tp½Sueaom ausmuf\ tpdwwYkd udk "mwk-"mwfwYdk [k ac:qkd k f d k f f tyfueouJoYdk xkUd twlyif þ pu©KponfwYdk onfvnf; (,if;) ausmuf"mwfwYdkEihf wlMuaomaMumifh "mwk-"mwf k f h S wkYd rnfue\/ rSeay\-todÓPfEihf odtyfaom aÚ,sw&m;wkYd \ tpdwjf zpfueaom þ pu©Kpaom oabm k f f S k f wkYd onf (aq;'ef; jrif;oDvm ponfwYdkuoYdkyif) qef;Mu,f Muygayuke\/ þwGiw&yf/ wenf;um;-uk,[k hJ f f d f qktyfaom taygif;\ tpdwjf zpfueaom tcsi;csi;uGjJ ym;aom vu©Pmjzifh yki;jcm;tyfueaom (&o) tpmrS d k f f f d f k f jzpfaom t&nftESpçf (aomPdw) aoG;tp½SonfwYdk ü "mwf[aom trnfonf jzpfouJoYdk xkUd twlyif cE¨m d l h ig;yg;taygif;[k qktyfaom twåabm\ tpdwjf zpfueaom þpu©K ponfwYdküvnf; "mwk-"mwf [laom d k f trnfudk odtyf\/ odoifonf rSeay\-þ pu©KponfwYdkonf tcsi;csi; uGjJ ym;aom vu©Pmjzifh yki;jcm; h f f f d f tyfvsuf½MdS uay\? 0g-jcm;em;vsuf½MdS uay\? þwGiw&yf/ wenf;aomfum; "mwk-"mwf[aom þtrnfonf f l ZD0ac: toufaumifr[kwaom oabmw&m;rQ\ 0g-oufroabmw&m;rQ\ trnfaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifyif f hJ h jrwfpmbk&m;onf ]](ykuKú omwd) &[ef;? þa,musfm;onf (q"mwka&m) "mwf 6-yg;rQom½Sd\}} þokdYtp½Sdaom G a'oemwkYd ü toufaumif[k xifrwr- ZD0onmukd y,fEwjf cif;tusK;iSg "mwfw&m;ukd a[mMum;awmfrav S f I I d l onf/ þwGifw&yf/ xkUd aMumifh qkcorQaom teuftvktm;jzifh (pu©K) rsufpvnf;[kw\? ¤if;onf ("mwk) "mwfvnf; d hJ d d f [kw\? xkEpyg;aom taMumif;aMumifh (pu©K"mwk) pu©K"mwf-rsup"mwfrnf\/y/ raem0dnmPfvnf; [kw\? f d S f f d f ¤if;onf ("mwk)"mwfvnf;[kw\? xkEpyg;aomtaMumif;aMumifh (raem0dnmP"mwk) raem0dnmP"mwfrnf\/ f d S f þokYd vQif þ"mwfwYdk ü a½S;OD;pGm o'´geuftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

108

519/ vu©PmponfwYdk jzifh [lonfum; pu©K-rsufpponfwYdk \ vu©Pm ponftm;jzifh þ"mwfwYdk ü d tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ okYd aomfvnf; ¤if;wkYd \ ,if;vu©Pm ponfwYdkurum; cE¨ea'´oü qkcNhJ yD;aom enf; H dk l d d jzifyif odtyfue\/ h k f tpOftm;jzifh [laom þt&müvnf; a½S;ü qkcaom jzpfpOfponfwYdk wif a'oem tpOfomvQif oifay d hJ G h onf? xkoYdk oifaom þa'oemtpOfuvnf; taMumif;tusKd;ukd tpOftwki; yki;jcm;onfh tvktm;jzifh d h dk d f d f d a[mtyfayonf/ t>rufrQjy&vQif pu©K"mwfEihf ½ly"mwf[aom þESpyg;onf taMumif;ypön;aywnf;? S l f f pu©K0dnmP"mwfonf tusKd;ypö,yeaywnf;/ tvk;pkwYdk ü þenf;yif/ k Ü f H H «117» 520/ xkrQ½Sonfh tjzpftm;jzifh [l&mü qkvonfrm xkxowf tbd"r®m ygVd&yfwYdk ü ]]tmbm d d d dk S d dk k "mwfç okb"mwfç tmumomeOöm,we"mwfç 0dnmPOöm,we"mwfç tmudOnm,we"mwfç ae0onm emonm ö ,we"mwfç onma0',dweda&m""mwf}} ]]umr"mwfç Asmyg'"mwfç 0d[om"mwf? aeu©r"mwfç tAsmyg'"mwfç ð ® t0d[om"mwf }} ]]okc"mwfç 'ku"mwfç aomreó"mwfç a'greó"mwfç Oayu©m"mwfç t0dZm"mwf}} ]]tm&rÇm ð © Æ "mwfç edur"mwfç y&uúr"mwf}} ]][De"mwfç rZÑdr"mwfç yPDw"mwf}} ]]yx0D"mwfç tmayg"mwfç awaZm"mwfç ú 0ga,m"mwf}} ]]tmumo"mwfç 0dnmP"mwf}} ]]ocFw"mwfç tocFw"mwf}} ]]rsm;aom"mwf trsKd;rsKd;aom "mwf ½Sdonfh avmu}}[lí þokdYtp½Sdaom "mwfwkdYonf¤if;ç tjcm;wyg;aom "mwfwYdk onf¤if; xifue\ awGU&ukef k f \/ þokYd jzpfygvsuf tvk;pkaom "mwfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh tyki;tjcm;ukd rûyrlí tb,faMumifh 18-yg;[laom H H f d f h þtyki;tjcm;ukom ûyygoenf;[k ar;jim;tH?h y&rw¬oabmtm;jzifh xif½m;½Sueaom tm;vk;aom"mwfwYdk onf d f d S d k f H xkd 18-yg;wkdYü twGi;0ifaomaMumif[k ajztyf\/ f h twGi;0ifyrm-tmbm"mwf-tvif;"mwf[onf (va&mif aea&mif rD;a&mif paom) tqif;-½ly"mwfom f Hk S l jzpfonf/ (wifw,fonf[k xif&aom) okb"mwfonfum; ½ly"mwfponfEihf pyf\? tb,faMumifenf;- (&m* h S h h jzpfaMumif;) okbedrw-wifw,fonf xif&aom tjcif;t&mjzpfaomaMumifh aywnf;/ rSe\-wifw,fonf d f h f h xif&aom tjcif;t&m-okbedrwonf okb"mwfrnf\? ,if; okbedrwonfvnf; ½ly"mwf ponfrS tvGw[k d f d f f r½Say/ wenf;um; ukov0dyguf\ tm½kjH zpfueaom ½ly"mwf o'´"mwf ponfwYdk onfyifvQif okb"mwf d k f aywnf;? xkUd aMumifh þokb"mwfonf ½ly"mwf ponfom jzpfonf/ tmumomeOöm,we "mwf ponfwYdkü pdwonf raem0dnmP"mwfomvQif jzpf\? <uif;aom xkd (pdwEihf ,SOaom) apwoduwYdkonf "r®"mwfomvQif f f S f f jzpf\/ onma0'emwkYd \ csKyf&monm a0',dw eda&m""mwfonfum; y&rw¬oabmtm;jzifh r½Say? ,if;"mwf d onf raem0dnmP"mwf "r®"mwf[aom "mwf 2-yg;wkdY\ csKyfjcif;rQom jzpfonf/ l umr"mwf[onf "r®"mwfrQonfrvnf; jzpf\/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrm-]]xkwif umr"mwf l l d S hf l S d G [lonf tb,fenf;? umrtm½kudk vkcsifEpoufrEihf ,SOaom BuHjcif; txl;BuHjcif; rSm;,Gi;pGm BuHjcif;-rdpm H d S f I S f f ä ouFyaywnf;}}[líyifwnf;/ wenf; 18-yg;aom "mwfwYdkonfvnf; umr"mwf rnf\/ þtqkdESifhtnD Ü a[mawmfronfrm-]]atmufrS t0Dpi&Judk tqk;tyki;tjcm;ûyí txufrS y&edrw0o0wåD ewfwYdk udk twGi;oGi; l S d H d f d® f f í þtMum; þtwGif;ü þumrbkHüjzpfukefaom þumrbkü twGi;0ifueaom tMuifcE¨m"mwf tm,wewkYd H f k f onf¤if;ç tMuif½ywYdk onf¤if;ç tMuifa0'emonf onmonf¤if;ç tMuifocFg&wkYd onf¤if;ç tMuif0nmPfonf k f d ¤if; ½Sdukef\? þcE¨mponfudk umr"mwf[k qktyf\}}[líyifwnf;/ d «118» aeu©r"mwf[onf (aeu©r0wuf[aom) "r®"mwfyif/ ]]ukovw&m;tm;vk;wkYd vnf; aeu©r® ® l ® d l dk f H "mwfrnf\}}[k a[mawmfraomaMumifh raem0dnmP"mwfonfvnf; aeu©r"mwf rnfao;\/ Asmyg'"mwf l ® 1 0d[om"mwf tAsmyg'"mwf t0d[om"mwf okc 'ku© aomreó a'greó Oayu©m t0dZm tm&rÇ edur ð ð Æ ú y&uúr "mwfwYdkonf "r®"mwfomvQif jzpfonf/ [De"mwf rZÑdr"mwf yPDw"mwfwYdk onf 18-yg;aom "mwfrQomjzpfonf/ ½Si;jy&vQif ,kwnaom pu©K f f hH ponfwYdkonf [De"mwfrnf\? tv,ftvwfEihf tjrwfwYdk onf rZdÑr"mwfEihf yPDw"mwf rnfue\/ rkcstm; S S k f jzifrum; tukovjf zpfueaom "r®"mwfEihf raem0dnmP"mwfwYdkonf [De"mwf rnf\? avmuDuovf h l dk k f S k dk tAsmuw jzpfueaom "r®Eihf raem0dnmP"mwf 2-yg;wkYd onf¤if;ç pu©Ktp½Saom "mwfwYdk onf¤if; rZdÑr"mwf k f S d rnf\? avmukw&m jzpfueaom "r®"mwfEihf raem0dnmP"mwfwYdkonf yPDw"mwf rnf\/ å k f S

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

109

yx0D awaZm 0ga,m"mwfwYdkonf azm|AÁ"mwfomvQif jzpfonf? tmayg"mwfEihf tmumo"mwfonf "r® S "mwfomvQifjzpfonf/ 0dnmP"mwfonf pu©K0dnmPfpaom 0dnmP"mwf ckepfyg;\ tusO;omvQif jzpfonf/ f 17-yg;aom "mwfwYdk onf¤if; (edAmefrwyg;aom) "r®"mwfwpdwonf¤if; ocFw"mwf rnf\/ (edAmef Á S f Á [laom) tocFw"mwfonfum; "r®"mwfwpdwomvQif jzpfonf/ rsm;aom"mwf trsKd;rsKd;aom"mwf ½Saom f d avmu [lonf 18-yg;aom "mwftjym;rQomvQifjzpfonf/ þokYd vQif y&rw¬ oabmtm;jzifh xif½m;½Sueaom S d k f tm;vk; aom"mwfwYdk onf xkd 18-yg;wkYd ü twGi;0ifaomaMumifh 18-yg;wkYd uom a[mawmfrl (tyfue)\/ H f dk k f 521/ wenf;aomfum; tm½kudk odjcif;oabm½Saom pdw0nmPfü toufaumif owå0gaumif[k trSwf H d f d rSm;aom owå0gwkYd \ xktrSwrm;aom ZD0onmukd EIwy,fjcif;tusKd;iSg 18-yg;wkYd uomvQif a[mawmfrl d f S f dk (tyfue)\/ rSef\-tm½kudk odjcif;oabm½Saom pdw0nmPfü toufaumif owå0gaumif[k trSwrm;aom k f H d f d f S owå0gwkYd onf ½SMd u\? xkowå0gwkYd tm; pu©K0dnmPf"mwf aomw0dnmPf"mwf Cme0dnmPf"mwf Zd0g0dnmPf d S "mwf um,0dnmPf"mwf raem"mwf raem0dnmPf"mwf tjym;tm;jzifh xkpw0nmPf\ wckwnf;r[kwyJ d d f d f rsm;onf\ tjzpfu¤if; rsufpEitqif;paom taMumif;wkYd Eihf pyfíjzpf&aomaMumifh rNrJonf\tjzpfu¤if; dk d S hf S dk jyawmfrNl yD;vQif ½Snjf rifpmaom umvywfv; ude;atmif;aeaom (toufaumif owå0gaumif[k trSwrm;rI) h G Hk f f S ZD0onmukd EIwy,fawmfrvaom jrwfpmbk&m;onf 18-yg;aom "mwfwYdk udk jyawmfrl (tyfue) ayonf/ f l dk G k f tenf;i,f qkz,½ao;\-xkUd twlyif a0ae,swkYd \ tvktZÑmo, tpGr;tm;jzifvnf; jyawmfrl (tyfue) d G f dS d f h k f ayonf/ qkvonfrm-rusO;vGe; rus,ve;aom þ"mwka'oemjzifh qk;rnTeMf um;xkuueaom tMuif d dk S f f f G f H d f k f a0ae,s owå0gwkYd onf ½Sue\? xka0ae,sowå0gwkYd \ tvktêudu\ tpGr;tm;jzifh 18-yg;wkYd uomvQif d k f d d f f dk jyawmfrl (tyfue)ayonf/ k f tMuiftMuif tjym;tm;jzifh a[mjyvQif a0ae,sowå0gwkYd \ ESv;wkYd ü (ude;ae Hk f aom) t0dZmarSmifonf xkd jrwfpmbk&m;\ w&m;awmfwefc;jzifh y,fazsmuftyfonfjzpfí Æ G dk (0g-y,fazsmufvuaomaMumif) wcPcsif; ysufp;aysmufu,jf cif;okYd a&muf\? xkxdk dk f h D G d tusO;tus,f enf;tjym;jzifh þ jrwfpmbk&m;onf w&m;ukd a[mjyawmfray\/ f G l þokYd vQif þ"mwfwYdk ü xkd (18-yg;)rQ ½Sonftjzpfjzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d h H «119» 522/ ac:qkd a&wGujf cif;tm;jzifh [l&mü a½S;OD;pGm pu©K"mwfonf trsKd;Zmwftm;jzifh pu©Kyom' tvkd wyg;wnf;aom w&m;[líomvQif ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\/ xkUd twlyif aomw Cme Zd0g um, d S ½ly o'´ *E¨ &o "mwfwYdk onf aomwyom' ponfwYdk tvktm;jzifh wyg;wnf;aom w&m;[líomvQif ac:qkd d a&wGujf cif;okYd a&mufue\/ azm|AÁ"mwfonfum; yx0DawaZm 0ga,mwkYd tvktm;jzifh 3-yg;aom w&m;wkYd k f d [lí ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\/ pu©K0dnmPf"mwfonf ukov0dyguf tukov0dyguftvktm;jzifh 2-yg; d d aom w&m;wkYd [í ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\/ aomw Cme Zd0g um,0dnmPf"mwfwYdk onf xkUd twlyif/ l d S raem"mwfonfum; yOö'g&m0ZÆe;ESihf ukov0dyguf tukov0dyguf orÜ#pKäd ef;wkYd \ tvktm;jzifh 3-yg;aom G f d d w&m;wkYd [í ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\/ "r®"mwfonf (a0'em onm ocFg&[laom)ok;yg;aom emrfcE¨m l d H wkYd \¤if;ç 16-yg;aom okcr½kywYdk \¤if; (edAmef) tocFw"mwf\ ¤if;tvktm;jzifh 20-aom w&m;wkYd [í k f Á d l ac:qka&wGuf jcif;okYd a&muf\/ raem0dnmPf"mwfonf (yOö0nmPf"mwf raem"mwfwYdkr) <uif;aom ukovf d d S dk (21) tukovf (12) tAsmuw0dnmPf (43) wkYd tvktm;jzifh 76-yg;aom w&m;wkYd [í ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd dk d l d a&muf\/ þokdYvQif þ"mwfwYdk ü ac:qka&wGujf cif;tm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d h H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

110

523/ aus;Zl;ûyjcif; (ypö,)tm;jzif[aom þtjcif;t&mürl a½S;OD;pGmpu©K"mwfonf pu©K0dnmPf"mwftm; h l 0dy,wå yka&Zmw twd¬ t0d*w edó, £`E´, ypön;wkYd tvktm;jzifh 6-yg; aomypö,owdwYdk jzifh aus;Zl; Ü k d f d å ûy\/ tqif;-½ly"mwfonf (,if;0dnmPf"mwftm;) yka&Zmw tw¬d t0d* w tm&r®P ypön;wkYd tvktm;jzifh f d av;yg;aom ypö,owåwYdk jzifh aus;Zl;ûy\/ aomw0dnmPf"mwf ponfwYdk tm; aomw"mwfEihf o'´"mwf ponf d S wkdYonf þtwlyif 6-yg; 4-yg;aom ypö,owåwYdk jzifh aus;Zl;ûyuke\/ ig;yg;ukeaom ,if;0dnmPf"mwfwYdk tm; d f f tm0ZÆe;raem"mwfonf teEÅ& oreEÅ&ew¬d 0d*w teEÅ ½lyedó,wkYd tvktm;jzifh ig;yg;aom ypö,owåwYdk jzifh f d d aus;Zl;ûy\/ ,if;0dnmPf"mwfig;yg;vk;wkYd onfvnf; orÜ#pKäd ef;raem"mwftm; xkUd twlyif aus;Zl;ûy\/ orÜ#pKdä ef; H d d raem"mwfonf oEÅ&Praem0dnmP"mwftm; xkUd twlyif aus;Zl;ûy\/ ,if;oEÅ&Ponfvnf; 0ka|mraem D D 0dnmP"mwftm;? ,if; 0ka|monf aZmraem0dnmP"mwftm; xkUd twlyif aus;Zl;ûy\/ aZmraem 0dnmP"mwf onfum; tjcm;rJh aZmraem0dnmP"mwftm; xkig;ypön;wkYd Eihf tmao0eypön; [laom 6 n;wkYd jzifh aus;Zl; d f S f -ypö f ûy\/ þonfum; a½S;OD;pGm yOö'g&ü enf;wnf;/ G raem'Gg&üum; b0ifraem0dnmP"mwfonf tm0ZÆe;raem0dnmP"mwftm;? ,if;tm0ZÆe;onf aZmraem f f 0dnmP"mwftm; a½S;jzpfaomig;ypön;wkYd jzifh aus;Zl;ûy\/ "r®"mwfonfum; ckepfyg;aom 0dnmP"mwf wkYd tm; f o[Zmw tnrn edó, orÜ,wå twd¬ t0d*w tp½Sueaom rsm;aomtjym;½Saom ypön;wkYd jzifh aus;Zl;ûy k d k f d f \/ pu©K"mwfponfwYdk onf¤if;? tcsKdUaom "r®"mwfonf¤if; tcsKdUaom raem0dnmP"mwftm; tm&r®P ypön; f ponfwYdkjzifvnf; aus;Zl;ûyuke\/ qufíjyOD;tHh - pu©K0dnmP"mwf ponfwYdk tm; pu©K"mwf ½ly"mwf ponfwYdk h f oufoufomvQif aus;Zl;ûyMuonf r[kwao;? pifppfaomfum; tvif;a&mif ponfwYdkonfvnf; aus;Zl;ûyMu f ao;\/ xkUd aMumifh a½S;q&mwkYd u rdeYf qawmfrMl uonfrmdk S «120» rsufpdç tqif;ç ta&miftvif;ç ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí pu©K0dnmPfonf jzpf Hk f J DS \/ em;ç toHç tayguftMum;ç ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí aomw0dnmPfonf jzpf\/ Hk f J DS ESmacgif;ç teHYç av ç ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí Cme0dnmPfonf jzpf\/ vQmç t&omç t&nf Hk f J DS tpk"mwfç ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí Zd0g0dnmPfonf jzpf\/ ukd,f (tMunf)ç tawGUç yx0D d Hk f J DS S "mwfç ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí um,0dnmPfonf jzpf\/ b0ifpwf (re)ç oabmw&m; Hk f J DS d tm½kçH ESv;oGi;rIwYdk udk pGrí raem0dnmPfonfjzpf\-[líyif wnf;/ Hk f J DS ,ck qkcaom pum;onf þt&mü tusOf;aywnf;/ tus,ftm;jzifh aus;Zl;ûyykH tjym;onf y#dpö d hJ orkyg'fudk tus,fjy&mü xif½m; jzpfvwH/ þokYd vQif þ"mwfwYdk ü aus;Zl;ûyjcif; tm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk Ü S h h H odtyf\/ 524/ ½Ityfaomtm;jzifh [l&mü qkvonfrm ocFw"mwftm;vk;wkYd uyifvQif (cPok;yg;rS) a½S;tzkYd d dk S H dk H aemuftzkYd wYdk ü uif;qdwaomtm;jzif¤if;? ckiNf rJjcif; wifw,fjcif; csr;omjcif; twåtjzpfwYdkrS qdwoO;aom f h d h f f k f tm;jzif¤if;? taMumif;wkYd Eipyfí jzpf&jcif;tm;jzif¤if; ½Ityfue\/ h S hf h k f txl;tm;jzifrl þ"mwf (18-yg;)wkYd wif pu©K"mwfudk pnf\rsufEmjyifuoYdk rSwtyf\? tqif; ½ly"mwf h G S hJ f ukd wD;acgufp&m'kwuoYdk rSwtyf\? jrifor-pu©K0dnmPf"mwfudk xGuay:vmaom toHuoYdk rSwtyf\/ f hJ f d I f hJ f xkUd jyif pu©K"mwfudk aMu;rkjH yifuoYdk rSwtyf\? ½ly"mwfudk rsufEmuJoYdk rSwtyf\? pu©K0dnmPf"mwfudk rsuEm hJ f S h f f S &dyuoYdk rSwtyf\/ wenf;um; pu©K"mwfudk BuHrsm; ESr;aphrsm;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? ½ly"mwfudk BuHnppuf f hJ f f h f § f qDBudwqwYdk ü zdnyBf udwonfh 'kwwH usnfayGUuJoYdk rSwtyf\? pu©K0dnmPf "mwfudk BuH&nf qDwYdk uoYkd f Hk § f f h f hJ rSwtyf\/ xkYd jyif pu©K"mwfudk rD;yGwcuoYdk rSwtyf\? ½ly"mwfudk rD;yGwwuoYdk rSwtyf\? pu©K0dnmPf f f Hk hJ f f H hJ f "mwfudk rD;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? aomw"mwf ponfwYdk üvnf; þenf;yif/ h f raem"mwfurl jzpfoifonf tm;avsmpm pu©K0dnmPf"mwf ponfwYdk\ a½SUoGm; aemufvuuoYdk dk h f G dk f hJ rSwtyf\/ f "r®"mwfxrS a0'emu©Emukd jr§m;ajimifuoYdk¤if;? wHusifuoYdk ¤if; rSwtyf\/ onmu©Em ocFg&u©EmwkYd udk J ¨ h hJ hJ f ¨ ¨ a0'em[laom jr§m;ajimifwusiwYdkEihf ,SOjf cif;aMumifh emusiaeolwYdkuoYdk rSwtyfue\? wenf;um;-ykxZOf h H f S f hJ f k f k wkYd \ onmukd (r&Ekionfu) awmifwjcif;ESihf pyfaom qif;&Judk jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh tcsn;ES;vufqyf d f dk h f D k uJoYdk ¤if;? r[kwrrSeaom trSwerwudk ,lwwfaomaMumifh awmorifuoYdk ¤if; rSwtyf\/ ocFg&wkdYukd h f f f d d f hJ f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

111

y#doaE¨ü ypfcswwfaomaMumifh rD;usD;wGi;ü ypfcswwfonfh a,musfm;wkYd uoYdk ¤if;? Zmwd'u© vkuygvmaom f hJ k d f aMumifh &JyvywYdk vuygvmonfh ck;olwYdk uoYdk ¤if;? tusKd;rJ[orQukd aqmifvmwwfonfh cE¨mtpOf\ taMumif; k d f dk f d hJ h l jzpfaomaMumifh tqdyyif\ rsKd;aphwYdk uoYdk ¤if; rSwtyfue\/ okcr½kyudk trsKd;rsKd;aom uyfíESypufwwfonfh f hJ f k f k f d f Oy'´a0gwkYd \ taMumif;edrwf jzpfaomaMumifh y'krmMumtoGixif&aom oif"epufuoYdk rSwtyf\/ tocFw d ® f k f hJ f "mwfurum; taouif;aomtm;jzif¤if;? Nidrouf Nidr;at;aomtm;jzif¤if;? ab;Nidr;aomtm;jzif¤if; rSwtyf\? dk l h f f h f h f tb,faMumifenf;-tusKd;rJtvk;pkudk aqmifwwf jzpfapwwfaom ocFw'kutaygif;ç &m*tp½Saom udavom h h h H H © d 'kutaygif;\ qefYusizuf jzpfaomaMumifh aywnf;/ © f «121» raem0dnmP"mwfudk tm½kwYdk ü wnfwjhH cif;r½SaomaMumifh awmarsmufuoYdk ¤if;? qk;rEkicaom H d hJ H d f J aMumifh jrif;,kwjf rif;qk;uJoYdk¤if;? vk&m&mtm½krsm;ü usom;wwfaomaMumifh aumif;uifoYdk ajr§mufwifvuaom d h d H G dk f 'kwuoYdk ¤if;? avmb a'go tp½Saom trsKd;rsKd;aom udavomwkYd \ toGiEihf ,SOaomaMumifh ujy&myGobifü f hJ d f S f J toGitrsKd;rsKd;ukd aqmifonfh uajconfuoYdk ¤if; rSwtyf\/ þwGifw&yf/ f hJ f þqkcaompum;onf "mwfwYdkudk tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ d

þonfum; olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdY\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg jyKpD&if(tyf)aom 0dok'd¨r*fusrf;0,f ynmbm0emt&mü tm,we"mwfwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf (tm,we"mwkeda'´o)rnfaom wq,fh ig;ckajrmuf tykdif;tcPf;aywnf;/ (tm,we"mwfwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf NyD;\)

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

112

16-£`E,opöea'´o-£a`Eopömwkudk d´ d ´ Yd tus,jf ycsuf
£a`E´wkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
«122» 525/ "mwfwkdY\ tjcm;rJh (pmyk'f 430)ü tusOf;jycJaom £a`E´wUdk [lonfrm pu©Ka`E´ aomwda`E´ d h S Cmeda`E´ Zd0a`E´ um,da`E´ reda`E´ £wda`E´ yk&oa`E´ ZD0wa`E´ okca`E´ 'kua`E´ aomreóda`E´ a'greóda`E´ dS ¬ d d d d d ©d Oayu©a`E´ o'da`E´ 0D&,a`E´ owda`E´ orm"da`E´ ynda`E´ tenmwnómrDwa`E´ tnda`E´ tnmwm0da`E´-[laom d ¨ d d d 22-yg;aom £a`E´wYdk aywnf;/ xkd £a`E´wYdk üo'´geuftm;jzif¤if;? vu©PmponfwYdk jzif¤if;? tpOftm;jzif¤if;? uGjJ ym;jcif; ½Sr½Stm;jzif¤if;? h h h d d h udptm;jzif¤if;? bktm;jzif¤if; tqk;tjzwfudk od&m\/ ö h H h H xkwif a½S;OD;pGm pu©KponfwYdk \ teufudk ]]pu©ww-tqif;ukd om,mwwf-jywwfaomaMumifh pu©K d G D d rnf\}} þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifjh ycJNh yD; jzpfonf/ aemufq; £a`E´o;yg;wkYd wirum; yXr£a`E´udk t&d,mr*f\ d Hk Hk G f l a½S;tzkYd ü rod&ao; (í tenmwrnf)aom tûrdueAmefudk wenf; opömav;yg;w&m;ukd (Zmedómrd-ÚómrDw) f d Á d od&ayvdrrnf[k þokYd &nf½,í usifaomolrm jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç (£`E´,|) tpk;&jcif;teuf\ jzpfoifaom hf G f h S h d d h aMumif¤if; ]]tenmwnómrDwa`E´}}[lí ac:qkdtyf\/ 'kw,£a`E´onf (tmZmeetnm) yXrr*fjzifh odNyD; h d d aom tyki;tjcm;jzifh odaomaMumif¤if; £`E´,|\ jzpfoifaomaMumif¤if; tnda`E´rnf\/ wwd, £a`E´onf d f h d h h opömav;yg;wkYd ü NyD;NyD;aomodjcif;udpö ½Sonfjzpfí (tnmwm0D) odNyD;rnfaom &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vftm; jzpfaomaMumifh d ¤if;ç £`Ed,|\ jzpfoifaomaMumif¤if; tnmwm0da`E´rnf\/ k´ h h þ (£`E´,|) tpk;&jcif;teufrnfonf tb,fygenf;[lr?l (£E´) tpk;&aomtaMumif; uHudk (vd*|) d d d F jyaomteuf 0g-jyaMumif;teufonf £`E´,|rnf\? (£E´)tpk;&aom jrwfpmbk&m;u (a'odw|) a[mtyf d d G aom teufonf £`E´,|rnf\/ (£E´)tpk;&aom jrwfpmbk&m;onf ('d||) jriftyfaomteufonf £`E´,| d d G d rnf\/ (£E´) tpk;&aomuHu (od||) jzpfaptyfaomteufonf £`E´,|rnf\? (£E´) tpk;&aom jrwfpm d d d G bk&m;onf (Zk||) rS0tyfaom teufonf £`E´,|rnf\/ xkd £E´|tvk;pkuvnf; ,SOoifonftm; avsmfpm D J d H H dk f h G ,SOtyf\/ csJUíjytHh-uk,wirepm odawmfrNl yD;aom jrwfpmbk&m;onf uk,awmfEihf pdwawmfudk tvGetuJ f d f dk f S f G G d f S f f tpk;&jcif;aMumifh tpk;&ol (£E´)rnfay\? ukovuH tukovuonfvnf; (£E´) tpk;&aom w&m;rnfay\? d d dk f dk f H d taMumif;rSm uHwYdkü rnforQ tpk;r&aomaMumifaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifyifvQif þt&mü uHujzpf aptyfueaom l d h h k f (0g-uHaMumifh jzpfueaom) pu©K-rsufptp½Saom £a`E´wYdk onf (olwYdk \taMumif;jzpfaom) ukovuH k f d d dk f tukovuudk jywwfue\? xkuovf tukovuuvnf; jzpfaptyfue\? xkUd aMumifh (£E´v*|) dk f H k f d k dk dk f H k f d F tpk;&aom uHudk jywwfaom teufoabmaMumif¤if; (£E´o||) tpk;&aomuHu jzpfaptyfaom teufoabm d h d d aMumif¤if; £`E´,rnfue\/ xk£a`E´ tm;vk;wkYd uvnf; jrwfpmbk&m;onf [kwwi;rSepm jyawmfrtyfue\ h d k f d H dk G f dk f f G l k f xk;xGi;ívnf; odawmfrtyfue\? xkUd aMumifh (£E´a'odw|) tpk;&aom jrwfpmbk&m;u jytyfaom teuf d f l k f d G oabmaMumif¤if;ç (£E´'||) jrwfpmbk&m;odjriftyfaom teufoabmaMumif¤if; £`E´,rnfue\/ &[ef; h d G h d k f wkYd \ t½Sijf zpfawmfraom xkjd rwfpmbk&m;onfyifvQif tcsKdU£a`E´wYdk udk tm½kûH yvsuf rS0jJ cif;jzifçh tcsKdU£a`E´wYdk udk l G D yGg;apvsuf rS0jJ cif;jzifh rS0awmfrtyfue\? xkUd aMumifh (£E´Z||) tpk;&aom jrwfpmbk&m; rS0tyfaom teuf D D J l k f k d G D J oabmaMumifvnf; £`E´,rnfue\/ h d k f «123» (toif,wåd tjynft0½Sonf) wenf;aomfum; (tm"dypö-t"dywdbm0) tBuD;trª;tjzpf[k h k h d h qktyfaom (£ó&d,|) tpk;&jcif;teufoabmaMumifh ,if;pu©KponfwYdkonf £`E´,£a`E´ rnfue\/ rSeay d d d k f f \-jrifor-pu©K0dnmPf ponfwYdkjzpf&mü (pu©K)rsupponfwYdk\ BuD;rª; tkyp;jcif;onf xif½m;ay\? tb,fh d I f d f dk S aMumifqaomf-xkpu©K-rsupponfwYdk xufjruf tm;aumif;vQif jrifrponfwYdk xufjruf tm;aumif;jcif;aMumifh h dk d f d I ¤if;ç (¤if;wkYd ) EkUH nHtm;enf;vQif jrifrponfwYdk EkUH nHtm;enf;jcif;aMumif¤if; jzpfayonf/ ,ck qkcaom h I h h d hJ pum;onf þ £a`E´wYdk ü a½S;OD;pGm o'´geuftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

113

vu©PmponfwYdk jzifh [l&mü vu©Pm &o ypöKy|mef y'|mefwYdkjzifvnf; pu©KponfwYdk\ tqk;tjzwf h H ukd od&m\-þum;teuf/ okYd aomfvnf; ,if;pu©KponfwYdk \ xkvu©PmponfwYdk udk cE¨ea'´oü qkcNhJ yD;om d d d jzpfonf/ rSe\-ynda`E´tp½Saom av;yg;aom £a`E´wYdk onf tarm[yif jzpfonf/ <uif;aom £a`E´w&m; uk,f f d d wkYd onf xkcE¨ea'´oü o½kytm;jzifyif vmuke\/ d d f h f 526/ tpOftm;jzifh [l&mü þtpOfonfvnf; a'oemtpOfomjzpfonf/ xk£a`E´ 22-yg;wkdYwGif tZÑwå d w&m;wkYd udk yki;jcm;íodjcif;jzifh t&d,mbkH t&d,mzkvudk &jcif;jzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh twåabmü twGi;0ifuef d f d f f k aom pu©Ka`E´ponfwYdk udk a½S;OD;pGm a[mawmfrayonf/ xktwåabmonf tMuifw&m;ukd pGrí tr[lí¤if;ç tzkd l d J DS [lí¤if; ac:qka&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\? tr-tzkjd zpfaMumif; xkw&m;um; þ½kyyif[k jyjcif;iSg xkUd aemif d d f £wda`E´ yk&oa`E´wkdYukd a[mawmfrlayonf/ xkd£a`E´ 2-yg;onfvnf; ZD0wa`E´Eipyfí jzpf&onf[k odapjcif;iSg ¬ d d d d S hf xkUd aemif ZD0wa`E´udk a[mawmfronf/ ,if;ZD0wa`E´ rjywfjzpfae orQumvywfv; þcHpm;rIa0'emwkYd \ d d l d d Hk qkwepf&yfpjJ cif;rnfonfr½S?d ,if;cHpm;rIa0'emtm;vk;onfvnf; qif;&Jcsn;om[k odapjcif;iSg xkUd aemif okca`E´ f H f d ponfwYdk udk a[mawmfronf/ xkcpm;rIa0'emcsKyf&eftwGuf þw&m;wkYd udk jzpfyg;aptyfonf[k tusify#dywfudk l d H G h jyjcif;iSg xkUd aemif o'¨gtp½Saom£a`E´wYdk udk a[mawmfronf/ o'¨gponfudk yGg;apaom þtusifjh zifh rdrü d l d a½S;OD;pGm þw&m;jzpfay:onf[k tusify#dywf\ tcsnf;ES;r[kwaMumif;ukd jyjcif;iSg xkUd aemif tenmwnómrD h D f wda`E´udk a[mawmfronf/ ,if;£a`E´\yif tusKd;jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç ,if;rSaemuf tjcm;rJü yGg;aptyfaom l h h aMumif¤if; xkUd aemif tnda`E´udk a[mawmfronf/ xkraemufü yGg;aprI-bm0emjzifh þ£a`E´u&onf? ¤if;ukd h l d S dk &vQifvnf; xkxuftvGef ûyzG,upö wpkwckrQ r½SawmhNyD[k odapjcif;iSg tjrwfq; oufom&mjzpfaom tnwm d f d H d Hk 0da`E´udk tqk;ü a[mawmfronf/ þonfum; þ£a`E´wYdk ü tpOfaywnf;/ H l uGjJ ym;jcif; ½Sr½Stm;jzifh [laom þt&mü ZD0wa`E´\omvQif uGjJ ym;jcif;½Sonf? ¤if;onf ½kyZ0wa`E´ d d d d d f D d d emrfZD0dwda`E´[k 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? <uif;aom £a`E´wYdk rm tuGtjym;r½Sd wyg;pDom jzpfonf/ þokYd vQif þ£a`E´ S J wkYd ü uGjJ ym;jcif; ½Sd r½Stm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk od&m\/ d H 527/ udptm;jzifh [l&mü £a`E´wYdk\ udptm; tb,fenf;[lr- ]]pu©m,weonf pu©K0dnmP"mwf ö ö l tm;¤if;ç ,if;ESi,Oaom apwoduw&m;wkYd tm;¤if; £`E´,ypön;jzifh aus;Zl;ûy\}}[k a[mawmfraomaMumifh hf S f f d f l £`E´,ypön;tjzpfjzifh NyD;aptyfaom rdr\xufjcif; EkUH jcif;ponfjzifh pu©K0dnmPftp½Saom w&m;wkYd udk xuf d f d d onf EkUH onfponfqtyfaom rdr\tjcif;t&mokYd tpOfvuapjcif;onf a½S;OD;pGm pu©Ka`E´\ udpaywnf;/ dk d dk f ö aomw Cme Zd0g um,£a`E´wYdk\ udponf xkUd twlyifwnf;/ «124» xkrS wyg; twljzpfzufw&m;wkYd udk rdrd S ö d tvkoYdk vkuapjcif;onf reda`E´\udpaywnf;/ twljzpfzufw&m;wkYd udk apmifa½Smufjcif;onf ZD0wa`E´\ udpö d d f ö h d d aywnf;/ tr-tzkwYdk \ vdi-oP²mefç odaMumif;edrwçf tûytrlç toGitjyif tjcif;t&mwkYd udk jzpfapjcif;onf d f d f £wda`E´ yk&oa`E´wYdk\ udpaywnf;/ twljzpfzufw&m;wkYd udk vTr;rk;í rdrd rdrEiqiaom ½keYf &if;aom tjcif; ¬ d d ö f d d S hf dk f t&mokYd a&mufapjcif;onf okc 'ku© aomreó a'greó £a`E´wYdk \ udpaywnf;/ Nidroufaumif;jrwfaom ö f tv,ftvwfoabm tjcif;t&mokYd a&mufapjcif;onf Oayu©a`E´\ udpaywnf;/ qefYusifzufwYdk udk vTr;rk;jcif; d ö f d onf¤if;ç ,SOzufw&m;wkYd udk Munfvifaomtjcif; t&mponfEihf jynfpjHk cif;okYd a&mufapjcif;onf¤if; (0gf S h Munfvifaom tjcif;t&mponfEihf jynfpapjcif;onf¤if;) o'da`E´ponfwYdk\ udpaywnf;/ ouúm,'d|0pupm S h Hk ¨ ö d d d d ä oDvAÁwy&mrmo[laom oHa,mZOf ok;yg;ukd y,fjcif;onf¤if;ç ,if;oHa,mZOfwYdk uy,f&ef ,SOzufw&m;wkYd tm; H dk f a½S;½Ijzpfatmif ûyjcif;onf¤if; tenmwnómrDwa`E´\ udpaywnf;/ umr&m* Asmyg'ponfwYdk udk acgif;yg; d ö apjcif; y,fjcif;onf¤if;ç twljzpfzufwYdk udk rdrtvkoYdk vkuapjcif;onf¤if; tnda`E´\ udpaywnf;/ udpö d d d f ö tm;vk;wkYd ü aMumifMh upkurudk y,fjcif;onf¤if; ,SOzufw&m;wkYd \ tûrdueAmefoYdk a½S;½Ijzpfjcif;\ taMumif; H d f I f f d Á tjzpfonf¤if; tnmwm0da`E´\ udpaywnf;/ þokYd vQif þ£a`E´wYdk ü udptm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk od&m\/ ö ö H 528/ bktm;jzifh [l&mü þ£a`E´ 22-yg;wkYd wif pu©KaomwCme Zd0g um, £wd¬ yk&o okc 'ku© H G S d a'greó[laom £a`E´wYdk onf umrm0p&wkYd omwnf;/ reda`E´ ZD0wa`E´ Oayu©a`E´wYdk onf¤if;ç o'¨g 0D&, owd d d d d orm"d ynm-£a`E´wYdk onf¤if; bkav;yg;wkYd ü twGi;0ifue\/ aomreóda`E´onf umr ½ly avmukw&mwkYd \ H f k f å tpGr;tm;jzifh bko;yg;taygif;ü twGi;0if\/ tqkH;üokH;yg;aom £a`E´wYdk onf avmukw&mwkYd om jzpfonf/ f H Hk f å þokYd vQif þ£a`E´wYdk ü bktm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk od&m\/ tusKd;um; þokYd oaom &[ef;onfH h H d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

114

xdwvefYrI oHa0*tjzpfrsm;onfjzpfí £a`E´wYdkudk apmifpnf;jcif;-£`E´,oH0&ü wnfvsuf f h d £a`E´wYdk udk yki;jcm;odí qif;&J\tqk; t&[wåzvudk ûyEkiayvwH(0g-qif;&J\ qk;&muke&m jzpfaom d f H dk f d f h H f edAmefudk rsuarSmufûyEkiayvwH)/ þum; tusK;jypum;aywnf;/ Á f d f h d þqkcaompum;onf £a`E´wYdkudk tus,jf yqkcsuf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ d

opömwkdYukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
529/ xk£a`E´wYdk \ tjcm;rJü jyxm;aom opömwkYd [onfrm 'kut&d,opömç 'kuork', t&d,opömç d h l S © © 'kuea&m" t&d,opömç 'kuea&m"okYd qua&mufonfh tusify#dy'g[laom r*¾t&d,opöm[lí av;yg;aom © d © d dk f h t&d,opömwkYd aywnf;/ xkopömwkYd üd «125» a0befaomtm;jzifh¤if;ç o'´geufvu©Pm tp½Saom tjym;tm;jzif¤if;ç tw¬EiteufwYdk d h S hf ukd xkwjf yaomtm;jzif¤if;ç r,kwrvGeaomtm;jzif¤if;ç tpOftm;jzif¤if;ç ZmwdponfwYdk udk qk;jzwfaom h f f h h H tm;jzifh¤if;ç ÓPf\udptm;jzif¤if;ç twGi;0ifaom w&m;wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzif¤if;ç Oyrmtm;jzif¤if;ç ö h f h h av;csupk pwkutm;jzif¤if;ç okntm;jzif¤if;ç {u0d"paom tjym;wkYd jzif¤if;ç wlaomtzkYd ½jdS cif; uGjJ ym; f ú h h h aom tzkYd ½Sjd cif;tm;jzif¤if; tqk;tjzwfudk omoemawmf\ oufa&muf&m opöa'oemü uRr;usiaom h H f f ynm½Sonf odtyf\/ d xkwif a0befaomtm;jzifh [l&mü 'ku© ponfwYdk\ av;yg; av;yg;pD a0befxm;onfh teufoabm d G wkYd onf (xkd a0befonftwki;yif) rSeue\ rcRwf,i;ukef tjcm;tjcif;t&m r½Sue?f ,if;av;yg;pDaom h d f f k f G f d k teufoabmwkYd udk 'kuponfwYdk udk odowYdk onf xl;aomÓPfjzifh odtyfue\/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfrl © l k f d S hf onfrmS ]]'ku©opöm\ (yDVe|) ESypufjcif;oabm? (ocFw|) aygif;pkíûytyfaomoabm? (oEÅmy|) d f ylavmifapjcif;oabm? (0dy&dPmr|) azmufjyefjcif;oabm? 'kuopöm\ þav;yg;aom 'kuteuf © © oabmwkYd onf rSeue\ rcRwf,i;ukef tjcm;tjcif;t&mr½Sue/ ork',opöm\ (tm,l[e|)tm; f k f G f d k f xkwjf cif;oabm? (ed'ge|) qif;&J\ taMumif;oabm? (oH a,m*|) qif;&JEi,Oapjcif;oabm? (yvd S hf S f aAm"|) aESmif,uwm;jrpfjcif;oabm? eda&m"opöm\ (edó&P|) xGuajrmufjcif;oabm? (0da0u|) h S f f ocFg&wkYd rS uif;qdwjf cif;oabm? (tocFw|) rûytyfaomoabm? (trw|) raorysujf cif;oabm? r*¾opöm\ (ed,sme|) xGuajrmufaMumif;oabm? (a[wk|) edAmefa&mufaMumif;oabm? ('óe|) edAmef f Á Á ukd rsuarSmufjrifjcif;oabm? (tm"dyaw,s|) tBuD;trª;jzpfjcif;oabm? r*¾opöm\ þav;yg;aom f r*¾teuf oabmwkYd onf rSeue\rcRwf,i;ukef tjcm;tjcif;t&mr½Suef}} [líyifwnf;/ xkdUjyif ]]'ku© f k f G f d k opöm\ yDVe| ocFw| oEÅmy| 0dy&dPmr| (tbd or,|) xl;aomÓPfjzifh odtyfaomoabm}}þokYd ponfvnf; ½Sao;\/ d þokYd jyqkconftwki; av;yg; av;yg;pD a0befjyxm;onfh teufoabmwkYd \ pGr;tm;jzifh 'ku© opöm d hJ h d f f ponfwYdk udk odtyfue\/ þonfum; þopömwkYd ü a½S;OD;pGma0befaomtm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ k f H 530/ o'´geuf vu©Pmtp½Saom tjym;tm;jzifh [laom þpum;ü a½S;OD;pGm o'´geuftm;jzifh þ'ku© d [laomyk'ü 'k-[laom þo'´gonf pufqyz,üxif\? pufqyz,f om;qk;ukd 'kyw-[kqMdk u\/ cH-o'´g f k f G f k f G d k å onf tcsnf;ES;ü xif\? tcsnf;ES; aumif;uifudk cH-[k qkMd u\/ þ yXropömonfvnf; rsm;pGmaom Oy'´a0g D D wkYd \ wnf&m jzpfaomaMumifh pufqyz,aumif;\? rodrvdrmolwYdk BuHqxm;aom ckiNf rJjcif;ç wifw,fjcif;ç k f G f ® d h csr;omjcif;ç twåtjzpfwYdkrS uif;jcif;aMumifh tcsnf;ES;jzpf\? xkoYdk pufqyz,aumif;jcif; tcsn;ES;jzpfjcif; f D d k f G f f D aMumifh 'ku-[k qktyf\/ © d xkrwyg; oH-[laom þo'´gonf ]](orm*arm) awGUqkjH cif;ç (oarwH)wuGjzpfonf}} tp½Saomyk'wYdk ü d S d f ,SOjf cif;ukjd y\/ O-[laom þo'´gonf ]](OyÜE) jzpfonf (O'dw) jzpfonf}} tp½Sd aomyk'wYdk ü jzpfjcif;ukjd y\/ Hé H f t,-o'´gonf taMumif;ukjd y\/ þ'kw,opömonfvnf; <uif;aom (ukovf tukovu) taMumif;ESihf d dk dk f H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

115

,SOjf cif;½SvQif 'kuopömjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;jzpf\/ þokYd tjcm;taMumif;ESi,OvQif 'kuj© zpfjcif;\ taMumif; d © hf S f jzpfaomaMumifh 'kuork',-[lí qkdtyf\/ © «126» xkdrSwyg; ed-o'´gonf r½Sjd cif;ukjd y\? a&m"-o'´gonf aESmiftr-axmifujdk y\? xkUd aMumifh þ d f edAmefü *wdtm;vk; qdwoO;aomaMumifh oHo&maESmiftr[k qktyfaom ('kua&m") 'kuaxmifr½S?d (þ Á H f k f d f d © © taMumif;aMumif) wwd,opömukd 'kuea&m"-[lí qkdtyf\/ wenf;um; xkd edAmefu&vQiovQif oHo&maESmif h © d Á dk f d tdr[k qktyfaom ('kua&m") 'kuaxmif \ r½Sjd cif; uif;jcif;jzpf\ (tb,faMumif[r)-xk'ua&m"\ qefYusif f d © © h h l l d k © zuf jzpfaomaMumifyif? þokYd aom taMumif;aMumifvnf; 'kuea&m"-[lí qkdtyf\/ wenf;um; 'ku\ h h © d © rjzpfjcif;[laom csKyfjcif; \ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh 'kuea&m"rnf\/ þwGifw&yf/ © d xkrwyg; þpwkwopömonf tm½kûH yonfh tvktm;jzifh xk'uea&m"okYd a½S;½Ijzpfjcif;aMumif('kuea&m") d S ¬ d d k © d h © d 'kucsKyf&mokYd (*päw-*grde)oGm;a&mufwwf\? 'kuea&m"okYd (yk*Kd¾ vf) a&mufjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaom tusifh © d D © d y#dy'gvnf;jzpf\1? xkUd aMumifh pwkwopömukd 'kuea&m"*grdey#dy'g-[lí qktyf\/ ¬ © d D d 531/ xdrwyg; þopömwkYd udk bk&m;tp½Sueaom t&d,mwkYd onf xk;xGi;í odue\? xkUd aMumifh k S d k f d f k f t&d,mopömwkYd [í qktyfue\/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrml d k f d S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd t&d,opömwkYd onf þav;yg;wkYd aywnf;/ tb,fav;yg;wkYd enf;/y/ t&d,opöm wkYd onf þav;yg;wkYd yifwnf;/ t&d,mwkYd onf þopömwkYd udk xk;xGi;í odue\? xkUd aMumifh t&d, d f k f opömwkYd [í qktyfue\}}[líyifwnf;/ l d k f wenf;aomfum; t&d,rnfaom jrwfpmbk&m;\ opömwkYd jzpfaomaMumifvnf; t&d,opöm rnfue\ / G h k f þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrmd S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd ewfEiwuGaomavmuü/y/ ewfvwYdk EiwuG jzpfaom owå0gtaygif;xJü a½S; S hf l S hf bk&m;wkYd Eihf tvm;wljzpfaom igbk&m;onf t&d,-jrwfaomyk*Kd¾ vf jzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh t&d,opömwkYd S [lí qkdtyfukef\}}[líyifwnf;/ wenf;um; þopömav;yg;wkYd udk xk;xGi;í odNyD;jzpfvQif t&d,mtjzpf NyD;aomaMumifvnf; t&d,opöm d f h rnfue\/ þ tqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrmk f d S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd þav;yg;aom t&d,opömwkYd udk [kwwi;rSepm odNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh ylaZmftxl;ukd f dk f f G cHxuaom rSepmuk,wif odaom a½S;bk&m;wkYd Eihf tvm;wljzpfaom igbk&m;ukd t&d,m [lí qktyf\}} dk f f G d f dk S d [líyifwnf;/ wenf;aomfum; (t&d,) rcRwr,Gi; rSeueaom opömwkYd jzpfaomaMumifvnf; t&d,opöm rnfue\/ f f f k f h k f þt&mü t&d,rnfMuonf[onfrm (wx) rSeue\ (t0dwx) rcRwfr,Gi;ukef (t0do0g'u) rcRwf,i;l S f k f f H G f rvGrrSm; apwwfue-þum; t&d,-\ teufjzpfonf/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrmJ k f d S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd þav;yg;aom t&d,opömwkYd onf (wxmed) rSeue\/ (t0dwxmed) rcRwf,i;ukef f k f G f (tenxmed) tjcm;tjcif;t&m r½Sue?f xkUd aMumifh t&d,opömwkYd [í qktyfue\}} [líyifwnf;/ d k l d k f þokYd vQif þ t&d,opömwkYd ü o'´geuftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 532/ vu©Pmtp½Saom tjym;tm;jzifh tb,foYdk otyfoenf;¿ þopömav;yg;wkYd wif 'kuopömonf d d G © ESypufjcif;vu©Pm½S\? ylavmifapjcif;udp½\? rjywfjzpfaejcif;oabm[k ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ ork', d f d ö dS opömonf qif;&J\ tpjzpfc&m taMumif;vu©Pm½S\? 'kurjywfpatmif ûyjcif;udp½\? aESmif,S uf wm;jrpf hJ d © J ö dS h onfh taetm;jzifh ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ eda&m"opömonf Nidr;at;jcif;vu©Pm½S\? ra½TUavsmjcif; rao f d rysufjcif;[laom jynfpaom*kP½\? 0g-raorysufjcif;udp½\? ykoP²mef t&dyerwuif;aomtm;jzifh ½Iod h Hk f dS ö dS H f d d f ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ r*¾opömonf xGuajrmufaMumif; vu©Pm½Sd\? udavomukd y,fjcif;udp½\ ? f ö dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

116

xajrmufonftaejzifh ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ wenf;aomfum; (þopömav;yg;wkYd onf) tpOftwki; rjywfjzpf h d f aejcif; (y0wå)rjywfjzpfapwwfaom (y0wåe) qkwepf&yfpjJ cif; (ed0wå) qkwepf &yfpapwwfaom (ed0wåe) d f d f J vu©Pm ½Sdukef\/ xkUd twl tpOftwki; ocFwvu©Pmç wPSmvu©Pmç tocFwvu©Pmç edAmefujdk rifjcif; d f Á 'óevu©Pm ½Sdukef\/ þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü vu©Pmtp½Saom tjym;tm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d H «127» 533/ tw¬EiteufwYdk udk xkwjf yaomtm;jzifh [laom þkpum;&yfü a½S;OD;pGm tw¬tm;jzifh opö|S hf opöm\ teufoabm[lonf tb,fenf;¿ [lr-tMuifoabmonf ynmrsupjd zifh pl;pl;pkupuf ½Iqifjcifuef l f d f dk k aom ynm½SwYdk tm; rsufvnuoYdk azmufjyefrm;,Gi;onfvnf; r[kw?f wHvyuoYdk cRwf,i;aponfvnf; d S hf hJ S f S f hJ G f r[kw?f wdwwYdk \ twåuoYdk r&tyfaom oabmtxnfu,f ½Sonfvnf;r[kwf 0g-oabmtxnfu,f ¬d hJ dk d dk r½Sonfvnf;r[kw?f pifppftm;jzifrl ESypufjcif;ç trGetptaMumif;ç Nidr;at;jcif;ç xGuajrmufaMumif; d h d f f f f tjym;tm;jzifh rSeonf\tjzpfç razmufjyefonf\tjzpfç t[kwf½Sdonf\tjzpfjzifh t&d,ÓPf\ usupm;&m f f tm½kH jzpfonfomwnf;/ rD;\yljcif;oabmuJoYdk ¤if;ç avmu\ tkjd cif;paom yifuoabmuJoYdk ¤if; þrSeaom h dk h f razmufjyefaom t[kw½aom oabmukd opö|-opöm\ teufoabm[lí odtyf\/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmf f dS d S hf rlonfrm-]]&[ef;wkYd þonfum; qif;&Jwnf;[laom þoabmonfre\? þoabmonf rcRwf,i; þ S S f G f oabmrSm tjcm;tjcif;t&mr½S}d } þokYd ponfudk csJUíodtyf\/ wenf;aomfum;'kuonf rESypufwwfonf r½Sd (ESypufwwfonf omwnf;)? 'kurwyg;aom w&m;onf © d f d f © S rESypufwwf ('kuonfom ESypufwwf\)? xkUd aMumifh 'kuü ESypufwwfjcif;\ ude;aoNrJjcif;ç ESypuf d f © d f © d f f d f wwfjcif;ü 'ku\ ude;aoNrJjcif;tm;jzifh þ'kuudk opöm-trSew&m;[k odtyf\/ © f © f xkwPSmukd MuOfí tjcm;w&m;aMumifh 'kuonf rjzpf (xkwPSmaMumifom jzpfonf)? xk'u© d © d h d k onfvnf; xkwPSmaMumifh rjzpfonfr[kwf (jzpfonfom)? xkUd aMumifh wPSmü 'ku\ taMumif;jzpfjcif; d © \ ude;aoNrJjcif; 'kutaMumif;jzpfjcif;ü wPSm\ ude;aoNrJjcif;tm;jzifh wPSmukd opömtrSew&m;[k f © f f odtyf\/ edAmefrwyg; Nidr;at;jcif;rnfonf r½Sd (edAmefonfomvQif Nidr;at;\)? xkeAmefonfvnf; Á S f Á f d d Á rNidr;at;onfr[kwf (Nidr;at;onfomwnf;)? xkUd aMumifh edAmefü Nidr;at;jcif;\ ude;aoNrJjcif;ç f f Á f f Nidr;at;jcif;ü edAmef\ ude;aoNrJjcif;tm;jzifh þ edAmefudk opöm-trSew&m;[k odtyf\/ f Á f Á f t&d,r*frwyg; xGuajrmufaMumif; rnfonf r½Sd (t&d,r*fonfom xGuajrmufaMumif; S f f jzpfonf)? xkt&d,r*fonfvnf; xGuajrmufaMumif;rjzpfonfr[kwf (jzpfonfomwnf;)? þokYd rcRwf d f {uef [kwreaom xGuajrmufaMumif;jzpfjcif;aMumifh xkt&d,r*fudk opöm-trSew&m;[k orkwtyff S f f d f f ac:qkdtyf\/ þqkconftwki; rSeaomoabm razmufjyefaom oabmt[kw½aomoabmukd av;yg;vk; d hJ h d f f f dS H aom 'kuponfwYdk ü omrntm;jzifh (opö|) opömteufoabm[lí ynm½SwYdk u rdeYf qawmfrMl uav © d dk onf/ þoabmteuftm;jziftqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ h H 534/ teufwYdk uxwjf yaomtm;jzifh tb,foYdk odtyfoenf;¿þt&mü þopöo'´gukd rsm;pGmaom dk k teufwYdk ü awGU&\/ ,if;teufwYdk um;- ]]trSef (opöm)ukd ajymqk&m\ç trsufrxGu&m}} ponfwYdk ü pum;rSeü d f f awGU&\/ ]]trSe(opöm)üwnfueaom orPjAm[®PwkYd onf (Zmwdr&P\ wzufurf;okYd ul;ajrmufue\}}) f k f k f ponfwYdkü (rkom0g'rS MuOfjcif;[laom) 0d&wdopömü awGU&\/ ]]wwfod uRrf;usifMuygonf[k 0efcajymqkMd u H aom 0g'½SiwYdk onf trsKd;rsKd;uGjJ ym;aom trSef (opöm)wkYd udk tb,faMumifh ajyma[mMuukeoenf;}} ponfwYdk ü f h f rdpm'd|[aom trSeopömü awGU&\/ ]]trSef (opöm)onf wyg;wnf;om½S\? ESpcajrmufr½Say}} ponfwYdk ü ä d l f d f k d (y&roapö) tjrwfq; trSew&m;jzpfí y&ropömrnfaom edAmefü¤if; t&d,r*fü¤if; awGU&\/ ]]av;yg;ukef Hk f Á aom t&d,opömwkYd wif ukovwYdk onf tb,frQwkYd enf;}} ponfwYdk ü t&d,opömüawGU&\/ xkdopöo'´gonf þ G dk f t&müvnf; t&d,opöm[laom teufü jzpf\/ þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü &oifaom teufwYdk udk xkwjf yaom h tm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ h H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

117

«128» 535/ r,kwrvGeaomtm;jzifh [l&mü t&d,opömwkYd udk tb,faMumifh r,kwrvGef av;yg;wkYd udk f f h f om a[mawmfrcygoenf;[lr-tjcm;wyg;opöm\ rjzpfoifaomaMumif¤if;? (þav;yg;xJr) wyg;yg;ukd rEIwf l hJ l h h S ry,ftyfaomaMumif¤if; jzpfonf[k ajztyf\/ csJUíjytHh-þav;yg;wkYd rS tjcm;tyktvGevnf; rjzpfoifay? þ h d f h av;yg;wkYd wif wyg;aomfvnf; EIwy,foifonf r½Say/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrmG f h d d S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd þavmuü orPtrnfcojl zpfap jAm[®P trnfcojl zpfap ]þZmwdtp½Saom H H d w&m;onf 'kut&d,opöm r[kwao;? 'kut&d,opömum; (þZmwd ponfr) wjcm;wyg;om? igonf © f © S þZmwd tp½Saom 'kut&d,opömukd y,fxm;í tjcm;'kut&d,opömukd ynwf a[mMum;rnf} qkí d © © d vm&m\? þokYd vmjcif;\ taMumif;onf r½Say}} þokYd ponfyif/ d xdUk jyifvnf; a[mawmfrjl yefonfrmS ]]&[ef;wkYd orPtrnfcojl zpfap jAm[®P trnfcojl zpfap wpkwa,mufaomolonf H H H ]&[ef;a*gwr a[mxm;aom þ'kuopömonf 'kuyXrt&d,opöm r[kwao;? igonf þ'kuyXr © © f © t&d,opömukd y,fpeYf í tjcm;wyg;aom 'kuyXrt&d,opömukd ynwfa[mMum;rnf}[k þokYd ajymqk&m G © d \? þokYd ajymqkjd cif;\ taMumif;onf r½Say}}þokYd ponfyif/ d wenf;aomfum; rjywfjzpfaejcif; (y0wå)ukd a[mMum;awmfraom jrwfpmbk&m;onf taMumif; d l G (ork',)ESiwuG a[mMum;awmfr\? qkwepf&yfpjJ cif; (ed0wå)ukvnf;a&mufaMumif; (Oyg,)ESiwuG a[mMum; hf l f d d hf awmfr\/ okYd jzpfí y0wåEihf ,if;\taMumif; ed0wdEihf ,if;okYd a&mufaMumif;wkYd \ þrQom twkdif;t½Snf½Sdaom l d S å S aMumifh av;yg;wkYd uomvQif a[mawmfrcayonf/ xkUd twlyif (y&dan,s) yki;jcm;í odtyfaom w&m;ç dk l hJ d f (y[mwAÁ) y,ftyfaomw&m;ç (opdumwAÁ) rsuarSmufûytyfaomw&m;ç (bma0wAÁ) yGg;aptyfaom w&m;wkYd ä f tvktm;jzif¤if;? wPSm\tm½kH wPSmç wPSmcsKyf&mç ,if;csKyf&mokYd a&mufaMumif;wkYd tvktm;jzif¤if;? wG,wm d h d h f p&m tm½kçH xktm½kü aysmfarGUjcif;ç wG,wmp&mukd t<uif;rJh y,f&mç xky,f&mokYd a&mufaMumif;wkYd tvktm;jzifh d H f d d ¤if; (þrQom½SaomaMumif) av;yg;wkYd uomvQif a[mawmfrcayonf/ þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü r,kwrvGeaom d h dk l hJ f f tm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 536/ tpOftm;jzifh [l&mü þtpOfonfvnf; a'oemtpOfyif/ xktpOfjzpfyrm þ opömav;yg;wkYd wif d Hk S G Murf;wrf;xif½m;aomaMumif¤if;ç owå0gtm;vk;ESihf oufqiaomaMumif¤if; 'kuopömonfov,\? xkUd aMumifh S h H dk f h © d G f ,if;opömukd a½S;OD;pGma[mawmfronf/ ,if; 'kuopöm\yifvQif taMumif;ukd jyjcif;iSg xk\tjcm;rJü ork', l © d h opömukd a[mawmfronf/ taMumif;csKyfjcif;aMumifh tusKd;csKyfonf[k odapjcif;iSg xkUd aemif eda&m" opömukd l a[mawmfronf/ xkea&m"&jcif;\ taMumif;ukjd yjcif;iSg tqk;ü r*¾opömukd a[mawmfronf/ wenf; b0 l d d H l csrf;om[laom om,mzG,ü rufarmukeaom owå0gwkYd tm; xdwvefYroa0* jzpfapjcif;iSg a½S;OD;pGm 'kuopöm f f f I H © ukd a[mawmfronf/ xk'uonf rûyyJtvkvvmonfr[kw?f £ó&ac: bk&m;ocif\ zefqif;jcif; ponf l d k © d dk aMumifvnf; jzpfonfr[kw?f þork',aMumifyif jzpfonf[k odapjcif;iSg xk\tjcm;rJü ork',opömukd a[m h h d h awmfronf/ xkUd aemif taMumif;ESiwuGaom qif;&J'uu ESypuf (tyf)aomaMumifh xdwvefYaom pdw½MdS u l hf k © d f f f vsuf 'kurS xGuajrmuf&mukd ½SmrS;aom owå0gwkYd tm; xGuajrmuf&mukd jrifojzifh oufom&mukd &apjcif; © f D f tusKd;iSg eda&m" opömukd a[mawmfronf/ xkUd aemif eda&m"uk&&eftwGuf eda&m"okYd a&mufapwwfaom r*¾opöm l d ukd a[mawmfronf/ þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü tpOftm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ l H 537/ ZmwdponfwYdkudk qk;jzwfaomtm;jzifh [l&mü t&d,opömwkYd udk tus,jf yawmfraom jrwfpm H l G bk&m;onf]]Zmwdyd 'kum? Z&myd 'kum? r&PrdÜ 'ku?H© aomuy&da'0'ku© a'greókyg,momyd 'kum? tydÜ © © © a,[d orÜa,ma*g 'kau©m? «129» yda,[d 0dya,ma*g 'kau©m? ,rÜpHä evbwd wrÜd 'ku?H© oHcawåe Ü d d yOöKyg 'geu©Em 'kum=b0topf jzpfjcif;onfvnf; qif;&Jaywnf;? tkjd cif;onfvnf; qif;&Jaywnf;? ¨ © aojcif;onfvnf; qif;&Jaywnf;? pk;&dryaqG;jcif;ç ika<u;jcif;ç uk,qif;&Jjcif;ç pdwEv;romjcif;ç d f l d d f f S Hk jyif;pGm ylyef&jcif;wkYd onfvnf; qif;&JwYdk aywnf;? rcspftyfre;tyfaom yk*Kd¾ vf0w¬KwkYd Eihf aygif;zuf,OwJG k f S S f ae&jcif;onfvnf; qif;&Jaywnf;? cspcifEpouftyfaomyk*Kd¾ vf 0w¬KwkYd Eihf uGum&jcif;onfvnf; f S f S J G qif;&Jaywnf;? vkcsifygvsuf tMuift&mukd r&? xkvcsifwmukd r&jcif;-r&Ekiwmukd vkcsijf cif;onf d d dk d f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

118

vnf; qif;&Jaywnf;? tusOf;tm;jzifh ig;yg;ukeaom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd onf qif;&JwYdk aywnf;}}[k 'kuudk f ¨ © tus,fjy&mü 12-yg;aom w&m;wkYd u¤if;? dk ]],m,H wPSm aygaemb0dum eE´&m*o[*wm wMw wMwmbdeE´e/ ao,sxd'-umrwPSm D d D H b0wPSm 0db0wPSm=tMuifwPSmonf wzef b0topfudk jzpfapwwf\ ESpoufwyfpjJG cif;ESiwuG f hf jzpf\ 0g-ESpoufwyfpjJG cif; oabm½S\ xkxjdk zpf&m&mb0 &&m&mtm½kü ESpoufaysmarGUwwf\/ f d d H f f ¤if;onf tb,fenf;- umrwPSm-vkcsifp&m umr*kPudk vkcsifEpoufrçI b0wPSm-tNrJ½Sdonfh d f d S f taejzifh b0ukd vkcsifEpoufrçI 0db0wPSm-aoNyD;aemuftvkvdk b0jywfpjJ cif;ukd vkcsiEpoufr-þ d S f d d f S f I ok;yg; yifwnf;}}[k ork',ukd tus,fjy&mü ok;yg;tjym;½Saom wPSmuk¤if;? H H d d ]]a,m wóma,0 wPSm, taoo0d&m*eda&ma"m pma*g y#deóa*¾g rkwåd temva,m= xkd d wPSm\yifvQif t<uif;rJh ysujf y,fjcif; csKyfjcif;(¤if;uk) pGeYf jcif; a0;pGmpGeYf jcif; vTwvujf cif; (¤if;jzif) d f dk h rwG,wmjcif; 0g-rwG,wm&m[laom tMuifoabmonf½\? (þoabmonf eda&m"aywnf;)}}[k f f dS eda&m"ukd tus,jf y&m ü oabmw&m;uk,tm;jzifh wyg;wnf;omjzpfaom edAmefu¤if;? d f Á dk ]]uwrH 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'g t&d,opö?H t,ar0 t&da,m t|*Øaum ra*¾g/ ao,sxd'© d H or®m'd|/y/ or®morm"d='kuea&m"okYd qkua&mufaom tusifjh zpfaom t&d,opömonf tb,fenf;? d © d d f t*Fg½Spfyg;½Sdaom þt&d,r*fyifwnf;/ ¤if;onf tb,fenf;-or®m'd|-rSepmjrifjcif;? or®m ouFayÜgd f G rSepmBuHjcif;? or®m0gpm-rSepmajymjcif;? or®mur®aEÅm-rSepmûyjcif;? or®mtmZDa0g-rSepm toufarG;jcif;? f G f G f G f G or®m0g,marm-rSepmtm;xkwjf cif;? or®mowd-rSepmtrSw&jcif;? or®morm"d-rSepm pl;pkuwnfMunf f G f G f f G d f jcif;wkYd aywnf;}}[k r*¾udk tus,fjy&mü ½Spyg;aom w&m;wkYd u¤if;? f dk þokYd tm;jzifh opömav;yg;wkYd udk tus,fjy&mü Zmwdtp½Sueaom tMuifw&m;wkYd udk a[mawmfr\? d k f l xkZmwdtp½Saom w&m;wkYd udk qk;jzwfaomtm;jzifvnf; þopömwkYd ü tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d d H h H

'ku©ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf Zmwdukd tus,fjycsuf
¤if;tqk;tjzwfum; tb,fenf;-þZmwdo'´gonf rsm;aomteuf½\/ csJUjy&vQif þZmwdo'´gonf H dS ]]({urÜd Zmwð) wckaomb0uk¤if; (a'Gyd Zmwda,m) ESpcaomb0wkYd u¤if;}} [laomygVdü b0uka[m\/ d f k dk d ]]0domcg? ed*P²rnfaom (orPZmwd) &[ef;rsKd;onf½Sd\}}[laom þygVdü t,ltusifwaom &[ef;taygif; h l edum,ukd a[m\/ ]]Zmwdukd 2-yg;aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh a&wGutyf\}} [laom þ ygVdü jzpfjcif;-Oyg'f[aom f l ocFw vu©Pmukd a[m\/ ]]trd0rf;xJü a½S;OD;pGmaom tMuifpwonfjzpf\ a½S;OD;pGmaom tMuif0nmPfonf d f d xif½m; jzpfay:\? xkpwjf zpfay:jcif;ukd pGí a½S;OD;pGmjzpfaom xkpwonfyifvQif xky*Kd¾ vf\ (Zmwd) y#doaE¨ S d d J d d f d k aywnf;}} [laom þygVdü y#doaE¨udk a[m\/ ]]tmeE´m? (orÜwZmawm) ,ckyif zGm;jrifaom 0g-zGm;jrifNyD;p d jzpfaom bk&m;tavmif;awmfonf (nDnwaomajcwkYd jzifh ajrüwnfí ajrmuft&yfoYdk a½S;½I ckepfvr;oGm;\)}} G f S f [laom þygVdü zGm;jrifjcif;uka[m\/ ]]trsKd;Zmwfupí ajymqkjd cif; (Zmwd0g')jzifh rypfy,ftyf r½Iwcs rqJa&; d dk JG f tyf}} [laom þygVdü (ukv) trsKd;uka[m\/ ]]ESrt½G,f oli,fr? tMuiftcgrSpí igonf jrwfaom &[ef; d tjzpf [laom t&d,Zmwdjzifh jzpfc\}}[laom þygVdü t&d,oDvukd a[m\/ hJ 538/ xkZmwdo'´gonf þ'kuopömukd tus,fjy&mütrd0rf;ü ude;atmif;&ukeaom owå0gwkYd tm; d © f f y#doaE¨wnfonfrpí trd0rf;rS xGuonfwiatmif jzpfueaom cE¨mwkYd udk a[m\/ þrSwyg;ukefaom S f dk f k f oHao'Z Oyygwfowå0gwkYd tm; y#doaE¨cE¨mwkYd uomvQif Zmwdo'´gu a[monf[k rSwtyf\/ þtqkdonf dk f vnf; y&d,m,fpum;omwnf;/ rkcstm;jzifrum; xkxb0ü jzpfueaom owå0gwkYd tm; tMuiftMuif ig;yg; h l d dk k f av;yg; wyg;aomcE¨mwkYd onf xif½m;jzpfay:uke\? xkxdk ig;yg; av;yg; wyg;aomcE¨mwkdY\ a½S;OD;pGm xif½Sm; S f d jzpfay:jcif;onf Zmwd-b0topfjzpfjcif; rnf\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

119

«130» b0opfjzpfjcif;[laom xkZmwdonf xkxcE¨mig;yg;½Sd av;yg;½Sd wyg;½Saomb0ü a½S;OD;pGmjzpf d d dk d ay:jcif; vu©Pm½Sd\? (xkwb0vk;qki&m cE¨mwkYd udk xkowå0gtm;) tyfEi;jcif;udp½Sd\? twdwb0rS þypöKyÜef d H d f d S f ö f b0ü ay:vmonftaejzifh ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\? wenf; qef;Mu,faom 'kutaygif;ukd a½S;½Ijzpfapwwf\/ h © 539/ þb0topfjzpfjcif;-Zmwdonf tb,faMumifh 'kuqif;&Jrnfygoenf; [lr-rsm;pGmukeaom h © l f qif;&JwYdk \ wnf&mtaMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh aywnf;/ csJUíjytH-qif;&J'uwYdk onf rsm;pGm½Sue\? ¤if;wkYd rm h k © d k f S tb,fonfwYdk enf;[lrl - (1) 'ku'u?© (2) 0dy&dPmr'ku?© (3) ocFg&'ku?© (4) y#dpE'u?© (5) tyÜ#pE'u?© (6) © k ä é k d ä é k y&d,m,'ku?© (7) edy&,m,'ku-þ (7)rsK;wkYd aywnf;/ Ü d © d (1) xk(7)rsK;wkYd wif uk,xüjzpfaom rcHomrIqif;&J pdwxüjzpfaom rcHomrIqif;&Judk cHpm;rI oabm d d G d f J f J tm;jzifh 'ku-qif;&JaomaMumif¤if;ç olUtrnftm;jzifh 'ku-qif;&JrnfaomaMumif¤if; 'ku© 'ku(qif;&Jonfh © h © h © qif;&J)[k qktyf\/ d (2) okca0'emonf azmufjyefaysmufu,jf cif;jzifh qif;&Jjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh 0dy&dPmr G 'kurnf\/ © (3) Oayu©ma0'emonf¤if; <uif;aom awblruocFg&w&m;wkYd onf¤if; jzpfjcif;ysujf cif;u rjywfEypuf dS f (tyf)aomaMumifh ocFg&'kurnf\/ © (4) em;ukujf cif; oGm;emjcif; &m*aMumifjh zpfaom ylavmifjcif; a'goaMumifjh zpfaom ylavmifjcif; tp½Sd d aom uk,xpwxüjzpfaom usiemcHcuf ESypufjcif;oabmonf ar;MunfroEiaomaMumif¤if;ç ESypufrI d f J d f J f d f h S d dk f h d f Asmyg&\ rxif½m;jcif;aMumif¤if; y#dpEé (zk;uG,tyfaom) 'kurnf\/ tygu# (rxif½m;aom) 'ku[ívnf; S h ä H f © S © l qktyf\/ d (5) ur®um&Pac: 32-yg;aom n§O;qJrwYdkaMumifjh zpfaom emusijf cif;onf rar;yJyif odEiaomaMumifh f I dk f ¤if;ç ESdyfpufrIAsmyg&\ xif½m;jcif;aMumif¤if; tyÜ#pE'urnf\? ygu#'ku[ívnf; qktyf\/ S h d ä é k © © l d (6) 'ku'uudk csefxm;í <uif;aom opö0bif;ü vmaom Zmwdtp½Saom qif;&Jtm;vk;onf xkxdk © k © d d H d uk,pwqif;&J\ wnf&mtaMumif;0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh y&d,m,'ku-y&d,m,fqif;&Jrnf\/ d f d f © (7) 'ku'uurl edy&,m,'ku-rkcsqif;&J[k qktyf\/ © k © dk Ü d © d xkqif;&JwYdk wif þZmwdonf Amvy@dwokwponfwYdkü jrwfpmbk&m;onfaomfvnf; rD;usD;wGi; d G f G f paom OyrmwkYd \tpGr;tm;jzifh jyxm;aom tMuif tyg,fqif;&Jonfvnf; ½S\? ok*wdüvnf; vlUavmuü trd f d 0rf;okYd oufa&mufjcif;vQif t&if;cH½onfh qif;&Jponftjym;½Saom tMuifqif;&Jonfvnf; ½S\? xkqif;&J dS d d d taygif;\ wnf&m taMumif;0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh qif;&Jrnf\/ 540/ xkqif;&JEprsKd;wkYd wif ,ckjyrnfqif;&Jonf trd0rf;okYd oufa&mufjcif;vQif t&if;cH½onfh qif;&J d S f G h dS ponftjym;½Saom qif;&J'uaywnf;-þowå0gonf trd0rf;üjzpfvwfaomf OyÜvMum y'krmMum yk@&duMf um d k © ® ponfwYdkü jzpfonfr[kw?f pifppfaomfum; tpmopftr\atmuf tpma[mif;tdrf tlrBuD;\txuf 0rf;a&vTm d f ESihf ausmufq;½k;wkYd \tv,f tvGeusOf;pGmaom xlxonfh trkuwujf zpfaom trsKd;rsKd;aom tykytn§eYH wYdk jzifh l d f J d f dk f D xktyfonfjzpfí tvGeq;aomteHY½onfh avwkYd \oGm;vm&mjzpfaom tvGepufqyz,aumif;aom 0rf;t&yfü H f dk dS f k f G f ig;ykyf rkYH o; wHp;tkif ponfwYdk ü yk;avmufuoYdk jzpf&\? xkowå0gonf ,if;trd0rf;ü jzpfNyD;vwfaomf dk D d d hJ d q,fvwkYd ywfv; trd0rf;üjzpfonfh tylaiGUjzifh zufxyrYHk usufuoYdk usu&vsuf rkUH nufpiuoYdk ûywfazsm Hk k f hJ f dk f hJ cH&vsuf auG;jcif; qefYjcif; ponfuif;vsuf vGeupmaom qif;&Judk cHpm;&\/ þonfum; a½S;OD;pGm trd0rf;okYd f J G oufa&mufjcif;vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ dS «131» xkUd jyif xkoi,fonf rdcif\ ½kww&uf acsmfvjJ cif; (½kww&uf)oGm;jcif; xkijf cif; xjcif; jyefvef d l f f d S jcif;ponfwYdkü aoaomufMuL;\ vufoYdk a&mufaom ok;i,fuoYdk ¤if;ç tvrÜm,f\ vufoYdka&mufaom a>ri,f d hJ uJoYdk ¤if; a½S;½Iqiifjcif; ywfvnfqiifjcif; atmufoYdk cgcsjcif; ab;okYd cgjcif; ponfEiwaom trlt&mjzifh h JG JG S hf l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

120

vGeupmaom qif;&Judk cHpm;&\/ xkUd jyif rdcifu a&at;ukaomufaomumvü avmuEÅ&uac: a&at;i&Jü f J G d d f jzpf&ouJoYdk¤if;ç (rdcifu) ylaomqefûywf xrif;ponfudk pm;rsKaomumvü rD;us;rk;jzifh >yrf;ouJoYdk¤if;ç (rdcif h d D d h u) tief tcsOf paomtpmukd pm;rsKaomumvü yJcyjf zifh a½Gí tiefa&jzifh yufzsef;ESypufrpaom ur®um&P d G d f I okYd a&muf&ouJoYdk¤if; xufjrufjyif;xefaom qif;&Judk cHpm;&\? þonfum; uk,0efaqmifjcif;vQif t&if;cH½dS h d f aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ xkUd jyif xkoi,f\ rdcifrm uk,0efazmufjyefí rD;rzGm;Ekiojzifh rdwaqG taygif;taz: cspfuRrf; d l S d f d f f 0ifowYdkonfaomfvnf; rMunf½I rjrifxuaom qif;&Jjzpf&m om;tdrXmeü jzwfjcif; cGjJ cif;ponfwYdkaMumifh l h dk f f (xkoi,ftm;) tMuif qif;&Jonfjzpf\? þqif;&Jonf uk,0efysufjcif;vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ d l d f dS xkUd jyif zGm;jrifaomrdcif\ ur®ZavwkYd u aZmufx;jyefveí tvGeaMumufz,aumif;aom e&ufacsmuf dk S f f G f okYd usapouJoYdk rdcif\ a,medvrf;aMumif;okYd usaptyfonfjzpfí tvGeusO;ajrmif;aom a,med0jzifh qGiif h f f J txkwc&aom oli,ftm; tMuifqif;&Jonf jzpf\? Oyrmtm;jzifh oHaumufaygufjzifh qGiifc&aom qifBuD;tm; f H J H qif;&JjzpfouJoYdk¤if;ç Budwacswwfaom (oCFmw) awmifwYdkjzifh rIeYf reYf aMuatmif tBudwc&aom i&Jom;tm; h f I f H qif;&JjzpfouJoYdk¤if; yifwnf;? þqif;&Jonf zGm;jrifjcif;vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ h dS xkrwyg; zGm;jrifNyD;p oli,f\ uk,onf tvGeE;nHorarGU\? tom;Ekwufp trmESiw\? xkoYdk aom d S d f f l h d f hf l d oli,ftm; vufjzifuijf cif; a&csKd;ay;jcif; tnpftaMu;½S&mü aq;aMumjcif; t0wfjzifowjf cif; tp½Saom h dk d h k d umvü tyfzsm; oif"e;oGm;wkYd jzifh xk;jcif; cGjJ cif;ESiwaom tMuif qif;&Jonfjzpf\? þqif;&Jonf trd0rf;rS k f d hf l tjyifoYdk xujf cif;vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ G dS xkraemuf y0wåumvü (pk;&dryaqG;jcif; ika<u;jcif; acgif;ukd xkjcif; ponfjzif) ud,u,udk d S d d f l d h k hf dk f uk,wiyif ESypufaomoltm;¤if; tapvu tusifponf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ylyefapaom tm;xkwrI tvGeyyef d f dk f d f h f f f l apaom tm;xkwrudk tm;xkwfaomoltm;¤if;ç trsufa'go\ tpGr;tm;jzifh rpm;yJaeaomoltm;¤if;ç êud;qGcs f I f J oltm;¤if; tMuifqif;&Jonf jzpf\? þqif;&Jonf rdr\ya,m*vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ olwyg;xHrS d dS 0g-olwyg;uûyaom owfjcif; aESmifzUJG jcif;ponfwYdkudk cHpm;&aomoltm; tMuifqif;&Jonf jzpf\? þqif;&J onf olwyg;\ya,m*vQif t&if;cH½aom qif;&Jaywnf;/ þwGiw&yf/ dS f ,ck jyqkconftwki; b0topfjzpfjcif;[laom þZmwdonf þqkcaom qif;&Jtm;vk;\ wnf&m d hJ h d f d hJ H taMumif;0w¬K {uefyifjzpf\/ 541/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg *gxmtaygif;ukd qktyf\/ d ]]owå0gonf i&JbwYdk ü tu,fírjzpfygrl xki&Jü rD;avmif jcif;ponfaMumifjh zpfaom onf;rcH Hk d Ekiavmufaom qif;&Judk tb,füwnfí &Ekitenf;? (i&Jüjzpfjcif;[laom wnf&mr½SvQif xkqif;&Judk d f d f hH d d r&Eki[qv\) xkUd aMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf þ 'kuopömt&mü Zmwdudk 'ku-[k a[mawmfrayonf/ d f k dk dk G © © l «132» wd&pämefbwYdk ü Budrv;ç ESiwçH 'kwwYdk jzif½uEujf cif; ponfaMumifh jzpfaom rsm;pGmaom Hk f Hk f f h dk f S tMuifqif;&Jonf ½S\/ xkdqif;&Jonf xkbü jzpfjcif;Zmwd ESiuif;í xkbü tb,foYdk jzpfEitenf;? d d Hk hf d Hk dk f hH xkUd aMumifvnf; Zmwdonf qif;&J'urnfayonf/ h k © xkrwyg; NydwmbkwYdkü qmavmifjcif;ç a&iwfjcif;ç avaeyl ponfwYdkaMumifh jzpfaom tHMh opzG,f d S å H qef;Mu,frsm;jym;aom qif;&Jonf xkbü rjzpfaomoltm; r½Say? xkUd aMumifvnf; jrwfpmbk&m;onf d Hk d h G Zmwdu'u[k a[mawmfrayonf/ dk k © l xlxaom trkuwu½aom onf;rcHEiatmif at;vSonfh a&½Saom avmuEÅ&ui&Jü¤if;ç J d f dk f dS dk f d d f tok&um,fbwYdk ü¤if; tMuifqif;&Jonf ½S\? xkqif;&Jonf xkbwYdk ü rjzpfygrl rjzpfEionfom? Hk d d d Hk dk f xkUd aMumifvnf; þZmwdonf qif;&J'u© rnfayonf/ h k

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

121

xkUd jyifvnf; bifyyi&JüuJoYdk trd0rf;wkuü Mumjrifpm ae&pOfü¤if;ç xktrd0rf;wkurS tjyifoYdk k f h d f h G d d f xGu&pOfü¤if; owå0gonf tvGeMf urf;êuwfaom qif;&JoYdk a&muf&\? þqif;&Jonfvnf; tpjzpfrf I ZmwdEihf uif;í r½Sonfom? þtaMumif;aMumifvnf; þZmwdonf qif;&J'u© {uefyif rnfayonf/ S d h k ]]rsm;pGmaompum;jzifh tb,ftusKd;½Stenf; (0g-rsm;pGmajymqk&ef rvkyg) þavmu0,f wpkH d hH d d wckaom t&yfü wpkwckaomfvnf; jzpfaom tMuifqif;&Jonf ½S\? þqif;&Jonfvnf; jzpfrZmwd H d I uif;vQif w&HwcgrQ r½SEionfom r[kwygavm? þtaMumif;aMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf tm;vk;wkYd \ d dk f f G H a½S;OD;pGm þZmwdudk 'ku[k a[mawmfrayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ © l þqkcaom pum;onf a½S;OD;pGm Zmwdü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H

Z&mukd tus,fjycsuf
542/ Z&myd 'kum [laom þpum;ü tkjd cif;-Z&monf 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? wnfqcP-XD [laom ocFw © J vu©Pmonfvnf; Z&mrnf\? oGm;usK;jcif; (qHjzLjcif;ç ta&wGeYf jcif;) ponfjzifh orkwtyfaom cE¨mtpOf d f oEÅmefü wb0wnf;ü twGi;0ifaom cE¨mwkYd \ &ifa,mfa[mif;EGr;onf\ tjzpfonfvnf; Z&mrnf\? f h f cE¨mwkYd \ &ifa,mfa[mif;EGr;onf\ tjzpf[aom xkd Z&mukd þt&mü qkvtyfayonf/ xkZ&monf cE¨mwkYd \ h f l d dk d &ifusufjcif;vu©Pm½S\? aojcif;qDoYdk aqmifyYdk jcif; udp½\? ysKdEaomt½G,\ ysufp;jcif;oabm[k ÓPftm; h d ö dS k f D a½S;½Ixif\/ ocFg&'ku© jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç uk,pwqif;&J\ wnf&mtaMumif; 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumif¤if; qif;&J h d f d f h 'ku© rnf\/ «133» csJUíjy&vQif- t*FgBuD;i,fwYdk \ avsmvsn;jcif; rsuppaom £a`E´wYdk\ rIexi;azmuf h f f d f dk f jyefjcif; ydecsKdi½UHI wG tqif;rvSjcif; t½G,\ysufjcif; cGetm;qkw,wysup;jcif; owdynm uif;uGmjcif; f hf f f f k f f D olwyg;wkYd u tzk;BuD; tr,fBuD; ponfjzifh ½Iwcsí ajymqkjd cif; ponf rsm;aomtaMumif;½Saom tMuifu,f d f d dk qif;&J pdwqif;&J onfjzpf\? tkjd cif;Z&monf xkqif;&J\ wnf&mtaMumif; 0w¬Kaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg f d *gxmtaygif;ukd qkdtyfayonf/ ]]ajcvufpaom uk,t*FgwkYd \ avsmhvsnf;jcif;aMumif¤if;ç rsufppaom £a`E´wYdk \ rIexi; d f h d f dk f azmufjyef jcif;aMumif¤if;ç ysKdEaomt½G,\ ysufp;jcif;aMumif¤if;ç cGetm;\qkw,wf ysup;jcif;aMumifh h k f D h f f k f D ¤if;ç owd ponfwYdk\ 0g-owd okw 0D&, ynmponfwYdk\ aysmufu,f uif;uGmjcif;aMumif¤if;ç d G h rdr\ om;r,m; (ponf)wkYd u tzk;BuD; oufusm;tkponfjzifh r½krao apmif;ajrmif;í armif;rJ jrnfwef d d d d G cH&jcif;aMumif¤if;ç xkUd jyif oli,ftjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif; 0g-oli,fjyefjcif;aMumif¤if;ç h h tkdaomvlonf uk,üç pdwü jzpfaom tMuifqif;&JoYdk a&muf&\/ þqif;&Jtm;vk;onf tkjd cif; d f f H -Z&maMumihyifwnf;/ xkUd aMumifh tkjd cif;-Z&monf qif;&J-'kurnfayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom f © d hJ pum;onf Z&mü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

122

r&Pukd tus,fjycsuf
543/ r&PrÜd 'kuH© [laom þpum;üvnf; aojcif;-r&Ponf 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? ysuqcP-bif f J [laom ocFwvu©Pmonfvnf; r&Prnf\? ,if;ukd &nfí ]]Z&mr&Pukd 2-yg;aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh a&wGuf tyf\}}[k a[mawmfrayonf/ wb0wnf;ü twGi;0ifaom ZD0wa`E´tpOf\ jywfpjJ cif;onfvnf; r&Prnf\? l f d d ,if;ukd &nfí ]]owå0gwkYd rm tNrJ0if aojcif;[laom aMumufz,ab;onf jzpfvsuf½\}}[k a[mawmfrayonf/ S G f dS l ZD0wa`E´tpOf jywfpjJ cif; [laom xkaojcif;-r&Pukd þt&mü qkvtyf\? b0topfjzpfjcif; Zmwd[aom d d d d dk l taMumif;aMumifh aojcif;ç aoaMumif;ûyrI ya,m*aMumifh aojcif;ç olUtvkvaojcif;ç toufwrf;ukeí d dk f aojcif;ç uH pGr;ukeí aojcif;[laom þtrnftaygif;onfvnf; xkZ0wa`E´ tpOfjywfpjJ cif;[laom aojcif;\ f f dD d d yifvQif trnfaywnf;/ xkd aojcif;-r&Ponf b0a[mif;rS pkawa½GUavsmjcif;vu©Pm ½S\? oufqi&m d dk f owå0g ocFg&wkYd Eihf uif;uGmapjcif;udpö ½S\? jzpfq*wdrS auGui;onftaetm;jzifh ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ S d J G f h uk,pwqif;&J\ wnf&mtaMumif;0w¬K jzpfaomaMumifh qif;&J'u© rnfonf[k odtyf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg d f d f k *gxmtaygif;ukd qkdtyfayonf/ ]]aotHqqjJ zpfaeaom raumif;rI½orm tukovuH tukovf ur®erwf tukov\tusKd; h J dS l S dk f dk d d dk f tyg,f*wderwudk rjywfawGUjrifaeonf jzpfí¤if;ç aotHqqJ jzpfaeaom aumif;rI½orm cspfz,f d d f h J dS l S G 0w¬KESipyfaom auGui;cGcg&jcif;ukd onf;rcHEionfjzpfí¤if; tMuifpwqif;&Jonf jzpf\/ hf G f J G dk f d f raumif;rI½ol aumif;rI½ o[k rcGyJ omrntm;jzifh tvk;pkaom olwYdk rmvnf; tpyftzGUJ wkYd udk dS dS l J H H S jzwfwwfaom avwkYd u tonf;ESv;paom aowGi;t&yfudk xk;qGEypufjcif;ukd cH&ukeonfjzpfí tpyf Hk f d dS f f tzGUJ wkYd udk jzwfjcif; ponfaMumifjh zpfaom 0g-tpyftzGUJ ponfwYdk \ jywfjcif;aMumifh jzpfaom onf;rcH Ekiavmufaom rukpm;Ekiaumif;aom tMuifu,qif;&Jonfvnf; jzpf\? þaojcif;-r&Ponf d f d f dk f xkpwqif;&J uk,qif;&J\ wnf&mtaMumif; 0w¬Kaywnf;? xkUd aMumifh aojcif;-r&Pukd 'ku[íom d d f d f © l vQif a[mawmfrl (tyf) ayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaompum;onf r&Pü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H

aomuponfukd tus,fjycsuf
«134» 544/ aomu ponfwkdYwGif ÓwdAsoe-aqGrsKd;wkYd \ ysup;jcif; ponfwYdkjzifh awGUxdEypufc& f D dS f H aomolrm pdw\ylyefjcif;onf 0g-pdwudk ylyefapwwfaom oabmonf aomu- pk;&dryaqG;jcif;rnf\/ ,if; S f f - d f l aomuonf oabmw&m;uk,tm;jzifh a'greóyif jzpfjim;aomfvnf; twGi;ü BuHawG;vsuf ylaqG;jcif; d f f vu©Pm½Sd\? pdwudk xuf0ef;usifrS ylavmifapjcif;udp½\? jyefvnf qifjcifí tzefwvJvJ pk;&dryaqG;onfh f ö dS d f l taejzifh ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ 'ku© 'kuac: qif;&JtppfjzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç qif;&Jtppf\ wnf&mtaMumif; © h 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumif¤if; 'kurnf\/ xkUd aMumifatmufyg *gxm ESpctaygif;ukd qktyfayonf/ h © h f k d ]]aomuonf owå0gwkYd \ ESv;ukd tqdyv;jr§m;uJoYdk xk;qGEypufwwf\? rD;&J&J ylavmifaom Hk f l h d dS f pOf;oGm;jr§m;uJoYdk vGepmvnf; tzefwvJvavmifwwf\/ h f G J emjcif; tkjd cif; aojcif; txl;tjym;½Saom trsKd;rsKd;aom qif;&Juvnf; tvGeyifaqmifay;wwfd dk f jzpfapwwf\? xkUd aMumifh ,if;aomuukd 'ku[k qktyfayonf}}[líyifwnf;/ © d þqkcaompum;onf aomuü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

123

y&da'0ü tqkH;tjzwf
545/ y&da'0- ika<u;jcif;rnfonfum; ÓwdAsoe ponfwYdkjzifh awGUxdEypufc&aomolrm EIwjf zifh - d dS f H S a&mufwwf&m&m jrnfwrf;ajymqkjd cif;aywnf;/ ,if;onf txyfxyf jrnfwrf;ajymqkjd cif; vu©Pm½S\? aool d ponf\ *kPEitjypfwYdkudk a<u;aMumfajymMum;jcif;udp½Sd\? csmcsmvnfaeaompum;[k ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\? f S hf ö 0g-pdw\ a0aemufr;vnfjcif;ukd a½S;½Ijzpfapwwf\/ ocFg&'kuj© zpfaomaMumif¤if;ç uk,pwqif;&J\wnf&m f l h d f d f taMumif;0w¬K jzpfaomaMumif¤if; 'kurnf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg*gxmukd qktyfayonf/ h © d aomujr§m;ajimifh tESypufc&aomaMumifh ika<u;aomolonf vnfacsmif; EIwcrf; tmapmuf d f H d f tjyift&yfwYdk \ ajcmufaoGUjcif;aMumifh jzpfaom onf;rcHEiaumif;aom vGeujJ yif;xefaom qif;&Judk dk f f aemufxyf &jyefonfomwnf;? xkUd aMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf ika<u;rI-y&da'0ukd qif;&J'u[k a[mawmf G d k © rlayonf}}[líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom pum;onf y&da'0ü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H

'ku©ü tqkH;tjzwf
546/ uk,xü jzpfaom qif;&Jonf 'kurnf\? ,if; 'kuonf uk,udk ESypufjcif;vu©Pm ½S\? d f J © © d f d f d ynmrJholwkdYtm; ESvkH;romjcif;ukd yjcif;udpö ½S\? uk,xüjzpfaom emusiccuf ESypufwwfaom tem[kÓPf û d d f J f H d f tm; a½S;½Ixif\/ 'ku©-'kuac: qif;&Jtppf jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç pdwqif;&Judk aqmifay;wwf-jzpfapwwfaom © h f aMumif¤if; 'kurnf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg *gxmukd qktyfayonf/ h © d þuk,qif;&Jonf (ol\ wnf&muk,udk 0g-ol\ wnf&myk*Kd¾ vfu) ESypufwwf\? xkUd xuf d f d f dk d f tvGef 0g-xkUd jyif pdwqif;&Juvnf; jzpfapwwf\? xkUd aMumifh txl;tm;jzifh 'ku[k a[mawmfrl (tyf) f dk © ayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom pum;onf 'kuü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ © H

a'greóü tqkH;tjzwf
«135» 547/ pdwxüjzpfaom ESv;romjcif; qif;&Jonf a'greó rnf\/ ,if; a'greóonf pdwudk f J Hk f ESypufjcif;vu©Pm ½S\? pdwudk yifyef;apjcif; udp½\? pdwxüjzpfaom emusiccuf ESypufaomtem[k d f d f ö dS f J f H d f ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ 'ku© 'kuac: qif;&JtppfjzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç uk,qif;&Judk aqmifwwf-jzpfapwwfaom © h d f aMumif¤if; 'kurnf\/ rSef\-pdwqif;&Ja&mufaeaom olwYdkonf qHyifwYdkudk jzefYBuJí jrnfwrf;ika<u;uke\/ h © f d f &ifbwfwYdkudk xkueBf udwue\? a½S;okYd vnf; vl;vdrom;uke\? jyefívnf; vl;vdrvmuke\? aZmufx; k f k f hf G f hf f dk vJusuke\? 0g-*Rrf;xk;csuke\? xm;vufeufjzifh olUuk,udk xk;ckwue\? tqdyudk pm;uke\? êud;qGcsuef f d f d f d f k f f f J k \? rD;ykxoYdk 0ifue\-þokYd aom txl;xl;tjym;jym;aom xku,qif;&Judk cHpm;uke\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg H J k f d dk f f *gxmukd qktyfayonf/ d ]]a'greóonf pdwudk ESypufwwf\? uk,udk ESypufjcif;ukvnf; aqmifwwf jzpfapwwf\? f d f d f d f d xkUd aMumifh a'greóukd a'greóuif;ukeaom bk&m; &[EÅm t½Sijf rwfwYdk u 'ku[k rdeYf qawmfrMl uay f © dk onf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom pum;onf a'greóü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

124

Oyg,moü tqkH;tjzwf
548/ Oyg,mo rnfonfum; ÓwdAsoe ponfwYdkjzifh awGUxdEypufc&aomolrm tvGetrif; dS f H S f pdwqif;&Jjcif;aMumifh jzpfaom a'goyif jzpfonf/ ({au) tcsKdUq&mwkYd u ]]ocFg&u©Emü twGi;0ifaom w&m; f ¨ f wck}}[k qkMd u\/ ,if; Oyg,moonf pdwudk xuf0ef;usif ylavmifjcif; vu©Pm ½S\? nnf;wGm;jcif; [laom f d orÜwåd &o½S\? 0g-nnf;wGm;apjcif; udp&o ½S\? uk,pwwYdk udk epfusapwwfaom oabm[k ÓPftm; d ö d d f d f a½S;½Ixif\/ ocFg&'ku© jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç pdwudk ylavmifwwfaomaMumif¤if;ç uk,uepfus yifyef;apwwf h f h d f dk aomaMumif¤if; 'kurnf\? xkUd aMumifh atmufyg*gxmukd qktyfayonf/ h © d ]]Oyg,moonf pdwudk ylavmifjcif;jzif¤if;ç uk,udk epfusapjcif;-yifyef;apjcif;jzif¤if; vGeuJ f h d f h f aom uk,pwf qif;&Judk jzpfapwwf\? xkUd aMumifh ,if;ukd 'ku[í a[mawmfr(tyf)ayonf}} [líyif d f d © l l wnf;/ þqkcaompum;onf Oyg,moü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ H qufí ½Si;jyOD;tH?h þaomu y&da'0 Oyg,mowkYd wif tm;enf;aom rD;jzifh (qDEYdk &nfponf\) tkd;\ f G twGi;ü usufjcif;uJoYdk aomuukd rSwtyf\/ jyif;xefaom rD;jzifh êudcsutyfaom qDEYdk&nf ponf\ tkd;rS f h f f tjyifoYdk a0vQHxujf cif;uJoYdk y&da'0ukd rSwtyf\/ tjyifoYdk xGuNf yD;rS <uif;usefaom a0vQHí rxGuavmuf G h f f aom qDEYdk&nf ponf\ tkd;\twGi;üomvQif ajcmufcef;í ukeom;onfwiatmif usufjcif;uJoYdk Oyg,moukd f f G dk f h rSwtyf\/ f

tyÜd,orÜa,m*ü tqkH;tjzwf
549/ tyÜ,orÜa,m*- rcspftyf-rke;tyfonfwYdkEihf ,SOjf cif; rnfonfum; rESpouf rjrwfE;tyfd f S f dk rke;tyfueaom owå0g ocFg&wkYd Eihf aygif;qkjH cif;aywnf;/ ,if;onf tvkr½StyfonfwYdk Eihf aygif;qkjH cif; f k f S d d S vu©Pm ½Sd\? pdw\yifyef;jcif;ukd ûyjcif;udpö ½S\? tusKd;rJtjzpfjzifh ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ qif;&Jtppf 'ku\ f d h © wnf&mtaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh 'ku© rnf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg *gxmESpcudk qktyfayonf/ f k d «136» ]]þavmuü rcspfrESpvtyfaom yk*Kd¾ vf tm½kwYdk udk jrifíyifvQif 0g-jrifumrQyifvQif f dk H a½S;OD;pGm pdwxü qif;&Jonf jzpf\? xkUd aemif ,if;yk*Kd¾ vf tm½kwYdk \ ya,m*aMumifh jzpfaom qif;&Jonf f J H uk,xü jzpf\/ d f J xkoYdk 'ku© 2-yg;vkH;\ wnf&mtaMumif; 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh ,if; rcsprESpvtyfaom yk*Kd¾ vf d f f dk tm½kwYdk Eihf aygif;qkjH cif;ukd jrwfpmbk&m;u 'ku[k a[mawmfronf[í odtyf\}} [líyifwnf;/ H S G © l l þqkcaom pum;onf tyd,orÜa,m*ü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ Ü H

yd,0dyÜa,m*ü tqkH;tjzwf
550/ yd,0dya,m*- cspfEpvtyfonfwYdk Eihf auGui; uGumjcif; rnfonfum; ESpouf jrwfE;tyfÜ - S f dk S G f J G f dk cspftyfueaom owå0gocFg&wkYd Eihf uif;uGmjcif;aywnf;/ ,if;onf tvk½tyfaom t&mwkYd Eihf uif;uGmjcif; k f S d dS S vu©Pm½Sd\? aomujzpfapjcif;udp½\? ysufp;jcif; Asoew&m;[k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ pk;&dryaqG;rIö dS D d f l qif;&J \ wnf&mtMumif; 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh 'kurnf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg*gxmukd qktyfayonf/ © d ]]rvdrmaomolwYdkonf aqGrsK;Opöm ponfwYkdEihf auGui;uGumjcif;aMumifh aomujr§m; pl;0if ® d S G f J G (tyf) ukeonfjzpfí txk;tqGc&ouJoYdk emusifue\? xkUd aMumifh þ yd,0dya,m*ukd 'ku[k odtyf f d H h k f Ü © ayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom pum;onfum; yd,0dya,m*ü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ d hJ Ü H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

125

£pdäwmvmbü tqkH;tjzwf
551/ ,rÜpHä e vbwd [laom þpum;ü ]]igwkYd onf jzpfjcif;oabm ½SMd uonf rjzpfygukerl 0g-jzpfjcif; d f oabmr½SMd uygrl aMomfaumif;avpG}}[k awmifwjcif; tp½Sueaom awmifwír&Ekif aumif;aom 0w¬KwkYd ü h d k f h d tvkuyifvQif ]],rÜpHä e vbwd wrÜ'u= tMuifvcsifjcif;ukd r&? xkr&Ekiwmukd vkcsifjcif;onfvnf; d dk d d k H© dk d d f d qif;&Jyif}} [lí a[mawmfrl(tyf)ayonf/ xkdtvk-£pämonf r&Ekiaom 0w¬Kukd vkcsiawmifwjcif; vu©Pm d d f d f h ½Sd\? xkr&Ekionfuyif ½Smjcif;udp½\? xkr&Ekiaom 0w¬Krsm;ukd r&jcif;- ra&mufjcif; oabmtaejzifh d d f dk ö dS d d f ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ qif;&Jtppf\ wnf&mtaMumif; 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh 'kurnf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg © *gxm 2-ckudk qktyfayonf/ d ]]þavmuü xkxdk r&Ekiaumif;onft&mukd vkcsifawmifwaom owå0gwkYd tm; xkxdk awmifw d d f h d h d h onft&mukd r&jcif;aMumifh pdwyifyef;jcif;jzifh NyD;aom 0g-pdwyifyef;jcif;aMumifh jzpfaomaMumifh tMuif h f f pdwqif;&J uk,qif;&Jonf jzpfay:\/ f d f xkpwqif;&J uk,qif;&J\ taMumif;um; r&Ekiaom 0w¬KwkYd udk vkcsiawmifwjcif;yifwnf;/ d d f d f d f d f h xkUd aMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf (£päwmvmb) vkcsiwmr&jcif;-r&Ekiwmukd vkcsijf cif;udk 'ku[k a[m G d d f d f d © awmf rlayonf}} [líyifwnf;/ þqkcaom pum;onf £pdwmvmbü tqk;tjzwf aywnf;/ d hJ ä H

Oyg'geu©E¨mwkdYü tqkH;tjzwf
«137» 552/ tusOf;tm;jzifh ig;yg;ukeaom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd onf qif;&JwYdk aywnf; [laom þ f ¨ pum;üum;þ 'kuopöea'´oü jrwfpmbk&m; a[mxm;aom Zmwdtp½Saom tMuifqif;&Jonfvnf; ½S\? © d G d d þü ra[m (tyf)aom ('kuuEowf ponfwYdk ü a[mxm;aom) tMuifqif;&Jonfvnf; ½S\? xkqif;&J © © ¨ k d d tvk;pkonf þOyg'geu©EmwkYd Eiuif;í r½Say/ H H ¨ S hf d xkUd aMumifh 'ku\tqk; edAmefudk a[mMum;awmfraom jrwfpmbk&m;onf tusO;tm;jzifh þ © H Á l G f Oyg'geu©EmwkYd udk 'ku[k a[mawmfrayonf/ ¨ © l xkpum;ukd csUJ jy&vQi-rD;onf rD;avmifpmukd ESypufouJoYdk ¤if;ç jr§m;paom vufeufwYdkonf vuf d f d f h rSewiudk ESypufueouJoYdk ¤if;ç rSuf jcif ponfwYdk onf EGm; taygif;ukd ESypufueouJoYdk ¤if;ç aumuf&wf f dk f d f k f h d f k f h d orm;wkYd onf v,fcif;ukd &dwjf zwfEypufueouJoYdk ¤if;ç ½Gmzsuf"m;jywkYd onf ½GmukEypufuef ouJoYdk ¤if; Zmwd dS f k f h d dS f k h ponfwYdk onf Oyg'geu©Emig;yg;ukomvQif txl;xl;aomtjym;wkYd jzifh ESypufuevsuf jrufE,ponfwYdkonf ¨ d d f k f G f ajrüaygufueouJoYdk ¤if;ç tyGihf toD; t½GuwYdk onf opfyifwYdk ü jzpfueouJoYdk ¤if; Oyg'geu©EmwkYd üomvQif k f h f k f h ¨ jzpfue\/ qufí½Sif;jyOD;tHh Oyg'geu©E¨mwkdY\ tpjzpfaom qif;&Jonf Zmwdaywnf;? tv,fü qif;&Jonf Z&m k f aywnf;? tqk;ü qif;&Jonf r&Paywnf;? aocgeD;üjzpfonfh qif;&JwYdku ESypufjcif;aMumifh pdwyavmifjcif; H d f f l qif;&Jonf aomuaywnf;? xkaomuukd onf;rcHEijf cif;aMumifh jrnfwrf;jcif;qif;&Jonf y&da'0aywnf;? xkd d dk jrnfwrf;jcif;aMumifh 0g-xkUd jyif "mwfacsmufcsm;jcif;[k qktyfaom ted|tawGUtm½kEihf awGUqkjH cif;aMumifh uk,\ d H S d f emusif cHcufEypufaom qif;&Jonf 'kuaywnf;? xk'uj© zifh tESypufc&aom ykxZOfwYdktm; ,if;'kuü trsuf dS f © d k d f H k © a'gojzpfjcif;aMumifh pdw\emusiccuf ESypufaomqif;&Jonf a'greóaywnf;? aomu ponfwYdk wk;yGg; f f H d f d jcif;aMumifh jzpfay:aom yifyef;jcif;-pdw"mwfusjcif;½Sueaom olwYdk \ nnf;wGm;aMumif; qif;&Jonf Oyg,mo f d k f aywnf;? pdwtvkysufp;ukeaom olwYdk \ tvkd\ ysup;jcif; qif;&Jonf £pdwm vmbaywnf;? þqkconfh f d D f f D ä d hJ twki; txl;xl;tjym;jym;tm;jzifh ½IqifjcifMunfvQif Oyg'geu©EmwkYd onfomvQif qif;&J-'kuwYdk aywnf;/ okYd jzpf d f h ¨ © í ,ckjyqkcaom tMuifqif;&Jtaygif;ukd wckwckcsif;jyí qkaevQif rsm;pGmaom uyfurÇmwkYd jzifaomfvnf; d hJ d h t<uif;rJq&efrpGr;Ekiay? xkUd aMumifh xkqif;&Jtvk;pkudk a&waygufü t&omjzifh ork'&ma&tm;vk;\ t&omukd h dk f d f d H H ´ H jyouJoYdk trSwr½Sd tvk;pkaom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd ü csKH;íjyjcif;iSg ]]oHcawåe yOöKyg 'geu©Em 'kum=tusOf; h f H H ¨ d ¨ ©

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

126

tm;jzifh ig;yg;ukeaom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd onf qif;&JwYdk yif}}[k jrwfpmbk&m; a[mMum;awmfrayonf/ þqkcaom f ¨ G l d hJ pum;onf Oyg'geu©EmwkYd ü tqk;tjzwfaywnf;/ ¨ H þqkcaom pum;onf a½S;OD;pGm 'kuea'´oü odaMumif;enf;aywnf;/ d hJ © d

ork',ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
553/ xkrwyg; ork',eda'´oü ,m,H wPSm[l&mü ,m t,H wPSm[k yk'c&m\/ wzefb0topfudk d S f JG ûyavh½aomaMumifh aygaemb0dumrnf\/ «138» ESpoufwyfpjJG cif;ESiwuG jzpfaomaMumifh eE´&m*o[*wm dS f hf D rnf \/ ESpoufwyfpaom eE´&m*ESiwuG t&w&m;uk,tm;jzifh wckwnf;tjzpfoYdk a&mufonf[k qkv\/ f JG d hf d f d dk wMwwMwmbdeE´eD [lonfum; tMuiftMuif b0a,medponfü jzpf\/ xkxjdk zpf&m b0a,medponfü ESpouf d d f aysmfarGUavh ½S\ ([kqv\)/ ao,sxd'um; edygwfy'?f ]]xkwPSmonf tb,fenf;[k ar;jim;tH}h } þum; xkd d dk dk H k d edygwfy'\ teuf/ umrwPSm b0wPSm 0db0wPSm[laom þwPSmwkYd onf y#dporkyg'eda'´oü xif½m; k f ö Ü S jzpfuevwH/ þork',ukd tus,fjy&müum; ok;yg;tjym;½Saom þwPSmukd 'kuopömukd jzpfapwwfaom k f h H d © taMumif;teuftm;jzifh wckwnf;tjzpfoYdk aqmifxnfí ('kuork'a,m t&d,opö) 'kuork',jzpfaom t&d, h © H © opöm[lí a[mawmfronf[k odtyf \/ l

eda&m"ukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
554/ 'kuea&m"eda'´oü ]]a,m wóma,0 wPSm,}} þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh ork',\ csKyfjcif;ukd © d d a[mxm;onf? ¤if;ukd tb,faMumifh a[mygoenf;[lr-ork',\ csKyfjcif;aMumifh 'ku\csKyfjcif; NyD;pD;\? h l © (xkUd aMumifaywnf;) rSeay\? ork',\ csKyfjcif;aMumifh 'kuonfcsKyf\? tjcm;taMumif;aMumifh csKyfonf h f © r[kw/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg*gxmukd a[mawmfrayonf/ f l ]]tjrpfonf ab;&efr½SyJ ckiNf rJtm;½SaevQif opfyifonf ckwjf zwfxm;NyD;jzpfaomfvnf; wzef d d d aygufa&mufpnfyifonfom jzpfouJoYdk þtwlyif wPSmtEko,ukd ry,frEIw&ao;vQif þqif;&J h f onf tzefzefjyefí jzpfaeawmhonf}}[líyifwnf;/ þqkconftwki; ork',csKyfjcif;aMumifomvQif 'kuonf csKyf\/ xkUd aMumifh jrwfpmbk&m;onf 'ku© d hJ h d f h © G eda&m"ukd a[mawmfrvQif ork',eda&m"-ork',\ csKyfjcif;jzifomvQif a[mawmfravonf/ rSeay\-jrwfpm l h l f G bk&m;wkYd onf jcaoFEiwaom ûyusifjh cif; ½Sue\? xkjd rwfpmbk&m;wkYd onf qif;&J'uudk csKyfapukeonf ½Saomf h S hf l d k f G k © f d qif;&J\csKyfjcif; 'kuea&m"ukd a[mawmfrueonf½aomf taMumif;ü usifawmfrue\? tusKd;ü rusifue/ © d l k f dS h l k f h k f wdwwYdk onfum; acG;ESiwaom ûyusifjh cif; ½Sue\? xkwwwYdk onf 'kuudk csKyfapukeonf½aomf 'ku\ ¬d hf l d k f d d åd © f dS © csKyfjcif;-'kuea&m"ukd a[mukeonf½aomf uk,yifyef;atmifûyusifrudk a[mjcif;ponfwYdk jzifh tusKd;ü usifuef © d f dS d f h I h k \? taMumif;ü rusifue/ þokYd vQif a½S;OD;pGm ork',eda&m"\ tpGr;tm;jzifh 'kuea&m"ukd a[mjcif;\ h k f f © d (ya,mZOf) tusKd;ukd odtyf\/ 555/ ,ckqrnfpum;onf teuftzGiaywnf; - xkwPSm\yifvQi-[lonfum; ]wzef b0opfudk dk h hf d f jzpfapwwf\} ponfjzifqí umrwPSmponf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh a0befjyxm;aom xkwPSm\(yifvQi)/ r*fudk h dk f d f 0d&m*[k qktyf\? rSe\-wyfruf uif;rI-0d&m*aMumifh vGwajrmuf(rI zkvjf zpf)\[k a[mawmfr(tyf) ayonf/ d f f d l 0d&m*rnfaom r*fjzifh csKyfjcif;onf 0d&m*eda&m" rnf\/ wenf;um;y,fjcif;ukd 0d&m*[k qktyf\? xkUd aMumifh d «139» taoot<uif;r½Sdaom 0d&m*-ysujf y,fjcif;-y,fjcif;-uif;jcif;onf t<uif;r½Saom eda&m" csKyfjcif;onf d (taoo 0d&m*eda&m"rnf\) þokYd vnf; þyk'ü ormofwJG ,SOjf cif;ukd rSwtyf\/ w&m;uk,f teuftm;jzifrl f f d h þyk'tm;vk;wkYd yif edAmef\ a00kpf y&d,m,fwYdk omwnf;/ rSe\-y&rw¬tm;jzifh edAmefudk 'ku© eda&m" t&d,opöm f H Á f Á [lí qkdtyf\/ ]]csKyfjcif;rQr[kwyJ csKyfaMumif; csKyf&m&atmif0pew¬udk qufíjyOD;tH}h } xkeAmefudk r*fÓPfjzifh f d d Á a&mufí wPSmonf ysufjy,fvnf; ysufjy,f\ csKyfvnf; csKyf\? xkoYdkysujf y,faMumif; csKyfaMumif; jzpfaom d aMumifh ,if;edAmefonf 0d&m*[lívnf; qktyf\ eda&m"[lívnf; qktyf\/ xkrwyg; xkeAmefuyif r*fÓPf Á d d d S d d Á dk jzifh a&mufí xkwPSmukd pGeYf jcif;ponfwYdk jzpfue\? xkrwyg; umr*kP[aom wG,wm&m tmv,ç wPSm d k f d S f l f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

127

[laom wG,wmwwfaom tmv,wkYd wif tmv, wckrQaomfvnf; þedAmefür½S?d xkUd aMumifh pma*gpGeYf &m? f G Á y#dedóa*¾g-a0;pGm pGeYf &m? rkw-vGw&m? temva,m-rwG,wm&m? 0g-wG,wmrI uif;&m[lí qktyfayonf/ åd f f f d 556/ xkoYdk 0d&m*ponfjzifh a[mxm;aom þedAmefonf (oEÅvu©P) Nidr;at;jcif; vu©Pm½S\? d Á d H f d (tpöKwd&oH) ra½GUavsmjcif; raorysufjcif;[laom jynfpaom*kP½\ 0g-raorysufjcif; udp½\? wenf;um; h Hk f dS ö dS (tómou&P&oH) (oHo&m qif;&Jü NiD;aiGUoltm;) oufomjcif;ukd ûyjcif; udp½\ 0g-oufom&m&apjcif; ö dS udp½Sd\? (tedrwypöKy|meH) ykoP²mef t&dyerwf uif;aomtm;jzifh ½IoÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\? wenf;um; ö d å H f d d d (wPSm rme 'd|[aom) oHo&me,fcsUJ yyOöw&m;uif;jcif;ukd jzpfapwwf\ 0g-yyOöuif;apjcif;[laom ypöKy|mef d l ½Sd\/

edAÁmefukd jyqkdcsuf
557/ ]]edAmefonf ,keYf csKduoYdk yif r&tyf-r&Eki-rodEiaumif;aomaMumifh r½Sonfom}}[k (wpkH Á hJ d f dk f d wa,mufu) tu,fí qkjd im;tH?h (r½Sonf) r[kwf (½Sonfom? tb,faMumifenf;) or®my#dywf[aom d d h h l taMumif;rSejf zifh &tyf-&Eki-odEiaumif; aomaMumifaywnf;/ rSe\-xkeAmefudk ,if;edAmefEiavsmaom d f dk f h f d d Á Á S hf f tusif[qtyfaom taMumif;rSejf zifh &tyf-odtyf\? (tb,fuoYdk enf;) apawmy&d,ÓPfjzifh olwyg;wkYd \ h k dk hJ avmukw&mpdwudk &tyf-odtyf-odEiouJoYdkaywnf;? xkUd aMumifh ]]r&tyf r&Ekif rodEiaomaMumifh edAmefonf å f dk f h d dk f Á r½Sd}}[k rqkdtyf-rqkxuay/ taMumif;rlum; (odEicaom) tMuift&mukd AmvykxZOfwYdk onf r&Mu-rodMu? d dk f dk f J k xkt&mukd (AmvykxZOfwYdk rod&½krQukd taMumif;ûyí) r½S[k rqktyf-rqkxuaomaMumifaywnf;/ d k H d d d dk f h 558/ wenf;½Si;jy&vQif ]]edAmefonf r½S}d }[k rqktyf? tb,faMumifenf;¿ edAmefa&mufaMumif;tusi\ f Á d h h Á hf ûrHonf\ tjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif;aMumifwnf;/ csJUíjytH-edAmefr½SvQif or®m'd|d a½SUoGm;½Saom oDv tp½Sonfh cE¨m h h Á d d d ok;yg;jzifh a&wGutyfaom or®my#dywf\ ûrHonf\tjzpfonfa&muf\ 0g-or®my#dywfonf ûrHjcif;okYd a&muf\? H f okYd aomfvnf; þor®my#dywfonf rûrHay? (tb,faMumifenf;) edAmefoYdk a&mufapwwfaom aMumifaywnf;/ h h Á h þwGiw&yf/ f ]]y#dywf\ ûrHonf\tjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif; rjzpfyg? 0g-or®my#dywfuawmh ûrHjcif;okYd ra&mufyg/ (tb,fh aMumifenf;) (tbm0) r½Sjd cif;okYd a&mufapwwfaomaMumifyif}}[k qkjd im;tH/ (tbm0okYd a&mufapwwfaom h h h aMumif[k qkjd cif;jzifh cE¨mwkYd \ r½Sjd cif;ukyif edAmef[k qkaom) xkpum;onf roif?h (tb,faMumifenf;) twdwf h d Á d d h h tem*wfcE¨mwkYd r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; edAmefoYdk a&mufjcif;\ rjzpfjcif;-rNyD;jcif;aMumifaywnf;/ ]](0wå rme) jzpfqJ Á h ypöKyÜecE¨mwkYd yg r½Sjd cif;onf edAmefjzpfonf[}k }qkjd im;tH/ (xkpum;) roif?h (tb,faMumifenf;) xkjd zpfqypöKyÜef f Á h d h h J cE¨mwkYd \ r½Sjd cif;\ rjzpfoifaomaMumif¤if;ç r½Sygrl jzpfqJ 0wårmefr[kwonftjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif;aMumif¤if;ç h h d f h h jzpfqcE¨mwkYd udk rSaomr*fcPü oOyg'daoo edAme"mwfoYdk a&mufjcif;\ r½Sjd cif;[laom tjypf½aomaMumif¤if; J D © dS h jzpfonf/ xkr*fcPü udavomwkYd \ jzpfqJ r[kwjf cif;aMumifh tjypfr½S[k qkjd im;tH/ xkpum;vnf; roif?h d d h d (tb,faMumifenf;) t&d,r*f\ tusKd;rJtjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif;aMumifwnf;/ rSe\ þokYd y&0g'Dy*Kd¾ vf qkonfh h h h h f k d twki; [kwygrl t&d,r*fcPrS a½S; (tEkva*gMwbl ponfcP)üvnf; udavomwkYd onf jzpfvsufr½Sue?f d f f Hk d k xkUd aMumifh t&d,r*f\ (udavomukd y,fjcif;[laom) tusKd;r½Sonfh tjzpfonf a&muf\/ xkUd aMumifh (0g-xkoYdk d d edAmefudk r&Ekif rodEionfr[kwjf cif;ç y#dywf\ rûrHjcif;ç edAmefonf tbm0rQr[kwjf cif; tp½Saom taMumif; Á d dk f Á d aMumif) (edAmefudk r&Ekif rodEiaomaMumifh ponfjzifh jyqkaom y&0g'Dy*Kd¾ vf\) þtaMumif;tm;vk;onf h Á d dk f d k H toif,w½aom taMumif;ckivaom taMumif;r[kw/ h k åd dS d f Hk f 559/ ]]igh½if ZrÁKcg'uy&dAZf tMuif(&m*u©,) &m*\ukejf cif; (a'gou©,) a'go\ukejf cif; S dk (arm[u©,) arm[\ ukejf cif;onf ½S\? þoabmukd edAmef[k qktyf\}}ponfudk a[mawmfraomaMumifh d Á d l ]](c,)ukejf cif;onf edAmef}}[k qkjd im;tH?h (xkpum;)roif?h (tb,faMumifenf;) t&[wåzvonfvnf; ukejf cif;rQ Á d h h dk f tjzpfoYdk a&mufaomaMumifwnf;/ rSe\-xkdt&[wåzkdvfukdvnf; «140» ]]igh½Sif tMuif &m*u©, a'gou©, h f arm[u©,onf ½S\? þoabmukd t&[wåzv[k qktyf\}} þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh nTejf yxm;ayonf/ d dk f d d tenf;i,fqufí ajymzG,½ao;\-(edAmefonf &m*ponf\ ukejf cif;rQjzpfcvQi) edAmef\ wkaomumv½Sjd cif; f dS Á hJ f Á d ponfoYdk a&mufaom tjypf½jdS cif;aMumifvnf; (xkpum; roif)? csJUíjytH-þokYd y&0g'Dqonftwki; ukejf cif;rQ h d h h dk h d f edAmefjzpfvQif edAmefonf wkaomumv ½Sjd cif;okYd ¤if;ç ocFwvu©PmokYd ¤if;ç or®m0g,mrESiuif;í &Ekiaumif; Á Á d hf d f onf\ tjzpfoYdk ¤if; a&muf\? xkUd jyif ocFwvu©Pm ½SaomaMumifyif ocFww&m;ü twGi;0if\? ocFww&m; d h f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

128

ü twGi;0if aomaMumifh &m*tp½Saom rD;wkYd uavmiftyf\? avmiftyfaomaMumifh 'kuvnf;rnf\ þokYd vnf; f d © tjypfjzpf\/ tMuifuejf cif;rS pí aemufumvü jzpfjcif;rnfonf r½S?d xkoYdkaom tNyD;tjywfuejf cif;\ edAmefjzpfjcif; k d k Á aMumifh (t|uxmqkonf) tjypfr½S[k qkjd im;tH/ xkoYdk tNyD;tjywf ukejf cif;\ r½Sjd cif;aMumif¤if;ç ½Sdjim; d h d h d h aomfvnf; xkuejf cif;rQ edAmef\ qkcNhJ yD;aom tjypfa'gowkYd udk rvGeEiaomaMumif¤if;ç t&d,r*f\ edAmef d k Á d f dk f h Á tjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif;aMumif¤if; (xkpum;)roif/ rSe\-t&d,r*fonf &m*paomtjypfwYdkudk ukeapwwf\? xkUd h d h f f aMumifh ,if;ukd c,[k qktyf\? xkc,rnfaom r*frpívnf; aemufumvü &m*paom tjypfwYdk\jzpfjcif;onf d d S r½Sdawmhay/ þwGif w&yf/ pifppfaomfum; rjzpfjcif;[laom eda&m"[k qktyfaom (c,)ukejf cif;\ y&d,m,ftm;jzifh Oyedó, d rnfaomaMumifh (r*f\ tm½kjH zpfaom edAmefonf) tMuifuavom rjzpfjcif;[laom c,-ukejf cif;\ Oyedó, Á d -rS&mtaMumif; jzpf\? xkuejf cif;\ teD;üjzpfaom zvlypm a0g[m&jzifh (edAmefu)c,-ukejf cif;[k a[mawmfrl D d k Á dk (tyf)ayonf/ o½kytm;jzifomvQif tb,faMumifh ra[moenf;[lr-tvGeorarGUaomaMumifh aywnf;/ xkd f h h l f d f edAmef\ tvGeorarGUonf\ tjzpfonfvnf; jrwfpmbk&m;rSm (a[m&ef) aMumifMh urJh tjzpfudk aqmifwwfaom Á f d f G aMumif¤if;ç t&d,mÓPfrsufpjd zifh jriftyfonfw&m; jzpfaomaMumif¤if; NyD;pD;xif½m;\/ þwGifw&yf/ h h h S 560/ xkoYdk ½i;jyNyD;aom þedAmefonf t&d,r*fEihf jynfpaom t&d,yk*Kd¾ vfonf (omvQif) a&muftyf d S f Á S h Hk aomaMumifh trsm;ESirqkiaom (tom"m&P)w&m;jzpfonf? (rnfonfh bk&m;vufxufu pí jzpfconf[k hf d f hJ þokdY) a½S;tpGef;\ r½SaomaMumifh (tyÜb0) trGetp r½Say/ ]]r*f½vQif (edAmef) ½Sjd cif;aMumifh tyÜb0r[kw}f }[k d f d dS Á qkjd im;tH?h r*fu jzpfaptyfonf r[kwaomaMumifh xkoYdk rqkoif/ rSe\ þedAmefudk r*fonfa&mufomvQif f d d h f Á a&muftyf\? jzpfaptyfonfum;r[kw?f xkUd aMumifh tyÜb0omjzpfayonf/ trGetpr½Sd (tyÜb0)jzpfaomaMumifh f tkjd cif; aojcif; r½S?d pí jzpfjcif; tkjd cif; aojcif;wkYd \ r½Sjd cif;aMumifh (edp)NrJ\/ ö ]]edAmef\ NrJonf\tjzpfuoYdk tPk (yuwd yk&o umv) ponfwYdk \vnf; NrJonf\tjzpfonf Á hJ d a&muf\}}[k qkjd im;tH?h taMumif;om"e[dw\ r½Sjd cif;aMumif; xkpum;onf roif/ ]]edAmef\ NrJonf\ tjzpf f d h Á aMumifh xktPkyuwd ponfwYdk onf NrJue\}}[k qkjd im;tH?h taMumif;jy[dwvu©Pm\ roifavsmf rjynhpjHk cif; d k f f h f aMumifh (0g-edAmef\ NrJonf\ tjzpfaMumif[aom [dwonf om"e[dwf vu©PmokYd ra&mufjcif;aMumif) xkd Á h l f h pum; roif/ ]],if;tPkponfwYdk onf Oyg'fponfr½Sjd cif;aMumifh NrJue\ edAmefuoYdk yif}}[k qkjd im;tH?h xkpum; h k f Á hJ d roif?h (tb,faMumifenf;) tPkponfwYdk \ rNyD;jcif; xif½m;r½Sjd cif;aMumifwnf;/ h h S h 561/ pifppftm;jzifrl qkconftwki; toif,wåd \ ½Sjd cif;aMumifh þedAmefonfomvQifNrJ\? ½kyoabm h d hJ h d f h k Á f ukd ausmfvejf cif;aMumifh t½ly (½kyr[kwonfemrf)rnf\/ Ak'j¨ rwfpmbk&m; ponfwYdk\ tNyD;tqk;ESihf (tjcm; G f f h G H &[EÅmwkYd \ tNyD;tqk;onf) xl;jcm;uGjJ ym;jcif; r½SaomaMumifh wyg;wnf;omjzpfaom ed|m-tNyD;tqk; aywnf;/ H d H bm0emjzifh edAmefoYdka&mufo\ udavom Nidr;jcif;uk¤if;ç Oyg'drnfaom tusKd;0dygufcE¨m t<uif; ½Sao;onfudk Á l f d d ¤if; pGJí ynwftyf-odaptyfaomaMumifh oOyg'daooedAmef rnf\/ xkYd jyif ork',ukd t<uif; rJy,fjcif;jzifh Á h aemiftcgü jzpfxuaom uH \tusK;ukd y,fNyD;aom &[EÅmyk*Kd¾ vfrm aemufq; (y&deAmefpw)pdwrS aemufü dk f d S Hk d Á k d f y0wåcE¨mwkYd \ rjzpfjcif;aMumif¤if; (y&deAmefpwwiatmif) jzpfNyD;aom cE¨mwkYd \ uG,aysmufjcif; csKyfjcif; d h d Á k d dk f f aMumif¤if; «141» tMuif Oyg'drnfaom cE¨mt<uif;\ r½Sjd cif;onf NyD;\? xkOyg'daoocE¨m t<uif;\ r½Sjd cif; h d ukpí ynwftyf-odaptyfaomaMumifh tEkyg'daoovnf; rnf\/ d JG avsmhvsnf;jcif;r½SyJ wif;wif;&if;&if; tqifqifh tm;xkwjf cif;jzifNh yD;aom ÓPftxl;jzifh odtyfaom d h aMumif¤if;ç tvk;pkuoonfh jrwfpmbk&m;a[mawmfraomaMumif¤if; edAmefonf y&rw¬oabmtm;jzifh r½Sonf h H H dk d G l h Á d r[kwf (½Sonfomwnf;)/ rSeay\d f ]]twd¬ bdua0 tZmwH tblwH tuwH tocFwH = &[ef;wkYd (a0'em ponfuoYdk taMumif;nD © hJ nGwí) jzpfonf r[kwaom (taMumif;rJtvkv) jzpfay:onfvnf; r[kwaom (taMumif; wpkwcku) f f h d dk f H ûytyfonfvnf; r[kwaom tocFw w&m;onf ½Say\}}[laom þpum;ukd a[mawmfrtyfayonf/ f d l þqkcaompum;onf 'kuea&m"eda'´oü tqk;tjzwf pum;t>rufaywnf;/ d hJ © d H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

129

r*fukd tus,fjyqkdcsuf
562/ xkrwyg;'kuea&m" *grdey#dy'geda'´oü a[mxm;aom ½Spyg;aom w&m;wkYd udk cE¨ea'´oüvnf; d S © d D f d teuftm;jzifh jycJNh yD;omvQif jzpfayonf? okYd aomfvnf; þr*¾opömt&mü wckwnf;aom cPüjzpfueaom xkd k f r*¾iw&m;wkYd \ txl;ukd odap&ef jyqkueO;tH/ f d k f D h tusOf;tm;jzifh (jy&vQif) opömav;yg;uko&ef usifaoma,m*Dtm; edAmefudk tm½kûH yvsuf t0dZmeko,ukd d d h Á Æ t<uif;rJh EIwcgy,fowfwwfaom ynmrsuponf or®m'd|rnf\/ ¤if;onf rSepmjrifjcif; vu©Pm½S\? "mwf f G f d d f G d oabmukd xif½m;jyjcif;udp½Sd\ 0g-opömav;yg;ukd xif½m;jyjcif; udp½\? t0dZmtarSmifudk zsufq;jcif;oabm S ö S ö dS Æ D [k ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ xkt0dZmEko,ukd EIwcgy,fowfEiaom tjcif;t&mjzifjh zpfaom or®m'd|Eihf d Æ f G dk f d S jynfpaomyk*Kd¾ vf\ xkor®m'd|Ei,Oaom rdpmouFyudk t<uif;rJy,fowfwwfaom pdwfukd edAÁmeftm½kHokdY a½S;½I h Hk d d S hf S f ä Ü h wifay;wwfaom oabmonf or®mouFyaywnf;/ ¤if;onf pdwudk tm½koYdk rSepma½S; ½Iwifay;jcif; vu©Pm Ü f H f G ½Sd\? (edAmeftm½koYdk ) a&mufapjcif;-ouf0ifapjcif; udp½\? rdpmouFyudk y,fjcif;oabm [k ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif Á H ö dS ä Ü \/ xkoYdk or®m'd|jd zifh jrifonfjh yif or®mouFyjÜ zifh BuHpnfaomyk*Kd¾ vf\ xkBd uHonfh 0dwufEiyif,Oaom d S hf S f 0pD'p½uudk t<uif;rJEwcgy,fowfwwfaom rdpm0gpmrS MuOfjcif;oabmonf or®m0gpmrnf\/ ¤if;onf k ö dk f h I f G ä (Mum;emolEihf ,SOzufw&m;wkYd u) odr;qnf;jcif;vu©Pm½S\? rdpm0gpmrS MuOfjcif;udp½\? rdpm0gpmukd S f dk f d ä ö dS ä y,fjcif;oabm[k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif \? xktjcif;t&mjzifh MuOfaom yk*Kd¾ vf\ xk0&wdEiyif ,SOaom d d d S hf f rdpmur®Eudk t<uif;rJh EIwcgy,fowfwwfaom ygPmwdygwponfrS MuOfjcif;oabmonf or®mur®Ernf\/ ä Å f G Å ¤if;onf (tjypfuif;aom trIu) jzpfapjcif; vu©Pm½S\? rdpmur®ErS MuOfjcif;udp½\? rdpmur®Eudk y,fjcif; dk d ä Å ö dS ä Å oabm[k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ xdUk jyif or®m0gpm ur®EwYdk Eijhf ynfpaom xky*Kd¾ vf\ xkor®m0gpmur®EwYdk \ Å S h Hk d k d Å txl;pifMu,faMumif;jzpfaom ¤if;wkYd Eiyif,Oaom tHz,ûf yjcif; ponfudk t<uif;rJjh zwfwwfaom rdpmZD0rS S hf S f h G ä MuOfjcif; oabmonf or®mtmZD0 rnf \/ ¤if;onf uk,EwwYdk udk pifMu,fapjcif; vu©Pm½S\? oifavsmaom d f I f d h f toufarG;rIudk jzpfapjcif; udp½\? rdpmZD0ukd y,fjcif;oabm[k ÓPftm;a½S;½Ixif\/ ö dS ä xktcgü or®m0gpm ur®EtmZD0[k qktyfaom xkovajrü BuHBh uHwnfaom xky*Kd¾ vf\ xkor®m0gpm d Å d d D h d k d ponftm;avsmfaom xkor®m0gpm ponfwYdkEiyif ,SOaom ysi;&djcif;ukd t<uif;rJh jzwfwwfaom tMuifvUHk v d S hf f f tm;xkwronf ½S\? þtm;xkwronf or®m0g,mr rnf\/ ¤if;onf csD;ajr§muftm;ay;jcif; vu©Pm½S\? rjzpf f I d f I d ao;aom tukovwYdk udk rjzpfapjcif;paom udp½\? rdpm0g,mrukd y,fjcif;oabm[k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\? dk f ö dS ä þqkconftwki; tm;xkwaom xky*Kd¾ vf\ xkor®m0g,mrESiyif,Oaom rdpmowdudk cgxkw-y,fazsmuf d hJ h d f f d k d hf S f ä f wwfaom pdw\ rarhraysmufjcif; oabmonf «142» or®mowd rnf\? ¤if;onf tm½küuyfí wnfjcif; f H vu©Pm½Sd\? 0g-tm½kHü xifjcif;vu©Pm½Sd\? tm½kurarh raysmufapjcif;udpö ½S\? rdpmowdudk y,fjcif;oabm H dk d ä [k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ þokYd tvGetuJr½Sd tjrwfq;jzpfaom owduaumif;pGm apmifa½Smuftyfonfh pdwf f Hk h ½Sdaomol\ xkowdEiyif ,SOaom rdpmorm"dudk zsuq;wwfaom pdawåu*¾wmac: pdwwnfMunfjcif; oabm d S hf f ä f D f onf or®morm"d rnf\/ ¤if;onf pdwudk rysHUvGiapjcif; vu©Pm½S\? 0g-olu,wif rysHUvGijhf cif; vu©Pm f hf d dk f dk ½Sd\? pdwudk tm½kü aumif;pGmxm;jcif; udp½\? rdpmorm"dudk y,fjcif;oabm[k ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixif\/ þonf f H ö dS ä um; 'kuea&m"*grded y#dy'geda'´oü odaMumif;enf;aywnf;/ þqkconftwki; þopömwkYd ü Zmwdp onfwYdk \ © d d hJ h d f tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 563/ ÓPf\udptm;jzifh [lonfum; opöÓPf\ udptm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ csJUí jytHh ö ö h H -opöÓPfonf tekaAm"ÓPf y#da0"ÓPf[í 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ xkwif tEkaAm"ÓPfonf avmuDÓPf l d G aywnf;? wqifMh um;ponfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh eda&m"opömukvnf;od\? r*¾opömukvnf;od\/ y#da0"ÓPf f d d onfum; avmukw&maywnf;? edAmefudk tm½kûH yí yki;jcm;odjcif; (y,fjcif; tp½Saom) udpNö yD;aomtm;jzifh å Á d f d av;yg;aom opömwkYd udk xk;xGi;íod\/ þtqkEitnD a[mawmfronfrmd f d S hf l S ]]&[ef;wkYd tMuify*Kd¾ vfonf 'kuudk jrif\? xky*Kd¾ vfonf 'kuork',ukvnf; jrif\? k © d k © d 'kuea&m"ukvnf; jrif\? 'kuea&m"okYd qkua&mufaom tusifr*¾opömukvnf; jrif\}} þokdY ponf © d d © d d f h d tvk;pkudk xkwaqmifí qktyf\/ H H f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

130

xky#da0"ÓPf\ udponfum; ÓP'óe0do'ü xif½m;jzpfygvdrrnf/ d ö k ¨d S hf xkrwyg; tMuif avmuDopöÓPfav;yg;onf ½S\? xkav;yg;wkYd wif 'kuudk odaomÓPfonf x<u d S d d G © jzpfay:um vTr;rk;onfh tvktm;jzifjh zpfaom ouúm,'d|udk qkwepfap-&yfwefYapwwf\? ork',ukd odaom f d d d f ÓPfonf (x<ujzpfay:um vTr;rk;onftvktm;jzifh jzpfaom) Oapä''d|udk (qkwepfapwwf\)/ eda&m"ukd f d h d d f odaomÓPfonf (xkUd twlyifjzpfaom) oów'd|udk (qkwepfapwwf\)/ r*¾ukd odaomÓPfonf (xkUd twlyif d f jzpfaom) tud&,'d|udk (qkwepfapwwf\)/ wenf;um; 'kuÓPfonf NrJjcif;wifw,fjcif; csr;omjcif; twå d d f © h f tjzpfwYdk rS uif;aom cE¨mwkYd ü NrJonf wifw,fonf csrf;omonf twå[k xifrwjf cif;[k qktyfaom tusKd;ü h S d azmufjyefpm usijhf cif; todrm;jcif;ukd (qkwepfap wwf\)/ ork',ukd odaomÓPfonf £ó&ac: zefqif;ol G S f bk&m;ocifç y"meac: yuwdç umvç obm0taMumif; ponfwYdk aMumifh avmu jzpfonf[k taMumif;r[kwf onfü taMumif;[k trSwrm;aom tm;jzifjh zpfaom taMumif;ü azmufjyefpmusijhf cif; todrm;jcif;ukd (qkwepf f S G S f apwwf\)/ eda&m"ukd odaomÓPfonf t½lybkH avmu\txGwjf zpfaom tonowfbHk (ae0onmemonm ,webk) ponfwYdkü ty0*¾ac: qif;&Juif;&m (armu©vwajrmuf&m) edAmef[k pG,jl cif;[laom1 eda&m"ü H G f Á J azmufjyef pGmusijhf cif;-todrm;jcif;ukd (qkwepfapwwf\)/ r*fuoaomÓPfonf umr okcukd om,mcHpm;rI S f dk d rdru,udk yifyef;atmif usifrI tjym;½Saom pifMu,f&mpifMu,faMumif; edAmef\ tusivrf;r[kw&mü edAmef\ d dk f h d Á hf f Á tusifvrf;[k pG,onf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfaoma&mufaMumif;ü azmufjyefpmusijhf cif;-todrm;jcif;ukd qkwepf h J l f G S f ap\/ xkdYaMumifh atmufyg*gxmukd qktyfayonf/ d ]]avmau avmuyÜba0? avmuw¬*ar oda0 p w'kyga,/ or®K,Swd wm0 ea&m? e 0dZmemwd ,m0 opömed/ ea&m-wpkwa,mufaomyk*Kd¾ vfowå0gonf? opömed-trSew&m;wkYd u?dk ,m0-tMuifrQavmuf umvywf H f vk;? e 0dZmemwd-rodao;? wm0-xkrQavmufumvywfv;? avmau-avmuac:aom 'kuopömü¤if;? avmuyÜ H d Hk © ba0-avmu\taMumif;[k qktyfaom ork',opömü¤if;? avmuw¬*ar-avmu\ csKyf&m[k qktyfaom? d d oda0 p-edAmefü¤if;? w'kyga,-xkeAmefoYdk a&mufaMumif; tusifü¤if;? or®K,Sw-jyif;pGm azmufjym;odrm; awGa0 Á d d Á h d S vsu½ S\}} [líyifwnf;/ f d þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü ÓPf\ udptm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ ö h H 564/ twGi;0ifaom w&m;wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzif[&mü(tus,um;) wPSmESihf avmukw&m w&m;wkYd udk f h l f å csefxm;í <uif;aomw&m;tvk;pkwYdk onf 'kuopömü twGi;0ifue\/ 36-yg;aom wPSm0dp½kwwYdk onf H H © f k f d f ork',opömü twGi;0ifue\/ eda&m"opömonf tjcm;ESihf a&maESmjcif;r½S- wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ or®m'd|d f k f d [laom rsuEmjzifh 0Dro'yg'f ynda`E´ ynmAkvf "r®0p,oarÁmZÑifwYdk onf r*¾opömü twGi;0ifue\/ or®m f S H d ¨d d d f k f ouFyudk nTejf yjcif;jzif?h «143» aeu©r0wufpaom ok;yg;aom 0dwufwYdk onftwGi;0ifue\? or®m0gpmukd Ü ® d H f k f nTejf yjcif;jzif; av;yg;aom 0pDop½kwwYdk onf twGi;0ifue\? or®mur®Eudk nTejf yjcif;jzifh ok;yg;aom um, k d f f k f Å H okp½kwwYdk onf twGi;0ifue\/ or®mtmZD0trª;ûyojzifh (tydpwm) tvkenf;jcif;onf¤if; (oEÅK|dwm) a&mif&J d f f k f Ü ä d h vG,jf cif;onf¤if; twGi;0if\/ wenf;um; þor®m0gpm-ur®E-tmZD0tm;vk;wkYd onfyifvQif t&d,uEÅov f Å H D jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç ,if;oDvukvnf; o'¨gwnf;[laomvufjzifh cH,tyfaomaMumif¤if;ç xkor®m0gpm-ur®Eh d l h d Å tmZD0wkYd ½vQif ½SNd rJjzpfaomaMumif¤if;? o'da`E´ o'¨gAkvf qE´'yg'fwYdk onf twGi;0ifue\/ or®m0g,mrukd dS h ¨ d d ¨d f k f nTejf yjcif;jzifh or®y"mefav;yg; 0D&,a`E´ 0D&,Akvf 0D&,oarÁmZÑiwYdkonf twGi;0ifue\/ or®mowdudk nTejf y Ü d d d d d f f k f jcif;jzifh owdy|mefav;yg; owda`E´ owdAvf owdoarÁmZÑiwYdkonf twGi;0ifue\/ or®morm"dudk nTejf yjcif; dk f f k f jzifh 0dwuf0pm&½Sd onfh orm"dtp½Sueaom orm"d ok;yg;wkYd onf¤if;ç pdw'yg'fqi&m pdworm"d orm"da`E´ d d k f H då ¨d dk f å orm"dAvf yDwoarÁmZÑif yó'd-orm"d-Oayu©moarÁmZÑifwYdk onf¤if; twGi;0ifue\/ þokdYvQif þopömwkdYü dk d ¨ f k f twGi;0ifaom w&m;wkYd \ tjym;tm;jzifvnf; tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ f h H 565/ Oyrmtm;jzifh [l&mü tus,fum; 'kuopömuk0efxyuoYdk rSwtyf\? ork',opömukd 0efxrf; © d k f hJ f aqmifjcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? eda&m"opömukd 0efxycsjcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? r*¾opömukd 0efxycsaMumif; enf;vrf; h f k f h f k f uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ wenf; 'kuopömukd a&m*guJoYdk rSwtyf\? ork',opömukd a&m*g\taMumif;&if;uJoYdk rSwf h f © h f h tyf\? eda&m"opömukd a&m*gaysmufjcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? r*¾opömukd aq;uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ wenf; 'kuopömukd h f h f © tpm½Sm;yg;jcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? ork',opömukd rk;acgifjcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\? eda&m"opömukd 0ajymjcif;uJoYdk h f d h f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

131

rSwtyf\? r*¾opömukd rk;aumif;jcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ wenf;aomfum; &efol &efp &efNidr;jcif;-&efNidr;aMumif; f d h f f f wkYd Ei¤if;ç tqdyyif-,if;\tjrpf-,if;tjrpfjywfjcif;-,if;tjrpf jywfaMumif;wdYk Ei¤if;ç ab;-ab;\ taMumif; S hf f S hf &if;-ab;uif;jcif;-,if;uk&aMumif; wkYd Ei¤if;ç þzufurf; BuD;pGmaom a&,Of-[kzufurf;-xk[zufurf;okYd d S hf d d dk a&mufaMumif; tm;xkwjf cif;wkYd Ei¤if; ,SOapívnf; þopömav;yg;wkYd udk Oyrmtm;jzifh odtyfue\/ þokdYvQif S hf f k f þopömwkYd ü Oyrmtm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 566/ av;csufptm;jzifh [l&mü tus,fum; þopömav;yg;wkYd wif 'kuomrnfí t&d,opöm rrnfaom k G © w&m;onf ½S\? t&d,opömomrnfí 'kurrnfaom w&m;onf½\? 'kuvnf;rnf t&d,opömvnf; rnfaom d © dS © w&m;onf ½S\? 'kuvnf;rrnf t&d,opömvnf; rrnfaomw&m;onf½\/ ork',opöm ponfwYdk üvnf; þ d © dS enf;yif/ xkwif r*fEi,Oaom w&m;wkYd onf¤if;ç omrnzkvwYdk onf¤if;ç ]]tMuifw&m;onf rNrJ? xkw&m; d G S hf S f d f d onf qif;&J}}[k a[mawmfrjl cif;aMumif¤if;ç ocFg& 'kuj© zpfjcif;aMumif¤if; 'ku-qif;&Jum; rnf\? t&d,opömum; h h © rrnf/ eda&m"onf t&d,opömum; rnf\? 'kuum; rrnf/ þrSwyg;aom ork',ESir*¾[aom t&d,opöm © hf l ESpyg;onfum; rNrJaomaMumifh 'kurnfonf jzpf&m\? okYd aomf tMuif'uudk yki;jcm;íod&ef jrwfpm bk&m;xHü f © k © d f G jrwfaomtusifudk usifo;tyf\? xkyi; jcm;odtyfonfh y&dan,stjzpfjzifum; 'kurrnfay? pifppfaomfum; h h Hk d dk f h © wPSmukd MuOfí Oyg'geu©Emig;yg; onfcyfor;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh 'kuvnf; rnf\? t&d,opömvnf; ¨ d f © rnf\/ r*fEi,Oaom w&m;wkYd onf¤if;ç omrnzkvwYdk onf¤if; tMuif'uudk yki;jcm;íod&ef jrwfpm bk&m;xHü S hf S f d f k © d f G jrwfaomtusifudk usifo;tyf\? xky&dan,stjzpfjzifum; 'kuvnf; rrnf/ t&d,opömvnf; rrnf/ þykH h h Hk d h © þenf;jzifh ork', ponfwYdküvnf; ,SOoifonftm;avsmpm,SOí þopömwkYd ü av;csufptm;jzifvnf; tqk; f h f G f k h H tjzwfuotyf\/ dk d «144» 567/ okntm;jzifh [l&mü tus,um; opömtm;vk;wkYd onfyifvQif y&rw¬tm;jzifh cHpm;ol ûyol f H Nidr;ol oGm;a&mufowYdk\ r½Sjd cif;aMumifh cHpm;olponfwYdk rS qdwoO;uke\[lí odtyf\/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg f l f k f f *gxmukd qktyfayonf/ d ]]'kuar0 [dçe aumpd 'kuawm? um&aum eç ud&,m0 0dZw/ © d© d Æ d tw¬d edAKÁ wdç e edAKÁ awm ykrm? r*¾rwdç¬ *raum e 0dZw/ Æ d 'kuar0 [d-qif;&Jom½Sonf? e aumpd 'kuawm-qif;&Jol wpkHwa,mufrQ r½Sd/ um&aum e© d d© ûyolr½S?d ud&,m0 0dZw-ûyjcif;rQom½Sonf/ twd¬ edAÁKwd-Nidr;at;jcif; ½Sonf/ e edAKÁ awm ykrmd Æ d d f d Nidr;at;olum; r½S/ r*¾rwd-ra*¾gtwdå -edAmefom;&ef tusifvrf;om ½Sonf? *raum e 0dZw-oGm;ol f d å Á G h d Æ d um;r½Say}}[líyifwnf;/ ]]qif;&Jol uif;y qif;&JrQ ½Sonf/ ûyol uif;y ûyjcif;rQ ½Sonf/ Nidr;oluif;y d d d f Nidr;jcif;rQ½Sonf/ oGm;ol uif;y r*fvrf;rQ ½Sonf}}/ (þokYd vnf; jyefqtyf\) f d d dk wenf;um;"k0okbokcwåon?H yk&r'G,} rwåon} rrwy'H/ "k0okctwå0&[dawm? ra*¾g£wd oknwmawok/ k d k d yk&r'G,-'kuEiork',[laom a½S;opömESpyg;onf? "k0-okbokcwåon-NrJjcif; wifw,fjcif; csr;om d H © S hf f k H h f jcif; twåtjzpfwYdk rS qdwoO;\/ trwy'H-tûrdueAmefonf? twåontwårS qdwoO;\/ ra*¾gf k f f d Á k H f k f t&d,r*fonf? "k0okctwå0&[dawm-NrJjcif; csr;omjcif; twåtjzpfrS qdwoO;\/ £wd-þokdY/ d f f k f awok-xkopömav;yg;wkYd ü? oknwm-qdwoO;onf\ tjzpfu?dk (a0'dwAÁm-odtyf \)/ d f k f wenf;um; opömok;yg;wkYd onf eda&m"rS qdwue\? eda&m"onfvnf; t<uif;ok;yg;rSqw\/ þ H f k f H d f opömav;yg;wkYd wif taMumif;opöm 2-yg;onf tusKd;rS qdw\? (tb,faMumifenf;) ork',ü 'ku\ G f h h © r½Sjd cif;aMumif¤if; r*¾ü eda&m"\ r½Sjd cif;aMumif¤if; jzpfayonf/ (rSe\)yuwd0g'DwYdk \ yuwduoYdk (taMumif; h h f hJ onf) tusKd;jzifh rsKd;½Sonf r[kway/ tusKd;opömonfvnf; taMumif;rSqw\? (tb,faMumifenf;) 'kuEihf d f d f h h © S ork',wkYd \¤if;ç eda&m"ESir*¾wYdk \¤if; twlwuG waygif;wnf; rjzpfMujcif;aMumifaywnf;/ (rSeay\) hf h f taMumif;ESitusKd; twlwuGwaygif;wnf; jzpfaeMuonf[k t,l½aomolwYdk \ tPkjrLESpcw-'GtPku ponf hf dS f k JG d uJoYdk taMumif;\tusKd;onf taMumif;ESitwlwuG waygif;wnf;wnfaeonf r[kway/ xkUd aMumifh atmufyg h hf f *gxmukd qktyfayonf/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

132

w,rd" eda&m"okn?H wa,e awemyd edAKÁ wd oknm/ okanm zave a[wk? zvrÜwH a[wkem okn/ d H ]]ok;yg;taygif;u eda&m"rSqwonf? edAmefuvnf; xko;yg;rSqwonf/ taMumif;opömu tusKd;rS H d f Á d Hk d f qdwonf? tusKd;uvnf; xktaMumif;rS qdwonf}}[lí yifwnf;/ f d f þokYd vQif okntm;jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ H 568/ {u0d"paomtjym;wkYd jzifh [l&mü tus,um; þopömav;yg;wkYd wif 'kuopömonf rjywfjzpfjcif; f G © oabmtm;jzifh tvk;pkyif wyg;wnf;omjzpfonf/ emrfESifh½kyftm;jzifh 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? umr ½ly t½ly-[laom H H Oyywdb0 tjym;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\? tm[m&av;yg;tjym;tm;jzifh 4-yg; tjym;½Sd\? Oyg'g eu©Emig;yg; å H d ¨ tjym;tm;jzifh 5-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ ork',opömonfvnf; jzpfapwwfaom oabmtm;jzifh wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ 'd|Ei,Of r,SOf d S hf S tm;jzifh 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ umrwPSm b0wPSm 0db0wPSmtjym;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\? r*fav;yg;wkYd jzifh H d y,ftyfaomtm;jzifh 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\? tqif;ukd ESpoufjcif; ponftjym;tm;jzifh ig;yg;tjym;½S\? 6-yg;aom f d wPSmum, tjym;tm;jzifh 6-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ «145» eda&m"opömonfvnf; tocFw"mwftjzpftm;jzifh wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ y&d,m,f tm;jzifrl h oOyg'daooç tEkyg'daoo tjym;tm;jzifh 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? b0ok;yg;\ Nidr;jcif;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym; ½S\? H f H d r*fav;yg;jzifh &tyf-odtyfaomtm;jzifh 4-yg;tjym;½Sd\? tqif;ukd ESpoufjcif;paom ESpoufjcif;ig;yg;wkYd \ f f Nidr;jcif;tm;jzifh ig;yg;tjym;½S\? 6-yg;aom wPSmum,wkYd \ ukejf cif;tjym;tm;jzifh 6-yg;tjym;½Sd\/ f d r*¾opömonfvnf; yGg;aptyfonfh bma0wAÁ tvktm;jzifh wyg;wnf;om jzpfonf/ orxESihf 0dyóem d tjym;tm;jzif¤if;ç 'óer*f bm0emr*f tjym;tm;jzif¤if; 2-yg;tjym;½Sd\? oDvu©Emtp½Saom cE¨mok;yg; h h ¨ d H tjym;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\? rSe\-þr*fonf avmukw&mrQjzpfí t<uif;½SaomaMumifh ,if;ukd (avmuD H d f å d avmukw&m tukeyg0ifí) t<uif;r½Sueaom oDvtp½Sueaom ok;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh odr;,l a&wGutyf\ å f d k f d k f H f f ûrdYudk wki;jynfjzifh odr;,la&wGutyfouJoYdk yif/ þtqkEitnD a[mxm;onfrmd f f f h d S hf S ]]'um 0domc t*Fg½Spyg;½Saom t&d,r*fjzifh ok;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd udk a&wGutyfonfr[kw?f f d H f 'um 0domc pifppfrmrl ok;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh t*Fg½Spfyg;½Sdaom t&d,r*fukd a&wGuftyfayonf/ 'um S H 0domc tMuifor®m0gpmonf¤if;ç tMuifor®mur®Eonf¤if;ç tMuifor®mtmZD0onf¤if; ½S\? þw&m; Å d wkYd udk oDvu©Emjzifh a&wGutyfue\/ tMuif or®m0g,mronf¤if;ç tMuif or®mowdonf¤if;ç tMuif ¨ f k f or®morm"donf¤if; ½S\? þw&m;wkYd udk orm"duEmjzifh a&wGutyfue\/ tMuif or®m'd|onf¤if;ç d © ¨ f k f d tMuif or®mouFyonf¤if; ½S\? þw&m;wkYd udk ynmu©Emjzifh a&wGutyfue\}} [líyifwnf;/ Ü d ¨ f k f csJUíjy&vQif-þr*¾i½pyg;wkYd wif ok;yg;aom or®m0gpm ur®EtmZD0wkYd onf oDvcsnf;yifjzpfonf/ xkYd f S f G H Å aMumifh ,if;wkYd uwaom oDvZmwft& oDvu©Emjzifh a&wGutyfue\/ (ygVdü oDvu©aE¨ oDvu©Emü-[k dk l ¨ f k f ¨ ½Saomfvnf; t|uxmtzGiEitnD oDvu©Emjzif[k u½kP;teuf jyefcNhJ yD/) or®m0g,mrtp½Saom r*¾io;yg; d hf S hf ¨ h d f d f Hk wkYd wif orm"donf rdrtvktm;jzifh tm½kü wckwnf; tm½kûH yonf\ tjzpfjzifh ouf0ifjcif;iSg rpGr;Eki?f 0D&,u G d d H f d d yifajrmuf tm;ay;jcif;udpudk NyD;apí owdu ray:xGujf cif;-rarhjcif;udpudk NyD;aprSomvQif aus;Zl;ûyrIh ö ö axmufyrudk &í pGr;Ekiayonf/ hH I f d f xkoYdkjzpf&mü Oyrmum;-eu©wyudk aysmfEuet[k O,smOfoYdk 0ifueaom oli,fcsif; ok;a,mufwYdk wif d f JG JT k f hH k f H G wa,mufaomolonf aumif;pGmyGiaeaom pum;yifujdk rifí vufuajr§mufvsuf cl;&efvnf; rrSy½&m\? xkdtcg hf dk D J dS xkotm; 'kw,vlu ausmukue;í ay;&m\? yXrvlonf 'kw,vl\ ausmuke;ü &yfwnfívnf; wkeaeí d l d d k f d f f rcl;Ekiy½&m\? xkdtcg xkdotm; wwd,vlu yck;pGe;ukd uyfnway;&m\? xkoonf wa,muf\ ausmuke;ü d f J dS l H f G f d l f wnfí wa,muf\ yck;pGe;ukd axmufvsuf tvk½wi; yef;wkYd uc;í yefqifum eu©wyudk aysmfE&mouJoYdk H f d dS dk f dk l f JG JT h þorm"d\ jzpfyudk þtwlyif jzpfonf[k rSwtyf\/ Hk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

133

«146» Oyrm Oyar,s ES;aESmíjytHh-O,smOfoYdk waygif;wnf;0ifvmukeaom oli,fcsif; ok;a,mufwYdk D f H uJoYdk waygif;wnf;jzpfueaom or®m0g,mrpaom w&m;ok;yg;wkYd udk rSwtyfue\? aumif;pGmyGiaeaom h k f H f k f hf pum;yifuoYdk tm½kurwtyf\? vufuajr§mufíaomfvnf; cl;&efrpGr;Ekiaom oluodYk rdrdtvkdvkd tm½kHü hJ H dk S f dk f d f hJ wckwnf; tm½kûH yonf\ tjzpfjzifh ouf0if&ef rpGr;Ekiaom orm"dudk rSwtyf\? ausmuke;ay;aom oli,fcsi; f d f f f f uJoYdk or®m0g,mrukd rSwtyf\? yck;pGe;nGway;vsuf wnfaom oli,fcsif;uJoYdk or®mowdudk rSwtyf\? h f H f f h f xko;a,mufwYdk wif wa,muf\ ausmuke;üwnfvsuf wa,muf\ yck;pGe;ukaxmufí yXroli,fcsif;onf d Hk G f H f d tvk½wi;yef;ukd cl;EkiouJoYdk þtwlyif 0D&,u yifajr§muftm;ay;jcif;udpudk NyD;apí owdu ray:xGujf cif; d dS dk f d f h d h ö rarhjcif;udpukd NyD;apojzifh orm"donf aus;Zl;ûyrI-axmufyrudk &onfjzpfí tm½kü wckwnf; tm½kûH yonf\ ö hH I H tjzpfjzifh ouf0ifjcif;iSg pGr;Ekiayonf/ xkYd aMumifh þ ok;yg;wkYd wif orm"duomvQif wlaom orm"dZmwft& f d f H G dk orm"duEmjzifh a&wGutyfonf? or®m0g,mr or®mowd wkYd onfum; (orm"dtm; aus;Zl;ûyaomavsmaom) © ¨ f f udpt& (orm"d u©Emjzif) a&wGutyfonf jzpfue\/ ö ¨ h f k f or®m'd|Eihf or®mouFywYdk wivnf; ynmonf rdrtvkvdk tedpö 'ku© tewå[k tm½kudk qk;jzwfjcif;iSg d S Ü G f d d H H rpGr;Eki?f 0dwufu xkEuovkd BuHBuHay;rSomvQif pGr;Eki\/ tb,fokdYenf;¿ (a½TaiG &mjywf)yGrif;onf f d S f f d f J tojymaiGudk vufü wifxm;í tvk;pkaom tzkYd wYdk ü Munf½vaomfvnf; rsufv; rsufvmjyifjzifyifvQif vSnhf H H h I dk Hk T h Munfjh cif;iSg rpGr;Eki?f vufqpfvufacsmif;wkYd jzifh vSnvnay;í xkrS þrS Munf½jI cif;iSg pGr;EkiouJoYdk þtwl f d hf S hf d h f d f h yifvQif ynmonf rdrtvkvdk tedpponf\tpGr;jzifh tm½kudk qk;jzwfjcif;iSg rpGr;Eki?f tm½koYdk a½S;½Iwifay;jcif; d d ö f H H f d H vu©Pm½Saom a½S;OD;pGm (xkEu) acgufjcif; vSnywfí acgufjcif; udpö (&o) ½Saom0dwufu píacgufouJh d S f hf d okYd ¤if; vSníay;ouJoYdk ¤if; BuHaomtm;jzifh ,lí,lí ay;tyfaom tm½kuomvQif qk;jzwfjcif;iSg pGr;Ekiay\? hf h H dk H f d f xkYd aMumifh þynmu©Em t&müvnf; or®m'd|uomvQif wlaomynmZmwft& ynmu©Emjzifh a&wGutyf\? ¨ d dk ¨ f or®mouFyurl (ynm \udpEihf wlaom) udpt& ynmu©Emjzif) a&wGutyfayonf/ Ü dk ö S ö ¨ h f þqkconftwki; r*fonf þok;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh a&wGujf cif;okYd a&muf\/ xkYd aMumifh ]]cE¨m ok;yg; d hJ h d f H H tjym;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½S\}}[k igqkcayonf/ aomwmywår*f ponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifomvQif av;yg; H d d hJ d f h tjym;½Sd\/ wenf;aomfum;-opömtm;vk;wkYd onfyif rcRwfr,Gi; rSeonf\ tjzpfaMumifaomf¤if;ç xl;aomÓPf H f f h jzifh odtyfaom tbdan,sw&m;\ tjzpfaMumifaomf¤if; wyg;wnf;om jzpfue\? avmuD avmukw&m opöm h k f å tm;jzif¤if; ocFw tocFwtm;jzif¤if; 2-yg;tjym;½Sdukef\? 'óejzifh y,ftyfaom w&m;bm0emjzifh y,ftyf h h aom w&m; ,if;ESprsKd;vk;jzifh ry,ftyfaom w&m;tm;jzifh ok;yg;tjym;½Sue\? y&dan,s tp½Saom tjym;tm; f H H d k f d jzifh av;yg;tjym;½Sue\/ þokYd vQif þopömwkYd ü {u0d" paom tjym;wkYd jzifh tqk;tjzwfudk odtyf\/ d k f H «147» 569/ wlaomtzkYd ½jdS cif; uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sjd cif;tm;jzifh [l&mü tus,fum; opömtm;vk;wkYd onfyif H rcRwr,Gi; rSeaomtm;jzif¤if; twårS qdwaomtm;jzif¤if;ç xk;xGi;od&ef ûyEkicaomtm;jzif¤if; wlaomtzkYd ½dS f f f h f h d f d f J h uke\/ þtqkEitnDa[mawmfronfrmf d S hf l S ]]tmeE´m ,ckar;rnfh xkt&mukd tb,foYdk xifoenf;¿ tMuifvwa,mufonf ta0;rSwnfí d l om vQif tvGeusO;aom oHaumufayguf (aomhayguf)jzifh jr§m;ukd rcRwfrvGapyJ tqifqifypfoi;Ekif f f J h h G f d &m\? tMuifvwa,mufonfvnf; tpdww&m 0g-tpdwrsm;pGm uGjJ ym;aom om;NrD;rQif \ tpGe;wck l f f f jzifh tpGe;wckudk xdreap&m\/ þtvkyEpcwYdk wif tb,ftvkyonfomí ûyEkicoenf;omí jzpfap f S f f S f k G f d f J Ekicoe nf;[k ar;awmfr\/ t½Sib&m; tMuifoonf tpdww&m tpdwrsm;pGm uGjJ ym;aom om;NrD;rQif d f J l f k l f f \ tpGe;wckjzifh tpGe;wckudk xdreap&m\? xko\ tvkyonfomívnf; ûyvkyEif cJygonfomí f f S f d l f f dk vnf; jzpfapEkicygonf bk&m;[k avQmuf\/ tmeE´m tMuifowYdk onf þonfum; 'ku[k [kwwi; d f J l © f dk f rSepm xk;xGi;í odue\/y/ þonfum; 'kuea&m"*grdey#dy'g[k [kwwi;rSepm xk;xGi;í f G d f k f © d D f dk f f G d f odue\? xkoYdk oaomyk*K¾ vwYdk onf xkom;NrD;rQifxycsif; xdreatmif ûyvkyEionfxufomí xk;xGi; k f d d d f d d f S f f dk f d f odEiconfudk xk;xGi;í odMuayuke\}} [líyifwnf;/ dk f J d f f (Am"etp½Saom) rdr\vu©Pmjzifh yki;jcm;jcif;tm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½ue\/ a½S;opöm 2-yg;wkYd onf d d d f dS k f ouf0ifEicaom teufoabmtm;jzifh eufeaomaMumif¤if;ç avmuD jzpfaomaMumif¤if;ç omo0jzpfaomaMumifh dk f J J h h ¤if; wlaomtzkYd ½ue\? tusKd;ESitaMumif; tuGtjym;tm;jzif¤if; y&dan,sESihf y[mwAÁtm;jzif¤if; uGjJ ym;aom dS k f hf J h h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ)

134

tzkdY½Sdukef\/ aemufopöm 2-yg;wkYd onfvnf; eufeaomteuf oabmtm;jzifh ouf0ifEicaomaMumif¤if;ç J dk f J h avmukw&m jzpfaomaMumif¤if; temo0jzpfaomaMumif¤if; wlaomtzkYd ½ue\? tm½kHESifh tm½kHûyonfw&m; tuGJ å h h dS k f h tjym;tm;jzif¤if;ç opäumwAÁEihf bma0wAÁtm;jzif¤if; uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sue\/ yXrESiwwd, opömwkYd onf h d S h d k f hf vnf; tusKd;[k nTejf ytyfaomtm;jzifh wlaomtzkYd ½Sue\? ocFw tocFwtm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aom tzkYd ½ue\/ d k f dS k f 'kw,ESihf pwkwopömwkYd onfvnf; taMumif;[k nTejf ytyfaomtm;jzifh wlaomtzkYd ½Sue\? pifppf ukovf d ¬ d k f dk tukovtm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sue\/ yXrESipwkw¬ opömwkYd onfvnf; ocFwtjzpftm;jzifh wlaomtzkYd dk f d k f hf ½Sdukef\? avmuD avmukw&mtm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sue\/ 'kw,ESihf wwd,opömwkYd onfvnf; ae0aou© å d k f d emaou©-aou© yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk \ Opömvnf;r[kwf taou©-&[EÅmwkYd \ Opömvnf; r[kwonf\ tjzpftm;jzifh f wlaom tzkYd ½ue\? tm½kH ûywwfonfw&m; tm½krûywwfonfh w&m;tm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sue\/ dS k f h H d k f þqkcaomtpOfjzifh þokYd aom tjym;½Saom enf;wkYd jzifvnf; t&d,opömwkYd \ wlaomtzkdY½Sd d hJ d h onf uGjJ ym;aomtzkYd ½Sonf\tjzpfudk ynm½Sonf od&m\/ þwGif opömwkYd udk tus,fjyqkcsuf NyD;\/ d d d

þonfum; olawmfaumif;taygif;wkdY\ 0rf;ajrmufjcif;iSg jyKpD&if(tyf)aom 0dok'd¨r*fusrf;0,f ynmbm0emt&mü £a`E´opömwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf (£`E´d,opöeda'´o) rnfaom wq,fhajcmufckajrmuf tykdif;tcPf;aywnf;/ (£a`E´opömwkdYukd tus,fjycsuf NyD;\) 0dok'd¨r*f jrefrmjyef wwd,wGJ NyD;\/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

135

rSwfcsuf
1-"D&-yk'+£|-0daoow¬ypön;="D&|-xl;cRefaomynm½S/ y'-t&mXme/ f f d d

rSwfcsuf
1-orwå-yk'f oAÁteufa[m/ ynm½SwYdk onf olcyfor;wkYd \ jrwfE;jcif;ukd &NrJjzpfonf/ xkoYdkaom d d f dk d jrwfE;jcif;ukd t½SiA'aCmo tavmif;vsm oli,fvnf; &½Sonf-[k qkv\/ dk f k ¨ d d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-Abl0 uJoYdkya&mu©m0dbwfjzifh NyD;onf/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-ou©a&myr,m-[laom #DumausmüuJoYdk 0dy&dwjf yefxm;onf/ ouúwbmomüum; þyk'Nf yD;ykrsK;rSm f h H d 0dy&dwr[kw?f yuwd t½k;tpOfyif jzpfonf/ f d

rSwfcsuf
1-tok'+tm,-jzifh NyD;aom tok'g, ([laom emr"mwf)+rmeypön;wkYd jzifh NyD;aptyf\/ ¨ ¨ f

rSwfcsuf
1-ybm0H? pGr;&nftxl;uk/ v'´g? &í-þokYd vnf; y'apä'ûyEki\/ f d d f

rSwfcsuf
txufyg o*F[ *gxmrsm;ukd r[mpnf q&mawmf\ awmif;yefcsujf zifh oHvsiûf rdUe,f oajyuef½m G r[m"r®um &mrwkuf tEkem,uq&mawmf t½Si0gao| rax&fu a&;om;zGUJ pDay;awmfronf/ ,if;*gxmwkYd udk d d f l q|oH*g,em0efaqmif oHCtzGUJ \ oabmwl qk;jzwfcsufjzifh 0do'r*fygVde'gef;ü xnfoi; azmfjycJonf/ H k ¨d d h G f h xkYd aMumifh xkygVde'gef; ,if;*gxmwkYd \tqk;ü txufygtwki; ed*;pum;ukd jyxm;ayonf/ d d H d f Hk

rSwfcsuf
+-þokYd aom axmifui; twGi;½Sd *Pef;rSm 0do'r*fygVdpmtky'w,wGrS pmrsufEmeHygwf *Pef; h G f f k ¨d f k d J S jzpfonf? uGi;rygaom yk'rBuD;ESihf *Pef;rSm ¤if;'kw,wGJ pmtkyrS pmyk'eygwf *Pef;jzpfonf/ f f d f d f H 1-,cktcg .... tm;xkwfpD&ifaytHh-[k pyfyg/ 2-jynfhpkHapjcif;iSg .... tm;xkwftyf\-[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-orm"dbm0em\ tmedoiftusKd;ukd &jcif;çomí ckiNf rJjcif;çcsr;om vG,upmjzifh NyD;ajrmufjynfpap d f f l G h Hk Ekijf cif;[laom xktaMumif;ok;yg;aMumif[k qkv\/ (#Dum) d d H h d dk 2-jrwfpmbk&m;onf .... a[mawmfrcayonf-[k pyfyg/ G l hJ

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

136

3-iSg¤if; .... iSg¤if; .... a[mawmfrlcJhayonf-[k pyfyg/ 4-xkd (pwkwpsmef&NyD;aom&[ef;)onf .... pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\-[k pyfyg/ ¬ f 5-wnfMunfvwfaomf .... a&mufvwfaomf a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-wnfMunfvwfaomf .... a&mufvwfaomf .... a½S;½Iaqmif\? a½S;½InGwfap\[k pyfyg/ 2-þokYd tp½Saomenf;jzifh .... a[mawmfrlcJhayonf[k pyfyg/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-þt&mü ]]êudwifq;r}} [lonfrm tvk½wi; Ekieif;atmif y&duoabmjzifh êudwifavhusifjh cif; Hk S d dS dk f d f H yifjzpfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-(ajymif;jyef) tpOftwki; ½Spyg;aomuokP;wkYd ü tBudrw&maomfvnf; tBudrf waxmifaomfvnf; d f f d f f (0ifpm;\) [laomteufudk xkUd twl [laompum;jzifh jy\/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-þt&mü 'kw,psmefponfudk rlwnfí tm½kceausmf[efuvnf; enf;wlyif odtyf\/ d H k f dk 2-avm[dwuokP;rS tmudOnm,wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\) [l&mü avm[dw uokP;ukd qifjcifvsuf d f ö d f a½S;½IûyNyD;vQif xkuokP;edrwudk cGgjcif;jzifh xifay:vmaom uodP*g#drtmumoü ESv;roGi;aomtm;jzifh d d f d f k ¢ Hk f tmumomeOöm,wepsmefudk r0ifpm;rlí (#DumygXfwYdkü ormyZÆwm-[lícsnf; ½Sd\? torm yZÆwm-[k ½SdrS d G d G oifrnf) xktmumoü a½S;ujzpfb;aom tmumomeOöm,we0dnmPf\ uif;jcif;ukd tm½kûH yí tmudOnm,we h d l ö psmefudk 0ifpm;\ ([k qkv\)/ (#Dum) d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-tvk;pkaomuokP;wkYd ü-[laom þpum;jziftmumouodP;0dnmPuokP;wkYd uvnf; odr;,l H H d f h k f d f dk f onf[k qk&efroifay? taMumif;rlum; þt&mü (Mo'gw uokP;tqk;½Saom) uokP;½Spyg;wkYd uom ,SOpyf d h d f H d d f f dk f tyfaomaMumifaywnf;/ þtwlyift½lypsmefav;yg;vk;ukvnf; wckwnf;aom psmef[k qk&efroifay? taMumif; h H d d h rlum; ½Spyg;aom ormywfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzifh pdwudk (,Ofaus;El;nHatmif) êudwifq;rjcif;ukd tvk½tyfaom f f f h Hk d dS aMumifaywnf;/ xkUd aMumifh t½lypsmefwYkd \ tpGr;tm;jzifh t*FgESitm½kajymif;a½TUjcif;ukd y&d,m,ftm;jzifh qkxm; h k f hf H d onf[k odtyf\/ xkoYdk y&d,m,ftm;jzifh qkxm;jcif;jzpfaomaMumifyif yDwuokP;ukcgí xifay:vmonfh d d h d f d G tmumoü tm½kûH yíjzpfaom yXrm½ky0nmPfvQif tm½k½aom 0dnmPOöm,wepsmefudk &nfí ]]yDwuokP;rS Ü d H dS d f 0dnmPOöm,wepsmefudk (0ifpm;\)}}[k rdeYf qawmfrayonf/ þenf;jzifh <uif;aom (avm[dwuokP;rS tmudOö dk l d f nm,wepsmefu?dk Mo'gwuokP;rS ae0onmemonm,wepsmefu-[laom) yk'Epck taygif;üvnf; teufudk d f dk f S f odtyf\/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-þü jyoifaomt"dyg,fonf ESm 7-rSwcsuf 1-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

137

2-êudwifrqk;ryJ .... NyD;apEkivrrnf [laom-[k pyfyg/ H d f d hf

rSwfcsuf
1-uokP;y&duudk ûyjcif;onfaomfvnf; 0efav;\-[l&mü tjypfa'goukd MuOfjcif;tp½Saom tpD d f H d t&ifjzifh O*¾[edrwf jzpfay:onfwiatmif uokP;0ef;ü ûyusifjh cif;onfaomfvnf; 0efav;\? wefc; d dk f d f dk zefqif;jcif;onfum; tb,frm qkb,½tenf;[k qkv\/ (#Dum) S d G f dS hH d dk 2-xkudk yGg;apí-[lonfum; xky#dbm*edrwu¤if; bm0emuk¤if; yGg;apí ([k qkv\)/ rSeay\? d d d f dk d d dk f bm0emESiuif;í edrwoufoufyg;ap&ef rjzpfEiay/ (#Dum) hf d f G dk f 3-tcsKUd a,m*DwYdkonf Oypm&orm"dudk &NyD;vQif tyÜemorm"dudk &&ef rpGr;EkiMf u? xkoYdkaom yk*Kd¾ vf f d d wkYd onfvnf; rsm;pGm½SMd uonfom? xkUd aMumifh ]]tyÜempsmefudk &jcif;onf 0efav;\}}[k rdeYf qavonf/ (#Dum) dk

rSwfcsuf
1-ax&-t½Sir[dEtp½Saom rax&frsm;+trÁ-o&ufyifrsm;+xvawmifue; = ax&rÁwv-t½Sifr[dE´ f ´ d k f ¬ tp½Saom rax&fwYdk oufqif;&m o&ufyifrsm;½Saom awmifue;/ o&yfyiftpk½aom t½Sir[dE´ rax&f d d k f dS f ponfwYdk oufqif;&mXmeonf ax&rÁwv rnf\/ (#Dum) ¬ 2-yx0DuodPeda'´o (jrefrmjyef ESm 478-ü) Ak'&u©w[k ½S\? þü&u©w-[k twkaumufjyqkonf/ ¨ d d d d d

rSwfcsuf
1-*d&b@0g[eylaZmfyJG rnfonfrm (t½Sir[mr[dEwYdk yXroDwif;ok;&m ,cktcg oD[Vbmomjzifh d S f ´ H dk f rd[Eav-[k ac:aom) apwD,awmifudk tpûyí wuRef;vk;ü¤if;? ork'&m-yifv,fxü w,lZemt&yfwiatmif d Å H ´ J dk f ¤if; BuD;us,fpmaom ('DyylZm) qDr;ylaZmfyaywnf;/ xkyaZmfyBJG uD; usif;ypOf rm&fewfu jzpfapaom rD;us;rk;ukd G D JG d l D d rD;yGm;rQjzifaomfvnf; vlrsm;qDoYdk ra&muf&atmif xkwcPtwGi;üyifvQif aumif;uifü ajrBuD;zefqif;í h d f (umuG,apmifa½Smufonf)/ (#Dum) þ taMumif;t&mtus,fudk ,cktcgxif½m; rawGU&awmhNyD/ f h S 2-bm0em avhusifytpOfEihf uif;ívnf; .... NyD;pD;jynfpMHk uuke\-[k pyfyg/ h Hk S h f 3-a½S;b0wkYd ü tm;BuD;aom tm;xkwr[aom taMumif;ESijhf ynfpotm;omvQif ,ckjycJaom bm0em f I l h Hk l h avhusifrI tpOfEiuif;í tbdnmOfwYdk onf NyD;pD;jynfpMHk uonf? tjcm;oltm; rNyD;pD;rjynfpMHk u? xktaMumif; h S hf h h d aMumif[k qkv\/ (#Dum) h d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-pmrsuEm 2? pmyk'f 2? pmaMumif; 3-ponfwYdkü tzGitydwf aumfrmwkYd jzifh jycJaom pum;yifjzpfonf/ f S d hf h

rSwfcsuf
1-ygVdüaom-[k ½Sd\? jrefrmjyefvQif xkonf-¤if;onf-,if;onf-[lí jzpf\? xky'jf zifh xk&[ef;onfd d k d xka,m*Donf-xkvonf-ponfjzifh ykviqi&m[lorQudk xkwazmfEi\/ okYd aomfvnf; xky'\ a½S;tjcm;rJh d d l d’ f dk f f dk f d k f pum;&yfü (bduK© .... pwkwH¬ psmeH OyorÜZÆ 0d[&wd) = &[ef;onf .... pwkwpsmefoYdk a&mufíae\-[k ½SdcJh\? ¬ xkpwkwpsmefoYdka&mufNyD;aom &[ef;a,m*Duyifaom-xkonf[k emrfpm;jzifh qkxm;onf/ okYd jzpfí txufyg d ¬ dk d d twki; xkwazmfí zGijhf yayonf/ þokYd aomtzGirsm;rSm ygVdbmomwwf odowYdk twGuom jzpfonf/ okYd jzpfí d f f hf l f þokYd aom yk'ygXf\tzGirsm;ukd ygVdrwwfaomolwYdk onf igwkYd twGuf r[kw[k ESv;oGi;í ausmfvu f hf f Hk f dk ausmfívnf; zwfom;Eki\/ G d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

138

2-ygVdü orm[daw pdawå-[k ½SaomaMumifh xkpOft& orm[daw-wnfMunfvwfaomf-[lonf yk'udk d d f a½S;OD;pGm zGijhf yí pdwonf[aomyk'udk aemufrS zGijhf yonf/ f l f 3-r,kwrvGef tnDtrQ½IEiaom Oayu©mESihf ,SOwíjzpfaomaMumifh owd\ xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif; f dk f f JG NyD;pD;onf/ xkUd aMumifh xkowd\xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fonf\tjzpf-xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif;udk Oayu©mu d jzpfaponf[k qkayonf/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-te*FPokwfü ]]rdrd\tjypfudk olwyg; rodapvkaomol? rdr\tjypfudk trsm;a½SUü rar;apvkaomol? d d d a½SUaqmifjzpfvaomol? vmbfvmbaygrsm;vkaomol? t½ktao tylaZmfcvaomol-þokYd aomolrm rdrtvkd dk d d H dk S d twki; rjzpfaomaMumifh trsuxujf cif;? ESv;romjcif; jzpfwwf\? xkoYdk jzpf&mü tvk½awmifwaom-avmbd f f G Hk d d dS h trsufxurI a'goç ESv;romrI-a'greóç ,if;avmbponfwYdk Eihf ,SOaom arm[[laom þw&m;qk;wkYd udk G f Hk S f d t*FP-[k ac:aMumif;}} jyqkxm;onf/ d 2-Oyuúavo-yk'udk t|uxmü ylyefapwwf-ESypufwwfonf[zijhf yxm;aomfvnf; þüodv,ap&ef d f d f k G G f npfñ;aMumif;-[kjyefxm;onf/ l

rSwfcsuf
1-pmrsufESm 3? pmaMumif; 3-rS wnfwvwfaomf-[laom yk'udk zGijhf yonf? xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif; hH f ponfwYdkü wnfaevQi-[k qkv\/ f d dk 2-o'¨g ponfwYdku yl;wGvsuf ,kMH unfaom tjcif;t&m ponfjzifh xufoefpm jzpfjcif;ukyif ¤if;wkYd u J G d tm;ay;axmufyonf[k qkonf/ hH d

rSwfcsuf
1-o'¨g,kMH unfr\ tpGr;aMumifh r,kMH unfaom tjcif;t&m aemufusKaom tjcif;t&mray:bJ I f ,kMH unfaom tjcif;t&m Munfvifaom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifom wnfaeonfuyif rwkevy[k qkonf/ h dk f I f d 2-pwkwpsmef orm"djzifh wnfMunfjcif; (1)? xuf0ef;usif pifMu,fjcif; (2)? xuf0ef;usif jzLpifjcif; ¬ (3)? t*FPuif;jcif; (4)? npfñ;aMumif;uif;jcif; (5)? El;nHpmjzpfjcif; (6)? trIü cHjh cif; (7)? rwkevyjf cif;okYd l h G f I a&mufojzifh wnfwjhH cif; (8) þt*Fg½Spyg;ESihf jynfponf[k ,ltyf\? wenf;um; wnfMunfaom pdw\ f h Hk f t*FgwkYd udk jy&mjzpfaomaMumifh (orm[daw) wnfMunfvwfaomf [laomyk'udk y,fí <uif;aom ½Spy't&jzifh f f k f t*Fg½Spfyg;ukd a&wGuftyf\/ (#Dumukd rSí jyqkcsufjzpfonf)/ D d

rSwfcsuf
1-eD0&PwkYd rS a0;uGmjcif;ukyif xuf0ef;usipifMu,fjcif; [k qkv\/ d f d dk 2-ighuom ar;í ar;í w&m;a[mygap ponfjzifh jzpfaom rme rm,m omaX,s paom tukovf dk dk w&m;wkYd udk tvkq;[k qkonf/ (#Dumukd rSonf) d dk d D 3-þü tpOfavQmufojzif[k qkojzifh xkowwYdk ü wku½ ua[maom tukovtMurf;wkYd udk r,ltyf? h d d k f d f dk f dk f odrarGUaom tukovwYdkuom ,ltyfaMumif; #Dumü jyqk\/ f dk f dk d 4-wefc;zefqif;jcif;\ eD;aom taMumif; yg'upsmef tjzpfoYdk a&mufjcif;ukd qkv\/ (#Dum) dk d dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

139

rSwfcsuf
1-þyXrtzGienf;jzifh £'d-[lonfrm NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmufaom jynfpaomt&myif jzpfonf[k qkv\? hf ¨ S h Hk d dk NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmufjcif; jynfpjHk cif;ukvnf; £'d[k qkv\/ h d ¨ d dk 2-þ 'kw,tzGienf;jzifh £'d[onfrm NyD;pD;NyD;ajrmufapwwf jynfpapwwfaom taMumif;rSef d hf ¨ l S h Hk taMumif;aumif;yif[k qkv\/ d dk 3-þ wwd,tzGienf;jzifh £'d[onfrm Bu;yGg;wk;wufaMumif;yif[k qkv\/ hf ¨ l S D d d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-jrefrmpum;acsmap&ef y&d,m,fwyg;jzifh jyefxm;onf? twdtusjyefvQif ]]þokYd vmaom}}[k jzpf\/ 2-y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmufaomaMumifh (ÓP0dyg&d'¨d rnf\) [lívnf; jyeftyfonfyif/ æ

rSwfcsuf
1-þü 0w¬KaMumif;jzpfí pum;acsmap&ef jyifíjyefqcsufrsm;vnf;yg0if\? aemufüvnf; þokYd aom dk t&mwkYd ü enf;wlyif rSwyg/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-þüvnf; y,fjcif;oabmonf NyD;ajrmufaomaMumifh (orm"d0yg&d'¨d rnf\) [lívnf; jyeftyf\/ d æ

rSwfcsuf
1-þ[dwf taMumif;jypum;jzifh eda&m"ormywfyif jzpfaomfvnf; orm"d0yg& jzpfoifyudk jy\/ d æ h Hk (#Dum) 2-ormywfu-[k omrn qkaomfvnf; pwkwpsmeformywf? okYd r[kwf eda&m"ormywfudk ,loif\? dk d ¬ h eda&m"ormywfu,vQif omíoifayonf/ dk l h

rSwfcsuf
1-"Dwm,-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? orD;t&if;[laomteufudk qkvvQif"w,m-[k jzpfoif\? rm*@D\ f d dk D k h rdbwkYd onf &[ef;ûyoGm;Muaomtcg orD;rm*@Dudk OD;av;jzpfol plVrm*@DyPm;xHü tyfxm;cJMh uonf[k "r®y' k Ö t|uxm ponfwYdk ü qk\? xkUd aMumifh orD;t&if;r[kwf wlrom jzpfonf? okYd jzpfí "Dwm 0d,-orD;ozG,f d jzpfaomaMumifh "Dwmrnf\[k Oyrmw'dwy'Bf uHí teufjyefonf/ ¨ f k

rSwfcsuf
1-"r®y't|uxm tyÜrm'0*f omrm0wD0w¬K? t*Fw&t|uxm {w'*¾0*f ckZKÆ wå&m omrm0wD0w¬K k å ponfwYdkürl jrwfpmbk&m;ü&efNidK;zGUJ xm;aom rm*@Drz&m;u jrwfpmbk&m;tm; Munfñaom omrm0wDay:üvnf; G d k G dk &efNidK;xm;um apmif;xJü a>rukd xnfxm;NyD; *k;acsmpum;ajymqkaMumif; jyqkxm;\/ h H d d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

140

rSwfcsuf
1-2-owå0g ted|m½kü arwåmjzifh jzefYjcif;ukjd zpfap? "mwfoabmtm;jzifh ESv;oGi;jcif;ukjd zpfap ûy\? H Hk f rpif paom ted|m½kü "mwfoabmtm;jzifh ESv;oGi;jcif;ukd ûy\-[k &oifonftm; avsmfpm,SOpyfí ,ltyf\/ H Hk f h G f (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-2-aqGrsKd; rdwaqG paom £|m½kü qHyif paom tokbukd ESv;oGi;jcif;uk¤if;? ½kyw&m; £|m½kü f H Hk f d f H tedpö 'ku© tewå 0dy&dPmr"r®[k ESv;oGi;jcif;uk¤if; ûytyf\/ tedpEÅd-tedpö [k-[laompum;ü (£wd-[k) Hk f d ö [laom o'´gonf ]ponf [laom teuf½\? xkUd aMumifh 'ku© ponfjzifh ESv;oGi;jcif;onfvnf; pufqyz,[k dS Hk f k f G f ESv;oGi;jcif;yif jzpfonf[k ,ltyf\/ (#Dumukrí jyonf) Hk f d DS 3-q-6-yg;+t*F-tpdwtyki;t*Fg+Oayu©m-vspfvsL½Ijcif;-tnDtrQ½Ijcif;=qV*Fayu©m-t*Fg 6-yg;½Sd f d f k aom vspfvsL½Ijcif;? tm½kH 6-yg;ü rcspf rrke; tnDtrQ vspfvsL½Ijcif;yif jzpfonf/ trsm;tm;jzifh t&d,m &[EÅm f wkYd rmom jzpfwwfaomaMumifh ¤if;wkYd ut&d,'-t&d,mwkYd \ Opömjzpfaom NyD;ajrmuf jynfpjHk cif;wefc;[k qkay S dk d d¨ h dk d onf/ tenf;i,ftm;jzifrum; 0dyóema,m*DuvsmPykxZOfwYdk rmvnf; xkqV*Fayu©m jzpfao;onfom/ h l k S d k xkYd aMumift*Fw&t|uxm wwd, 52-ü ]]wH tm&'¨0yóaum umwkH oauúmwd}}[k rdeYf qxm;ayonf/ xkUd jyif h k å d dk rlvyPÖmot|uxm? 'k 130-üvnf; ]]t,H ye bduK© 0D&,Aave bm0emod',m twåaem 0dyóeH d ¨d cDPmo0ó qV*Fayu©m|mae XaywDwd 0dyóem0 qV*Fayu©m emr Zmwm}}[k rdeYf qxm;ayonf/ 0dyóem k k dk a,m*Dtm; qV*Fayu©mjzpfyudk 0dyóem½Ienf;usrf;? yXr ? ESm 265-ponfü Munfyg/ k Hk h

rSwfcsuf
1-OaAÁ*gyDwEiwuGjzpfaom 0dyóemonf aumif;uifoYdk ysHwufapEkiaomaMumifh xkoYdk aom 0dyóem d S hf d f d vnf; r½SaMumif;jyonf/ (#Dumukd rSí zGijhf ycsuf) d D

rSwfcsuf
1-0dZm-twwfynm-rEÅmef+"&-aqmifo=0dZm"&-twwfynm rEÅmefudk aqmifo-0dZm"k&/ Æ l Æ l Æ d f 2-0dZm -twwfynm + r,-NyD;aom + £'d-NyD;ajrmufr-wefc; = 0dZm-r,d'-twwfynm\ tpGr;jzifh Æ ¨ I dk Æ ¨d f NyD;ajrmufaomwefc;/ dk 3-aemufü ywdr-[laomyk'jf zifh ajcvsiwyfudk jyvwHjh zpfaomaMumifh þü [w¬r-[laom yk'jf zifvnf; å Üd f d Üd h qifomrefudk rqkv?dk qifwyfuqvaMumif; od&\/ jrif;wyfç &xm;wyf[k jyef&mwkYd üvnf; enf;wlyif/ d dk dk dk

rSwfcsuf
1-þt&mü aeu©r-[lonfrm umrtvkqE´\ qefYusifbufjzpfaomtavmbç okYd r[kwf tavmb ® S d jy"mef;aom ukovpwKå yÜg'fjzpfonf[k rSwtyf\? ,if;rSmvnf; psmef\ Oypmü twGi;0ifonfh w&m;[k dk f d f f odtyf\/ xkdYaMumifh y#doH | y-96ü ]]aeu©r® tp½Sueaom ckepfyg;aom tajzwkYd udk Oypm&psmef\tpGr;tm;jzifh d k f f nTejf ytyfue\/ aeu©r[onfrm umrpäE\ qefYusifbufjzpfaom tavmbaywnf;}}[k jyqkxm;ayonf/ k f ® l S ´ d 0do'r*f r[m#Dumüvnf; yXrwGJ ESm 78-ü- ]]aeu©ar®e-[lonfum; tavmbjy"mef;aom ukovpwKå yÜg'fjzif/ k ¨d dk f d h rSeay\? umr\ qefYusifbuf jzpfueaom ukovw&m;wkYd udk þt&mü aeu©r[k tvk½tyfue\}}[lí jyqkd f k f dk f ® d dS k f xm;ayonf/ aemufüvnf; yXrpsmef ponfudk toD;tjcm; jyvwHh jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh þokYd aomt&mü aeu©r-yk'udk yXrpsmef[k rjyefoifay/ ® f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

141

rSwfcsuf
1-a½S;jzpfaom orm"d0yg&d'¨d t&d,'wYdk ü tusifh y#dywfjzifomvQif tus,fcsJU jycJonf? xkYd twlyif þ d æ d ¨d h h aemufq; £'dt&müvnf; y#dord'gr*fygVdü tusiy#dywfjzifom tus,csUJ jyonf? avmuD vkyief;aqmifwm Hk ¨ Ç hf h f f rsm;ESipyfí rjycJ[k qkv\/ hf h d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-uk¤if;[laom þuHav;yk'udk ]]ûyvkyí}}[laom yk'Eipyfyg/ d f f f S hf 2-(wefc;zefqif;rI-£'d) wkYd wif .... t"d|mef zefqif;jcif; wefc;onfomvQif-[k pyfyg/ dk ¨ G kd 3-£'daum|mom,-£'d¨tzkdYtvkdYiSg-[k zGionfEitnD jyefonf/ ¨ hf S hf 4-£'¨0duyÜg,-£'dtjym;tvkYd ig-[k zGionfEitnD jyefonf? rSeay\? þt&mü 0duyÜ txl;xl; d ¨ S hf S hf f BuHtyf ûytyfaom t&m[lonfrm trsKd;rsKd; taxGaxGyif jzpfonf/ S

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 2-ü¤if;? ESm 12-ü¤if; jyqkcaom ]]þqkconftwki; pdwonf (pwkwpsmeform"djzif) wnfMunf d hJ d hJ h d f f ¬ h vwfaomf}} ponfjzifh tusOf;tus,f jyqkcsufrsm;ukd &nfne;onf/ d T f 2-(aom) xkonf-[laomyk'\ teufudk zGi&ef xkwjf yonf/ d f hf 3-þokYd aom t&mwkYd ü jrefrmjyefudk tzGictjzpf xkwvQif tzGiEihf xyfwjl zpfaeí tusKd;r½S[k xifjrif hf H f hf S d vdrrnf? xkYd aMumifh ygVdy'udk tzGictjzpf xkwjf yonf/ hf k f hf H 4-þ vufonf;uGi; twGi;½Sd teufonf a½SUem;u jycJaom £'d0uyÜg,-tzGiudk rSonf/ f f h ¨ d hf D

rSwfcsuf
1-]]wyg;wnf;vnf; jzpfygvsuf}}[l&mü ]vnf;}[laom o'´gjzifh ]]trsm;vnf; jzpfygvsuf wyg;wnf; jzpf\}}[laom teufudk aygif;qnf;onf[k #Dumü jyqk\/ d 2-zefqif;xm;aom edrwyk*Kd¾ vftrsm;\ teD;ü oGm;jcif;? ¤if;wkYd Eihf twlom;jcif; ponfudk ,l&ef #Dumü ®d S G zGijhf y\/ 3-yg'ESihf y' ESpy'v;yif ajc[laomteufç taMumif;[laom teufudk a[monfcsnf;yif? okYd aomf f k f Hk þt&mü yg'jzifh taygif;vkdufomreftaMumif;ukd &nfonf? y'-jzifh xktaygif;ukd cGí tao;pdwf taMumif;ukd d J &nfonf? xkYd aMumifh (yg')taMumif; (y')tao;pdwtaMumif;-[k ygVdy'&if;rsm;yg jyxm;onf/ f k f

rSwfcsuf
1-yDwocblwm-yDwoc jzpfíjzpfaom? blr-bk-[k zGijhf yaom#DumESitnD jyefonf? 'kw,psmefü d k d k d H hf d yDwoc vGeuaomaMumifh xkoYdk qkonf[k ,l&m\/ aemufteufrm yDwocoOÆmwOö-[k zGijhf yaom#DumESihf d k f J d d S d k tnDyif/ 2-Oayu©mokc-[l&mü Oayu©mrSm wMwrZÑwKå ayu©m jzpfonf/ 3-þü Oayu©monf a0'emyif jzpfonf/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

142

rSwfcsuf
1-a½S;psmef okH;yg;wkdYukd .... (orÇm&) bkHwkdY[lí odtyfukef\-[k pyfyg/ 2-(wefckd;½Sifonf) .... oufa&mufí .... jzpfí .... (£'d¨)okdY a&muf\-[k pyfyg/ 3-xkd (okYd a&muf&aom)aMumifh .... &jcif;iSg (jzpfonf) jzpfjcif;aMumif-[k qufpyfí ,lyg/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-qE´udk tm;uk;í tm;xkwjf cif;jzifh &tyfaomaMumif¤if;? &aomtcgü ,if;orm"donf vGeuaom d h f J qE´Ei,OaomaMumif¤if; qE´vQif taMumif;½Saom orm"dç (0g) qE´veuaom orm"d[k 2-enf;zGijhf yonf/ S hf S f h d G f J (#Dum) 2-y"me-udpav;yg;ukd NyD;apaom or®y"mef 0D&, + ocFg& - ûyvkyr0&, - y"meocFg& - jyif;pGm ö Ü d f I D d tm;xkwrocFg& t&w&m;uk,tm;jzifh 0D&,yif? or®y"mwf0&, 4-yg;ukqaomaMumifh A[k0pjf zifqonf/ f I d f d Ü D d d dk k h dk 3-edyw+NyD;pD;jcif;-£ZÑe- NyD;pD;jcif;-NyD;ajrmufjcif; t&twlwyif-[k qkv\/ æ då l d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-£'drnfueaom .... qE´( )orm"dEijhf yif;pGmtm;xkwrI ocFg&wkYd \[k pyfyg/ ¨ k f S f 2-þt&mü odv,ap&ef 0guscGí jyefxm;onf/ ½S&if;twki; twdtusjyefvQif ]]£'dyg'H [lonfum; G f J d d f ¨ NyD;pD;jcif;\ y&d,m,fpum;vS,jf zpfaom (£ZÑe) teufoabmaMumifaomf¤if;? þw&m;oabmjzifh owå0g h wkYd onf BuD;yGg;uke\ jrifjh rwfue\[laom þ y&d,m,fpum;vS,aMumifaomf¤if; £'d[a&wGutyfonfh f k f f h ¨ k f tjzpfoYdk a&mufueaom tbdnmOfpwEi,Oueaom qE´orm"dEihf jyif;pGmtm;xkwrocFg&wkYd \ wnf&m k f d f S hf S f k f S f I teufoabmaMumifh (yg') tajccHtaMumif;jzpfaom (,if;wkYd r) <uif;aom pdwapwoduf taygif;tpku?dk þum; S f (£'dyg'H? yk'\) teufaywnf;}}[k jzpf\? odem;vnf&ef tvGecuf\/ qkvonfrm qE´veuaom orm"dEihf ¨ f f d dk S G f J S y"meocFg&rnfaom 0D&,wkYd onf NyD;pD;rI NyD;ajrmufrI jzpfaomaMumifh £'drnf\? wenf; owå0gwkYd \ BuD;yGg; d ¨ jrifjh rwfaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh £'drnf\? £'drnfaom ,if;orm"d 0D&,wkYd Ei,Oaom pdwapwoduf ¨ ¨ d S hf S f f taygif;onf ,if;orm"d 0D&,wkYd \ wnf&mtaMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh yg'rnf\? xkYd aMumifh £'dyg' [lonfrm d ¨ S NyD;ajrmufrjI zpfaom (0g) BuD;yGg;jrifjh rwfaMumif;jzpfaom qE´veuonform"dEihf y"meocFg&ac: 0D&,wkYd \ G f J h S d wnf&mtaMumif;jzpfaom ,SObuf pdwapwoduf taygif;yif jzpfonf[k qkv\/ f f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-odv,aomenf;jzifh jyefxm;onf/ G f 2-NyD;ajrmufjcif;okYd a&mufaMumif;onf NyD;ajrmufjcif;\ taMumif;yifjzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh teuf 2-enf; vk;t& oabmtm;jziftwlwyif/ H h l

rSwfcsuf
1-rnGwus-rwGeYf qwaom pdwonf rwkevyaomaMumifh tmaeOÆrnf\-[k qkv\/ f k f f f I f d dk 2-tebdewH-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? tbdo*F-uyfNidaom tm;jzif+ew-nGwui;onf+ te - r[kw= f h f dk f f tebdew-uyfNidaom tm;jzifh rnGwui;aompdw/ wenf; tbd - tvGef + ew - nGwonf + te - r[kwf f dk f f f = tebdew-rnGwve;aompdw-[kvnf; jyefoif\/ f G f f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

143

3-teyewH-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? rzGcgvGe;aom-[lívnf;jyefoif\/ f J G f h 4-bm0empdwwYdk\ tMum; tMum;ü udavompdwf jzpfay:vQif udavom tyki;tjcm; ½Sonfrnf\? f d f d xkoYdk udavompdwMf um;0ifí rjzpfEiatmif yGg;rsm;avhvmxm;aom pdwudk qkv\/ d dk f f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-trSwf (1) tmaeOÆEihf xyfwuoYdk ½Sjd im;aomfvnf; þü 0D&,\tpGr;aMumifh rwkevyyudk jyvkí S l hJ d f f I f Hk d jyqkjd cif;jzpfonf/ trSwf (14)üvnf; orm"d\ tpGr;aMumifh rwkevyyudk jyvkí xyfrH jyqkxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ f f I f Hk d d

rSwfcsuf
1-þteufonf NyD;pD;onfom[k-pyfyg/ 2-ponfwYdk \ jzpfjcif;uk[-pyfyg/ d k 3-yk&arm-yk'\teufjzpfonf? yXr½Sijf ycsufü xkwjf ycJonfh a½SUpum;ukyif a½S;enf;[k-qkv[ef d f h d d dk ½SaomaMumifh þokYd jyefonf? xkenf;onf oDvu©E0*fygVdawmf ponfwYdk ü vm½S\/ xkpum;xJü tmaeOÆyawå d d ¨ d d Ü rwkevyjf cif;okYd a&mufvwfaomf-[laom yk'onfom vk&if;jzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh xky'\tzGiudk a½S;enf;tjzpf f I f d d k f hf ,lí#Dumü ]]yk&arm[lonfum; o'¨gponfwYdk u tm;ay;axmufyhH tyfaomaMumifh ponfjzifh a½S;ü 6-yg; d tjym;tm;jzifh jycJaom enf;onf}}[k zGijhf y\/ okYd aomf xkd 6-yg; tjym;tm;jzifh jyaomenf;onf t|uxmü h jyaom enf;jzpf\? okwf ygVdwYdk üum; r½Say/ d 4-t,H-yk'\teufjzpfonf? yXr ½Si;csufü yg0ifaom blrponfuyg,lí jyefxm;onf/ #Dumürlum; f f d dk rlv 16-yg;ukd jyaom enf;ukom zGijhf yxm;\/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-pmyk'eygwf 380 wGif tqk;aMumif;ü½Saom rdrqconfh pum; 2-yk'uyif zGiq&ef xkwjf yonf/ d f H H d d dk hJ f dk hf dk 2-tbdnmOf\ tajccHonf pwkwpsmefomjzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh tbdnmOf\ tajccHtjzpfjzifh pwkwpsmef ¬ ¬ ukd 0ifpm;onf[k ,ltyfaMumif;#Dumü jyqk\/ d 3-yg'upsmefrxí umrm0p&pdwjf zifh ]]w&mjzpfv\}} þokYd ponfjzifh BuHjcif;onfyifvQif þt&mü S dk y&duudk ûyjcif;rnf\/ (#Dum) H 4-w&mponf jzpfap&ef ESv;oGi;vsuf tm0ZÆe; y&duH Oypm tEkva*gMwbl[aom umrm0p& pdwwYdk Hk f f Hk l f jzpfNyD;aemuf pwkwpsmefEi,Oaom tbdnmOfpwjf zifh ]]w&mjzpfap}} ponfjzifh nGwjf cif; ESv;oGi;jcif;ukyif ¬ S hf S f d Hk f d ]]t"d|mef\}}[k qkonf? ¤if;pdwf wMudrwnf;jzifyif zefqif;jcif;udpNö yD;aMumif; tjcm;rJü qufí jyoGm;onf/ d f h h

rSwfcsuf
1-y&duH Oypm tEkvHk a*gMwbl-[k ac:aom pdwrsm;ukd qkonf/ wduy*Kd¾ vfrm Oypm tEkvHk a*gMwblf d © k S [k ok;Budrjf zpfNyD;aemuf tbdnmOfpwf jzpfonf/ H d 2-jzpfaom .... trnf&aom .... tbdnmOfÓPfjzifh-[k pyfyg/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

144

rSwfcsuf
1-tbaAÁmwd y#dywdom&rd'H omoeH? y#dywåd p y&d,wdrvum? wGOö y&d,wåð O*¾a[wkH toraw¬m? å å l d wo®m tbaAÁmwd t"dyga,m (#DumtzGi) tbAÁ-[l&mü þomoemawmfonf tusiy#dywfvQif tESpom& Ü hf hf f ½Sd\? y#dywfonfvnf; y&d,wfvQif t&if;rlv½S\? oifonfvnf; y&d,wfudk oif,&ef rpGr;Eki?f xkYd aMumifh d l f d rjzpfxuf ruRwxuaom tbAÁy*Kd¾ vf jzpfonf[k qkv\? (jrefrmjyef) dk f dk f k d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-tbAÁ yk*Kd¾ vfrnfonf rjzpf? taMumif;rlum; .... 0dyóem"k&onfomvQif vk&if;y"me jzpfjcif;aMumifh d yif? (#Dum) 2-yAÁZwa0g[m&jzifh (plVyefomraPuk) &[ef;[k ac:awmfronf? wenf;um; bk&m;jzpfvwHaom d d l h tavmif;awmfudk ]]Ak'-bk&m;onf &mZû*d[oYdk <uavonf}}[k qkouJoYdk jzpfvwHh &[ef;tjzpfudk pGí bduK© ¨ f d h J &[ef;[k ac:awmfronf/ (#Dum) l

rSwfcsuf
1-tokbonm tedponmukd &NyD;vQif emrf½yudk odr;qnf;jcif;ponfjzifh ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkYd ü ÓPfudk ö k f f csoGi;í uvmyor®oeÓPf tp½SaomtpOfjzifh 0dyóemukd yGg;apí O',AÁ,ÓPf tp½Saom tpOfjzifh f d d 0dyóemukd tEkva*gMwblteD;okYd a&mufaponf/ (#Dum) Hk

rSwfcsuf
1-edrwwåm-yk'\ jrefrmpum;acsmatmif jyefqcsuf jzpfonf? twdtusjyefvQif zefqif;tyfueonf\ ®d f dk k f tjzpfaMumif-[k jzpf\/ aemufüvnf; þokYd aom jyefqcsufrsm; ½Srnf/ h dk d 2-jrefrmpum;acsmatmif jyefcsufyif jzpfonf/ twdtusjyefvQif txl;xl;aom tjcif;t&m½SonfwYdk udk d ûyjcif;iSg tvk½jdS im;tH-[k jzpfonf/ d h

rSwfcsuf
1-yk'\tpGr;tm;jzifh teufudk odapaomtm;jzifh ygVdudk (jywfom;pGm) ½Gwjf cif;onf y'bmP rnf\/ f f (#Dum) 2-(om,maom) toHjzifh okwf ponfwYdkudk (Munfñb,jf zpfatmif) ½Gwqjdk cif;onf o&bn rnf\/ dk G f (#Dum) 3-(1) a½S;OD;pGmtbdnmOf\ yg'upsmefukd 0ifpm;jcif;? (2) xkpsmefrxí zefqif;vkaomt&mukd d S d umrm0p&pdwjf zifh ]rnfoYdk jzpfap}[k y&duûH yjcif;? (3) wzef tbdnmOf\ yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;jcif;? (4) xkpsmefrS d xNyD;aemuf tvk½&mukd ]rnfoYdk jzpfap}[k (tm0ZÆe; y&duH Oypm a*gMwbl-[laom umrm0p&pdwrsm; a½SUaqmif d dS f f aom) pwkwpsmef tbdnmOfpwjf zifh t"d|mefjcif;? (5) xkt"d|mefpwEihf wûydieufvtyfaom zefqif;rI NyD;ajrmuf ¬ d d d f S f dk jcif; - t"d|mefzefqif;rI [lorQü þ tpDtpOftwki;yif[k nTe;onf/ d f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

145

rSwfcsuf
1-oDvu©E0*¾ygVd? omrnzvokw?f £'d0"ÓPft&mrS xkwjf yaom ygVdjzpfonf/ aemuftzGiwYdk üvnf; ¨ ¨ d hf oH0aPÖwAÁudk tvG,wulMunf½Ei&ef ,if;ygVdudk tjynftpkH xkwjf yOD;tH/ f h I dk f h h (u) {0H orm[daw pdawå y&doa'¨ y&da,m'gaw te*FaP 0d*wlyuúd k avao rk'baw ur®ea, Xdaw tmaeOÆyawå £'d0"m, pdwH¬ tbde[&wd k l d Ü ¨ d D tbdeEmarwd? aom taeu0d[wH £'d0"H ypöEabmwd? {aumyd [kwm A[k"m d é d ¨ d k G a[mwd? A[k"myd [kwm {aum a[mwd/ (c) tm0dbm0H wda&mbm0H/ (8) wda&m G uk¥H wda&mygum&H wda&myAÁwH toZÆrmaem *päwd ao,sxmyd tmumao/ (C) yx0d,myd Or®KZÆerZHÆ ua&mwd ao,sxmyd O'au? (i) O'auyd tbdZÆ d k rmae *päwd ao,sxmyd ,x0d,m/ (p) tmumaoyd yv’auFe urwd ao,s xmyd yu©D oukaPm/ (q) £aryd pE´rol&a, {0H r[d'au {0H r[mEkbma0 d d ¨d ygPdem y&mrowd y&drZÆw/ (Z) ,m0 jA[®avmumyd uma,e 0oH 0awåw/ d d (oDvu©ef ygVdawmf/) txufyg ygVdawmfrS (u) trSwtyk'udk þ eda'´otpüyif xkwjf ycJí ,if;\teufuvnf; zGijhf ycJNh yD? f d f h dk (*) trSwjf y paom aemuftyk'rsm;ukvnf; toD;toD; tpOftwki; xkwjf yí zGijhf yoGm; ayvdrrnf/ ,ck (c) d f d d f hf trSwjf ypmyk'udk zGijhf y&eftwGuf txufygtwki; xkwjf yawmfrayonf/ d f d f l

rSwfcsuf
1-y#d-qefYusibufudk + [&-aqmifom;wwf-y,f½m;wwfonf = y#d[&-yg#d[m&d,-qefYusifzufudk f G S y,f½m;wwfaomtrI? xkygVd[m&d,ukd jym#d[m-[k jrefrmjyefMuonf/ ,if; yg#d[m&d,-jym#d[monf (1) £'d¨ S d yg#d[m&d,-wefc;jym#d[m? (2) tma'oemygVd[m&d, - wifêuda[m - twyfa[m jym#d[m? (3) tEkomoeD dk ygVd[m&d, - qk;rnTeMf um;rI jym#d[m-[lí okH;yg; tjym;½Sd\/ xkwif þt&mü trSwf (1) jym#d[mukd H d G qkvaomaMumifh yg#d[m&d,-yk'udk wefc;jym#d[m[k teufjyefonf/ d dk H f dk 2-0dó -tvk;pkaom+ur®-trI½Sdonf=0dóur®-0doêuH-trIupö tvk;pkudk zefqif;ûyvkywwfo/ H H d H H f l

rSwfcsuf
1-txuftxuf AdrmefwYdk udk uG,jf cm;wwfueaom tmumoü wnf½onfh atmufatmuf AdrmefwYdk udk k f dS z,f½m;vkuvQif xkatmufArmefwYdk \wnf&m aumif;uifudk z,f½m;tyf-½Saptyfonf rnf\? þokYd aom S d f d d S J tvkjd zifh ]]aumif;uifuvnf; ESpjf zm ½Sapí}}[k 0do'r*fü qkavonf/ (#Dum) ,ck vlwYdk u ewfbHk AdrmefwYdk udk dk J k ¨d d rjrifMu&onfrmtjcm; Adrmefrsm;u uG,aeaomaMumifh r[kway? vlwYdk\ rsupjd zifh rjrifEiaumif;onfh S f f f dk f odrarGUaom½kyrsm; jzpfaomaMumifomwnf;? xkYd aMumifh xkorarGUaom ½ky0w¬KwkYd udk vlwYdk jrifEiatmif f f h d d f f dk f t"d|mefûyjcif;ukyif tmumoukd cGjJ youJoYdk jzpfaomaMumifh xkoYdkqonf[k ,loif\/ d h d dk h

rSwfcsuf
1-,ckacwfü av,mOfysjH zif¤if;? tmumo,mOfjzif¤if; urÇmukd tBudrBf udrywfí pl;prf;½SmazGMu&m h h f jrif;rk&awmifuum; rawGUMu&? okYd jzpfí ,if;jrif;rk&awmifonf ewfwYdk\ ae&mjzpfaomaMumifh ewfwYdkudk vlU d f dk d f rsupjd zifh rjrifEiouJoYkdyif vlUrsupjd zifh rjrifEiavmufatmif odrarGUMunfvifaom ½kytaygif;rQomjzpfonf f dk f h f dk f f f [k ,lvQif oifavsm&m\? ,if;\ tm&Hjzpfaom awmifpOfcepfcwYdkuvnf; enf;wlyif ,l&m\/ h f k k dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

146

2-þü yXrteufonf A[k0pjf zif½aom Owå&uk½o-yk'\ twdtus o'´geufjzpfonf/ uk½ktygt0if k h dS l k f umod aumovtp½Saom Zeyk'a[m o'¨gwkYd ü xkxdk Zeyk'yi½irif;wkYd uií A[k0pjf zifq&ef Asmu½kP; d f d f dk f S f dk hJ k h dk f Oya'o ½S\? xkOya'ot& qkxm;onf[k twdtus ,lvu ,lEi&ef twdtus jyefxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ 0gd d d dk dk f jzifh jyaom 'kw,teufonfum; jynfrl edó,rS teufjzpfonf/ xkteufonf Owå&uk½Hk *päw-ajrmuf d d d uRe;okYd <uawmfronf[k jyqkxm;aom t|omvdeD ed'gef;pum;ESitnDyif jzpfonf? þt&müvnf; Owå& f l d hf uk½ko-[k {u0kpjf zifh ½SvQif xkt|omvdeD ed'gef;ESihf wom;wnf;nD&m\/ a½S;u ZrÁL'dyac: ,ck tdE,Ekiiü ®ð d d f ´d d f H eHeuftcsdeonf Owå&uk½ac: ajrmufuRef;ü naetcsdef jzpfonf[k pmayusrf;*efwkdYü tqkd½Sd\? ,cktcg tdEd´, f k ü eHeufyi;tcsderm tar&duwkuü naeyki;tcsdef jzpfaMumif; a&'D,rS ajymqkcsufjzifh xif½m;vS\/ xkYd aMumifh dk f f S d f d f dk d S xkpOftcgu jrwfpmbk&m; qGr;cH<uawmfr&mjzpfaom Owå&uk½ac: ajrmufuRe;onf tar&duwkuyif jzpfonf d G f l k f d f [lí ,lzG,f½Sd\/

rSwfcsuf
1-jrefrmpum;acsmatmif jyefcsufjzpfonf? twdtusjyefvQif ]]þt&mü t½Sir[marm*¾vmefrax&fonf f a½S;OD;pGm þxif½m;jzpfonfh wefc;jym#d[mukd ûyawmfr\}}[k jzpfonf/ S dk l 2-þtvktm;jzifh t½lybkü Adrmefrsm;r½S[k ,l&ayvdrrnf/ d H d hf

rSwfcsuf
1-avmu- MoumoavmuESihf owåavmuukd + 0d0&P- [if;vif;yGiapaom wefc;=avmu0d0&Phf dk pMum0Vmtaygif; MoumoavmuESihf owå0gtaygif; owåavmuukd [if;vif;yGiap-xif½m;jrifapaom wefc;/ hf S dk 2-ta[mod ud& jzpfowwf-[laom a½S;pmayok;pum;ukd ,ckacwfo;pum;jzifh jyefqcsuf jzpfonf/ H Hk dk 3-o[rÜwjd A[®m[k #Dumü zGijhf y\/ o[rÜwjd A[®monf uóybk&m;vufxufu o[utrnf½aom dS &[ef;jzpfcí yXrpsmef&NyD; pkawaomtcg yXrpsmefbü wpfurÇmywfv; touf½nrnfh jA[®mjzpfaMumif; hJ Hk Hk S f rlvyPÖmoygo&modowtzGihf t|uxmponfwYdk ü qk\/ urÇmOD;u a½S;OD;pGmjzpfaom jA[®mukd r[mjA[®m k f d ac:aMumif; okwovu©eygVdponfwYdk ü qk\/ xkt|uxmESihf ygVdawmfwYdk \t&tm;jzifh o[rÜwjd A[®monf f D f d d urÇmOD;u jzpfconfh jA[®mr[kwaomaMumifh þü r[mjA[®mBuD;[k qkjd cif;onf o[rÜwuyif &nfoavm hJ f d dk r&nfoavm pOf;pm;zG,½\/ "r®y't|uxmüum; wm0wðomrS qif;oufawmfryujdk yaom þt&mwGif f dS l Hk r[mjA[®maem? r[mjA[®mwkYdonf[k A[k0pjf zifh qkxm;\/ k d

rSwfcsuf
1-tyd p¼\ teufjzpfonf/ þenf;ü wefc;½Siujdk yjcif;r[kwyJ i&Jjynf ewfjynfwYdkuom jyjcif; dk f f dk jzpfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-jrwfpmbk&m;\ a'oemtpOft& o*¾uxmjzifh ewfpnf;pdrwYdkü pdwnwapNyD;aemuf umr*kP\ G f f G f f tjypfponfudk a[mjcif;jzifh r*fzvw&m;xl;ukd &aponf[k odtyf\? ewfpnf;pdrrQüom pGrufae&efum; dk f f J r[kway/ (#Dumukd rSí jyonf) f D

rSwfcsuf
1-jrefrmpum; r½Snarsmap&ef 0guscGí jyefxm;onf/ rcGyjJ yefvQif xktaemZma'0Dtm; tNcHt&Hre;r f J J d d f waxmifEiwuG xktaemZma'0D aomwmywåzvü wnfatmifç trwfwYdk onf tem*grdzvü r[muyÜe S hf d d dk f dk f d rif;onf t&[wåzvü wnfatmif w&m;ukd a[mawmfr\-[k jzpf\/ dk f l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

147

rSwfcsuf
1-þtqkonf .... ravmifay[k qkonfEitnDyif/ xkYd jyif .... a[mawmfronfEivnf; tnDyif-[k d d S hf l S hf pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-tEÅ&[dawm yk'\teufjzpfonf? ¤if;yk'udk ]]þ*gxmuk½wqcNhJ yD}} [laom pum;ESipyfyg/ f f d G f dk hf

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 95-ü xkwjf ycJaom ygVdrS (8) trSwjf y pmyk'jf zpfonf/ ¤if;ukd jrefrmjyefvQif ]]wHwi;wzufoYdk eH&H h d dk f wzufoYdk awmifwzufoYdk aumif;uifü oGm;ouJoYdk rNidrxdyJ oGm;\}}[k jzpfonf/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-yguma&m-wHwi;onf? yAÁawm-awmifonf [laomyk'wYdk udk iJí okoa&m-tacgif;½Sdonf? qda'´gdk f f h d tayguf½onf[k ykvijf zifh qkonf/ (#Dum) tacgif; tayguf oufoufudk qkvvQif oko&H qd'-[k eykvif dS d’ d d dk d H´ d’ jzifh qk&monf/ xkoYdk qkvQif tacgif;jzpfav\? taygufjzpfav\-[k jyef&ayrnf? jrefrmpum;ykí acsmonf/ d d d d 2-yx0DuokP; ponfwYdk wif trSwr½Sd wyg;yg;aom uokP;ü psmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQif y&duûH yí d f G f d f tmumo jzpfap[k "d|meftyf\? xkoYdk ûyoif&m0,f ]]½Spyg;aom ormywfwYdk ü 0oDabmfajrmufjcif;onf omvQif d h f yrmP r[kwygavm}}[k taMumif;jypum;ukd rdeYf q\/ (#Dum) f dk 3-yrmP[laom pum;jzifh ckivaom om"utaMumif;jzpfonfudk jy\? xkyrmP taMumif;ukd d f Hk d 0do'r*f-jrefrmjyefyXrwGJ ESm 232 atmufajcrSwcsufü Munfyg/ k ¨d f h

rSwfcsuf
1-(tMuiftMuift&mukd tvkd½Sd\? xkxt&myif jzpfonf[aom) þpum;jzifh ]]ajrü ikyjf cif; ay:jcif;ukd d dk l þ&m0,f tmayguokP;0ifpm;jcif;ukçd a&ponfwYdk ü ajrzefqif;&m0,f yx0DuokP; 0ifpm;jcif;ukd {uefrcs d f d f k tm;jzifh tvk½tyfonfr[kw}f }[k qkv\/ (#Dum) d dS d dk 2-&umrQudk rqkvaomaMumif¤if;? y#doH X-ü ]]vmabm tó tw¬DwdvmbD}}-[k twdo, d dk h teufa[m þ-ypön;zGihf zGijhf yxm;aomaMumif¤if; Ekieif;pGm&ol-[k jyefonf/ f h d f

rSwfcsuf
1-apawm0odyawåm-yk'\ wdusjynfpaomteuf jzpfonf/ okYd aomf vufonf;uGi; twGi;½Spum;ukd Ü f h Hk f f d ausmfízwfvQif jrefrmpum;ykí acsmonf/ d 2-a½S;t"d|mef\ tpGr;jzifyifvQif .... jzpfEiaom tcGitaMumif;r[kwonfomwnf;-[k pyfyg/ f h dk f hf f

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 59-ü jycJaom ygVdrS (C) trSwjf y ygVdudk xkwjf yonf/ ¤if;\ jrefrmjyef tjynftpkrmh h H S ]]ajrüvnf; ikyjf cif;ay:jcif;ukûd y\ a&xJüuJoYdk yif}}[k jzpfonf/ h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

148

2-Or®KZÆ edrZ-[lí tjrwfudk a½SUxm;qkonfh ygVdt&tm;jzifh ay:jcif;ikyjf cif;-[k tpOfvuf jyefoifh k Æ d dk aomfvnf; jzpfpOft&tm;jzif¤if;? jrefrmpum;t&tm;jzif¤if; ikyjf cif;u yXrjzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh ikyjf cif;ay:jcif;[k h h jyefonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 59-ü jycJaom ygVdrS (i) trSwjf y ygVdudk xkwjf yonf/ ¤if;\ jrefrmjyef tjynftpkrm- ]]ruGJh h H S ruRaom a&üvnf; oGm;\ ajrüuJoYdk yif}}[k jzpfonf/ H h

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 59-ü jycJaom ygVdrS (p) trSwjf y ygVdudk xkwjf yonf/ ¤if;\ jrefrmjyef tjynftpkrm h h H S ]]aumif;uifüvnf; wifyv’if acGjzifh (xkivsu) oGm;\ tawmif½aom iSuuoYdk yif}}[k jzpf\/ d f f dS f hJ

rSwfcsuf
1-pdwonf wnfMunfaeonfom r[kwygavm-[l&mü wefc;jym#d[m\ tpGr;jzifh jzpfaeqJ f f dk f wefc;½Si\ pdwonf pifppfaumif;pGmxm;tyfonf wnfMunfonfom? tcgwyg;üuJoYdk rwnfMunfonf dk f f h r[kw[k qkv\? xktqkonfum; plVmb,rax&f\ tvkrQomjzpfonf/ rSeay\? a½S;ü yx0D uokP;psmefudk f d dk d d d f d f 0ifpm;í ajrjzpfatmif "d|mefíoGm;\? ,cktcgürl tmumoukd tvkd½Sdtyf\? xkYd aMumifh tmumouokP;psmefudk d f 0ifpm;tyfonfomwnf;/ xkYd aMumifh ]]xkoYdk yif qkjd im;aomfvnf;}} ponfudk t|uxmü rdeYf qayonf/ (#Dum) d dk 2-wda&muk¥jym#d[mü qkcaom enf;jzifyifvQif ûyusityfayonf[&mü xkjd ym#d[m0,f eH&ponfonf d hJ h hf l H tmumo jzpfap[k "d|mefjcif;jzifh tmumo jzpfouJoYdk þtwlyif þt&müvnf; topfay:vmaom awmif h opfyifponfudk "d|mefjcif;jzifh tmumoûyí oGm;tyf\-þum;qkvaom teuf/ wenf;um; wda&muk¥jym#d[m d dk ü qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;jzifomvQi-[lonfum; ]]xk&[ef;onf t"d|mefûyí oGm;aepOftMum;ü awmifaomf¤if; d h f d opfyifaomf¤if; tu,fí aygufvmjim;tH}h } ponfjzifh xkjd ym#d[mt&mü qkcaomenf;jzifh ([k qkv\)/ þpum; d hJ d dk jzifh a½S;t"d|mef\ tpGr;jzifyifvQif xkwefc;½Sif &[ef;rSm tMum;ü OwkaMumifjh zpfaom awmifaomf¤if; opfyif f h d dk aomf¤if; ay:vmvdrrnf [laom þt&monf jzpfEiaom tcGitaMumif; r[kwonfomwnf;}}[k qkxm; hf dk f hf f d aomaMumifh e*g;ponfwYdk u ûytyfvwHaom taESmift,Suonf oGm;jcif;\ tEÅ&m,fudk rûyEki[k jy\? (#Dum) h h f d f

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 59-ü jycJaomygVdrS (q) trSwjf y ygVdudk xkwjf yonf/ ,if;ygVdudk tvG,wul odap&ef jrefrm h f jyefxm;onf/ 2-uRe;BuD;ok;ckwYdkü tvif;a&mifudk ûyykum; uRe;BuD;wck\ tv,fA[kü wnfaepOf ta½SUzuf uRef;ü f H H f d ae-v 0ifqJ ta&mifjzifh taemufzufuRef;ü wufqJ xGuay:qJ ta&mifjzifvif;apMuonf? (#Dumukd rSí f h D jyonf)/ xkoYdk vif;apykudk taMumif;ûyí ok;uRef;vif;ckuf wuRef;rku[k qkMd uayonf/ d H H d d f

rSwfcsuf
1-tdraxmifonft½G,çf tysKdt½G,çf orD;unmt½G,½ueaom ok;rsKd;aom uacsonfrwkYd jzif/ (#Dum) f f dS k f H h

rSwfcsuf
1-þt&mü vk&if;ukom csKH;í jyefxm;onf/ d d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

149

rSwfcsuf
1-Am"wd-ESypuf\-[lonfum; yifyef;½krQuom jzpfaponf/ (#Dum) roem;riJnmyJ ESypufjcif;rsK; d f H dk h § d f d r[kw[k qkv\/ f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-e*g;u ta½SUtaemuf avsmif;aeaomaMumifh ta½SUtaemuf pBuøom;jcif; jzpfonf[k #Dumüjyqk\/ G d

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 22-rSwcsufü jycJaomygVdrS (Z) trSwygVdudk xkwjf yonf/ f h f

rSwfcsuf
1-]],rkujf ym#d[m jyyGtqk;ü}} tp½Saom pum;jzifh (wd0uró) ok;z0g;wkYd jzifh wm0wðomokYd xl;jcm; d J H d d ú H aom <ujcif;\ t"d|mefwefc;jzifh NyD;jcif;ukd qkonf/ tjcm;aom ygxdu t|uxm (vu©P okwtzGi)üum; dk d f hf okyÜwd|dwyg'vu©Pm\ tmedoif tusKd;tjzpfudk qkxm;ayonf/ xktqkEprsKd;ukd tcsif;csif; rqefYusifatmif d d d S f pdppfí ,ltyf\/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-jrefrmpum;acsmatmif tenf;i,fa½GUí jyefxm;onf/ ½S&if;ygVdtpOftwki;qkvQif ]],lZem ok;q,f d d f d H ½Saom ouFóûrdUc&D;ukd csKH;í xkcPtwGi;üyifvQif}}[k jzpfonf/ d d f

rSwfcsuf
1-r[maAm"dyifudk [l&mü ty&mZdw yv’iawmfwnf&m r[maAm"dyifudk (qkvonf)/ xkoYdk ½Sc;&ef f d dk d d dk pdwjf zpfonf\ tjcm;rJüyifvQif ajruk¤if;? ork'&muk¤if; csKH;í r[maAm"dudk teD;ü ûyavonf/ (#Dum) h d ´ d

rSwfcsuf
1-rSeay\? uk,\ oGm;jcif;onf aES;\-aES;aom r[mbkwvQif taMumif;½SaomaMumif-[k qkv\/ f d f f d h d dk þt&mü þonfum; qkvaom teufaywnf;? xif½m; jrif&aom uk,jf zifh oGm;vkjd cif;\ tpGr;jzifh pdwudk d dk S d f f nGwap (ajymif;vJap)aom a,m*Donf yg'upsmefudk 0ifpm;NyD;vQifxí ]]þpdwonf uk,uoYdk aES;aom f f d f hJ oGm;jcif; ½Sonfjzpfap}}[k y&duudk ûy\/ xkoYdk y&duûH yjcif;uk&nfí ]]yg'upsmefpwu,í}}[k qkayonf/ y&duH d H d d d f dk l d ûyNyD;vQirum; wzef0ifpm;í ÓPfjzifh "d|mefvsuf xkpwudk uk,üwif\? uk,Eitvm;wl aES;aom oGm;jcif; f l d d f d f d f S hf ½Saom ûy\/ (#Dum) d 2-Mouúrwm-oufa&mufí [laom ygVduyif Mouúrwd-oufa&muf\[k xkwfjyonf/ tm½kH½Sdaom .... d G dk pdwEi[k pyfyg/ f S hf 3-okconm [lonfum; okcESiwuGjzpfaom onmwnf;? onmukd acgif;wyfíjyaom pum;jzpfonf/ hf (#Dum) okc [lonfrmvnf; pwkwpsmefü okcr½S?d Oayu©mom ½Sonf? xkOayu©mukyif NidroufaomaMumifh þ S ¬ d d d f t&mü okc[k qkonf? okYd jzpfí Nidroufaom xkOayu©mESiwuGjzpfaom onmESiwuG pdwapwodutaygif;ukd d f d hf hf f f okconm[k qkonf? xkUd aMumifh pwkwpsmefoYdka&mufvQif ,if;okconmokYd a&mufonfomjzpfonf/ þt&m d ¬ üum; wefc;zefqif;aom tbdnmOfpwEi,Oaom onmponfuom vQif okconm[k qkonf/ dk d f S hf S f dk d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

150

rSwfcsuf
1-þü ]]0if\? awGUxd\? aumif;pGm a&muf\}}[laom yk'wYdk jzifh oufa&muf\-[laom yk'uyif f f dk xyfqifí zGijhf yonf/ h 2-xkd okconmukyifvQif .... v[konm-[lívnf; odtyfayonf-[k pyfyg/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-xif½m;jrif&aomuk,jf zifh þokYd oGm;&mü oGm;vk&mt&yfudk &nfí oGm;vkjd cif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh S d d f jzpfaom y&duûH yjcif;ESihf "d|mefjcif;wkYd onfomvQif yrmPaywnf;? xkrQjzifh oGm;jcif;NyD;ajrmuf\? xkYd aMumifh vrf; d zefqif;jcif;? avukd "d|mefjcif;wkYd Eihf uif;ívnf; vk&mt&yfoYdk a&mufjcif; jzpfay\/ (#Dum) S d 2-þqkconftwki; pdwudk "d|mefjcif;ûyNyD;aom-[k qkv\/ d hJ h d f f d dk 3-½kyu,udk ,lí -[lonfum; ½kyu,udk tm½kûH yonftpGr;jzifh y&duH pdwjf zif,í ([k qkv\)/ f dk f f dk f h f h l d dk 4-pdwü wif\-[lonfum; ]]þuk,onf þpdwuoYdk jzpfap}}[k yg'u psmefpwü wif\? f d f f hJ d f xkpwtvm; ½Sonfudk ûy\/ xkYd aMumifh ]]pdwEitvm;wl jrefaom oGm;jcif;½Satmifûy\}}[k qkdayonf/ pdwf\ d d f d f S hf d oGm;jcif;[lonfrm pdw\jzpfjcif;ukd qkonf/ (#Dum) S f d

rSwfcsuf
1-jrefrmpum;acsmap&ef tenf;i,f jyifí jyefxm;onf/ twdtusjyefvQif ]]xkwefc;½Si\ ta0;ü d kd f ½Sonfuvnf; teD;ü jzpfatmif "d|mef\? þokYd tp½Saom tMuif "d|mefjcif;onfvnf; (½S\)}}[k jzpf\? d dk d d 2-tenf;i,fjyifí jyefxm;onf/

rSwfcsuf
1-y#dord'gr*ft|uxmü þtzGiudk pdppfxm;onfrm - 0do'r*füum; ]]qifuvnf; jy\-þokdY Ç hf S k ¨d dk paom pum;ukd þt&mü tjyifyüvnf; qif ponfudk jyonf\tpGr;tm;jzifh qkxm;ayonf/y/ jrif; ponf f d wkYd üvnf; þenf;yifwnf;}}[k qkxm;\? xkd tqkonf ]](yuwd0PÖH 0dZ[dwm) yuwdtoGiudk pGeYf í}}[k d d G f a[mxm;aom rlvyk'Ei¤if;? wrsK;wrnf zefqif;jcif; [laom 0duAe'tjzpfEi¤if; qefYusi\/ rSeay\? f S hf d k Á d ¨d S hf f f ygVdawmfü a[mxm;onftpOfjzifh yuwdtoGiudk rpGeYf rí "d|mefjcif;\tpGr;jzifh wyg;aom toGiudk jyjcif;onf h f l f f t"d|med'¨d rnf\? yuwdtoGiudk pGeYf í "d|mefjcif;\tpGr;jzifh rdru,udk wyg;aom tjcif;t&mtoGijf zifh f f d dk f jyjcif;onf 0duAe'rnf\/ (þum;y#dord'gr*f t|uxmü pdppfjyqkcsufjzpfonf/) k Á d ¨d Ç d

rSwfcsuf
1-u&@m-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? xkwif yXrteufonf ayVm,-[k zGiaom #DumESitnD jzpfonf? f d G hf hf 'kw,teufonf yk&mPwpuOöKuawm-ta&cGa[mif;rS-[k zGiaom y#dord'gr*f t|uxmESitnD jzpfonf? d H hf Ç hf ¤if;ukd ]]edar®mumwd p-a>ra&cGr}S }[lívnf; zGiMhf uaMumif; þ#Dumüvnf; qk\/ þt&mü a>rESihf u&@ H d wl&rnf jzpfí a>ra&cGr-[laom 'kw,teufom oifayonf/ H S d h

rSwfcsuf
1-'dAaomwtbdnmOfuyif 'dAaomw"mwf[k qkonf/ Á dk Á d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

151

2-tbdnmOfo;yg;[lonfrm þjrefrmjyef wwd,wGJ ESm 3-ü jycJaom apawmy&d,tbdnmOfç Hk S h ykaAÁe0gotbdnmOfç 'dApu©KtbdnmOfwYdk yif jzpfonf/ d Á 3-tvk;pkwYdk ü [lonfrm 'dAaomw"mwfudk jyaom ygVdü¤if;ç <uif;aom tbdnmOfo;yg;ukd jyaom H H S Á Hk ygVdü¤if;- þ ygVdtm;vk;wkYd ü ([k qkv\)/ (#Dum) H d dk +-aom 'dAm, aomw"mwk,m 0do'g, twduErmEkoum, Oabm oa'´ okPmwd 'daAÁ p rmEkao Á k ¨ ú Å d p a, 'la& oEÅau p-[laom ygVd&if;rS zGifhjyoifhaom yXr 2-yk'udk a½S;OD;pGmxkwjf yonf/ xkygVdtm;vk;ukd d f d H jrefrmjyefvQif atmufygtwki; jzpfonf/ d f xka,m*D&[ef;onf pifMu,faomç vlwYdk\ em;ukausmveaom (0g-vlwYdk \ em;xuf omvGeaom) d d f G f f 'dAaomw"mwfjzifh ewfjynfü toHwYdkEihf vlUjynfü toHwYdk[aom ESprsK;aom toHwYdkuMdk um;\? ta0;ü toH Á S l f d teD;ü toHwYdk uvnf; Mum;\/ (þum; xkdygVd\ jrefrmjyef) dk

rSwfcsuf
1-aumif;rIuaMumifh jzpfay:vmayonf-[lonfum; ,kMH unf o'¨gtjzpfrsm;jcif;ç pifMu,faom t,l H ½Sjd cif;ç tusKd;tmedoifudk jrifjcif;ponfwYdk \ jynfpjHk cif;jzifh aumif;pGmûyusityfaomaMumifh okp½kuf rnfaomç h hf d ewfavmuü jzpfapwwfaom aumif;rIuaMumifh jzpfay:vmayonf ([k qkv\)/ (#Dum) H d dk 2-0D&,jzifh tm;xkwonf\ tpGr;tm;jzifomvQif NyD;ajrmuf jynfpaomaMumifh ukovudk yGg;aprI d f f h h Hk dk f (ukovbm0em) tm;vk;yif 0D&, bm0emrnf\? wenf;um;- jyif;pGm tm;xkwrI [laom ûyvkyrocFg&wkYd Eihf H d f f I S jynfpaom £'dyg'fudk yGg;aprIonfvnf; 0D&,bm0emrnf\? xk0&,bm0em\ tpGr;tm;jzifh jzpfay:vm h Hk ¨ d d D d f ayonf/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-aomw-Mum;wwfaom em;+"mwk-"mwf-oabmw&m; = aomw"mwf-em;"mwfoabm/

rSwfcsuf
1-y&duûH yrIjzpfaom toD;tjcm;orm"dpwjf zifh ([k qkv\)? 'dAaomwÓPf\ êudwifjyifqifr- y&duH d d dk Á I tvktm;jzifh jzpfaom cPduorm"djzifh aumif;pGm xm;tyfaom (0g-aumif;pGm wnfMunfaom) pdwjf zifh þum; d (y&dur®orm"dpawåe) yk'\ teufaywnf;/ (#Dum) d f 2-toHerwf [lonfum; ÓPfjzpfjcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh toHonfyifvQif toHerwrnf\? d d d d f wenf;um; (0do'r*f-jrefrmjyef 'kw,wGJ ESm 362-3ü) qkdtyfcJhNyD;aom (a½S;a½S;toHukd) pGJí pGJí &tyfaom k ¨d d (a½S;aemuf) toHwYdk \ Murf;wrf; El;nHaom tMuiftjcif;t&monf ½S\? xkd tjcif;t&monf toHerwrnf\/ h d d d f xkUd aMumifyif toHwYdk \ toHerwu-[k qkayonf/ (#Dum) h d d f dk d

rSwfcsuf
1-usonf jzpfavawmh\-[lonfum; 'dAaomw"mwfonf twGi;0if\? ,cktcgü xk&[ef;rSm Á f d xk'Aaomw"mwftwGuf bm0emtm; xkwjf cif;ukd tvkr½StyfawmhNyD-rvkawmhNyD-þum; teuf/ (#Dum) d d Á d d d

rSwfcsuf
1-vufonf;uGi;twGi;½Sd pum;onf yd-o'´gtwGujf zpfonf? xktwGuf tusKd;½Srnf rxifaomaMumifh f f d d ,if;ukd vufonf;uGi;jzifjh yxm;onf/ f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

152

2-aom {0H orm[daw pdawå/y/ tmaeOÆyawå apawmy&d,ÓPm, pdwHå tbde[&wd tbdeEm arwd? Ü D d é aom y&owåmeH y&yk*vmeH apwom apawm y&dpö yZmemwd o&m*H 0g pdwHå o&m*H pdwEyZm emwd? 0Dw&m*H 0g ¾ å dÅ pdwHå 0Dw&m*H pdwEdÅ yZmemwd-ponfjzifh a[mxm;aom ygVdawmfrS apawmy&d,ÓPm,-apawmy&d,ÓPf å tvkdYiSg-[laom yk'uzi&ef xkwjf yonf/ aemufüvnf; y&owåmeH tp½Saom zGioifaomyk'wYdk udk xkwí f dk G hf d hf h f f zGijhf yoGm;onf/

rSwfcsuf
1-þü odv,aomenf;jzifh csKH;í jyefxm;onf/ G f 2-y&dpy'\ teufjzpfonf? yki;jcm;í od\-[k pyfyg/ ö k f d f

rSwfcsuf
1-[',½lyH-[lonfum; [',0w¬K½kyf r[kw?f pifppfaomfum; ESv;om;½kyaywnf;? (xktzGiEitnD Hk f d hf S hf ESv;om;½kyu-[k jyefxm;onf)/ ,if; ESv;om;½kyudk ]]tjyifyü MumikoP²mef ½Sonfç twGi;ü oyGwcg;oD; Hk f dk Hk f H d f f (twGi;om;)ESihf wlonf}}[lí qktyfayonf/ xkEv;om;½kyudk rSí ,ck jyqkrnfaoG;onf wnfay\/ f d d S Hk f D d h [',0w¬K½kyonfum; þaoG;ukd rSí jzpfonf/ (#Dum) f D 2-'dApu©Kjzifh ESv;aoG;\ tqif;ukd jrifí pdwf odEiyudk þrSpí jyonf/ Á Hk dk f Hk 3-þa,m*D&[ef;onf Munfh½Ií½Smvsuf tm;½Sdatmifûytyf\[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-em;vnfv,ap&ef 0dbwfteufajymif;vJ jyefxm;onf/ G f 2-þpdwf½Spfck\ o½kyudk aemuf cE¨ea'´oü Munf½yg/ aemufaemufpwwYdk \ o½kyrsm;ukvnf; f d h I d f f d xkea'´oüyif Munf½yg/ d d h I 3-umr ½ly t½ly avmukw&m-[laom bkav;yg;ü twGi;0ifaompdwwYdk udk bkav;yg; qki&m[k å H f f H d f jyefqxm;onf? xkoYdk jyefjcif;jzifh (aom) [laom 0daooewckavsmhí jrefrmpum; acsmarmjcif; tusKd;½S\/ dk d d

rSwfcsuf
1-,if;pdwav;ckonf &m*ESihf r,SOaomfvnf; &m*\ qefYusibufr[kwaomaMumifh 0Dw&m*vnf; f f f f rrnf[k qkv\/ d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-r[*¾KwfrS <uif;aompdw[onfrm umrm0p&pdwf 54-yg;ESihf avmukw&mpdwf (8)yg;wkYd jzpfonf/ f l S å 2-þ ÓPfjzifh odtyfaom pdwwYdk udk (1) o&m*ç 0Dw&m* wpk?H (2) oa'goç 0Dwa'go wpk?H (3) f oarm[ç 0Dwarm[ wpk?H (4) oHcwçå 0duwå wpk?H (5) r[*¾Kwfç tr[*¾Kwf wpk?H (6) oOwå&ç tEkw& wpk?H d ©d å (7) orm[dwç torm[dw wpk?H (8) 0drwçå t0drwå wpktm;vk;aygif; 16-yg; tjym;jzifh jyxm;onf/ xkpwf k k H H d d wkYd udk apawmy&d,ÓPfjzifh od&mü &m*ESiwuGjzpfaom pdwçf &m*uif;aom pdwf þokYd ponf omreftm;jzifom hf h odonfr[kw?f rnfoYdkûy&ef rnfoYkBd uHonf ponfjzifh pdwu;BuHpnfyHk tvk;pkuvnf; odEiay\/ f l H H dk dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

153

rSwfcsuf
1-aom {0H orm[daw pdawå/y/ tmaeOÆyawå ykaAÁe0gomEkówdÓPm, pdwHå tbde[&wd Ü d D tbdeEmarwd? aom taeu0d[wH ykaAÁe0goH tEkó&wd-[laom bk&m;a[m ygVdawmfrS rzGi&ao;aom d é d d hf yk'opfudk zGijhf y&ef xkwjf yonf/ f 2-þü ed0go-ed0w-aebl; [lonfrm rdru,tjzpfjzifh odr;ykuí tm½kûH ybl; cHpm;bl;aom w&m;rsm;ç k ¬ S d dk f f d f xkpOftcgu rdroEÅmefü jzpfay:cJb;aom w&m;rsm;yif jzpfonf/ d d h l 3-þwenf;tzGijhf zifh ]]a½S;u pdw0nmOfjzifh tm½kûH ycJb; odcb;aomw&m;wdYk \ ed0gornfaMumif;}} f d h l hJ l jy\/ ]]xkocb;aom w&m;wkYd onfvnf; rdr\ pdw0nmPfjzifh odcb;aomw&m;ç wyg;aom yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk \ d d hJ l d f d hJ l pdw0nmPfjzifh odcb;aomw&m;}}[lí ESprsKd;½SaMumif;ukvnf; jy\? xkwif y&deAmefpavukeNf yD;aom bk&m; f d hJ l f d d d G d Á H &[EÅmwkYd \ pdw0nmPfjzifh odcb;aom w&m;wkYd url Ak'b&m;wkYd onfomvQif atmufarhEionf[ívnf;jy\/ f d hJ l dk ¨ k dk f l

rSwfcsuf
1-þ0guswkYd ü ygVdaemufoYdk rvkuyJ jrefrmpum;acsmatmif jyefxm;onf/ d f 2-þtzGifh 2-&yfjzifh taeu0d[w-yk'udk d H f a[mtyf-csJUjytyfaom}}[lí¤if; teufjyef&efjy\/ ]]rsm;aomtjym;½Saom}}[lí¤if;? d ]]rsm;aomtjym;wkYd jzifh

rSwfcsuf
1-þtaMumif;jy pum;jzifh 0dyóem tm;xkwjf cif;onf ykaAÁe0goÓPf\ taMumif;xl;jzpfaMumif; d jyonf/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-wckaomb0\ pkwudk atmufarhNyD;aemuf xkb0\ tv,fyi;ukd rqifjcifawmhyJ ckeausmfí d d dk f f xkb0\ y#doaE¨udk atmufarhjcif;onf pkwy#doaE¨tvktm;jzifh atmufarhjcif; rnf\/ (#Dumukd rSonf) d d d D

rSwfcsuf
1-ÓPfawmfonf .... xkUd twlyif tMum; tMum;b0wkYd ü rNiduyf-ponfjzifh pyfyg/ 2-tavhtusifûh yNyD;aom .... av;orm;\-[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-vSn;tpD; ESpq,f ok;q,f oGm;avmufonf-[laom pum;onf #DumtzGihf jzpfonf? ,ckacwfü f f H h aomfvnf; xkrQ us,jf yefYaomvrf;rBuD;um; ½Strxif? Oyar,steufü *kPajrmufap&ef jyonf[k ,l&m\/ d d hH f

rSwfcsuf
1-þokdYûyaomyk*dK¾ vfonf .... þtwlyif .... xí .... qifjcifNyD;ukd rqifjcifawmhyJ-ponfjzifh pyfyg/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

154

rSwfcsuf
1-tMuiftcgürl .... ESv;oGi; qifjcifpwonf jzpfay:\? xkpwf csKyfvwfaomf .... aZmwkYd onf jzpfay: Hk f d f d d uke\? xkdtcgü-[k pyfyg/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-«xkdcE¨mtpOfum; .... atmufarhEkdif\» þaxmifui;twGi;½Sd pum;pkonf 0do'r*fü ]]ao,sxd'?H h G f f k ¨d {urdÜ Zmwð a'Gyd Zmwda,m/y/ £wd omum&H oOa'´oH taeu0d[wH ykaAÁe0goH tEkó&wd}}[k xkwjf y d d xm;aom ygVd\ bmomjyefjzpfonf/ 2-{urÜd Zmwð-[laomygXfudk jrefrmpum;acsmap&efEihf ocsmorÜ@eç Xmeya,m*vnf; rysuap&ef S F d f a½S;aemufjyefí jyefcsufjzpfonf/ aemufy'wYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ k f

rSwfcsuf
1-tpOftm;jzif-[laom þpum;jzifh wûydieuf r[kwyJ tcsKdUu a½S;us? tcsKdUu aemufusvsuf h f f wjznf;jznf;csi; jzpfysuonfudk jyonf/ aemufüvnf; þvkt&mrsK;ü enf;wlyif od&m\/ f f d d

rSwfcsuf
1-a½S;aemufpum; 2-&yfEihf omí acsmarmap&ef aexGuf ae0ifudk ae0if aexGu-[k a½S;aemuf S f jyefxm;onf/

rSwfcsuf
1-tdE,tv,fyi;ü a[maom okwrsm;t& tdE,tv,fyi;ü xif½m;aom**Fg,rkem tpd&0wD ´d dk f f d´ dk f S r[Do&bl-[laom jrpfBuD;ig;oG,wYdkuom jyxm;jcif;jzpfonf? ,if;wkYd Eihf tvm;wl tjcm;jrpfBuD;wkYd üvnf; f dk S enf;wlyif ,ltyf\/

rSwfcsuf
1-wEÅd O'uH/ tómwd 0gwó-[laom #DumzGijhf ycsuf t&tm;jzifqvQif xka&xkonf xkavxktm;h dk d d [k jyef&m\/

rSwfcsuf
1-odyq&mwkYd url aeonf tcsif;tm;jzifh 864ç 393-rkicefY ½Sonf[k qkMd u\/ xkrQavmuf BuD;us,f HÜ d f d d aomaeonf xkcPwGirS ½kww&uf jzpfvmoavm? okYd r[kwf apmapmuyif ½Saeoavm[k pOf;pm;bG,½\? d f f d f dS apmapmuyif ½Saejim;aomfvnf; rdrwYdk \ uk,a&mifjzifyif jynfpaeaomaMumifh owdrrlMuojzifh urÇmOD; d d d f h h Hk vlwYdk tm; apmapmu rxif½m;cJao;? rdrwYdk \ uk,a&mif aysmufu,om;í tvif;a&mifudk vkvm;awmifw S h d d f G f G d h ajr§mvifMh uaom tcgü ae0ef;BuD; xGuay:vmonfudk awGUMu&ojzifh xktcgusrS xif½m;onf[k ,lvQif f f d S oif&m\/ v0ef;ay:vm&müvnf; enf;wlyif ,lvQif oif&m\/ h h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

155

rSwfcsuf
1-odyq&mwkYd url Mu,fwYdkudk tjcm;pMu0VmwkYd rS aersm;jzpfaMumif;jyqkMd uuke\? xktvktm;jzifh eu©wf HÜ f d d Mu,fwm&mwkYd onf apmapmuyif ½SaeMuaomfvnf; rdrwYdk uk,a&mifuom tm;uk;ûyaepOf tcgu owdrûyrd d d d f dk d Muí rxif½Sm;Muao;? rdrwYdk u,a&mif uG,aysmufom;aomtcgusrS owdûyrdMuí ,if;wkYd udk xif½m;awGUjrif d dk f f G S Mu&onf[k ,lvQif oif&m\/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-oav;qefcif;okYd oGm;í waeYpmom ,laeMu&mwGif ysi;&doonf 2-&ufpm,lc\? xkoYdk ,lyudk f l hJ d Hk twkvkdufí 2-&ufpm 3-&ufpmponf ,lMuykudk qkdonf/ H

rSwfcsuf
1-þ0d0¥|m,Duyfü tEÅ&uyfaygif; 64-uyf½Sd\? vlwYdk \ toufwrf;toacsFrS qkw,wí f k f q,fEpwrf; a&mufaomtcg a&m*EÅ&uyfow¬E&uyf 'kAuE&uyfwYdk wif wyg;yg;jzifh vlrsm;pk ysufp;í S f Å Çd © Å G D useaom vltenf;i,fu ukovw&m;ukd yGg;apMuojzifh q,fEpwef;rS toacsFwrf;odYk jyefa&mufonf? þodYk f dk f S f qkwuyfEihf wufuyfwpHukd tEÅ&uyf wckac:onf? xkoYdk aomuyf 64-ck½onf? aupd0g't& tm;jzifrl f S k d dS h xkoYdk aom tEÅ&uyf 20-½Sdonf[k qkd\? tjcm;toacsF,suyf ok;ckwYdk onfvnf; þ0d0¥|m,D toacsF,s d H uyfEitoD;toD; umvtm;jzifh wlnonf[k odtyf\/ S hf D

rSwfcsuf
1-oH0¥uyfü owå0gwkYd onf jA[®mjh ynfüom ½SMd u\? xkUd aMumifh þpum;rSm tjcm;uyfwYdküvnf; atmufarhytwGuf enf;jypum;rQom jzpfonf[k ,ltyf\/ Hk 2-þESpy'udk .... atmufarhytaejzifh a[m (tyf)onf[k pyfyg/ f k f Hk

rSwfcsuf
1-þokYd tp½Saom pum;ukrl .... jyjcif;iSg qkdtyfayonf[k pyfyg/ d d

rSwfcsuf
1-aom {0H orm[daw pdawå/y/ tmaeOÆyawå owåmeH pkwyygwÓPm, pdwHå tbde[&wd Ü l D tbdeEmarwd/ aom 'daAÁe pu©Kem0doa'¨e twduErmEkoaue oawå yówd p 0rmae OyyZÆrmae[Dae d é k ú Å yPDaw ok0aPÖ 'kAaPÖ ok*aw 'k*aw? ,xmur®Kya*oawå yZmemwd ]]£ar 0w abmaEÅm owåm um, Á ¾ 'kp&awe orEém*wm 0pD'p&awe orEém *wm raem'kp&awe orEém*wmt&d,meH Oy0g'um rdpm'd|um ö d k ö d ö d ä d rdpm'd|ur®orm'gem? aw um,ó ab'g y&H r&Pm tyg,H 'k*wð 0deygwH ed&,H Oy yEém/ £ar0gye ä d ¾ d abmaEÅm owåm um,okp&dawe orEém*wm 0pDop&dawe orEém*wm raemokp&dawe orEém*wm t&d,meH k tEky0g'umor®m'd|um or®m'd|ur®orm'gem? aw um,ó ab'g y&H r&Pm ok*wð o*¾H avmuH OyyEém}}wd/ d d £wd 'daAÁe pu©Kem 0doa'¨e/y/ oawå yZmemwd-[laom þbk&m;a[m ygVdrS rzGi&ao;aom pkwyygw k hf l ÓPm,-[laom yk'udk zGi&ef xkwjf yonf/ aemufaemufüvnf; ygVdrS rzGi&ao;aom yk'rsm;ukd xkwí xkwí f hf hf f f f zGijhf yoGm;onf/ ygVdrwwfaomyk*Kd¾ vfwYdk tvG,wul odem;vnfap&ef xkygVdudk tusOf;csKyf jrefrmjyefjyOD;tH/ f d h pwkwpsmef&NyD;aom xk&[ef;onf þqkconftwki; pdwonf wnfMunfvwfaomf/ y/ rwkevyjf cif; ¬ d d hJ h d f f f I okYd a&mufvwfaomfowå0gwkYd \ pkwEihf y#doaE¨ü odaomÓPftvkYd ig pdwudk a½S;½Iaqmif\ a½S;½InGwfap\/ d S S f xkoYdk nGwapaom &[ef;onf txl;pifMu,faom vlUrsupxuf omvGeaom 'dApu©Kjzifh (0g-ewfrsupEihf d f f d f Á f d S wlaom ÓPfrsufpjd zif) owå0gwkYd udk jrif\? (b,fvdk owå0gwkYd udk jrifoenf;[lr) aoqJowå0gwkYd udk b0opfü h l

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

156

jzpfqowå0gwkYd udk ,kwnowYdk udk jrifjh rwfowYdk udk tqif;vSowYdk udk tqif;rvSowYdk udk ok*wd a&mufowYdk udk J f hH l l l l l 'k*wa&mufowYdkudk jrif\? uHtm;avsmfpm b0opfü uyfa&mufí jzpfueaom owå0gwkYd udk od\? (odyrm) ¾ d l G k f Hk S ]]tcsif;wkYd þowå0g wkYd onf um,'kp½wEihf jynfpue\? 0pD'p½wEihf raem'kp½wEihf jynfpue\? t&d,m ö dk f S h Hk k f k ö dk f S ö dk f S h Hk k f wkYd udk pGypwwfue\? rSm;aom t,l½ue\? rSm;aomt,ljzifh ûyvkyxm;onfh trIu½ue\? xkowå0gwkYd onf f JG k f dS k f f H dS k f d cE¨muk,ysup;onfrS aoonfraemufü tyg,fbHk 'k*wb0eygwbkH i&JboYdk uyfa&mufí jzpfMu½Smuke\/ d f f D S ¾ d Hk d d Hk f tcsif;wkYd þowå0gwkYd onfum; um,okp½kwEihf jynfpue\? 0pDop½kwEihf raemokp½kwEihf jynfpue\? d f S h Hk k f k d f S d f S h Hk k f t&d,mwkYd udk rpGypwwfue?f rSeaomt,l½ue\? rSeaomt,ljzifh ûyvkyxm;onfh trIu½ue\? xkowå0g f JG k f dS k f f f H dS k f d wkYd onf cE¨muk,f ysup;onfrS aoonfrS aemufü ok*wdbHk ewfjynfavmuokYd uyfa&mufí jzpfMuuke\}}[k d f D f od\/ þqkconftwki; pifMu,faom 'dApu©Kjzif/y/ owå0gwkYd uo\/ ('dApu©KÓPfygVd\ jrefrmjyef) d hJ h d f Á h dk d Á

rSwfcsuf
1-Zkwteufü 'd0"mwfjzifh NyD;onf[k jy\? þtvktm;jzifh 'daAÁevif;aom-[k teufjyef&m\/ d k d 2-*wdteufü 'd0"mwfjzifNh yD;onf[k jy\? þtvktm;jzifh 'daAÁeeH&H awmifponfwYdk udk azmufxi;í k d G f oGm;Edif jrifEiaom[k teufjyef&m\/ k dk f

rSwfcsuf
1-0do'y'f twduErmEkouyk'wYdk \ teufudk zGijhf yNyD;í rlv½S&if;0dbwfjzifh jyefíjyaom 0dbwsEÅ k ¨ k ú Å f d tzGihf jzpfonf? ygVdü tusKd;rsm;\? jrefrmjyefüum; tusK;rrsm;ay? okYd aomf 0do'r*fü ½SorQ jynfpap&ef d k ¨d d h Hk xktzGiuvnf; vufonf;uGi;jzifh yki;jcm;í jyvkuonf/ d hf dk f d f d f

rSwfcsuf
1-yGg;apí .... ½Ijrif\-[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-aemif tem*wfumvtzkYd ü jzpfrnftaMumif;t&mwkYd udk odjrifaomÓPfjzpfonf/ h 2-orEém*wmyk'udk or*Ðbwm[k zGionf? ygVdüom tusKd;½Sonf/ jynfp½rQ jyvkuonf/ f l hf d h Hk Hk d f 3-vl0wfaMumif aomwmyefuaomfvnf; .... pGypwwfue\-[k pyfyg/ xkdoYdk pypvQifvnf; t&d,y dk f JG k f G f JG l 0g'uHxuaMumif;ukvnf; odaponf/ dk f d

rSwfcsuf
1-oifonf[k {u0kpjf zifh rjyyJ oifwYdkonf[k A[k0pjf zifh jyjcif;onf pdw"mwfusaeaom oltm; k f cs;ajrmufaomtm;jzifh jyefMum;&efaomfvnf; jzpf&m\/ xk&[ef;ESihf oabmwl pGyporsm;vnf; ½S&maomaMumifh D d f JG l d aomfvnf; jzpf&m\/ 2-þpum;jzifh rD;roû*Ø[&ao;rD umvukd &nfonf? aemuftjcm;rJpum;jzifrl rD;oû*Ø[aeqJ okYd r[kwf f h h f rD;oû*Ø[Nf yD; umvukd &nfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-t&[wår*f\ tjcm;rJü t&[wåzvf jzpfjcif;onf ude;aorvGJ jzpfouJoYdk xkUd twlyif uefawmh h dk f h awmif;yefjcif;ukd rûyygrl t&d,y0g'uHu i&JoYdk {uefyifusaponf[k qkv\/ l d dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

157

rSwfcsuf
1-uk,\ ysup;jcif;[lonfrm aojcif;yifjzpfaomaMumifh cE¨muk,udk pGeYf jcif;yif[k ,lí zGijhf yjcif; d f f D S d f jzpfonf? jrefrmpum;rSmrl racsmay/

rSwfcsuf
1-ukovaumif;rIEihf pyfaomtyki;ukd okuyu©-tjzLyki;tzkYd [lí¤if;? tukovf raumif;rIEihf dk f S d f ú d f dk S pyfaom tyki;ukd uPSyu©-trnf;ykdif; tzkdY[lí¤if; qkdonf/ d f

rSwfcsuf
1-xkd£'d¨0d"ÓPfonf ... umrw&m;vQif tm½kH½Sd\-ponfjzifh pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-Oya,m * v'¨-&tyfaom uH0bwf½aom um,onf-[k twdtusjyefvQif ygVdo'´g rwwfowYdk rm H d dS l S todcufrnfaMumifh txufygtwki; ajymif;vJí jyefonf/ qkvonfrm ½kyu,udk nGwap\[k uHûyíqkojzifh d f d dk S f dk f f d nGwapaompdw\ tm½kjH zpfonf[k qkv\/ f f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-aomwmyef\ r*fzvpwuom qkvonf? avmuDpwuum;odEionf[íyif rSw&m\/ txuf dk f d f dk d dk d f dk dk f l f txuf yk*Kd¾ vfwYdk \ pdwudk rod&müvnf; enf;wlyif/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-oH,weum,faqmif q&mwkYd onfum; oEÅwwYdkudk qkMd uNyD;vQif tpOfrnf\[lí qkMd uNyD;vQif k å d d qkue\-[k pyfyg/ d k f

rSwfcsuf
1-xkaupdq&mwkYd \ pum;ukrl .... roif[í t|uxmwkYd ü y,f(tyf) avNyD-[k pyfyg/ d d h l 2-r*f0xü tm0ZÆe;ESihf y&duH Oypm tEkvwYdk u avmuD½yemrfudk tm½kûH yonf? a*gMwbl r*f zkvwYdk u D d f Hk k f d f edAmefudk tm½kûH yonf? zkv0xü tm0ZÆe;ESihf y&duaZmwkYd u avmuD½yemrfudk tm½kûH yonf? zkvu edAmefudk Á d f D d f H k f d f Á tm½kûH yonf-þokYd r*fzv0xwYdk üom tm0ZÆe; tajccHaZmwkYd Eihf r*fzvaZmwkYd tm½kH uGjJ ym;½k; ½Sonf? tjcm;0Dxd dk f D d f S dk f d d wkYd ü uGjJ ym;½k;r½S?d xkoYdk ujJG ym;½k;r½SyJ tm½kujJG ym;aomaMumifh roif[k qkv\/ d d d d H h d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-þrSpí þpmyk'twGi;ü ]]t|uxmenf;aywnf;}}[laom pum;wkiatmif apawmy&d,ÓPf d f f d f ,xmur®Ky*ÓPfwYdk Eihf ykaAÁe0goÓPf xl;jcm;ykudk a½S;t|uxmtqkt& jyonf/ xkraemufü t½SiA'aCmo S d H d d S f k ¨ [laom rdr\ tvkdt& jyonf/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-toHo'´gjzifh ajymqktyf odtyfaom trnfynwf[k qkv\/ d d dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

158

rSwfcsuf
1-þrSpí apawmy&d,ÓPfxuf tem*wHoÓPf\ tem*wftzkYd ü todus,fyudk jyonf/ þt&m Hk üvnf; a½S;ü xkwjf ycJNh yD;aom y|mef;ygVdawmft&tm;jzifh pdwrwyg;aom cE¨mwkYd uvnf; apawmy&d,ÓPfjzifh f S dk odEiao;onf [k qkoif\/ okYd aomf a½S;ü jycJNh yD; jzpfaomaMumifh xyfírjyjcif; jzpf&m\/ dk f d h

rSwfcsuf
1-,cktcg ... ar;cGef;jyóemtaygif;ukd xkwjf ytyf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-tbdnmOf[aom tmedoiftusK;ukd &NyD;jzpfaomaMumif-[k qkv\/ l d h d dk 3-&[ef;onf ... yGg;apNyD;jzpfavNyD ... ynmukd yGg;aptyfay\-[k pyfyg/ 4-orm"dudk yGg;apNyD;jzpfjcif;ç ynmukd yGg;aptyfjcif;ç ¤if;ukvnf;yGg;ap&ef rvG,ujl cif;[laom þ d f taMumif;ok;yg;aMumif[k qkv\? H h d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-jynfq&mawmfb&m;BuD;\ 0do'r*feó,ü a[&ndaum-yk'uyrif;[k jyef\/ a½TaiG&mjywfrif;yifk k ¨d d f dk JG [k ,ltyf\/ taemufEiiH ynm½SwYdk u aiGvv,ol bPftvkyvyo-[k jyefMu\/ tb,m&mrrl tbd"mwf dk f d J S f f k f l edó,ü aiGwu0ef aiGwup;-[k jyef\? OD;puúygv\ tbd"mefeó,ü a½Twu0eftrwf-[k jyef\? tcsKdU dk f dk f dk d dk f q&mwkYd urlum; þa[&ndaum-yk'udk a½Tyef;xdronf-[k jyefMu\? ¤if;teufrmrl a½Tyef;xdronfa[m f f S f ok0PÖuma&m-yk'f toD;tjcm;½SaomaMumifroif/ d h h

rSwfcsuf
1-2-3-4-þyk'wYdk udk ]]½Ipr;Ekiaom (cEÅ)ÓPfu¤if;}} ponfwYdk Eipyfyg/ f G f d f d dk S hf

rSwfcsuf
1-xkxdk (pD;yGm;csr;om) w&m;wkYd \ ... jzpfaMumif; enf;vrf;wkYd ü-[k pyfyg/ d f

rSwfcsuf
1-tusKd;taMumif;üjzpfaom obm0ed½w-[lonfrm tusKd;uk¤if; taMumif;uk¤if; a[maomo'´grSeyif k åd S d d f jzpfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-tusKd;ü¤if; ... taMumif;ü¤if; ... jzpf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-ygVdbmomü zaóm-[k Mo-tqkH;½Sdvsuf ykv’difESifh ½SdrS rSefonf? zóm-[k tm-tqkH;½Sdvsuf £w¬viEihf ½SvQif rSm;onf/ xkYd twl a0'em-[k tm-tqk;½Svsuf £w¬viEi½rS rSernf? a0'aem-[k Mod d f S d H d d d f S hf dS f tqkH;½Sdvsuf ykv’diEihf ½SvQif rSm;onf/ f S d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

159

rSwfcsuf
1-"r®y'rS ,ru0*fudk Moyr®0*f-[k q&mwkYd u qkaMumif;? rlvyPÖmorS ,ru0*fudk Moyr®0*f-[k d tya& (wyg;aom) q&mwkYd u qkaMumif;#Dumü jy\/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-xkoYdk d qkv\/ d dk oabm½SonfomvQif d jzpfueaom-[lonfrm k f S tMum;tjrify#dbmefÓPfrsm;ukeaom-[k f

rSwfcsuf
1-ponf[aom pum;jzifh tm[m&ponfwYdkudk odr;,ljcif;ukd rSwtyf\/ þokYd rsm;pGmukeaom xkd l f f f w&m;wkYd udk 0dyóem\ bkH tm½ktjzpfjzifh tb,faMumifh ,ltyf-qktyfygukeoenf;? cE¨mponfwYdk wif H h d f G wrsKd;rQjzifvnf; tusKd;udpNö yD;onf r[kwygavm[k apm'emjim;tH?h rNyD;[kajz½Si;tyf\/ rNyD;ykum; ok;yg; tjym; h f f H H ½Saom owå0gwkYd udk csD;ajr§mufjcif;iSg cE¨mç tm,weç "mwf- [laom ok;yg;taygif;ukd ,ljcif;ukd ûyoifay\/ d H h xkoYdk r,lc-rqkcvQif tm;vk;aom olwYdktm; qufqaom cs;ajr§mufjcif;ukd rûy&ma&muf\/ rSeay\? owå0g d hJ d hJ H H D f wkYd onf ½kyüawGa0olç emrfüawGa0olç ESpyg;vk;ü awGa0ol-[lí ok;rsKd; tjym;½Sue\/ ,if;wkYd wif emrfü f f H H d k f G awGa0aom olwYdk twGuf emrfw&m;wkYd udk av;yg;a0befxm;aom cE¨mwkYd udk jyqkayonf? ½kyüawGa0aom d f olwYdk twGuf ½kyw&m;wkYd udk q,fwpfck cGa0befxm;aom tm,wewkYd udk jyqkayonf/ ½kyemrf ESpyg;vk;ü f h J d f f H awGa0aom olwYdk twGuf ESpyg;vk;a0befxm;aom "mwfwYdk udk jyqkayonf/ xkYd twl £a`E´tjym;tm;jzifh £a`E´ f H d xufoçl £a`E´rxufrEkoçl £a`E´Eol [lí¤if;? tusOf;êuduoçl tvwfêuduoçl tus,fêuduo-[lí¤if; k f f f l owå0gwkYd onf ok;rsKd; tjym;½Sue\? xko;rsKd;aom owå0gwkYd twGuvnf; tpOftwki; cE¨mponfudk jyqkjd cif; H d k f d Hk f d f ukd ûyonf[k ,SOaptyf\/ xkYd jyif £a`E´wYdk udk jyqkjd cif;onfum; ]]þ£a`E´w&m;wkYd onf twljzpfzufw&m;wkYd ü f tpk;&ukeouJoYdk tkyp;vTr;rk;jcif;ukd jzpfapwwfuejf im;aomfvnf; xk£a`E´wYdk\ xktyp;vTr;rk;jcif;onfum; d f h f dk f d k d d k f dk f d w&m;oabm tvktm;jzifh NyD;pD;jcif;rQomwnf;/ þ£a`E´wYkdü wpkwa,mufrQ\aomfvnf; tvktwki; jzpfjcif; d H d d f rnfonfr½Sacs? þ£a`E´wYdk onf yki½if twårS qdwue\? tvktwki;jzpfjcif; r½Sue}f }[k tewåvu©Pmukd d d f S f k f d d f d k tvG,wul rSw,Eijf cif; tusKd;iSg jzpfayonf? cE¨mç tm,weç "mwfç £a`E´tm;jzifh av;yg;tjym;½Saom xkd f f l dk d w&m;taygif;onf (y0wå) rjywfjzpfjcif; (ed0wd)qkwepfjcif;-tjzpf &yfpjJ cif; (w'kb,a[wk) xkd ESpyg;vk;\ d å f f H taMumif;wkYd tvktm;jzifh jrif&rSomvQif tusKd;aus;Zl;ukd aqmifwwf jzpfapwwf\? xkoYdk r[kwvQif tusKd; d d f aus;Zl;ukd raqmifwwf rjzpfapwwfay? xkUd aMumifh opömESihf y#dporkyg'fwYdkudk jyqkxm;ayonf/ (#Dum) ö Ü d

rSwfcsuf
1-xkd (ig;yg;aom cE¨mwkdY)wGif ... ½lyu©E¨m ( )[k odtyf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-yuwdu tyl½yçf nDrQaeaom½kyonf qefYusifzuf tat;ESihf awGUaomtcg wrsKd;wrnf ajymif;vJ k f azmufjyef\? yuwdu tat;½kyçf nDrQaeaom½kyonf tylEihf awGUaomtcg wrsKd;wrnf ajymif;vJazmuf jyef\? f S tpm0í rQwaeaom½kyonf qmavmifaomtcg qmavmifjcif;aMumifh wrsK;wrnf ajymif;vJazmuf jyef\? f d yuwdu a&rqmaomol\ ½kyonf a&iwfqmavmifaomtcg wrsKd;wrnf ajymif;vJazmufjyef\? jcifruponf f S f ukujf cif;aMumifh a&mif&rf;jcif;ponfjzifh azmufjyefwwf\? þokYd qefYusifzufEihf awGUaomtcg azmufjyef d S wwfaom oabmukd ½kyww?d azmufjyefwwfaomaMumifh ½ly-½kyf[k ac:qk&onf/ ½kywi; ½kywi;yif azmufjyef Ü D d f dk f f dk f aeonf[íum; r,ltyf? bifcPtm;jzifh ysufonfuvnf; azmufjyefjcif; (½kye) vu©Pm[k r,ltyf/ jA[®m l dk Ü wkYd \ oEÅmefü ½kyonf tat;tylpaom qefYusizufwYdkEihf rawGU&aomaMumifh wrsK;wrnf azmufjyefjcif; f f S d (½kyÜe)r½Sd? oaomfvnf; qefYusizufrsm;ESihf awGUygu wrsK;wrnf azmufjyefrnfom jzpfí (½kye) azmufjyefjcif; Ydk f d Ü oabmukd rausmveEiay? xkUd aMumifh jA[®mwkYd \ ½kyfukdvnf; ½ly-½ky[k ac:qk&onf/ wenf;tm;jzifrl f G f dk f f d h (tEk*g[uypö,) csD;ajr§muf axmufywwfaom taMumif;wkYd \tpGr;jzifh wrsK;wrnf aumif;vsuazmufjyefjcif; ¾ hH f d f ½SaomaMumifh ½ky[ac:qk&aMumif; #Dumü jyqk\/ xkoYdk aumif;vsuf azmufjyef&mwGif yDwocaMumifh ½Tiysvsuf d f k d d d d k f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

160

azmufjyefaom ½kyrsm;ç &,f½iaom½kyrsm;ç vufcyw;aom ½kyrsm;ç auG;vkd qefYvdk vIy½m;vkaom pdwaMumifh f T f f k f D f f S d f auG;qefYvy½m;aom ½kyrsm;vnf; yg0ifMuonf[k ,ltyf\/ I f S f

rSwfcsuf
1-azmufjyefjcif; vu©Pm r½Saom ½ky[í r½SaomaMumifh wrsKd;wnf;omjzpfonf/ d f l d 2-Oyg'g,-blw½kywYdk udk rSíjzpfaom ½ky[qv\/ ¤if;ukd Oyg'g½kyf[lívnf; ac:qkdtyfao;\/ f D f k dk dk 3-0do'r*f- jrefrmjyef 'kw,wGJ pmrsuEm (620)ü Munfyg/ k ¨d d f S h

rSwfcsuf
1-Oyg'g½kyfonf ... 24-yg; tjym;½Sd\-[k pyfyg/ 2-£wd-trü- troEÅmefü + £`E´,-£a`E´-tpk;&onf-£wd`¬ E´, -£w¬a`E´-troEÅmefü (trqki&m ¬ d d d d d f ½kyrsm; pdwtaetxm;rsm; jzpfa&;twGu) tpk;&aom½ky+pk;rk;csKwfcs,faom ½ky[k teuf&onf/ xkYd aMumifh f f f d f d d f trjzpfa&; tpk;&½ky-[k em;vnfv,atmif jyefvuonf/ ,if;ukd £w¬bm0-trjzpfaMumif; ½ky[ívnf; d f G f dk f d f l ac:\/ yk&oa`E´½yüvnf; enf;wlyif odyg/ d d k f 3-ZD0w-touf½ia&;ü + £`E´,-£a`E´-tpk;&onf ZD0wa`E´-touf½Sifa&;ü tpkd;&onfh½yf/ þ½kyf d S f d d d d k r½SvQif toufr½SiEi?f xkUd aMumifh ,if;½kyudk ZD0wa`E´[k ac:onf? ZD0w-touf½y[ívnf; ac:\/ d f dk f d d d k f l 4-[', ESv;pdwf + 0w¬K-wnf&m- [',0w¬K -pdwEv;\ wnf&m ½ky?f ,if;½kyü raem"mwf Hk f S Hk f raem0dnmP"mwf ac:aom 79-yg;aom pdwrsm;wnfrí jzpfMuonf[k t|uxmüqkonf/ aemufüawGU&vwH/ f DS d h 5-ygVdü ½lyó-yk'fESifh wGJvsuf ½lyó v[kwm/y/ ½lyó tedpwm-[kqxm;onf/ þüum; ac:vG,f ö dk ap&ef ½lyó-yk'f rygyJ jyefxm;onf/ ,if;wkYd rm edyE½y[k ac:aom obm0½kywYdk \ ayghyg;jcif; paom S æ é k f f trlt&mrQom jzpfonf/ aemufü xif½m;vwH/ S h

rSwfcsuf
1-þü jyoifaomt"dyg,fonf ESm 201? rSwcsuf 5-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü f 2-tvkytavGUûyí pm;tyfaom xrif;vkyponfü yg0ifaom MoZm½kyudk uAVDum& tm[m&½ky-[k f f f f qkonf/ tjcm;½kytaygif;tpkü yg0ifaomMoZm½kyuvnf; xkUd twl uAVDum& tm[m&½ky[íyifac:\/ d f f dk f l 3-rsufptMunf½yonf Munfjcif;vu©Pm½S\-[k pyfyg/ Munfjcif;vu©Pm Munfjcif;oabmonfyif d k f d rsufptMunf½yf jzpfonf/ tb,foYdk aom Munfjcif;ygenf;[k ar;&ef½aomaMumifh tqif;xifxuaom-[k d k dS dk f qkonf? tqif;xifEiatmif tqif;xifavmufatmif Munfjcif;oabm[k qkv\? xk0aooeonf ½lyg d dk f d dk d d bdCmwm&[yk'\ odv,atmifjyefcsufjzpfonf? twdtusjyefvQif tqif;\ a½S;½Iwucujf cif;ukd xkuaomf[k f G f dk f dk d f jzpf\/ tqif;½kyxifay:vmonfjzpfap? rxifay:vmonfjzpfap tqif;xifay:Ekiavmufatmif Munfjcif; f d f oabm[k qkv\? xkMd unfjcif;onf tb,f\ Munfjcif;ygenf; [lrl blw½kywdYk \ Munfjcif;yifjzpfonf? d dk f blw½kyfwkdY\ Munfjcif;[laom ,if;jyefcsufonf ]]rsufptMunf[aom Oyg'g½kyonf blw½kywYdk urí d l f f dk DS jzpfonf}} [laom pum;ESitnDyif/ ûrdUjyifBuD;*kP;tkyf q&mawmf\ tbd"r®wo o½ly'Dyuusrf; pmrsufEm hf d f ¬ S 527-üvnf; ]]pwkEHé r[mblwmeH Oyg'g,yoma'g-[k ygVdawmf? pwåm&d r[mblwmed Oyg'd,wm d G y0wåyoma'g-[k t|uxmwkdYü vmonfjzpfí r[mbkwf 4-yg;wkYd urí jzpfaom Munfvifjcif;? r[mbkwf 4dk DS yg;wkdY\ Munfvifjcif;yif jzpfaomaMumifh yom'rnfonf}}[k rdeYf qxm;avonf/ jynfr0o'r*feó, ponf dk l d k ¨d d wkYd üum; blwmeH yoma'g[laom ygVdudk ]]r[mbkwwYdk udk Munfapjcif;}}-[lí¤if;? blwyom'vu©P-yk'udk f H f ]]r[mbkwwYdk udk Munfapjcif;vu©Pm½S\}} -[lí¤if; jyefqxm;Muavonf/ xkoYdk q&mü ]]yom'½kyu blw½kyf f d dk d dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

161

wkYd udk Munfaponf}}[k qkjd cif;onf yom'½kyu blw½kywYdk tm; Munfatmifaus;Zl;ûyouJoYdk ½SaeaomaMumifh f f h d blw½kywYdk Munf&mü yom'½kyudk rS&ouJoYdk jzpf\? xkUd aMumifh xkteufü oHo,½Sí blwyom'-ygXfukd ]]blw f f D h d d ½kyfwkdY\ Munfjcif;}}-[kteufjyefonf/ aemufüvnf; enf;wlyifoyg/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-'|Kumrwm-yk'udk wkwEihf ay:vGiap&ef ]]jrifvonfh wPSm}}[k jyefonf/ o'´gteuf twdtus f d dk S f dk jyefvQif ]]jrifjcif;iSg tvk½onf\tjzpf ([laom wPSm)}}[lí jzpf\? xkwPSmvQif taMumif;½Saom uH d dS d d [lonfrm xkoYdk awmifwí ûyaomuHç okYd r[kwf xkoYdk aom wPSmruif;ao;aomolrm jzpfaomuHyifwnf;/ S d h d S xkUd aMumifh #Dumü ]]jynfpçHk rjynfpaom (pu©K paom) tm,we½Sonfh twåabmukd jzpfapwwfaomuH\ h h Hk d taMumif;&if;jzpfaom umrwPSmonf¤if;ç ½ly (b0) wPSmonf¤if;? xktm,we½Sonfb0ukd awmifwrI d d h h jzpfaomaMumifh jrifvonfwPSm tp½Saom a0g[m&ukd &xku\? xkUd aMumifh (wenf;um; ponfjzif) 'kw, dk h d d f h d enf;ukd yom'½kytm;vk;wkYd uzijhf y&mü rdeYf qtyfayonf}} [lí¤if;ç ]]jrifvonfh wPSmvQif taMumif;½SaomuHf H dk G dk dk d [k qkaom þt&mü jrifvonfh wPSmonf¤if;ç <uif;aom Mum;vkonfwPSm ponfwYdk onf¤if; xkxdk d dk d h d twåabmukd jzpfapwwfonfh uHudk tm;xkwqcPrS a½S;üjzpfvsuf½caomf ½Si;vif;ajymjyzG,f r½Sawmhay? f J dS hJ f d tu,fí a½S;ü jzpfvsuf r½Scygrlum; t&d,mr*fjzifh tjrpfjywfry,f&ao; onf\ tjzpfonfomvQif d hJ (jrifvonfh wPSm ponf ½Saeonf[k qk&jcif;\) taMumif;aywnf;[k rSwtyf\}} [lí¤if; zGifhjyawmf dk d d f rlayonf/ xkduHaMumifh jzpfMuonfh blw½kyfwkdY\ Munfjcif;oabmukd pu©Kyom'-rsufptMunf½y[k ac:aMumif; d k f odap\? Munfjcif;ESihf Munfvifjcif;rSm t&wlum;vS,yif jzpfonf/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-&o onf udpESifh orÜwdå 2-yg; ½Sd\? xkwif þt&mü udp&o jzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh udpö (&o)[k ö d G ö &oukyg azmfjyxm;onf? aemuftyk'wYdk ürl ¤if;ukrjyawmhNyD/ Munfaomrsufpudk taMumif;ûyí tqif;wkYd udk d d f d d jrif&-od&onf/ xkoYdk jrifo&mü rsufpu tqif;rsm;qDoYdk qGyYdk ouJoYdk ½SaomaMumifh tm0dÚe&oH-qGiifjcif; d d d J h d ä J udp½onf[k qkayonf/ þü qGiif[onfrmvnf; yk*Kd¾ vfudk okYd r[kwf pdwudk tqif;jrifatmif aus;Zl;ûyjcif; ö dS d J l S f aqmifyYdk jcif;aywnf;/ xkUd aMumifh qGyYdk jcif;udpö ½S\ - [k azmfíjyefonf? aemufüvnf; enf;wlyif/ J d 2-ypöKy|mef [lonfrm Oy|memum&ESihf zvtm;jzifh 2-yg;½Sd\? xkwif þt&mü a,m*D\ ½Iodaom S d G ÓPftm; a½S;½Ixifaom tjcif;t&m (Oy|memum&)jzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh txufygtwki; azmfíjyefonf/ aemuf d f tykd'fwkdYüum; ½IodÓPftm;-[laomyk'Eihf ypöKy|mef[aom trnfwYdkudk rjyawmhNyD/ f S l

rSwfcsuf
1-y'vnf;taMumif;ç Xmevnf;taMumif; þokYd taMumif;a[mo'´g 2-ck xyfqifí qkaomaMumifh þ h d t&mü teD;uyftaMumif;ukd ,l&onf/ pu©Kyom'onf uHaMumifjh zpfonfh ur®Z½kyf jzpfaomaMumifh uH [laom tjcm;taMumif; ½Sjd im;aomfvnf; blw½kywYdk udk rSí jzpf&aomaMumifh blw½kywYdk onf pu©Kyom'\ teD;uyf f D f taMumif;jzpfayonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-om,dwumrwm-yk'udk vsufvonf\tjzpf [líaomf¤if;ç vsufvonfwPSm [líaomf¤if;jyefvQif k f dk dk h vQmjzifvsufvonfh wPSm[líom xifjrifz,f ½SaomaMumifh ay:vGiap&ef txufygtwki; jyefvuonf/ h dk G d f d f dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

162

2-aupdq&mwkYd [lonfrm r[moHCu*kP;om;wkYd xu tcsKdUq&mwkYd aywnf;/ rSeay\? xkq&mwkYd S d d f J f d xJu 0ok"r®onf ]]rsufpü awaZmonf vGeu\? em;ü 0ga,monf? ESmacgif;ü yx0Donf? vQmü tmaygonf d f J vGeu\/ um,-uk,tMunf½yü "mwfav;yg;tm;vk;yif nDrQuke\}}[k þokdYqkd\/ rsufpponfwYdk ü awaZm f J d f k f H f d ponfveujJ cif; rnfonfrm ,if;wkYd \ rS&mbkwwYdkxrm xkawaZmvGeujJ cif;aMumifyif[k jyvkaomaMumifh G f S D f J S d f h d ]]pu©Kyom'ac: rsufptMunf½yonf awaZm"mwf vGeuueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif; oabmaywnf;}} d k f f J k f f ponfudk rdeYf qawmfronf/ (#Dum) dk l

rSwfcsuf
1-uk,tMunf½yonf blw½kytm;vk;wkYd \vnf;[k qk&mü txl;um;tb,fenf;? awaZm ponf d f k f f H d vGeuueaom blw½kywYdk \ Munfjcif;wkYd onfvnf; blw½kytm;vk;wkYd \yif Munfjcif;rsm; r[kwMf uygavm[lrl f J k f f f H xkpum; rSeygonf? okYd aomfvnf; blw½kytm;vk;wkYd \[laom þpum;onf nDrQukeaom blw½kywYdk \d f f H f f [laom þteufudk jy\? taMumif;rSm vkuí ,SOpyfaom wpdwwa'ovGeujJ cif;ukd jrpfy,faomtm;jzifh d f f f f qkonfh pum;jzpfaomaMumifaywnf;/ csJUíjytH- awaZmponfwYdk \ toD;toD; vGeu&müuJoYkd "mwf ESpyg;d h h f J h f ok;yg; vGeu&müvnf; ,if;okYd vGeujJ cif;aMumifh "mwf ESpyg; wyg; tm;avsmhae&müvnf; uk,tMunf½yonf H f J f f d f k f rjzpf[aomteufonf xif½m;\/ xkUd aMumifh av;yg;vk;aom blw½kyfwkdY\ nDrQonf\tjzpfjzifh uk,tMunf l S H d f ½kyf jzpfayonf? okYd jzpfí oAÁ- tm;vk;[laom pum;onf þt&mü nDrQjcif;ukd jyonf[k rSwtyf\/ (#Dum) H f

rSwfcsuf
1-awaZmponfwYdk \ *kPjf zpfueaom- ponfü qDr;[k qktyfaom awaZm\ tvif;a&mif tqif;uç k f D d av\ toHuç ajr\ teHYuç wHawG;[k qktyfaom a&\t&omu þokYd aupd0g'ü¤if;ç tya&0g'ü¤if; d ,SOoifonftm;avsmfpm xkxbwwYdk \ *kPwYdk u tqif;ponfwYdk udk ,l&m-od&mü axmufyjhH cif;ç aus;Zl;ûyjcif; f h G d dk k f f aMumifh þum;qkvaomteuf/ tvif;a&mifpaom twlûyazmf taMumif;rsm;ESiwuG jzpfMurSom rsup½ yf d dk hf f d k ponfwYdk onf tqif;ponfwYdk udk xifvif;apEkiayonf/ tmumo\ aomw0dnmPf\ Oyedó, tjzpfonf d f *kPyif[í xktya&q&mwkYd \ t,l½ayonf/ okYd aomfvnf; awaZm ponfwYdk blw½kyf rnfueouJoYdk f l d dS k f h tmumo\ blw½kytjzpf r½Sjd cif;aMumifh ,SOoifonf tm;avsmfpm[k qkcayonf/ (0d0&-ac: tmumoukd f f h G d hJ Ak'pmaywkYd ü blw½ky[rqkaomfvnf; tdE,pmaywdYk üum; blw ½ky[k tac:½Sao;\? xka0g[m&uk,í tya& ¨ f k d d´ f d d d l wkYd u qk[ef½\/ xkUd aMumifh tx 0g-ponfjzifh qufí zGijhf yjyefavonf/) wenf;um; tvif;a&mif tqif; d dS ponfwYdk uoYdk tayguftMum; tmumoonfvnf; blw½kyfwkdY\ *kPjf zpfonf[aom omoemy t"dyg,ft& hJ l Ü tm;jzifh awaZm\ tvif;a&miftqif;uç tmumo[k qktyfaom tayguftMum;\ toHuç av\teHYuç d wHaxG;a&\ t&omuç yx0D"mwf\tawGUu - þokYd ,Ooifonf tm;avsmfpm xkxbw½kywYdk \ *kPwYdk u S f h G d dk l f f (axmufyjhH cif;ç aus;Zl;ûyjcif;aMumif)[k ,SOpyf&m\/ (#Dum) h f

rSwfcsuf
1-tqif;ponfwYdk \ vGeuonf\tjzpfudk jrifawGU&jcif;aMumif-ponfü qkvonfrm rD;ü f J h d dk S awmufyaom tqif;uk¤if;ç avü olUoabmtwki;Mum;&aom toHu¤if;ç ajrü arT;onh,eHYpaom teHYu¤if;ç d d f dk f dk a&ücsKdNrdeaom t&omuk¤if; þokYd vQif txl;ESihf ,SOueaom þtqif; ponfwYdkudk jrifawGU&aomaMumifh f d f k f ]]tqif;ponfwYdk onf xkawaZm ponfwYdk \ *kPwYdk }}[lí yXr0g'DaupdwYdk u qkMd uonf/ þtaMumif; Oyg, d f jzifyifvQif 'kw,0g'Duvnf; ESyjf cif;onf jzpf\/ wenf;um; tqif;paom *kPx; ½Sueaom awaZm h d dk d f l d k f tmumo yx0D tmayg 0ga,m"mwfwYdk u pu©KponfwYdk udk ûytyfjzpfaptyfonf[qaom uPm'q&m\0g'ukd k dk xkwjf yNyD;vQif ¤if;ukd ESyjf cif;iSg ]]tu,fí þokYd rvnf; qkuejf im;tH}h } ponfudk rdeYf qonf[k rSwtyf\/ d l d k dk f (#Dum) þaupdtya&0g' ½Si;csufrsm;onf tvGeeufe\? ynm½SBd uD;wkYd \ t&momjzpfonf/ f f J

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

163

rSwfcsuf
1-,cktcgü w,fvze;jzifh ajymaomtoH 0g,mvufjzifh ajymaomtoH toHvi½rS vTiaomtoHwYdk udk D k f T hf Hk hf wcPtwGi;rSmyif Mum;&aomaMumif¤if;? w,fvA;½Si;ac: ½kyjf rifoMH um; vTipufjzifh vTivuaom tqif; f h D D f hf hf dk f ½lyg½kwYdk udk wcPcsif;yif jrif&aomaMumif¤if; rvmra&mufaom tqif;toHrsm;ukd jrif&Mum;&onf [laom H h tqkü oHo, jzpfz,½\/ þt&mü jrifavmufaomt&yf Mum;avmufaomt&yfoYdkrum; vma&mufMu\? d G f dS l okYd aomf rsufptMunf½yf em;tMunf½yrsm;okYd xdcuratmifum; rvmMu? xkoYdk vmMuvQifvnf; ¤if;wkYd udk d k k f dk f d d rjrifEirMum;Eki?f rsuv;xJu tqif;ukd rjrifEiouJoYdkyif-[k ajz½Si;Muonf/ #DumwkYd üvnf; tm&r®Pypön; dk f d f Hk dk f h f f t&mü pdwZtoHuvnf; aomw0dnmPf\ tm½kjH zpfaMumif; a[mxm;&mü em;xJoYdka&mufrS Mum;&rnfqvQif å dk dk A[d'ü pdwZtoH r½Saumif;aomaMumifh ,if; pdwZtoHudk rMum;Eki&m? xkUd aMumifh olUwnf&if;ae&mu ¨ å d å d f toHuyif Mum;&onf ponfjzifh ajz½Si;Muavonf/ rsupxü tqif;&dyf xifaeonfudk awGUMu&aomaMumifh dk f f d J rsufpxoYdk tqif;ra&muf[aom tqkudk oabmus ouf0if&efcuf\/ xkUd twlyif em;xJü tvGeMf urf;aom d J l d toHrsm; rcHomatmif wkucuonfuvnf; awGUMu&aomaMumifh em;xJoYdk toHra&muf[aom tqkuvnf; d f dk f dk l d dk oabmus ouf0if&efcuf\/ xkUd aMumifh "r®o*FPygVdtzGihf t|omvdet|uxm (351)ü ]]tmygw*wwåm0 D D tm&r®PH orÜwHå emr}} ponfjzifh r[mt|uxmu qkaMumif;? xktvktm;jzifh pu©KESiaomwwkYd vnf; orÜwå d d d hf a*gp&-a&mufvmaomtm½k½onf rnfaMumif;wkYd udk xkwjf yxm;avonf/ okYd jzpfí þt&mwGif ]]rsufpEihf em; H dS d S wkYd onf ra&mufvmaom tm½kudk ,lwwfue\}}[k qkaom0g'ukd ÓPfrouf0ifEivQif a½S;t|uxm tqkt& H k f d dk f d ]]orÜwåa*gp&-a&mufvmaom tm½k½onf-a&mufvmaom tm½kudk ,lwwfonf}}[k ,lqEkiay\/ H dS H d f

rSwfcsuf
1-2-þ ]¤if;} 2-yk'wYdkudk uyfNidonf-[laom yk'Eipyfyg/ xkwif yXryk'jf zifh teHYt&om tm½k½ywYdk u f f S hf d G H k f olwYkd \rS&m blw½kyjf zifh uyfNidonfudk jyonf? 'kw,yk'jf zifh yx0D awaZm 0ga,m [laom azm|AÁm½k½yu D d H k f olwYdku,wiyif uyfNidonfujdk yonf/ dk f dk f

rSwfcsuf
1-rsufptMunf yom'½kyonf ... rsufvmckepfcudk jyefYEYHS vsuf ... aus;Zl;ûyjcif;ukd &onfjzpfí ... d f T k axmufyHh (tyf)onfjzpfí ... apmifha½Smuf (tyf)onf jzpfí ... NcH&H (tyf)onfjzpfí ... oef;OD;acgif;rQ½Sdvsuf ... NyD;apvsuf wnf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-xkrsufptom;pki\ ... rsufeuf0ef;-[k pyfyg/ d d d f 3-tv,fü ... xifay:&mt&yfü-[k pyfyg/ 4-tv,fjzpfaom ... xifay:&m t&yfü-[líyif pyfyg/ omí pum;acsmonf/ 5-xifay:&mt&yfü ... rsufvmckepfcwYdk u-[k pyfyg/ T k dk 6-jyefYEYHS vsuf ... aus;Zl;ûyjcif;ukd &onfjzpfí -ponfjzifh pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-rsuvmckepfcudk jyefYEYHSonf[aom pum;jzifyifvQif rsuptMunf½y\rsm;pGmaom uvmyfwYdkü f T k l h f d k f wnfaMumif; jy\/ ]]yrmPtm;jzifh oef;OD;acgif;rQ½Svsuf}}[laom pum;ukd oef;OD;acgif;rQt&yfü jzpfaomaMumifh d qkayonf/ (#Dum) d 2-pu©K0dnmPf\ wnf&m0w¬Ktjzpfu¤if;ç tm0ZÆe; orÜ#pKäd ef;paom pu©K'Gg&qki&m tjcm;pdwwYdk \ dk f d d f f 'Gg&tjzpfu¤if; NyD;apvsuf-[kqv\/ dk dk dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

164

rSwfcsuf
1-þü rde;rjzpfaMumif;[lonfrm rde;r[laom trnf\¤if;ç rde;r[korwjf cif;\¤if; jzpfaMumif; f S f f d S aywnf;/ okYd aomf ,if;½kyuyif pGrí rde;r\ykoP²mef pdwtaetxm;rsm; jzpfyg;jcif;aMumifh rde;rjzpfaMumif;ç f dk J DS f H f G f trjzpfaMumif;[laom trnftwki; teufvnf;oifonfom/ d f h 2-£wda`E´EiwuGjzpfaom ½kytpOfoEÅmefudk rde;rygç tryg[k olu jyaeouJoYdk ½S\? xkUd aMumifh ¬ S hf f f h d txufygtwki; qkayonf/ (#DumrSonf) d f d D 3-vk;aomyck;½Sjd cif;ç roefY½i;-rcefYnm;aom vufajcponf½jdS cif;onf £wdv*-rde;r\oP²mef H H S f ¬ d F f rnf\? om;jrwfom;\ roefY½i;jcif;ç rkwqwarG; EIwcrf;arG;r½Sjd cif;ç qHyifx;zGUJ yk?H xrD0wfywYdk onf rde;r[k S f f G f f Hk Hk f rSwo&jcif;\ taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh £wderw-rde;r[k odaMumif;edrwrnf\? i,fpOfumvüvnf; Aef; f d ¬ d d å f d f twk usnayGUtwkponfwYdkjzifh upm;jcif;onf¤if;ç ajrnufa,mufv;jzifh csniifupm;jcif; ponf¤if; f Hk f £wduw-rde;r\ tûytrlrnf\? roefY½i;-rcefYnm;aom &yfyHk oGm;ykH tp½Saom tjcif;t&monf £wd¬ ¬ k å f S f d tmuyÜ-rde;r\ tjcif;t&mrnf\/ t|uxmenf;rS tjcm;enf;um; rde;rwkYd \ qD;pGeYf aMumif;t*Fgonf f f £wdvirnf\? (þvdionf arG;cgpowå0gwkYd udk txD;tra½G;&mü tvG,wuloaMumif;jzpfay\) toHEihf ¬ d f f f d S tvkwYdk onf £wderwrnf\? roefY½i; rcefYnm;aom &yfyHk oGm;ykH xkiyHk cJyHk pm;ykponfonf £w¬uwrnf\? d ¬ d d å S f d f H d k å rde;r\ ykoP²mefonf £wdtmuyÜ-rde;r\toGirnf\/ (#Dum) f H ¬ f f

rSwfcsuf
1-ur®Z½kyonf olEioufqionfh cPrQom wnfjcif;½S\? okYd aomfvnf; ,if;ur®Z½ky\ f S hf dk f d f (y0wåa[wkbma0e) jzpfNrJ rjywfjzpfom;jcif;\ taMumif;tjzpfjzifh xkZ0wa`E´½yu twljzpfzuf ur®Z½kyfwkdYukd d G dD d d k f apmifa½Smufwwf\? xkUd aMumifh twljzpfzuf ur®Z½kywYdk udk apmifa½Smufjcif;vu©Pm½S\-[k qkayonf/ rSeay\? h f h d d f tm[m&ponfonf tm[m&Z½kyponfwYdk \ wnf&eftaMumif;jzpfouJoYdk uHonfomvQif ur®Z½kywYdk \wnf&ef f h f taMumif; rjzpfxuay? tb,faMumifenf; (uHonf) xkcPü r½Sjd cif;aMumifaywnf;/ (#Dum) dk f h h d h

rSwfcsuf
1-,if;wkYd u-[lonfum; twljzpfzuf (ur®Z) ½kywYdk udk ([kqv\)/ y0wåe-rjywfjzpfapjcif; jzpfNrJ dk f dk dk H jzpfom;apjcif;-[lonf ,myeH-oGm;NrJ oGm;apjcif;-rQapjcif;wnf;/ (#Dum) ,mye-ukd rQapjcif; [k-jrefrm G jyefMu\? bmukqonf[k em;vnf&efcuf\/ o'´geufrm- oGm;apjcif;[k jzpfonf/ þt&mü oGm;NrJ oGm;apjcif; d dk S jzpfNrJ jzpfapjcif; wnfNrJwnfapjcif; ½SiNf rJ½iapjcif;wkYd uyif ,mye-oGm;apjcif;[k qkonf[í ,loif\? xkoYdk S f dk d l h d ,lvQif y0wåe-rjywfjzpfapjcif; jzpfNrJ jzpfom;apjcif;[laom t|uxmtqkEivnf; nDnw\/ ZD0dw½kyfu G d S hf G f twljzpfzuf ur®Z½kywYdk udk Oyg'fXbif-[laom olUcPtwGi;ü tiftm; tjynfjh zpfapvsuf ½Siapjcif;jzifh xkcP f D f f d twGi;ü topftopfjzpfay:vmaom ur®Z½kywYdk uvnf; tiftm; jynfapvsuf oefpr;aponf? þenf;jzifh f f dk h G f wcP twGi;üom tiftm;tjynfh jzpfapEkijf im;aomfvnf; topf topfjzpfay:vmonfh ur®Z½kywYdk tm;vnf; f d f tqufqufjzpfNrJ jzpfom;aponf[k ,loif\/ G h 2-,my,dwAÁ-yk'udk y0awåwAÁ-[k #DumüzGijhf y\? xkYd aMumifh ,my,dwAÁbw- yk'udk oGm;aptyf f l f rQaptyfaom blw½kywYdk -[k jyefonf-oGm;NrJom;aptyf jzpfNrJjzpfaptyf ½SiNf rJ½iaptyfaom blw½kywYdk ? [líyif f G S f f ,l&m\/

rSwfcsuf
1-ESv;om;twGi;ü- aoG;uk-[k pyfyg/ Hk f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

165

rSwfcsuf
1-pdwZ0ga,m"mwf\ ... trlt&mtxl;onf-[k pyfyg/ å 2-um,-uk,\ vIy½m;jcif;jzifh (0g-vIy½m;aom uk,jf zif) + 0dnwdtvkudk odapwwfonf = um, d f f S f S d h å d 0dnwå-um,0dnwf- vIy½m;aomuk,jf zifh tvkudk odapwwfaom½ky/ wenf;? um,-vIy½m;aom uk,jf zifh + d f S d d f f S d 0dnwå-odtyfonf od&onf= um,0dnwd-um,0dnwf-vIy½m;aom uk,jf zifh od&aom½ky/ d å f S d f

rSwfcsuf
1-pdwZyx0D"mwf\ ... trlt&m txl;onf-[k pyfyg/ ajymqkvaompdwaMumifh vnfacsmif; å d dk f ponfwYdk ü av½kyrsm; jzpfay:vmonf/ xkav½kyxü yg0ifaom cufrmrIudk pdwZyx0D"mwf[k qkonf? xkyx0D f d f J å d d "mwfu vnfacsmif; ponfü jzpfay:vsuf ½Saeaom ur®Z yx0D"mwfudk wkucuonf? xktcg ykavGrS toH d d f dk f d xGuay:vmouJoYdk ¤if;? 'kwacsmif; 2-ck xdcuaomtcg toH xGuay:vmouJoYdk ¤if; yx0D"mwfcsif; f h f dk f f h xdcuaomaMumifh toHxuay:vmonf/ dk f G f 2-0pD-pum;oHjzifh + 0dnwdå-tvkudk odapwwfonf = 0pD0nwåd - 0pD0nwfpum;oHjzifh tvkudk odap d d d d wwfaom½ky/ wenf; 0pD-pum;oHjzif+0dnwå-od&onf=0pD0nwå-0pD0nwf-pum;oHjzifh od&aom½ky/ f h d d d d f

rSwfcsuf
1-uvmyfwcktwGi;ü yg0ifaom½kywYdk \ tjcm;uvmyf½ywYdkEihf jcm;em;aom pyfMum;oabmukd f f k f S tmumo[k qkonf/ uvmyf wckwcktwGi;ü yg0ifaom ½kywYdk rmrl jcm;em;jcif;r½Say? tcsif;csif; a&m,Suvsuf d f f S d f ½Sd\/ xkUd aMumifh uvmyfwckwnf;ü yg0ifaom ½kywYdk udk t0deaAÇm*½ky[k qkayonf/ f d f d 2-tmumo"mwfonf awGUxdaumif;onfh ½kyr[kw?f xkUd aMumifh ¤if;ESiwpyfwnf; wnf½Sdaeaom ½kyfwkdY f hf ESivnf; rxd[k qk&ayonf? hf d 3-þpum;jzifh uvmyftcsi;csi;om txufatmuf zDvmtm;jzifh yki;jcm;ajymqk&onf? uvmyfwck f f d f d twGi;ü yg0ifaom ½kywYdk uum; rnfonf½yu txufusonf rnfonf½yu atmufusonf zDvm usonf[k f f dk h k f h k f ryki;jcm;aumif;-[k odap\/ d f

rSwfcsuf
1-þv[kwm½kyonf ayghyg;vsifjrefaom edyE½ywYdk \ ayghyg;vsifjrefaom *kPowåd txl;rQomwnf;/ f æ é k f f xkUd aMumifh þ½kyrm oD;jcm;vu©Pmr½S?d rk'wmtp½Saom aemuf½yrsm;vnf; enf;wlyif/ f S k d k f

rSwfcsuf
1-ayghyg;jcif;[laom ... txl;tjym;½Sdaom ... trlt&mtxl;onf-[k pyfyg/ 2-"mwfacsmufcsm;jcif; [lonf av onf;ajc ovdywYdk\ ysufjcif;aywnf;/ wenf;um; &o tp½Saom f d "mwfwYdk\ ajymif;vJ azmufjyefaom tckutwefYaywnf;/ 2-enf; tjym;tm;jzifh zGijhf yaomfvnf; yx0D"mwf d f tp½Sueaom "mwfwYdk \ yifvQif azmufjyefjcif;[k rSwtyf\/ (#Dum) d k f f 3-qefYusibuf taMumif;wkYd [onfrm avsmufywfaomOwk tm[m&pdwf rysUH vGijhf cif;wkYd aywnf;/ f l S (#Dum) 4-El;nHhjcif;[laom ... El;nHhjcif; tjym;½Sdaom ... tMuif ... trlt&mtxl;onf½Sd\-[k pyfyg/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

166

rSwfcsuf
1-avsmfjcif;[laom ... avsmfjcif; tjym;½Saom ... tMuif ... trlt&mtxl;onf ½Sd\-[k pyfyg/ d 2-þwenf;um; ponfjzifh zvypöKy|mefudk jyonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-tm,wejzifh tmp,ukd qkaMumif; tb,faMumifh odtyfoenf;[laom tar;ukd #Dumü þokYd jyqkd d h xm;\/ jyqkyrm-tmp,Oyp, oEÅwwYdkonf (edAwbm0) jzpfjcif;\ tjzpfjzifh tmp,yifjzpfonf? xkUd aMumifh d Hk S d Á åd (jytyf-ü pyf) tm,wewkYd jzifh tmp, ponfwYdkudk jytyfonf\ tjzpfaMumifh ,if; tm,wewkYd jzifh tmp,ukd qk(tyf)ayonf/ tm,wewkYd \ tmp, ponfudk qkjd cif;jzifyifvQif tmp,oabm (jzpfjcif;oabm) ½Sueaom d h d k f tm,wewkYd udk jytyfue\? xkUd aMumifh tmp,jzifh xktmp, (jzpfjcif;) oabm½Saom tm,weukd qk(tyf) k f d d d ayonf/ rSeay\-tmp, rnfaom jzpfjcif;Oyg'fonf ½ly½kyudk rSwaMumif; vu©Pm½kyom jzpfayonf? f f f f ½ly½kyum; r[kway/ (#Dum) ynm½SBd uD;wkYd \ t&mom jzpfonf/ f f

rSwfcsuf
1-t"d-pGrí jzpfonf + twå-twåabm - twårnfaMumif; ½kyemrftaygif; = t"swå- tZÑwå J DS f twåabmukd pGrí jzpfaom½kyf - ]]ouf½½yemrftaygif; twåabm[k qkEi&ef w&m;}}[k qkvd\/ ¤if;tZÑwå-rS J DS dS k f d dk f d k £uypön;ESiwuG tZÑwåu[k jzpfonf/ #Dumü zGijhf ycsuft&tm;jzifh t"d+twå+tZÑwå - twåudk pGríjzpfaom f hf d J DS uk,wi;w&m;? tZÑwå - uk,wi;w&m;wkYd ü + £u - jzpfonf = tZÑwåu - uk,wi;w&m;wkYd ü yg0ifaom d f G f d f G f d d f G f w&m;[k jzpfonf/ qkvonfrm uk,wi;w&m;wkYd ü ouf½owå0gac:&ef tESpozG,jf zpfaom ½ky[k qkv\/ d dk S d f G f dS f f d dk xkUd aMumifh ,if; yom'½kyf ig;yg;r½SvQif umravmuü owå0g[k rac:Ekdif/ d 2-þü Am[d&-tjyify[k qkaomfvnf; uk,rS tjyify[k rqkv?dk uk,wi;ü tESpozG,jf zpfaom d d f d d f G f f yom'ig;yg;rS tjyify½ky[íom qkvonf/ f l d dk 3-9-yg; [lonfrm rsufp?d em;? ESm? vQm? uk,?f tqif;? toH? teHY? t&om þ 9-yg;yif jzpfonf/ S d 4-þ"mwf 3-yg;onf awGUxdp&m azm|AÁm½kyif jzpfonf/ H

rSwfcsuf
1-13-yg; [lonfrm ESm 201-ü jycJaom [',0w¬Ktxd ½kyrsm;yif/ S h f

rSwfcsuf
1-Oy-wPSm'd|wYdk u uyftyfaom avmuDuu + tm'dPÖ rdrwYdk \tusKd;tjzpfjzifh ,ltyfaomw&m; = d H d Oyg'dPÖ-avmuDu\ tusKd;w&m;-ur®Z½kyw&m;/ H f 2-ur®-uHaMumif+Z-jzpfonf=ur®Z-uHaMumifjh zpfaom½ky/ h f 3-þü tur®Z [lonfrm uHaMumifrjzpf½rQukd qkvonfr[kw?f uHrwyg;aom taMumif;wdYk aMumifh S h Hk d dk S rjzpfonfuom qkvonf/ tpdwZ-ponfwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif odtyf\/ dk d dk å

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

167

rSwfcsuf
1-¤if;rSm eukawmpdZmw½ky[k aemufü jyvwHaom vu©Pm½kyf 4-yg;yif jzpfonf/ f h 2-þü jyoifaom t"dyg,fonf ESm- 233? rSwfcsuf 3-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü 3-pdw-pdwaMumif+Z-jzpfonf=pdwZ-pdwaMumifjh zpfaom½ky/ å f h å f f 4-tm[m&- tpmaMumif+Z- jzpfonf=tm[m&Z-tpm tm[m&aMumifh jzpfaom½ky/ h f 5-Owk-tat; tyl OwkaMumif+Z-jzpfonf=OwkZ-OwkaMumifjh zpfaom ½ky/ h f

rSwfcsuf
1-awGUxdp&mazm|AÁm½konf yx0D awaZm 0ga,m[k ok;yg;jzpfaomfvnf; þt&mü um,'Gg&\ H H tm½ktjzpfjzifh wygwnf;[líom ,lonf? xkUd aMumifh ½kyo;rsKd;[k qkayonf/ H f Hk d 2-½kyÜe-azmufjyefjcif;onf ½lyrnf\? ,if; ½lyrnfaom azmufjyefjcif;oabmonf tMuifeyE½yrm d æ é k f S ½Sd\? xkUd aMumifh xkeyE½yonf ½ly-yifrnf\? t&doaom-jrif;o½kuem½So-[laomyk'Nf yD;ouJoYdkyif? (#Dum) d d æ é k f d f d l h þ#Dumü t&doaom- yk'Nf yD;ykEihf ½ly-azmufjyefjcif;½Saom ½ky-[laom yk'Nf yD;ykH tb,foYdk wlonfudk od&ef H S d f rvG,?f (xkUd aMumifh xkd 2-yk'f NyD;ykcsif; wl[efudk okwyGg;&eftwGujf ytH/ t&do-o'´gaemif tówd¬teufü PH h ypön;oufí NyD;jim;aomfvnf; tpo&ü 0k'rûy&ouJoYdk þ ½ly- o'´gaemifüvnf; tówd¬ teufü P-ypön; f ¨d h f okYd r[kwf t-ypön;oufí NyD;jim;aomfvnf; tpo&ü 0k'rûy&jcif;wlayonf? þokYd 0k'rûy&jcif;wlyudk &nfí f ¨d ¨d Hk t&doaom- yk'Nf yD;ouJoYdkyif-[k rdeYf qayonf/ t&doaom-yk'fü t&do aemif o h dk -tm*kvmjcif;rSmrl ouúwü H t&doof-[k oum&EÅy'jf zpfaomaMumifh jzpfonf? ,if; otu©&m vmjcif;onfum; þü jyvk&if; r[kway/ k d f xkUd aMumifh ½ly½ly-½ly½kyf[laom trnfjzifh ½ly-azmufjyefjcif;½Sd aom+½ly-azmufjyefwwfaomoabm = ½ly ½ly½ly½kyf-azmufjyefjcif;½Saom azmufjyefwwfaomoabm[k qkv\/ ½ly½ly-[k o'´gESpcqifí qkjd cif;\ d d dk f k h taMumif;ukvnf; #Dumü jyqkjd yefonfrm-xkoYdk aom þ ½lyo'´gonf wifpm;jcif;-xifjcif;[laom ½kVtm;jzifh d S d DS xkazmufjyefjcif;oabm r½S&müvnf; jzpfao;\? xkUd aMumifh tjcm;½lyo'´gwckjzifh txl;ûyí ½ly ½ly [k d d qkayonf? wdvawvH - ESr;\ ESr;qD? 'ku© 'ku- qif;&Jjcif;oabm½Saom qif;&J-[k qkouJoYdk yif? d f f © d d h azmufjyefjcif; oabm½Saom ½ky-þum; ½ly ½ly-\ teufwnf;/ (#Dum) d f

rSwfcsuf
1-jyqkcaom ½kywYdk \tpOfü 0pD0nwfaemif tmumo"mwf yg½Sjd im;aomfvnf; ¤if;ukd y&dapä'½ky[k d hJ f d f oD;jcm;jyxm;aomaMumifh þü 0dnwf½yf 2-ckEihf v[kwm ponfuom 0dum&½ky[k qkonf/ k S dk f d

rSwfcsuf
1-vu©P½kyf 4-yg;onf edyE½ywYdk \ Oyg'f-XD-bif jzpfaomaMumifh ,if; edyE½ywYdk udk tp-tv,f æ é k f æ é k f tqk;jzifvnf; rSwaMumif; jzpf\? tedp-rNrJaom w&m;[lívnf; rSwaMumif;jzpf\? xkUd aMumifh vu©P½ky[k H h f ö f f qkdonf/ 2-aemufü jyvwHaom pwkZ½kyü yg0ifaom ur®Z½kyonfum; ur®Z{uefr[kwf taeuef jzpfonf? h f f xkdtaeuef ur®Z½kyf 9-yg;ESihf þ{uef ur®Z½kyf 9-yg; 2-&yfaygif;vQif ur®Z½kyf 18-yg; jzpfonf/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

168

rSwfcsuf
1-aemufü jyvwHaom 'GZ½kyf 1-yg;? wdZ½kyf 3-yg;? pwkZ½kyf 9-yg; þ 13-yg;onf taeuef pdwZ½kyf h d å rnf\? ,if; 13-yg;ESifh þ{uefpdwåZ½kyf 2-yg;ukd aygif;vQif pdwåZ½kyf 15-yg; jzpfonf/ 2-ygVd½&if;twki; twdtusjyefvQif ]]¤if;rSm vu©P½kyf MuOftyfaomqkcNhJ yD;rS <uif;aom ½kytaygif; dS d f d f jzpfonf}}[k jzpf\? okwenf;olrsm; od&efrvG,?f xkUd aMumifh txufygtwki; o½kyazmfí jyefonf/ ,if; pwkZ d f f ½k y f 9-yg;ESifh wdZ½kyf 3-yg;ukd aygif;vQif tm[m&Z½kyf 12-yg; jzpf\/ xkd 12-yg;wGif 'GZ½kyrS OwkZ toHudk d f aygif;xnfhvQif OwkZ½kyf 13-yg; jzpf\/

rSwfcsuf
1-þü vk&if;jzpfaom aemufyi;ygVduom jyxm;onf? vk&if;r[kwí csefxm;aom a½SUyki;ygVdü d dk f dk d f d f um,0dnwf 0pD0nwf[aom ½kyf 2-yg;vnf; yg0if\/ d l

rSwfcsuf
1-0dnmPf[k qkoifaomfvnf; wkwjdk zifh NyD;ap&ef pdw[k jyefonf? aemufüvnf; enf;wlyif/ d h d f

rSwfcsuf
1-ao,sxd'-\ teufjzpfí xk½pyg;wkYd um; tb,fonfwYdk enf;[k jyefoifaomfvnf; wkwjdk zifh H d S f h d NyD;ap&ef txufygtwki; jyefonf? aemufüvnf; enf;wlyif/ d f 2-t-r½Sd+ocFg&-tm;ay;wkuwGef;jcif;=tocFg&-tm;ay; wkuwe;jcif; r½Saompdw-rwkuwe;&bJ d f d f G f d f d f G f olYtvkvdk jzpfaompdw/ tbd"r®wo*F[usrf;ü tocFg&dupdw[k qkxm;\? t&wlyif/ d f ¬ f d 3-o-wuGjzpfonf-½Sdonf+ocFg&-tm;ay; wkuwe;jcif;=oocFg&-tm;ay;wkuwe;jcif;½Saom pdwf d f G f d f G f d - tm;ay;wkuwe;íjzpfaom pdw/ o*F[usrf;ü oocFg&dupdw[k qkxm;\? t&wlyif/ d f G f f f d

rSwfcsuf
1-[|y[a|m-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? ¤if;ukd ûy\-[laomyk'Eihf pyfyg/ f f S 2-a½SUoGm;ûyí ... ûy\-[k pyfyg/ 3-[|wka|m-yk'\ teufjzpfonf/ f 4-ponf-[laom pum;jzifh oDvaqmufwnfjcif; ponfwYdkü pdwrnGwui;jcif;ç r0ifpm;jcif; ponfudk f f dk f odr;,l\/ (#Dum) f

rSwfcsuf
1-yx0DuodPeda'´oü tus,f jycJNh yD;jzpfaomaMumifh þt&mü psmefudk tusOf;rQom jyonf/ psmeft*Fg ig;yg;taygif;ukyif yXrpsmef[k ac:onf? ¤if;ESi,Oaom pdwudk qkonf/ d hf S f f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

169

rSwfcsuf
1-yDw,m p 0d&m*g-[laom ygVdudk iJí 0d&wåywu-pufqytyfaomyDw½aom-[k qkonf? t"dyg,f d h D d H k f d dS d Ü tm;jzifrum; ausmfveconfuom qkvayonf? okYd jzpfí txufygtwki; jyefonf/ h l G f hJ dk d dk d f 2-aomwmywår*fEi,Oaom aomwmywdr*fpwf 1-yg;? xkdYtwl ou'g*grdr*fpdwf 1-yg;? tem*grdr*f d S hf S f å d pdwf 1-yg;? t&[wår*fpwf 1-yg;-[lí 4-yg; tjym;½Sonf[k qkv\/ d d d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-tukovpwonf ½lybkH t½lybkwYdk ü jzpfjim;aomfvnf; umrbküom tjzpfrsm;aomaMumif¤if;? dk f d f H H h umrbküom ouf0ifaomaMumif¤if; umrm0p&-om rnfonf/ H h 2-avmbrlv-avmb [laomrlv tjrpft&if;½Saompdw/ a'gorlpwf arm[rlpwwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ d f d d f 3-'d|r*Fvm ponfwYdku-[lonfum; 'd|r*Fvm okwr*Fvm rkwr*FvmwkYd udk ([k qkv\)/ (#Dum) dk d dk 'd|-jrifawGU&aom tqif;onf r*Fvmaywnf;? jrifawGU&aom tqif;rnfonfrm jrwfaom r*Fvm[k S orkwtyfaom tqif;aywnf;/ ¤if;onf tb,fenf;[lrl eHeufapmapmuyif tdy&mrSxí rk;pmiSuudk (odrt& f f d f l tm;jzifh pum;ajymwwfaom iSuu) jrif\? OoQpyifysKudk uk,0efaqmif rde;rukwefqm qifxm;aom oli,f f dk f d d f f d wkYd udk a&jynft;ukd vwfqwfaom ig;Muif;ukd tmZmenfjrif;ukd tmZmenfjrif;&xm;ukd EGm;vm;Oobukd EGm;rukd h dk aMumifaomEGm;ukd jrif\? xkYd jyifvnf; þokYd oabm½Saom jrwfaom r*Fvm[k orkwtyfaom tqif;ukd jrif\? d f þjrif&aom tqif;ukd 'd|r*Fvm[k ac:qktyf\ ponfjzifh ck'uygXt|uxmü jyqkxm;onfEitnD 'd|r*Fvm d ´ d S hf ukd odtyf\/ xkUd twlyif taumif;tjrwf[k orkwtyfonfh Mum;&aom toHudk okwr*Fvm[lí¤if;? taumif; f tjrwf[k orkwtyfonfh eH&aom teHY pm;&aom t&om xd&aom tawGUwkYd udk rkwr*Fvm[lí¤if; odtyf\/ f ¤if;wkYd \ qefYusifzufwYdk uvnf; 'd|tr*Fvmponf[k odtyf\/ dk

rSwfcsuf
1-xufoefvQif tocFg&pdwçf rxufoefvQif oocFg&pdw[k odtyf\/ f 2-rqk;jzwfEiaomtcg (bk&m;w&m; oHCmtppftrSewYdk udk r,kMH unfrqk;jzwfEiaomtcg) 0dpupmESihf H dk f f H dk f d d ä ,SOaompdwçf ysHUvGiaomtcg O'¨pEi,Oaom pdw[k odtyf\/ f hf ö S hf S f f

rSwfcsuf
1-ukovf tukovtjzpfjzifh ra[mtyf rqktyfaomw&m;ukd tAsmuw[k qkonf/ dk dk f d d 2-ukovf tukovwYdk \ tusKd;jzpfaom pdwudk 0dyguf[k ac:onf/ dk dk f f 3-ukovf tukovwYdk \ tusKd;vnf;r[kwçf tusKd;vnf; ray;wwfaom oabmukd ud&,m-Bud,m dk dk f d [k qkonf/ d 4-5-ukov\tusKd;ukd ukov0dyguf[k tukov\tusKd;ukd tukov0dyguf[k ac:onf/ dk f dk f 6-7-avmbç a'goç arm[ç tavmbç ta'goç tarm[ [laom[dwwYkd Eihf r,SOaompdwudk f S f f ta[wku-t[dwpw- [dwr½Saompdw[ac:onf? ,if;[dwwYdk Ei,Oaompdwudk oa[wku- o[dwpwf d f f d f k f S hf S f f f d f [dw½aom pdw[k ac:onf/ þukov0dyguf t&müum; tavmbponf r½Sjd cif;ç ½Sjd cif;ukd pGí t[dwçf f dS f J o[dw[k qkonf/ f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

170

rSwfcsuf
1-þtrnfonf tbd"r®mygVdü wku½uvm½Saom trnfjzpfonf? tbd"r®wo*F[ usrf;üum; ac:a0: d f dk f d ¬ vG,ap&ef þpdwudk orÜ#pKäd ef;pdw[k jyqkxm;onf/ f f d f d 2-þtrnfonfvnf; ygVdawmfrS trnfyif jzpfonf? o*F[usrf;ürl ac:a0:vG,ap&ef ,if;pdwf 2-yg; f ukd Oayu©mo[*kwf oEÅ&Pç aomreóo[*kwoEÅ&P[k jyqkxm;onf/ D f D d 3-yOö'g&0Dx\ a½SUoGm;qifjcifrI jzpfaomaMumifh ,if;pdwudk yOö'g&m0ZÆe;[k o*F[usrf;ü trnf G d f G f ay;xm;onf/ þt&müum; pu©K'Gg&0Dx\ a½SUoGm;qifjcifrI jzpfaomaMumifh pu©K'Gg&m0ZÆe; [lívnf; d f ac:qkEi\/ ,if;tm0ZÆe;pdw\ tjcm;rJü jzpfaomaMumifh ,if;pdw\ csKyfjcif;uif;jcif;ukd eD;aomtaMumif;[k d dk f f f h f qkdonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-tm0ZÆef;pdwf wrsKd;wnf;yif jzpfaomfvnf; toHpaom tm½kH 4-rsKd;wkdYüjzpfaom tm0ZÆef;wkdYukd 4-yg; [k ,lí A[k0pjf zifh qkxm;onf/ k d 2-þudp&oukyif pGrí o*F[usrf;ü þpdwudk orÜ#pKäd ef;pdw[k qkxm;ayonf/ ö d J DS f d f d 3-þpmyk'xüyif jyrnfuprsm;ukd &nfíqkonf? xkwif oEÅ&Pudp&oukd pGrí þpdwudk o*F[usrf; d f J h d ö d d G D ö J DS f ü oEÅ&Ppdw[k qkxm;ayonf/ D f d

rSwfcsuf
1-{uaEÅae0 £a| tm&r®aP-pifppftm;jzifomvQif tvk½tyfaomtm½kü-[k zGijhf yaom #DumESitnD h d dS H hf jyefaom teufjzpfonf/ twd0, £|m&r®aPwd taw¬m-[k xyfqifzijhf yonfh ,if;#DumESitnD twd£|m½kH d h G hf üom[lívnf; jyefoif\/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-vmcJ&m ukovponfwYdk\ tpGr;tm;jzifh [lonfum; vmcJ&mukovEihf tjcm;taMumif;wkYd \ h dk f f h dk f S tpGr;tm;jzifh ([k qkv\)/ xkwif tcsKdUq&mwkYd \ tvktm;jzifh rsuEmuvIyvQif aMu;rkjH yifxu rsuEm&dyf f d dk d G d f S f J f S vIyjf cif;uJoYdk tocFg&ukov\ 0dygufonf tocFg&jzpf\? oocFg&ukov\ 0dygufonf oocFg&jzpf\[k h dk f dk f þokYd vmcJ&mukov\ tpGr;tm;jzif/ tcsKdUq&mwkYd \ tvktm;jzifrl tm;BuD;ukef xif½m;ukeaom taMumif; h dk f f h d h S f wkYd aMumif¤if;ç uHponfwYdk aMumif¤if; jzpfaom0dygufonf tocFg&jzpf\? tm;enf;ukeaom taMumif;wkYd aMumifh h h f jzpfaom 0dygufonf oocFg&jzpf\[k þokYd taMumif;ypö,\ tpGr;tm;jzif/ (#Dum) þü 'kw,0g' todcuf f h d \? us,jf yefYpm odvvQif 0do'r*f r[m#Dum edó, wwd,wGJ ESm 286 rSwcsufrsm;ukMd unfyg/ G dk k ¨d f h 2-,SOzufw&m;wkYd \ [lonfum; "r®o*FPygVdawmfü o½kytm;jzifvmaom ,SOzuf w&m;wkYd \ ([k f D f h f qkv\)/ rSef\- xkw&m;wkYd \tpGr;tm;jzifh ukovrS 0dyguf\ xl;jcm;jcif;r½Say/ (#Dum) ygVdawmfü a,0gye d dk d f dk f d jzifjh yaom w&m; 9yg;wkYd udk t|uxmü o½kytm;jzifh xkwazmfí jyxm;avonf? xkd 9-yg;wkdYwGif u½kPm f f rk'wmESihf 0d&wD ok;yg;wkYd onf ukovüom,SOue\? 0dygufür,SOue?f þokYd 0dygufü ,SOzufw&m;wkYd onf d H dk f f k f f k f ukovrS xl;jcm;jcif; ½Sao;\? okYd aomfvnf; þü xl;jcm;jcif;r½S[k qkonfrm ygVdawmfü xif½m;jyxm;aom dk f d d d S S ,SOzufw&m;wkYd u&nfí qkjd cif;jzpfonf[k ½Si;vif;jy\/ f dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

171

rSwfcsuf
1-ed½kóm[H- tm;xkwjf cif;-aMumifMh uûyjcif; r½S[aom þpum;ü Oóm[-tm;xkwjf cif; rnfonfrm d l S t0dZm wPSm rme rjywfpao;aom pdwtpOfoEÅmefü tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapjcif;iSg pGr;Ekionf\ tjzpf[k Æ J f f d f qktyfaom aMumifMh uûyrI-Asmyg&aywnf;? xkAsmyg&onf 0dygufür½S?d xkUd aMumifh ,if;0dygufrm tm;xkwrd d S f I aMumifMh uûyrIr½Say/ ukovwYdk ürlum; tbdnmOftpGr;tm;jzifjh zpfaom ukovwYdk üaomfvnf; ,if;Oóm[ d dk f f dk f ½Sonfom? xkYd aMumifh ,if;ukovpwrm tm;xkwr-aMumifMh uûyrI ½Sayonf/ (#Dum) d dk f d f S f I d

rSwfcsuf
1-Oayu©monf ,kwn\ [lonfum; pifppf,wnaom tukov\ tusKd;0dyguf jzpfaomaMumifh f hH k f hH dk f Oayu©myif jzpfjim;aomfvnf; 'kuoabm½Sonf\ tjzpfaMumifh ,kwn\/ xkUd aMumifh ]]'kuuoYdk (um;) © d f hH © hJ rxufjrufvay}}[k rdeYf qayonf/ 'kua0'emonf tvGexufjruf tvGecg;pyf cHcufouJoYdk xkYd txl þ S dk © f f h Oayu©monf rxufjrufvay? okYd aomfvnf; 'kuoabmtm;jzifomvQif jzpf\/ rSef\tukov\ tusKd;0dyguf S © h dk f onf rqif;&JyJ r½Sacs? xkd tukov0dyguf\ Oayu©mtjzpfurl tm;BuD;olu ESypuf&mü jyefvnfacsy&ef d dk d f rpGr;Ekiojzifh xkEypufrudk tm;enf;ol\ vspfvsL½Ijcif;uJoYdk rSwtyf\/ (#Dum) f d f d dS f I h f

rSwfcsuf
1-þudpö &oukyif tpGûJ yí ,if;pdwudk tm0ZÆe;pdw[k ac:&ayonf/ yOö'g&ü tm0ZÆe;udpudk NyD;ap d f f f G f ö aomaMumifh yOö'g&m0ZÆe; [lívnf; ac:&ayonf/ G f 2-okwenf;olwYdk em;vnfv,ap&ef 0guscGí¤if;ç o*F[usrf;rS a0g[m&ukyg azmfí¤if; jyefonf/ G f J d 3-em;vnfv,ap&ef 0guscGíjyefonf? þtm0ZÆe;udp&oukd tpGûJ yí raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;[k ac:&ayonf/ G f J f ö f 4-t[dw0yguf raem0dnmP"mwf [laomtrnfudk odv,ap&ef oEÅ&P[laom trnfjzifh vJv,í f d G f D S f jyefonf/ raem'Gg&m0ZÆe; pdwonf yOö'g&ü oEÅ&Paemifç raem'Gg&ü b0*kyapä' aemifjzpfaomaMumifh ,if;pdwf f f G D F 2-rsKd;\ jywfpjJ cif;ukd y'|mef[k qkonf/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-em;vnfv,ap&ef 0guscGí¤if;ç o*F[usrf;rS a0g[m&ukyg azmfí¤if; jyefonf/ G f J d 2-þudpö &oukyif tpGûJ yí o*F[usrf;ü [odwyg'f[k trnfay;xm;onf/ d k Ü

rSwfcsuf
1-uH ur®erwf *wderwf xifytus,fudk odvvQif 0do'r*f-jrefrmjyef pwkwwJG ESm 115-ponfü d d d d Hk dk k ¨d ¬ Munfhyg/ 2-'G[wuovonf tm;BuD;vQif 'd[wf 0dygufudk jzpfapwwf\? tm;enf;vQif t[dw0ygufudk d d f k dk f G d f d jzpfapwwf\/ xkYd aMumifh tm;enf;aom 'G[wuov\tusKd;-[k qkonf/ d d f k dk f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

172

rSwfcsuf
1-tpOfvuvsuf ... jzpf\[k pyfyg/ xkpum;jzifh y#doaE¨pw\tjcm;rJü jzpfonfudk jy\/ dk f d d f h 2-tusKd;jzpfaom ... b0ifrnfaom pdwonfjzpf\-[k pyfyg/ xkpum;jzifh y#doaE¨ujdk zpfaponfh f d uHuyif b0ifpwrsm;ukvnf; jzpfapaMumif;jy\/ d f d 3-xky#doaE¨\tm½kHüomvQif ... jzpf\-[k pyfyg/ xkpum;jzifh y#doaE¨pwEihf tm½kwaMumif;jy\/ d d d f S H l pifppftm;jzifh wb0 twGi;ü y#doaE¨ b0if pkwpwrsm;onf pdwwrsK;wnf;om jzpfonf/ f d d f f d

rSwfcsuf
1-þenf;jzifh ... (rjywfjzpfae\) ... rjywfjzpfaeonfomwnf;-[k pyfyg/ 2-wawmyk'\ teufjzpfonf/ 'Gg&ü tm½kxifonfEihf wûydieuf b0ifvyonf[k jyqkcsufwYdk Eihf f H S f I f d S tnDyif/ #Dumüum; wawmwd C¥emeEÅ&-[k zGijhf yxm;\? xktvktm;jzifh ]]xkxyg; wkucuonf\ H d d d d d f dk f tjcm;rJü}}[k jyef&m\/ h 3-tx-yk'udk teEÅ&teuf ,lí jyefonf/ f 4-jywfpvwfaomf ... tm½kûH yí ... NyD;apvsuf yOö'g&m0ZÆe;pdwonf jzpf\[k pyfyg/ J G f f

rSwfcsuf
1-þü jyoifaomt"dyg,fonf ESm 260/ rSwcsuf 4-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü f 2-b0ifudk jzwfbouJoYdk jzpf\-[k pyfyg/ ,if; tm0ZÆe;pdwf jzpfaomaMumifyif b0iftpOf jywfom; d h f h G onf? Ek;pdwf jzpfjcif;aMumifh tdyaysmrI jywfpjJ cif;uJoYdkyif/ d f f h 3-rsufptm; tqif;xifvQif paomt&mwkYd ü em;tm; toH xifvQifponfjzifh enf;rSí od&ef nTe;onf/ d D f

rSwfcsuf
1-vufcvsuf ... raem"mwfonfjzpf\? ... raem"mwfonfjzpf\-[k pyfyg/ H 2-pl;prf;qifjcifvsuf ... raem0dnmP"mwfonf jzpf\-ponfjzifh pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-0ka|m\ tjcm;rJhü ... xkdtm½kHü ... wyg;yg;aompdwfonf ... vsifaomt[kefjzifh jzpf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-r[EÅm½k[onfrm jzpfay:NyD;aemuf b0ifpwf 2-Budrf 3-BudrveumrQjzifh yOö'g&ü xifay:vmaom H l S d f G f G tqif;toH paom ypöKyÜetm½kig;yg;aywnf;? ¤if;onf 'Gg&üxifonfrpí pdwuP 13-csuf 14-csuf touf f H S å © ½Sd\? xkYd aMumifh BuD;aom tm½k[k qkv\? xkYd xufBuD;aom tm½kurl twdr[EÅm½kH tvGeBf uD;aom tm½k-[k H d dk H dk H ac:onf/ ¤if;rSm b0ifpwf wBudrveumrQjzifh yOö'g&ü xifay:onf? xifay:onfrSpí pdwåu©P 16-csuf d f G f G touf½Sdonf/ ,if; twdr[EÅm½kHü w'g½kH pdwf 2-Budrtxd 0Dxpwrsm; jzpfyudk aemufü jyvwH/ f d d f Hk h 3-]]wyg;yg;aompdwonfjzpf\}}[laom jyefcsufonf ]]tnw&0aoeq owå0g Z0emed Z0EÅ}d }[laom f ygXfudk odenf;vnf vG,ap&eftenf;i,f ajymif;vJí jyefxm;csufjzpfonf/ ½S&if;twki; twdtusjyefvQif f d d f ]]wyg;yg;aom pdwf\tpGr;tm;jzifh ajcmufBudraomf¤if;ç ckepfBudraomf¤if; jzpfueaom aZmwkYd onf vsifaom f f f k f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

173

t[kejf zifh jzpfue}f }\ [lí jzpf\/ aZm ig;Budrvnf; jzpfaMumif;ukd #Dumü jyxm;ao;\? jyykrm q owå0gk f H S ajcmufBudraomf¤if;ç ckepfBudraomf¤if; ,l&mü 0g-o'´g (aomf¤if;o'´g)jzifh yOö0g-ig; Budraomf¤if;-[laom þ f f f teufuvnf; qktyfNyD; jzpfonfom[k rSwtyf\/ rSef\-okw-tdyaysmfaom tcg rkpw-rde;armaomtcg dk d f å f äd f ponfwYdk ü aZm ig;BudrwYdk onfvnf; apmuke-jzpfue\/ (#Dum) þü tdyaysmfaomtcg [lonfrm tdyaysmfcgeD; f f k f f S f umvESihf rEk;wEk;jzpfaeaom umvrsm;ukd ,loif\/ ponf[aom pum;jzifh aocgeD;umvukd ,ltyf\/ d d h l

rSwfcsuf
1-umraZm0g&ü ,if; (29)yg;aom aZmwkYd onf a,bk,stm;jzifh (7) Budr&cgü (6) Budrf rde;armaom f H f tcg ponfü (5) Budrf jzpfue\/ tyÜemaZm0g&wkYd ürl ÓPorÜ,wf umrukovf ud&,m aZm (8)ckwYdk k f k dk d onfomvQif y&duH Oypm tEkvHk a*gMwbl[aom trnfjzifh 4-Budraomf¤if; 3-Budraomf¤if; jzpfue\/ l f f k f 2-½lyg0p&yXrpsmefudk &atmif tm;xkwaeaom oltm; okYd r[kwf &NyD;yXrpsmefudk 0ifpm;&ef tm;xkwf f aeaomoltm; a*gMwblaemif ykxZOfaou©jzpfvQif ukovf yXrpsmefaZmonf jzpf\? &[EÅmjzpfvQif ud&,m k dk d yXrpsmefaZmonf jzpf\/ 'kw,psmefaZm ponfwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ t&d,r*fzvudk a&mufatmif tm;xkwf d dk f aeaomoltm; a*gMwblaemif t&d,r*faZmonf jzpf\? zkv0ifpm;&ef tm;xkwaeaomoltm; a*gMwblaemif d f f t&d,zkvaZmonf jzpf\? þt&mwGif a*gMwbl\t&müjzpfaom txufr*fwYdk\ a½S;a0g'gefESifh zkdvf\a½S;y&duH d f wkYd uvnf; y#dord'gr*fenf;tm;jzifh a*gMwblqonf[k ,ltyf\/ xkUd aMumifh #Dumü ]]a*gMwblr-[laom þ dk Ç dk S pum;onf a*gMwblt&mü wnfueaom y&duEia0g'efwYdk uvnf; ,laMumif; jzpfaom pum;aywnf;}}[k k f H S hf dk jyqkayonf/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-twdr[EÅm½kH [lonfrm ('Gg&ü xifonfrpí) pdwuP 16-csuftouf½aom tm½kaywnf;? ,if; S S å © dS H tm½küomvQif w'g½kpwjf zpfonf? tjcm;tm½kü rjzpf/ 0dbwm½k[onfrm tvGexif½m;aom umrm0p& tm½kH H H d H l H l S f S aywnf;? ,if;umrm0p&0dbwm½küomvQif (raem'Gg&0Dxqi&m) w'g½kH jzpfayonf/ (#Dum) l H d dk f 2-þpum;jzifh w'g½kpwjf zpf&m owå0gwkYd udk jyonf? ½ly t½ly owå0gwkYd tm; w'g½kpwf rjzpf/ H d H d 3-þpum;jzifh w'g½k\jzpf&m a½SUoGm;aZmukd owfrwjf yonf/ r[*¾Kwfavmukw&maZmwkYd \ tqk;ü H S å H w'g½kpwonf rjzpf/ H d f 4-£|m½kjH zpfvQif ukov0dyguf aomreów'g½kH 5-yg;xJu wyg;yg;jzpfonf? £|rZÑwåm½kjH zpfvQif ukov0dyguf Oayu©mw'g½kH 5-yg;xJu wyg;yg; jzpfonf? ted|m½kjH zpfvQif tukov0dygufoEÅ&P w'g½kH D jzpfonf/ þokYd oifavsmfaom taMumif;uk&í oifavsmfaom w'g½kH jzpfyudk jyonf/ h d h Hk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

174

rSwfcsuf
1-a½S;uHEihf aZmpdwf ponfwYdk \ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;-[l&mü a½S;uH\tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç aZmpdw\ S f h f h f tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç ponf\tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;-[k ok;yki;cGí ,l&m\/ xkwif yXrtyki;ukd #Dumü ]]a½S;uH\ f h f h H d f J d G d f tpGrf;tm;jzifh [laom þpum;ukd w'g½ktxl;ukd jyjcif;iSgqkonf? rSe\-y#doaE¨udk jzpfaponfh uHuomvQif H d f w'g½kudk jzpfaponfr[kw?f pifppfaomfum; tjcm;uHuvnf; jzpfapwwf\? ,if; uHurl y#doaE¨udk ay;onfh H uHu jzpfapaom w'g½krx;onfh w'g½kuvnf; jzpfapwwf\}}[k zGijhf y\? tukovuu tukov0dyguf H S l H dk dk f H w'g½kuom jzpfaponf? ukovuu ukov0dyguf w'g½kuom jzpfaponf? xkwivnf; wd[wOuú|uHu H dk dk f H H dk d G f d f wd[ww'g½ku?dk wd[wMf oruuHEihf 'd[wOuú|uHu 'd[ww'g½ku?dk 'd[wf MoruuHu t[dwuov d f H d S G d f G d f H G d f k 0dygufw'g½kudk jzpfaponf? aomreóuHu aomreów'g½kHukd tocFg&uHu tocFg&w'g½kHukd jzpfaponfH þokYd ponfjzifvnf; ,loif\/ aZmpdwf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh w'g½kowfrwyudk #Dumü þokYd jyqkxm;\? h h f H S f Hk d jyqkyrm - umrukovaZm avmbrl arm[rlaZmaomreóo[*kwf ud&,maZmwkYd wif wyg;yg;\ tjcm;rJü d Hk S dk f d G h aomreów'g½kH 5-yg;xJu wyg;yg;jzpfonf? umrukovf tukovaZmOayu©mo[*kwf ud&,maZmwkYd wif dk dk f d G wyg;yg;\ tjcm;rJü Oayu©mw'g½kH 6-yg;xJu wyg;yg; jzpfonf/ (#Dum) tm'd-ponf[aom o'´gjzifh h l y#doaE¨pwuor;,l\/ rSef\? xky#doaE¨pwonf rdrxufomvGeaom w'g½k\ taMumif;taxmuftyHh d f dk d f d d f d f H rjzpfay/ (#Dumyif) tbd"r®m0wm&#Dumopf ESm 262-ü w'g&r®POö yPDwm yPDw OwkabmZem'd ypö,0aoe -ponfjzifh jyqkxm;aom pum;t&tm;jzifh yPDwOwkabmZOfpaom taMumif;aMumifh tocFg&w'g½kjH zpfonf? d tyPDw OwkabmZOf paom taMumif;aMumifh oocFg&w'g½kH jzpfonf[aom teufuvnf; þü tm'dl dk ponfjzifh ,loifouJoYdk ½S\/ h h d

rSwfcsuf
1-xkxtaMumif;\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh ... wyg;yg;aom 0dyguf0dnmPfpdwfonf ... tpOfvkdufygvsuf d dk ESpBf udrf okYd r[kwf wBudrf jzpf\-[k pyfyg/ 2-wyg;aom tm½kü oGm;aomaZmokYd -[k pyfyg/ H 3-ESpBf udrf okYd r[kwf wBudr[aompum;ukd pum; acsmajyonf\tpGr;jzifh qk(tyf) ayonf? t| 0g f l f d 'o 0g-½Spv;jzpfap q,fv;jzpfap þokYd ponfwYdk üuJoYdk yif/ pifppftrSermrl ESpBf udromvQif zGijhf yMu\/ f Hk Hk h f S f (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-pdwtpOfoEÅmefonf ... rjywfjzpfvsuf½avonf-[k pyfyg/ f dS 2-þokYd paomtjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ... pdwtpOfoEÅmefonf rjywfrpJjzpfvsuf½aeonfomwnf;-[k f dS pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-umrpdwf 18-yg;? ½lypdwf 12-yg;wkYd udk avmukw&mpdwf 32-yg;ESihf aygif;vQif aomreó å o[*kwpwf 62-yg;jzpfonf/ f d 2-<uif;aompdwf 55-yg;[lonfrm umrpdwf 54-yg;xJrS ukovpwf 4-yg;? o[dwf0dygufpdwf 4-yg;? S kd f d t[dwfukov0dygufpdwf 6-yg;? tukov0dygufpdwf 6-yg;? o[dwfud&d,mpdwf 4-yg;? t[dwfud&d,m pdwf 2yg;? (avmESiarm) tukovpwf 6-yg; (aygif;Oayu©mo[*kwf umrpdwf 32-yg;) ½lyyOörpsmef pdwf 3-yg;? hf dk f d t½lypsmefpdwf 12-yg;? avmwå&myOörpsmefpdwf 8-yg;? þ 55-yg;yif jzpfonf/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

175

rSwfcsuf
1-£|m½konf obm0 y&duyÜtm;jzifh ESpyg; tjym;½S\/ xkwif ukov0dyguf\ tm½kjH zpfxuaom H f d d G dk f tm½kaumif; tppfonf obm0£|m½krnf\/ tm½kaumif;r[kwaomfvnf; cHpm;ol\ tvkdusjzpfí tm½kHaumif; H H H f [k xif&aomtm½konf y&duyÜ£|m ½krnf\? aumif;onftaejzifh BuHqí,ltyfaomaMumifh £| jzpfaom H H h tm½kH[k qkdvkd\/ xkobm0 y&duyÜ£|m½kH ESpyg;vk;ukyif þt&mü £|m½k[qonf/ xkYd aMumifyif d f H d H k dk h oarÇm*&ot&mü ]][kwonfjzpfap r[kwonfjzpfap aumif;aomtjcif;t&mtm;jzifh ok;aqmifjcif; udp½\}} [k f f H ö dS qkdonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-ted|m½konfvnf; obm0y&duyÜtm;jzifh ESpyg;tjym;½S\? xkEpyg;vk;ukyif þt&mü ted|m½k[k H f d d S f H d H qkdonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-qif\ acgif;ukom prf;oyfMunfb;aom oluef;wkYd u qif[onfrm tk;ESiwonf[k jyqkMd u\? d h l l S d hf l em;½Guuom prf;oyfMunfb;olwYdk u Aef;ESiwonf[í¤if;ç tpG,uom prf;oyfMunfb;olwYdk u ikwf cRefEihf f dk h l hf l l f dk h l S wlonf [lí¤if; þokYd ponfjzifh rdrwYdk prf;oyfMunfb;onftwki;om jyMuouJoYdk yif/ O'gef;ygVd 160-ü d h l h d f h ½Sd\/

rSwfcsuf
1-oH-pkjcif; aygif;jcif;uk+u&-ûyjcif;-ocFg&-tpkûyjcif;- aygif;pkay;jcif;/ þ a0g[m&onf avmuü d tdruûdk yvQif qki&mtpdwtyki;rsm;ukd aygif;pkay;jcif;yif jzpfouJoYdk avmua0g[m& tm;avsmfpmjyqkaom f d f f d f h G d o'´geufjzpfonf/ y&rwåw&m;t&müum; ]]wuGwjcm;pDjzpfaeaom tusKd;w&m;wkYd udk taMumif;ocFg&u aygif;pk J ay;onf-xkoYdk aygif;pkay;jcif;jzifh ocFwac:aom tusKd;w&m;ukd NyD;aponf}} [laomteufonf roifay/ d h tb,faMumifqaomf ocFwtusK;w&m;wkYd onf apmapmu ½SaeMuonfvnf; r[kw?f wuGwjym;pD wnfaeMu h h dk d d J onfvnf; r[kwaomaMumifaywnf;/ okYd jzpfí (ocFg&)aygif;pkay;jcif;[laom o'´gteufudk t"dyg,fteuf f h Ü tm;jzifûh yvkyjf cif;? tm;xkwjf cif; [laom teufuom ,loif\/ wenf;tm;jzifh oH-qki&m taMumif;w&m;wkYd u dk h d f tnDtnGwf aygif;pkí + u& - ûywwfMuonf = ocFg& - tnDtnGwaygif;pkí ûywwfaom w&m;rsm;[laom f teufvnf;oif\/ tb,faMumifqaomf apwempaom ocFg&taMumif;w&m;rsm;pGmwkYd onf ocFwrnfaom h h h dk tusKd;ukd waygif;wnf;tnDtnGwf jzpfapwwfMuaomaMumifh aywnf;/

rSwfcsuf
1-þocFg&o'´gteufonf todcufaomaMumifh EIi;csdeí ,lEiatmif yg|d&if;ukyg xkwjf yonf/ d f f dk f d 2-þt&mü qki&mtaMumif;w&m;wdYk u ocFwrnfaom tusKd;w&m;ukd tnDtnGwpaygif;í ûyMuonf? d f f k NyD;apMuonf [laomteufom oifayonf/ xkYd aMumifh txufygtwki;om teufjyefonf/ qdvonfrm jrifrI h d f k kd S [laom ocFw w&m;ukd zó apwem reodum& ZD0w{u*¾wm [laom ocFg&u©Emrnfaom orÜ,ww&m; d ¨ k f ig;yg;u tnDtnGwaygif;pkí ûyonf NyD;aponf/ vIy½m;½ky[aom ocFww&m;ukd vIy½m;vkonfpwEihf f f S f l f S d h d f S ,SOaom apwemESiwuG ocFg&u©Em rnfaom apwodursm;pGmwkYd u tnDtnGwpaygif;í ûyMuonf NyD;ap f hf ¨ f f k Muonf/ ukov0dygufpwf apwoduf taygif;[laom tusKd;ocFww&m;ukd ukovpwEi,Oaom apwem d dk f d f S hf S f ESiwuG ocFg&u©Emrnfaom apwodursm;pGmwkYd u tnDtnGwf pkaygif;í ûyMuonfNyD;apMuonf/ tukov hf ¨ f 0dyguf ocFww&m;ukvnf; apwemESiwuG ocFg&u©Em rnfaom tukovapwodursm;pGmwkYd u tnDtnGwf d hf ¨ dk f f pkaygif;í ûyMuonf NyD;apMuonf/ þenf;jzifh ½kyf a0'em onm ocFg& 0dnmPf [laom ocFw tusKd;w&m; wkYd udk apwemESiwuG ocFg&u©Em rnfaom apwoduf taMumif;w&m;rsm;pGmwkYd u tnDtnGwpaygif;í hf ¨ f k ûyMuonf NyD;apMuonf[k ,l&m\/ xkYd aMumif#umü ]],xm-tMuiftjcif;t&mjzifh (ûyonf½aomf)? twåaem h D dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

176

ocFg&u©Em [laom rdr\? zvH-tusK;jzpfaom? ocFw-ocFww&m;onf? or®a'0 - aumif;pGmomvQi?f edyEéH¨ d d H æ jzpfay:NyD;pD;onf? a[mwdjzpf\? {0H-þtjcif;t&mjzif?h tbdocFa&mEÅ-tnDtnGwf aygif;pkí topfûywwf d uke\/ £wd-þonfum;? taw¬m-ocFw rbdocFa&mEÅ[aom ygXf\ teufaywnf;}}[k zGijhf yxm;ayonf/ þ f d l #Dumpum;jzifh rdr\tusKd;jzpfaom ocFww&m; jzpfay:NyD;pD;atmif aqmif½ujf cif;onfomvQif ocFg&yk'\ d G f teufjzpfaMumif; od&\/ xkoYdk aqmif½ujf cif;rSmvnf; apwemESiwuG ocFg&u©Em rnfaom apwoduw&m; d G hf ¨ f wkYd \ waygif;wnf; tnDtnGwjf zpfjcif;om jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh oH-tnDtnGwf aygif;pkí+u&-c&-cg&ûyonf jzpfaponf NyD;aponf = ocFg&- tnDtnGwf aygif;pkíûywwf NyD;apwwfaom w&m;[laom teufudk av;av;eufeuf rSw,&m\/ f l

rSwfcsuf
1-pkaygif;ay;jcif;[laom teufonf avmua0g[m&teufjzpfonf/ pkaygif;íûyjcif;[laom teufonf þt&mü toifavsmfq;teufjzpfonf/ h Hk

rSwfcsuf
1-pkaygif;jcif;[laomteufonf avmua0g[m& o'´geuf jzpfonf/ tm;xkwjf cif; [laom teufonf oifavsmf ay:vGiatmif t"dyg,fteufjzpfonf/ h f Ü 2-0dyg&ypöKy|mem-[laom þyk'fü 0dyæg&-rnfonfum; 0dyg&0EÅwmvIyvy½½G aMumifMh u ½Sonf\ æ æ f I f G d tjzpfaywnf;? xkYd aMumifh oAsmyg& ypöKy|mem-aMumifMh upkurI ½Saomtm;jzifh (ÓPftm;) a½S;½I xif\ - þum; d f d (xky'\) teuf/ (#Dum) d k f 3-ocFg&wkdYonf ... 36-yg; tjym;½Sdukef\-[k pyfyg/ þpmyk'ü odenf;vnf vG,ap&ef - tcsKdU d f f tenf;i,f jznfpuf ajymif;vJí jyefxm;onf/ h G

rSwfcsuf
1-þ0gusü (tm½ku) awGUxdwwfaom oabmonf zórnf\-[k jyefvQif jrefrmpum; ykdíacsm\/ H dk okYd aomf ½S&if;twki; 0pew¬ûyykudk ay:vGiap&ef twdtus jyefxm;onf/ ,SOzuf w&m;wkYd tm½kudk d d f H f f H awGUxdaMumif; jzpfaomaMumifh zó rnf\? awGUxdjcif;rQ oabmonf zó rnf\-[laom u½kdPf;teuf abmteufrsm;vnf; oifhonfyif/ xkwif abmteufonfomvQif rkcs teufjzpfonf/ uwåm;teuf u½kP; d G d f teufwYdkonfum; wifpm;í jyqkaomteufrsm;jzpfaMumif; #Dumü jyqkxm;\/ xkYd jyif apwem tp½Saom w&m; d d d wkYd üvnf; uwåm;tjyif u½kP;teuf abmteufrsm;vnf; oifaMumif; ,if;#Dumüyif jyqkxm;ao;\/ d f h d

rSwfcsuf
1-rsufpEihf em;wkYd onf rdrwYdk xoYdk ra&mufvmaom tm½kudk ,lwwfonf[k a½S;ü jyqkconfh 0g't& d S d H H d hJ tm;jzifh þüvnf; wpdwwa'otm;jzifh xdNidjcif;r½SbJ xifay:aomtm;jzifh 'Gg&ESitm½kH tcsif;csif; xdcuf f d hf dk ouJoYdk [lí qkv\/ h d dk 2-oCFa¥wd-yk'\ teuf jzpfonf/ zóonf tm½kudk xdcuwwf\-[k qkoifaomfvnf; pdwudk f H dk f d h f xdcuwwf\-[líum; qkoifrnf rxif? xkYd aMumifh (0g-xdcuapwwf\)[k wenf; jyefonf/ dk f d h dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

177

rSwfcsuf
1-þü tm;xkwap-[lonfrm? t½ktao ûyapjcif;ç aMumifMh uûyapjcif;yif jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh #Dumü f S d ]]Oóm[ebma0e-[lonfum; t½ktao ûyaponf\ tjzpfjzifh ([k qkv\)/ rSef\-xkd apwemonf d d dk rdru,wif ½kaoonfjzpfí ,SOzufw&m;wkYd udk ½kaoapwwf\? xkYd aMumifh tm,l[e- aMumifMh uûyonf\ d dk f dk d f d tpGr;tm;jzif/ Oóm[etm;xkwapjcif;ukd rSwtyf\/ 0D&d,\ tm;xkwapjcif;\ tpGr;tm;jzifh rrSwtyfay}} f h f f f f f [k jyqkxm;\/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-0D&,jzpfaMumif; 0D&,m&rÇ0w¬K-[lonfum; (1) ûyvkyp&m½Sonf? rvky&ao;rD tcGi&wke; tm;xkwf d d f d f hf f rnf[k ESv;oGi;jcif;? (2) tvkyupNö yD;í tm;xkwrnf[k ESv;oGi;jcif;? (3) oGm;p&m½Sonf? roGm;&ao;rD Hk f f d f Hk f d tm;xkwrnf[k ...? (4) oGm;NyD;í tm;xkwrnf[.k ..? (5) tpmr0í uk,ayghyg;aewke; tm;xkwrnf[k ...? (6) f f d f f f tpm0í tm;jynfaewke; tm;xkwrnf[k ...? (7) temjzpfvmonf? temrwk;rD tm;xkwrnf[k ...? (8) h f f d f temaysmufNyD; wzef jyefrjzpfrD tm;xkwrnf[k ESv;oGi;jcif;? þ ½Spyg;yif/ f Hk f f

rSwfcsuf
1-0daooawm-[lonfum; a,bk,stm;jzifh ([k qkv\)/ rSef\/ okcuif;aom orm"donfvnf; d dk ½Sdao;\/ (#Dum)/ þ#Dumü a,bk,stm;jzif[k zGionfuaxmufvQif 0daooawm-t&mü t0daooawm-[k h hf dk ½Savovm;-[k pOf;pm;zG,½\? xkYdaMumifh (0g-a,bk,s omrntm;jzif)[k jyefonf/ okcuif;aomorm"d d f dS h [lonfrm Oayu©mo[*kworm"dyif jzpfonf/ xkd Oayu©mo[*kworm"dudk t0daooorm"d[k qk&ef oifrnf S f f d h rxifay/

rSwfcsuf
1-aomwmywå,*F-aomwmywår*fzvoYdk a&mufaMumif; t*Fgav;yg;[lonfrm (1) oyÜK&dooHao 0d d dk f S olawmfaumif;ukd rS0jJ cif;/ (2) o'¨ró0e-olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd emMum;jcif;/ (3) a,medaom reodum&D ® toifvrf;rSetm;jzifh ESv;oGi;jcif;/ (4) "r®mEk"r®y#ywd-avmukw&mw&m;tm; avsmfaom tusifudk usifjh cif;/ h f Hk f Ü d ¬ å h þav;yg;yif/ 2-ayghaom Al;cGH abmvk;wkYd udk a&ü csxm;vQif repfjrKyfyJ ay:arsmae\? tm½kudk xkuoYdk ray:rarsmap H H d hJ tjyifoYdk rxGuapyJ rdr\ tm½ktjzpfjzifh twGi;ü wnfaponfudk tydvmye - ray:rarsmapjcif;[k qkonf? f d H f d av;aom ausmufcponfudk a&ü ypfcsvuvQip;pk; epfjrKyfom;jcif;uJoYdk rdr\ tm½ktjzpfjzifh epfjrKyfaponf J dk f f Hk H G h d H [lívnf; qkv\/ d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-'&x-[lonf om&rÇ-vGepmtm;xkwjf cif;wnf;? 0g-ylyefjcif;wnf;/ þ '&x-[laom trnfonf f G 'kua'greóvQif taMumif;½Sueaom 0g-'ku© a'greówkYd aMumifh jzpfueaom O'¨pö vGeuaom udavom © d k f k f f J wkYd \ trnfaywnf;/ wenf;um; xkoYdk ysHUvGiyyefaom tjcif;t&mjzifh jzpfueaom emrfcE¨m av;yg;wkYd \ d hf l k f trnfaywnf;/ ylyefrudk ESreif;zsuq;ojzifh ylyefwevyjf cif;uif;aom at;csr;onf\ tjzpfonf ylyef I d f f D k f I f wkevyjf cif;uif;í at;csrf;onf\ tjzpfrnf\/ (#Dum)/ f I

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

178

rSwfcsuf
1-O'¨pjö y"mef;aom udavomwkYd onf O'¨ptp½Saom udavomwkYd rnfue\/ wenf;um; O'¨pudk ö d k f ö tpûyí tvk;pkaom udavomwkYd udk odr;,l\/ <uif;aom (aemuf tyk') tqkwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ (#Dum)/ H H f d f d 2-*½kbm0-xki;rIi;av;vHjcif; [laom trnfonf xderd'¨ vGeuueaom? wenf; xkoYdkaom d f d f f J k f d tjcif;t&mtm;jzifh jzpfueaom emrfcE¨mav;yg;wkYd \ trnfaywnf;/ (#Dum)/ k f 3-(r½kao ruki;nGwEiatmif) awmifwif;onf\ tjzpfonf xrÇcufxef awmifwif;jcif; rnf\? þ d d f f dk f h h trnfonf 'd|d rme vGeuueaom? wenf; xk'|d rme jy"mef;ukeaom emrfcE¨m av;yg;wkYd \ trnfaywnf;/ f J k f d d f (#Dum)/

rSwfcsuf
1-ur®ed om"k-trIü aumif;onf = ur®nH trIü aumif;onf-trIûy&efavsmfonf/ tur®nbm0trIûy&ef ravsmonf\tjzpf trIûy&ef ravsmjf cif;? 'geoDvpaom aumif;rIuûdk y&mü (aumif;rIudk ûy&ef) ravsmf f onf\tjzpf ravsmfjcif;aywnf;? teufw&m;uk,tm;jzifh umrpäEtp½Saom oHuavow&m;wkYd aywnf;? d f ´ d d wenf; xkumrpäEj´ y"mef;ukeaom tukovcE¨m av;yg;wkYd aywnf;/ (#Dum)/ d f dk f

rSwfcsuf
1-tó'd,paom tukovwYdk onf¤if;ç ,if;wkYd Eihf wnf&mwlaom tukovwYdk onf¤if; uk,Eihf ¨ dk f S dk f d f S pdwwYdk \ ruse;rmjcif;rnf\/ (#Dum) f f

rSwfcsuf
1-rm,mac: vSnpm;jcif;onf rdr\ ½Saomtjypfudk zk;uG,jf cif; vu©Pm½S\? omaX,sac: hf d d H d aumufuspjf cif;onf rdrü r½Saom*kPudk jyjcif;vu©Pm½S\[k þokYd qktyfueaom xkvnpm; aumufuspf d d f d d k f d S hf onfh tjcif;t&mjzifh jzpfueaom tukovcE¨mwkYd onf¤if;ç ,if;wkYd Eihf wnf&mwlueaom oHuavow&m; k f dk f S k f d wkYd onf¤if; rm,momaX,s ponfwYdkrnfue\/ (#Dum) k f 2-þt&mü pdwyó'dponfwYdk jzifh pdwonfomvQif Nidr;\ aygh\ El;nH\ trIü aumif;\ cHusef;\ å ¨ f f h h ajzmifrwf\? um,yó'¨d ponfwYdk jzifrum; (emrftaygif;rQomr[kw) ½kytaygif;uk,onfvnf; (Nidr;\ h h l f f d f f aygh\ El;nH\ trIüaumif;\ cHusef;\ ajzmifrwf\)/ xkYd aMumifyif jrwfpmbk&m;onf þyó'¨d ponfwYdk ü h h h h G oabmw&m;wkYd \ESpyg;tjym;½Sonf\ tjzpfudk a[mawmfrayonf? t&mcyfor;üum; ra[may/ (#Dum) f d l d f þyó'd¨ v[kwm rk'wm ur®nwm yg*knwm OZkuwmwkYd onf ukovpwwi;ü yg0ifMuaomfvnf; ,if; k dk f d f dk f wkYd udk uk,awGUtm;jzifh odem;vnf&ef cJ,Of;\? bm0emukd tm;xkwí Oypm&orm"d tyÜem orm"doYdka&mufaom d f f tcgü¤if;ç O',AÁ,ÓPfponfoYdk a&mufaomtcgü¤if; xif½m;odEi\/ xkYd aMumifh ,if;wkYd udk uk,awGUtm;jzifh S dk f d f odvvQif bm0emtvkyudk xdxa&mufa&muf tm;xkw&m\/ dk f d f 3-þü qE´-ûyvkjd cif; tvk½jdS cif;[lonf tm½kudk &vkumrQomjzpfonf? ESpoufw,wmvsuf d H d f G f tvkd½Sdaom wPSm\ tvk½jdS cif;rsK;um;r[kway/ ukovûf yvkjd cif; ay;urf;vkjd cif; w&m;emvkjd cif; w&m; d d f dk tm;xkwvjdk cif; r*fzveAmef tppftrSeudk &vkjd cif;ponfwYdk rm þukovqE´omjzpfonf? avmbwPSm f dk f d Á f S dk f r[kway/ f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

179

rSwfcsuf
1-a½S;rerS [lonfrm a½S;b0ifpwr-[k qkv\/ xl;aomreuk-[lonfrm (b0ifpwrS xl;jcm;aom) S d f S d dk d S d f 0Dxpwf aZmpdwudk ûywwfonf[k qkv\/ a½S;rerS xl;aomreukd ûywwfaomaMumifh reodum& rnfonfd d f d dk [laom 0pew¬jzifh 0DxpwwYdkudk jzpfapwwfaom yOö'g&m0ZÆe;[laom 0Dxy#dyg'ureodum&ESihf aZmpdwudk d d f G f d f jzpfapwwfaom raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;[laom Z0ey#dyg'ureodum&wkYd udk jy\/ (#Dum) f

rSwfcsuf
1-þwMwrZÑwåwm apwoduonf ukovpwwi;ü yg0ifaomfvnf; ,if;\ vu©Pm &o ypöKy|mef f dk f d f dk f wkYd u¤if;ç tmZmenfjrif;wkYd udk vspfvsL½Ionfh &xm;xde;ESiwyu¤if; uk,awGUtm;jzifh od&ef tvGecuf\/ dk f hf l Hk dk d f f O',AÁ,ÓPfoYdk a&mufaeaom a,m*Donfum; ,if;vu©PmponfwYdk u¤if;ç &xm;xde;ESiwyu¤if; uk,awGU dk f hf l Hk dk d f tm;jzifh xif½m;od&\/ xkYd aMumifh xkoYdk uk,awGUtm;jzifh odvvQif O',AÁ,ÓPf ponfa&mufatmif S d d f dk owdy|mef0yóem tvkyudk tm;xkwMf unf&m\/ d f h

rSwfcsuf
1-um,'kp½kwponfwYdk \ 0w¬KwkYd [onfrmolU touf olUOpöm olUr,m;ponfwYdkyif/ (#Dum) d f l S

rSwfcsuf
1-um,'kp½kwf ponfwYdk \0w¬KrS wGeYf qwjf cif;ud&,mukd nTejf yjcif;jzifh um,'kp½kwf ponfryifvQif d k d d S wGeYf qwjf cif;ud&,mukd qkonf[k rSwtyf\/ rSef\? 0d&wdwYdkonf 'kp½kwwYdk \ 0w¬Kukd rûyjcif;ypöKy|mef k d d f d f ½SMd uonf ([k qk&ef) roifue?f pifppfaomfum; 'kp½kuudk rûyjcif; ypöKy|mef½MdS uonf [líom qk&ef oifue\/ d h k d f d h k f (#Dum) 2-tarm[ac: ÓPfEihf r,SOaomaMumifyif þ'kw, wwd, pdwwYdk udk ÓP0dy,w[k qk&ayonf/ S f h d f Ü k f d

rSwfcsuf
1-þyOör q|pdwwYdkonf Oayu©mo[*kwf jzpfaomaMumifh yDwEihf r,SOjf cif;jzpfonf? owår t|r f d S pdwwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ xkpwf 2-yg;wkYd onfum; ÓP0dy,wjf zpfí tarm[ESivnf; r,SOMf u/ f d d Ü k hf 2-þpsmefpwü 33-yg;[k qkaomfvnf; u½kPmpsmefü rk'wmryg 32yg;om? rk'wmpsmefü u½kPmryg d f d d d 32-yg;om? uokP;psmefponfwYdk ü u½kPmrk'wm 2-yg;vkH;ryg? 31-yg;om ,SOMf uonf[rwtyf\/ xkYd jyif d f d k S f umrukovf pdwwYdk üvnf; oem;aom tcgüom u½kPm,SOonf? olU pnf;pdrudk 0rf;ajrmufaomtcgüom dk f f f rk'wm ,SOonf? um,'kp½kwrS MuOfa½Smifaomtcgüom or®mur®E0&wd,Oonf? 0pD'p½kwrS Munfa½Smifaom d f d f Å d S f k d f tcgüom or®m0gpm0d&wD,Oonf? rdpmtmZD0rS Munfa½Smifaomtcgüom or®mtmZD00d&wd ,SOonf? xkrwyg; S f ä f d S ay;vSLaomtcg t½ktao ûyaomtcg tp½Saom omrefuovpwrsm; jzpfaomtcgwkYd ürl u½kPm rk'wmESihf d d k dk f d f d 0d&wd ok;yg;wkYd r,SOMf u[laom þtxl;ukvnf; rSwtyf\/ H d f

rSwfcsuf
1-u½kPm rk'wmwkYd udk EIwy,f&ef 0d&wD ok;yg;ukxnf&ef aemufüjyvwHh jzpfaomfvnf; okwenf; d f H d h olwYdk odv,ap&ef þü vufonf;uGi;jzifh azmfjyvkuonf? ½lyg0p& yXrpsmefü 33-rS u½kPmrk'dwm 2-yg; G f f d f EIwf 31-usef? ¤if;ü 0d&wD okH;yg;xnfh 34-yg; jzpfonf/ 2-yXrpsmefü 34-rS 0dwufEwf 'kw,psmefü 33? ¤if;rS 0dpm&EIwf wwd,psmefü 32? ¤if;rS yDwEwf I d d I pwkwEihf yOörpsmefwYdk ü 31-jzpfonf-[k odtyf\/ ¬ S

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

180

rSwfcsuf
1-ed,wocFg&wkYd onf 17-yg;wkYd aywnf;-[k pyfyg/ þü odv,ap&ef tenf;i,fjyifí jyefxm;onf/ G f 2-þ jrefrmjyefü t[d&u [lícsnf; wlaeaomfvnf; ygVdüum; r½Suwwfoudk t[d&aum - [lí¤if; d f l d r½Suwwfol jzpfaMumif; oabmukd t[d&u[í¤if; ykvif eykvitm;jzifh uG\/ t[d&aumonf omrefemrfy'f f d H l d’ d’ f J d k jzpfí t[d&uonf bm0w'¨wy'jf zpfonf? þokYd vnf; uG\/ d H d f k J

rSwfcsuf
1-þü awGa0 [lonfrm trSetwki; rodjcif;ukom qkv\? rde;armaejcif;rsK;ukum; qkvonf S f d f d d dk f d d d dk r[kw?f tedpö tp½Saom oabmrSeudk rodyJ edpö ponfjzifh tvGtrSm;ukd odjcif; yuwd odaeustwki; odjcif; d f J d f rsm;onf arm[tpGr;yif jzpfonf/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-arm[onf tedpö 'ku© tewåwYdk udk yuwdoaeustwki; edpö okc twå[k rSm;,Gi;pGm od\? 'd|onf d d f f d twår[kwaom ½kyemrf oabmw&m;wkYd udk twå[í¤if;? ,if;twåonf rysufyJ tNrJwnf½aeonf [lí¤if;? f f l dS okYd r[kwf aoaomtcg vk;0aysmufysufom;onf [lí¤if;? uH-uH\tusKd;r½Sd þokYd ponfjzif¤if; rSm;,Gi;pGm H G h f xifjrifpvrf;onf/ þokYd tm;jzifh tvGojd rifycsif; uG\/ JG J Hk J 2-þü ponfjzifh olawmfaumif;w&m;ukd remvkjd cif; remMum;&jcif;ponfudk ,ltyf\/

rSwfcsuf
1-apwaom t0lyoaryk'\ teufjzpfonf/ ]]NyD;aptyfaom tusKd;ya,mZOfü owårD 0dbwfoufonf}} f [k zGiaom #Dumt& tusKd;ya,mZOf teufvnf; ay:atmif? jrefrmjyefvnf; acsmatmifjyefjcif; jzpfonf/ hf 2-,if; oocFg&pdwü xdeESihf rd'vnf; &Hcg ,SOonf[k qkv\/ f ¨ f d dk 3-xde-xki;onf? rd'-rki;onf-[k jyefq½;t& rki;jcif;[k jyefonf? xkoYdk jzpfaeonfudk rIi;wki;wki; d f ¨ d f dk dk d f d d f d f d f jzpfaeonf[ívnf; ajymwwfMu\? ikiwiwif jzpfaeonf[ívnf; ajymwwfMu\? xkYd aMumifh ikiaejcif; l d f dk f dk l d f [lívnf; xyfqifí jyonf/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-edó, jyefenf;tm;jzifh ]]wdevnf; rd'vnf; xder'¨ rnf\}}[k jyefvQif okwenf;olwYdk em;vnfrnf ¨ d d r[kw?f xkYd aMumifh txufygtwki; ay:vGipm jyefvuonf/ d f f G dk f 2-0dnmP'Gg&wkYd udk jzpfonf/ ydwjf cif;[lonfrm S pu©K'Gg&0Dxponf d rjzpfEiatmif dk f pdwtm;avsmhapjcif;yif f

3-þüvnf; ]]NyD;aptyfaom tusKd;ya,mZOfü owår0bwf oufonf}}[k zGijhf yaom #DumESitnD (0gD d hf ponfwYdk jzpfatmif) [k wenf;jyefonf/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

181

rSwfcsuf
1-þ 'd|0y,wpwü rmevnf; &Hcg ,SOonf-[k qkv\/ xkYd aMumifh ,if; 'd|0y,wpwudk d d Ü k f d f f d dk d d Ü k f d f rmeorÜ,wf rme0dy,wf [k 2-yg;cGJí odtyf\/ k Ü k 2-þpdwü rme,SOaomtcg ocFg& 19-yg;yif jzpfonf? xkwif xderd'Eihf rmewkYd onf ted,wrsm; f f d G ¨ S jzpfMuí &Hcgom ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\/ 3-yXrpdwü 17-yg;rS yDwuEwí 16-yg;onf yOörpdwEihf ,SOMf u\? q|pdwü xderd'ygxnfí 18f d dk I f f S f ¨ h yg; ,SOMf u\-[k odaponf/

rSwfcsuf
1-yOörpdwf 16-yg;rS 'd|uEwí 15-yg; ,SOMf u\? ,if; 15-yg;ü rmeukd xnfí &Hcgü 16-yg;yif d dk I f h ,SOMf uonf[k odap\/ 2-q|pdwü 18-yg;rS 'd|udk EIwí 17-yg;onf t|rpdwü ,SO\? ,if; 17-yg;ü rmeukxnfí &Hcg f d f f f d h 18-yg;yif ,SOonf[k odap\/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-þü ukuw\ jzpfaMumif;[k qkaomfvnf; ukuw-pufqyz,ûf yrdonf[k ESv;oGi; ylyefaom d k f G Hk f pdw\ jzpfaMumif;yif jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh #Dumü ]]ukuwH-pufqyz,f ûyrdaomtrI[aom þpum;ü f k f G l ûyoifygvsuf rûyrdaom aumif;rIonfvnf; ukuwrnfonfom/ rSe\-tMuif aumif;rIudk igrûycJr?d xkrûycJrd h f h d h jcif;onf ukuw pufqyz,f ûyrdaom trIyif[í þokYd ajymqkwwfMuayonf/ xkYd aMumifyif ]ûyrdaom k f G l d h raumif;rI rûyrdaom aumif;rIudk jyefvnfatmufarhvsuf pk;&dryyefjcif;udpö ½S\}[k qkayvwH/ þokYd ûyrdaom d f l d d h 'kp½kwf rûyrdaom okp½kwonf ukuwrnf\? ukuwrnfaom xk'p½kwop½kwudk taMumif;ûyí ESv; d d f d k d f k d f Hk romonftvktm;jzifh jzpfaompdwonfvnf; xkuuwESiwuG jzpfaomaMumifh (0g-xkdukuwukd tm½kHûyí h d f d k hf jzpfaomaMumif) ukuwyif rnf\[k ,lí ]xkdukuw\ tjzpfonf ukuKú pö rnf\}[k qkayonf}}[lí zGijhf yxm; h d ayonf/ xkYd aMumifh ukuw\ jzpfaMumif;[lonfrm pufqyz,f ûyrdavjcif;[k ESv;oGi; ylyefaom pdw\ S k f G Hk f f jzpfaMumif;ukd qkonf[k rSwtyf\/ d f

rSwfcsuf
1-aomreóo[*kwf oEÅ&Ppdwü yDwEiwuG 9-yg; ,SOonf[k odap\/ D f d S hf f

rSwfcsuf
1-t[dwu&,m raem"mwfac: yOö'g&m0ZÆe;ESihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf ukov0dyguf raem"mwfac: f d d G f f orÜ#pKäd ef;ESihf ,SOaom (8-yg;aom) ocFg&wkYd Eihf t&wlyifjzpfonf/ t[dwu&,m raem0dnmP"mwfac: d f S f d d raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;ESihf ,SOaom ocFg&wkYd onf ukov0dyguf t[dwraem0dnmP"mwfac: ukov0dyguf Oayu©m f f f o[*kwoED&PESihf ,SOaom ocFg& (8)yg;wkYd Eihf t&wlyifjzpfonf/ okco[*kwf t[dwf ud&,mraem0dnmP f Å f S d "mwfac: [odwyg'fEi,Oaom ocFg&wkYd onf okco[*kwuov0dyguf t[dwf raem0dnmP"mwfac: k Ü S hf S f f k aomreóo[*kwf oEÅ&PESi,Oaom (9-yg;aom) ocFg&wkYd Eit&wlyif jzpfonf/ txl;rSm raem'Gg&m0ZÆe; D hf S f S hf f [odwyg'fwYdk ü 0D&,vnf; ,SOaomaMumifh xk0&,ESiwuG raem'Gg&m 0ZÆe;ü (9) yg; [odwyg'fü (10) yg; k Ü d f d D d hf f k Ü aomocFg&wkYd ,SOMf uonf[k þtxl;ukvnf; odtyfonf[k qkvonf/ omrefy*Kd¾ vfwYdk odem;vnf&ef cuf\/ d d dk k

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

182

rSwfcsuf
1-þü jyoifaom t"dyg,fonf ESm 308? rSwcsuf 1-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü f 2-umrm0p& ukovpwwYdkü ,SOaom 36-yg;aom ocFg&wkYd rS 0d&wdo;yg;ukd EIwí 33-yg;aom dk f d f f Hk f ocFg&wkYd udk o[dwumrm0p& ud&,mpdwwYdkEihf ,SOMf uonf[k odtyf\/ xkwif tarm[onf ÓPorÜ,wf f d f S d G k pdwf 4-yg;wkdYESifhom ,SOfonf? yDwdonf aomreó o[*kwfpdwf 4-yg;wkYd Eiom ,SOonf[ívnf; ukovf S hf f l dk pdwwYdk üuJoYdk yif odtyf\/ xkYd jyif u½kPmESihf rk'wmwkYd onfvnf; oem;aomtcg olUpnf;pdrudk 0rf;ajrmufaom f h d f tcgwkYd üom ,SOMf uonf[ívnf; odtyf\/ l

rSwfcsuf
1-],HudOd-tvk;pk}H [laom pum;jzifh ygVdenf;t& eykvio'´gqki&m pdw0nmPf tm,we-ponfwYdk udk ö H d’ f d f f d ,lEi\? xkoYdk ,vQif rvktyfaom teufrsm;vnf; yg0if&m\? xkYd aMumifh xkoYdk rvktyfaom teufrsm;ukd r,lEif dk f d l d d d dk ap&ef ]½lyH-½ky}f [lí uefYowfjyawmfronf? xkpum;jzifh tvk;pk[onfrm ½kytvk;pkom jzpfonf? tjcm;aom l d H H l S f H H pdw0nmPf ponfr[kw[k wm;jrpfazmfjyonf[k qkv\/ f d f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-ygVdü ,HuOdö ½lyH twDwmem*wypöKyÜE-[k½aomaMumifh xkygVdtpOft& xkYd aemifponfudk qkxm;ay d Hé dS d d onf/ jrefrmjyefüum; xkygVdtpOftwki; jyef&efrjzpfEi?f xkYd aMumifh txufygtwki; twdwtem*wf ypöKyÜef d d f dk d f f jzpfaomrSpí jyefxm;&ayonf/ 2-½Snfaomumvukd t'¨g-t"GeYf [k qkonf? ½kyemrfwYdk \ rjywfjzpfaeaom tpOfudk oEÅw[k qkonf? d f d d þt&müum; aemufü jyvwHtwki; trsKd;wlaom ½kytpOfudk oEÅw[k qkonf/ h d f f d d

rSwfcsuf
1-vufzspf q,fwuf umvonf 1-cPrnf\? 10-cPonf 1-v,rnf\? 10-v,onf 1G cPv, rnf\? xkcPv, 10-onf1-rk[w-rk[wrnf\/ (tbd"mwf*gxm 6 6-7) d k å k f 2-þü cPonfum; vufzspfq,fwuumv r[kw?f ½kywck\ jzpfqOyg'fcP? wnfqXcP? ysufqJ G f f J J D bifcPom jzpfonf/ xkcP ok;yg;onf ½ky\ ½SdqJcPjzpfí ½kyf\toufwrf;yifjzpfonf/ pdwapwoduwYdk \ d H f f f jzpfwnfysuf toufwrf;onfum; xk½youfcP\ 17-ykrS wykrQom jzpfonf/ d k f H H

rSwfcsuf
1-ESm 231-ü jycJaom tZÑwu Am[d& cGyudk &nfne;onf/ okYd aomfvnf; xkjd yykjH zifh þt&mü h då J Hk T f rjynfpao;aomaMumifh qufvufí cGjJ yoGm;jyefonf/ h Hk 2-ESm 231-üyif jycJonfudk nTe;onf/ h f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

183

rSwfcsuf
1-þa0'emponfwYdkwif a0'em\-[k pyfyg/ G 2-rZÑwå*w-[k ½SaomygXfum; roif?h rZÑ*wmom oifonf? xkygXft& jyefonf/ d h d 3-þt&mü ]]wawm ykaAÁ twDwm ypäm tem*wm}}[k ygXfcRwf,i;vsuf½\/ cPwå,okYd a&mufqJ G f dS oudpudk ûyqJonf ypöKyÜejf zpfonf? wawm ykaAÁ-xkdrS a½S;ü-[laompum;jzifh cPwå,okYd ra&mufao;rD oudpö ö ukd rûyao;rD a½S;tzkYd uqonf? cPwå,okYd ra&mufao;aomw&m; oudpudk rûyao;aomw&m;onf tem*wf dk dk ö omjzpfonf? xkYdjyif ypäm-t& cPwå,okYd a&mufNyD; oudpuûdk yNyD;jzpfaom w&m;onfvnf; twdwomjzpfonf? ö f xkYd aMumifh ]]wawm ykaAÁ tem*wm ypäm twDwm}}[k ygXfre½oif\/ xk½oifonfh ygXfret& þüjyefxm;onf/ S f dS h d dS h S f

rSwfcsuf
1-MoVm&duonf t,kwtnHh jzpfaomaMumifh jynfreó,ü ]]ukova0'ematmuf ½keYf &if;\}}[k f l d dk f jyefxm;\/ þüum; trsm;ajymqkaeMuonfh t&yfo;pum;twki; ]]ukova0'emxuf}}[k jyefonf/ aemufü d Hk d f dk f vnf; enf;wlyif/

rSwfcsuf
1-taMumif;ok;yg;wkYd wif tMuif tMuif taMumif;onf tMuif tMuif 0dyguf ud&,ma0'em H G d tm;avsm\? xkxtaMumif; xkxa0'emtm;avsmfpm-[k qkv\/ ukovf tukovf a0'emwkYd onf 0dyguf f d dk d dk G d dk dk dk tAsmuwa0'emxuf taMumif;ok;yg;vk;wkYd aMumifh Murf;wrf;uke\? ud&,mtAsmuwa0'emxufrum; H H f d l tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapwwfaomaMumif¤if; tusKd;0dygufudk jzpfapjcif;ESiqionfh Asmyg&½Sjd cif; tm;xkwrI ½Sjd cif; h hf dk f f aMumif¤if; Murf;wrf;uke\/ (#Dum) tusKd;ay;rIEirqkiaom Asmyg&tm;xkwrwYdk onfum; ud&,mtAsmuw h f S hf d f f I d a0'emrSmvnf; ½Sonfyif? xkYd aMumifh xkoYdk aom Asmyg&tm;xkwrwYdk tvktm;jzifrl ukova0'emu ud&,m d d f I d h dk f d a0'emxuf Murf;wrf;onf[k rqkoifaMumif; xk#umtzGijhf zifh odap\/ d h d D 2-o0dyg&awm [lonfum; oy&dyEawm-xuf0ef;usif vIy½m;jcif;½SaomaMumif/ tEkyoEÅawmæ æ ´ f S d h rNidroufaomaMumifh þum;teuf (#Dum) xktzGiEitnD ay:vGiatmif jyefcsufjzpfonf/ f d hf S hf f

rSwfcsuf
1-rZÑwåawm-[laom ½S&if;ygXft& jyefcsufjzpfonf/ rZÑ|awm-[k½vQif 'ku© okcwkYd \ tv,fü d dS wnfaomaMumif¤if;-[k jyef&m\? omíay:vGif\/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-MoCwkYd \ tm½kjH zpfEionfudk qkonf? wu,ftm½ktûycH&onfuom qkonfr[kw/ aemufy'f dk f d H dk d f k teufwYdk üvnf; enf;wlyif/ 2-ykxZOfwYdk Eihf qufqaomaMumif¤if; Murf;wrf;\-[k pyfyg/ k S H h 3-þüvnf; (atmuf-[k rjyefy) t&yfo;pum;twki; xuf-[kjyefonf/ J Hk d f

rSwfcsuf
1-ygVd½&if;twki; jyefxm;onf/ 'kua0'em Oyrmukd qkcyEihf rnDouJoYdk ½S\? okYd aomfvnf; okc dS d f © d hJ Hk S h d Oayu©ma0'emwkYd onf oabmtvktm;jzifh MoVm&du rjzpfoifaomaMumifh xkoYdk qkxm;onf[k ,l&m\/ d h d d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

184

rSwfcsuf
1-þü tocFg&du [laom trnfonf 0do'r*fü ½S&if;twki;yif jzpfonf/ k ¨d d d f 2-þüvnf; oocFg&du tocFg&du[laom trnfrsm;onf 0do'r*fü ½S&if;twki;yif/ k ¨d d d f

rSwfcsuf
1-,kwnaom 0w¬K½Saom [lonfum; qyfxrif;ukd pm;ol\ ,kwnaom - 0w¬Kukd tm½kûH yí jzpfaom f hH d f hH a0'emonf ,kwnaom 0w¬K½Sonf\tjzpfaMumifh Murf;wrf;\? oav;om;>yrf;xrif;ukd pm;ol\ a0'emonf f hH d aumif;jrwfaom 0w¬K½Sonf\tjzpfaMumifh odrarGU\/ (#Dum) d f

rSwfcsuf
1-a0ae,sowå0gtaygif;ukd ... vGwapawmfrvonf-[k pyfyg/ f l dk

rSwfcsuf
1-a0'em0do,ó-a0'em\ tm½kH\-[k jyefoif&mü jrefrmpum;acsmí ay:vGiap&ef ]]cHpm;&aom h f tm½kH\}}[k jyefonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-twåprm xif½m;\/ twå\ Opömç twå\ tpdwftykdif;ç ighOpömç ighrsufpdç igh½kyfç ighpdwf ponfjzifh JG S S xifrwpvrf;jcif;ukd twåe,pG[k qkonf/ S f JG d J d

rSwfcsuf
1-þ qkconftwki; ... ½Ijcif;onf þqkconftwki; BuD;rm;aom tusKd;tmedoif ½Say\-[k pyfí d hJ h d f d hJ h d f d ,lyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-pu©K0dnmPfjzifh jrifoEiatmif rsupü xifay:vmonfudk cH,wwfonfuyif om,mwwf-\[k d dk f f d l dk qkonf? jrifoapjcif;ukyif jywwf\[k qkonf/ pu©-"mwf+O-ypön;jzifh pu©K-[k ½kyfNyD;onf/ d d d d f 2-ok-"mwf+w-ypön;jzifh aomw-[k ½kyfNyD;onf/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-þ tvktm;jzifh oy-"mwf+'-ypön;jzifh o'´NyD;onf[k ,l&m\/ #Dumausmfürl o'´,wDw-½Gwfqkd d f D d tyfaomaMumifh oa'´g-o'´ rnf\ukd jyqkxm;\/ xkd tvkdtm;jzifh o'´-"mwfjzifyif NyD;onf[k ,l&m\/ d h 2-teHYonf teHY½aom yef;opfo; ponfwYdk udk ]]onfrm ½Sygonf}}[k jyouJoYdk ½SaomaMumifh xkoYdk dS D S d h d d qkayonf/ d 3-ZD0w+t0S-rS Zd0Sg-[k ½kyNf yD;onf/ vQmjzifh t&om½Saom tpmukd vufcí pm;jcif;jzifh tm[m& d d H Z½kyfukd rSDí touf½i&aomaMumifh vQmu toufudk ac:onf-[k qkonf/ S f d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

185

4-uk+tm,-rS um, jzpfvmonf/ um,ukd pufqyz,f tmo0w&m;wkYd \ jzpf&m[k (CmeZd0gwkYd r) k f G S S txl;ûyí rdeYf qonf? taMumif;rSm- jrifjcif; tjrwfq; tp½Saom tEkw&,wkYd \ taMumif; rjzpfueaom dk Hk d å d k f umr&m*vQif taMumif;½Sonfh uHaMumifjh zpfueaom umr&m*\ 0daoo taMumif;vnf; jzpfueaom Cme d k f k f Zd0gum,wkYd wif um,onf tmo0w&m;wkYd \ omíxl;aomtaMumif; jzpfjcif;aMumifh aywnf;/ rSe\-xkum, S G f d jzifh tawGUtxdcsr;omukd om,mukevsuf owå0gwkYd onf arxker0ruaomfvnf; ûyvkyMf u\/ (#Dum) f f f DS J I dk 0do'r*fü¤if; þ#Dumü¤if; omo0"r®meH omo0w&m;wkYd \-[k ½S&mwGif tmo0 "r®meH-tmo0 w&m;wdYk \-[k k ¨d d ½Sdoifh\/ taMumif;aomfum; omo0-w&m;[lonfrm tmoa0g\ tm½kjH zpfaom avmuDw&m;rsm; jzpfonf? xkd S avmuD w&m;wkYd ü jrifjh rwfaom psmeftbdnmOf ukovrsm; 0dyóemukovrsm;vnf; yg0ifae\? xkYd aMumifh dk f dk f tEkw&,\ taMumif;rjzpf[aom pum;ESivnf;ravsm?f pufqyz,f qkonfEivnf; ruku?f tmo0"r®meH å d l hf k f G d S hf d tmo0w&m;wkYd \ jzpf&m[k ½SygrS a½S;aemuf tvk;pkH nDnwonf/ #Dumausmfüvnf; ukpwmeH ygy"r®meHd H G f dä pufqyz,f ,kwrmaom tukovw&m;wkYd \+tma,m-jzpf&mjzpfaomaMumifh um, rnfonf-[k qkxm; k f G f dk f d ayonf/ okYd jzpfí rlvu tmo0 "r®meH-[k a&;cJonf? aemufumvü omo0"r®meH-[k cRwf,i;vsuf ½Sonf[k h G f d NrJNrHpm rSw,&m\/ G f l

rSwfcsuf
1-zko-"mwf+wAÁ-ypön;jzifh azm|AÁ-[k ½kyfNyD;onf/ f 2-pu©m,we-ponfwkdYü pu©K aomw-ponfwYdkum; tcsi;csi; rwlyJ uGjJ ym; xl;jcm;uke\? tm,we f f f -o'´gum; 12-yk'v;üyif ruGjJ ym; rxl;jcm;yJ ½S\? xkYd aMumifh rxl;aom tm,weo'´g\-[k qkonf/ f Hk d d

rSwfcsuf
1-½lyg½kH ponfwkdYü .... tm;xkwfukef\-[k pyfyg/ 2-þü tp½Sd-[laom pum;jzifh onm\ rSwom;jcif;udpö ocFg&wkYd \ ûyvkytm;xkwjf cif;udpö pdw\ f f f tm½kudk odjcif;udpwYdk udk ,l&m\/ H ö 3-qufpyfí tvG,wul odEi&ef vufonf;uGi;jzifh jznfpuí jyonf/ jrifvsuf cHpm;jcif; paom f dk f f h G f udpudk ûyvkytm;xkw&m jzpfaomaMumifh pu©Krsufponf¤if;? ½ly-tqif;onf¤if; tm,wernf\/ Mum;vsuf ö f f d cHpm;jcif; paom udpudk ûyvkytm;xkw&mjzpfaomaMumifh aomw-em;onf¤if;? o'´-toHonf¤if; tm,we ö f f rnf\ ponfjzifh od&m\/ 4-tm,-'Gg& tm½kwYdk üjzpfaom pdwapwoduwYdk udk + we-us,fjyefYBuD;yGg;aponf = tm,we-tm, H f f rnfaom pdwf apwoduwYdkudk us,jf yefY BuD;yGg;apaomw&m;/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-tm,w-½Snaom oHo&mqif;&Ju+e,-e-aqmifwwfonf-jzpfapwwfonf = tm,we-½Snfaom f dk oHo&mqif;&Judk jzpfapwwfaomw&m;/ 2-þqkconftwki; tpdwtyki;o'´g uGjJ ym;onf\tpGr;jzifh tm,weo'´g\ teufudk zGiqNdk yD;vQif d hJ h d f f d f f hf ,cktcg xkd tm,weo'´gü y&d,m,f teuftm;jzifvnf; jyjcif;iSg tyd p-wenf;aomfum; ponfudk tm;xkwf h jyqkawmfravonf/ (#Dum) qkcNhJ yD;aompum;jzifh tpdwtpdwo'´gwkYd \ teufjzifh tm,we rnfyudk jyonf/ d l d f f Hk ,ckjyrnfpum;jzifrum; taygif;vkuf tm,weo'´gjzifh &Ekiaom teufrsm;ukjd yonf/ h h l d d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

186

rSwfcsuf
1-xkrsupponfwYdkudk rSMD uaomaMumif-[laom þpum;ü (b0ifpwf tm0ZÆe;pdw[aom) reonf d f d h d f f l (raem'Gg&m0ZÆe;ESihf aZmpdw[aom) raem0dnmPftp½Sueaom pdwf apwoduwYdk \ edó,ypön; rjzpf? f f l d k f f f xkYd aMumifh xkd pdwf apwoduwYdk \ raem'Gg&tjzpfudk ,if;re\ rS&m edó,tjzpf[k rSwtyf\/ (#Dum)/ f D f

rSwfcsuf
1-tusOf;tm;jzifh ... emrfEihf ½kyrQomvQif jzpfue\-[k pyfyg/ S f k f 2-pu©K-rsufp½ytjzpfjzifh wlonfudk trsKd;Zmwf[k qkonf/ d k f d 3-taMumif;tjym;[lonf uHtp½Sonf\ tjym;aywnf;/ csJUíjytH?h 'geponf-ygPmwdygwponf d tjym;tm;jzifh uGjJ ym;aom ukovf tukovuH taMumif;\¤if; xku\ tultnDjzpfueaom twGi;tjyif dk dk f d H k f f taMumif;wkYd \¤if; tjym;tm;jzifh (tusKd;jzpfaom) pu©m,weonf uGjJ ym;jcm;em;ayonf/ i&Jtp ½Saom tjym; d onf¤if; tajcrJh owå0gponf\ *wdtuGtjym;onf¤if; *wdtjym;rnf\? *wdwYdk\tjym;ç *wdwYdk ütjym;-[k J 0pew¬ûyí odtyf\/ qiftaygif; jrif;taygif; paom edum,-trsKd;wl taygif;onf¤if;ç cwd,-rif;rsK;paom å d taygif;onf¤if; edum,tjym; rnf\/ xkxdk owå0g\ oEÅmeftjym;onf yk*Kd¾ vftjym; rnf\/ (#Dum) d

rSwfcsuf
1-okc 'ku© Oayu©m þokYd tp½Saom tjym;onf oabmtjym; rnf\/ rsufptawGUaMumifjh zpfaom d d a0'em em;tawGUaMumifh jzpfaoma0'em þokYd paom xl;jcm;jcif;onf emewå-xl;jcm;jcif; tjym;rnf\/ 2-þvufonf;uGi;twGi;½Sd pum;onf oAÁmed{0-ü {0-twGuf jyefqcsufjzpfonf/ t<uif;tusef f f dk r½Sonfudk odap&ef jzpfonf/ ygVdü tusK;rsm;aomfvnf; jrefrmpum;t&mürl tusK;rrsm;ay/ xkUd aMumifyif d d d h vufonf;uGi;jzifh jyxm;onf/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-oabmtxnfu,f vk;vk; ysufp;uG,aysmufom;onf[k qkv\/ dk H H D f G d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-oVm,we0*¾o,wygVdawmf jrefrmjyef ESm 377-8-wkYd ü Munfyg/ H k f 2-þü pum;acsmap&ef tenf;i,f jyifí jyefxm;onf/ ½S&if;twki;jyefvQif ]]rSeay\- þpum;ukd d d f f a[mawmfrtyfay\/ ]&[ef;wkYd rsufpudk ESpoufz,f rESpoufz,tqif;wkYd u ESypuftyf\} þokdYponf csJUí l d f G f G f d f odtyf\}}[lí jzpfonf/ 3-oVm,we0*¾o,wygVdawnf jrefrmjyef ESm 398-ü Munfhyg/ H k f

rSwfcsuf
1-oHo&mqif;&J trsKd;rsKd;wkYd \ taMumif;toD;toD;tjzpfjzifh uGjJ ym;Muonfudk qkonf/ avmukw&m d å "mwfwYdkonf oHo&mqif;&Judk rpD&ifwwf-rjzpfapwwfue?f pifppfrm zsuq;wwfue\? xkYd aMumifh avmuD"mwf k S f D k f wkYd [k txl;ûyí qkonf/ (#Dum)/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

187

rSwfcsuf
1-a½Tausmuf aiGausmuftp½Saom "mwfwYdk [onfrm a½TponfwYdk \ rsK;aphjzpfueaom ausmuf ponf d l S d k f wkYd aywnf;/ (#Dum)/ a½TreYf aiGreYf ponfyg0ifaom ausmuf"mwf ajr"mwf ponfwYdk uqonf/ I I dk dk 2-jzpfoifonfh tm;avsmfpm[l&mü tcsKdUq&mwkYd u ]]avmuD avmukw&m "mwfwYdk ü tMuif tMuif h G å teufonf jzpfoif\? xkteuftm;avsmfpm}}[laom teufudk zGique\/ xktqkonf roif?h taMumif;rSm h d G hf dk k f d d avmuD"mwfwYdkonf[k txl;ûyí qkNd yD;jzpfaomaMumifaywnf;/ pifppfaomfum; jzpfoifonfh tm;avsmpm [laom h h f G þpum;ukd teuftvktm;jzifom qkayonf? "mwftvktm;jzifqonf r[kway/ teufig;yg;vk;wkYd uyif pu©K d h d d h dk f H dk paom tvk;pkaom "mwfwYdk twGuf tu,fíum; tvk½tyfay\? okYd aomfvnf; pu©Kp onfwYdk wif tMuiftMuif H H d dS G w&m;twGuf uwåm;ukd qkvaomtcg uHtjzpfonf roif?h uHuqvaomtcg uwåm;tjzpfonfroif?h d dk dk dk dk <uif;aom u½kP;ponfwYdk üvnf; þtwlyif? xkYd aMumifh jzpfoifonftm;avsmpm[k qkayonf/ (#Dum) d f h f G d

rSwfcsuf
1-todÓPfonf "r®"mwfxrS tarm[apwoduyifjzpfonf? "mwf 18-yg;vk;yif odtyfaom aÚ,s J f H w&m;wkYd jzpfonf/ (#DumESitnDyif) hf

rSwfcsuf
1-tpmrS &o"mwfponf ajymif;vJjzpfyudk 0do'r*f-jrefrmjyef 'kw, wGEm (577)ü atmufajcrSwcsuf Hk k ¨d d J S f 3-4-wkYd udk Munfyg/ h 2-blw½kyf 4-yg;ESitmumoç 0dnmP"mwfwYdk udk "mwf 6-yg;[k qkdonf/ hf

rSwfcsuf
1-raem"mwfonf 'Gg&r[kwaomaMumifh ,if;u raem0dnmPftm; tb,foYdk aus;Zl;ûyaomtaMumif; f jzpfoenf;[k pOf;pm;zG,½\/ xkdtcsufudk #Dumü ½Si;vif;jyxm;onfrm-raem"mwf "r®"mwfwYdk\vnf; f dS f S raem0dnmPf\ taMumif;tjzpfudk jzpfoifonftm;avsmfpm ,SOaptyf\/ ud&,mraem"mwfonf oEÅ&P h G f d D tp½Saom raem0dnmPftm; Oyedó,tpGr;jzifh aus;Zl;ûy\? 0dygufraem"mwfonf 0dygufraem0dnmPftm; d f teEÅ& ponfjzifh aus;Zl;ûy\? 0ka|mtp½Saom tjcm;raem0dnmPftm; Oyedó,tpGr;jzifom aus;Zl;ûy\? d f h a0'emtp½Saom "r®"mwfonfwuG jzpfaom raem0dnmPftm; o[Zmw ponfjzif¤if;ç o[Zmw r[kwonfh d h f raem0dnmPftm; teEÅ&ponfjzif¤if;ç Oyedó,jzif¤if;ç tm&r®P ponfjzif¤if; aus;Zl;ûy\-þokYd jzpfoifonfh h h h l h tm;avsmfpm ,SOtyf\/ (þü o[Zmwm-to[ZmwmwkYd udk raem0dnmPf\ 0daooeûyí odv,atmif G f G f jyefxm;onf) wenf;um; 'Gg&jzpfaomre\ tpGr;tm;jzifh ,SOtyf\/ rSef\-'Gg& jzpfaom b0ifEihf f f S tm0ZÆe;reukvnf; okwwYdk ü raem"mwf[k a[mtyf\? xkYd aMumifh xk'g&raem"mwf\ raem0dnmPf\ f d f d G taMumif;tjzpfudk jzpfoihonftm;avsmfpm ,SOaptyf\/ (#Dum) f G f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

188

rSwfcsuf
1-oH,wygVd yXrwGJ ESm 364-ü ½Sd\/ k f 2-0dbif;ygVd ESm 88/ 'D 3? 181-ponfü ½Sd\/ 3-0dbif; 87/ r 3? 108-ü ½Sd\/ 4-oH,wf 3? 60-ü ½Sd\/ k 5-'D 3? 181-ü ½Sd\/ 6-'D 3? 190ü ½Sd\/ 7-r 3? 107/ 0dbif; 84-wkdYü ½Sd\/ 8-r 3/ 108-ü ½Sd\/

rSwfcsuf
1-'D 2? 225/ r 3? 108-wkdYü ½Sd\/ 2-½ly"mwf ponfEipyf\ [l&mü &m*\ wnf&mtm½ktjzpfjzifh ,ltyfaom tjcif;t&monf okb S hf H edrdwfyif [k ESvkH;oGif;í ]]½ly ponfwkdYyif}}[k rqkdrlí ]]pyf\}}[laom pum;ukd qkayonf/ (#Dum) d 3-&m*\ wnf&mtm½ktjzpf r½Sjd im;aomfvnf; ukov0dyguf\ tm½konf okb"mwfyif jzpfaomaMumifh H H (xkujdk y&ef) wenf;um; ponfjzifh 'kw,0duyfudk rdeYf qawmfronf/ (#Dum) d d dk l

rSwfcsuf
1-0d[om"mwf[onf apwemwnf;/ wenf; olwyg;ukd n§O;qJvaom qE´wnf;/ t0d[om"mwf ð l f dk ð [lonf oem;jcif; u½kPmyifwnf;/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-0dnmP"mwfonf 6-yg;om ½Sd\? okYd aomfvnf; xkd 0dnmP"mwf\ a½SUoGm; aemufvujf zpfaom dk raem"mwfuyg,lí 0dnmP"mwf ckepfyg;[k qkonf/ (#Dumukrí tusOf;jyonf) dk d d DS 2-pu©Kponf rsm;aom"mwfwYdk ½aomaMumifh rsm;aom"mwf½onf[í¤if;? pu©Kpaom "mwfwyg;yg;üyif dS dS l trsKd;rsKd; uGjJ ym;aomaMumifh trsKd;rsKd;aom "mwf½onf[í¤if; qkonf/ (#Dumukyif rSí tusOf;jyonf) dS l d d D

rSwfcsuf
1-twå0g'DwYdk onf owå0g wOD; wOD;\ twåudk wckwnf; tuGtjym; r½S[í¤if;? b,fawmhrS rysufyJ J d l wBuHwnf; tNrJwnfaeonf [lí¤if;? okYd r[kwf raorDtwGi; tNrJwnfaeonf[í¤if; ,lq ajymqkMd u\? h f l xkYd aMumifh xkowYdk u twå[k xifrwaom pdw0nmPf\rsm;jcif;uk¤if; rNrJjcif;uk¤if; jyjcif;onf ,if;wkYd \ d l S f f d d d ZD0onm twåpudk y,fEwEi&efjzpf\/ (#Dumukyif rSí csKH;jyonf/) JG I f dk f d D

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

189

rSwfcsuf
1-þü qkxm;ykudk axmufqí ]]yOö'g&m0ZÆe; orÜ#pKäd ef;}}[laom trnfrsm;onf t|uxmq&mrsm; d H G f d vufxufuyif ajyma[maeonfh a0g[m&jzpfaMumif; od&\/ 2-apwoducE¨mok;yg;ukd toD;toD;cGí 52-yg;a&wGuvQif 69-yg;jzpfonf/ f H J f

rSwfcsuf
1-ta&miftvif;rnfonf aea&mifponfyif/ ¤if;ukd okweenf;tm;jzifh Oyedó,ypön;jzpfonf[k å f f odtyf\? <uif;aomtayguftMum; ponfwYdk uvnf; enf;wlyif odtyf\/ tayguftMum; rnfonf txl; dk tm;jzifh em;aygufwnf;/ av[lonf teHYuo,faqmifvmaom avyif/ tmayg t&nftpkd[onf cHwi;ü dk l G f xnfvuonfh tpmukd pkapwwfaom a&yif/ yx0D[onf um,yom'\ rS&mjzpfaom yx0D"mwfyif/ h dk f d l D b0ifpwre [lonf ESpBf udrvyaom b0ifpwyif/ tm;vk;wkYd ü reodum& ESv;oGi;rI[onf tm0ZÆe; d f f I f d f H Hk f l f reodum& aywnf;/ (#Dum) 2-t|omvdet|uxm ESm 322-ü rS&m[',0w¬KESiwuG taMumif; 4-yg;yif jy\/ D D hf 3-t&mü ½S&if;twki;jyefvQif pum;xyfaeouJoYdk jzpfrnfaMumifh tusOf;csKH; jyefxm;onf/ d d f h

rSwfcsuf
1-y'krmMumtoGif xif&aom oif"e;pufuoYdk rde;rponf\ tjzpfjzifh xif&aom ½kyonfvnf; ® k f hJ f f txl;xl; tjym;jym;aom Oy'´a0gukd jzpfapwwf\/ (#Dum) "r®"mwfü yg0ifaom okcr½ky\ ½IrSwftyfaom k f tjcif;t&mukd jyaomt&mjzpfí £wdbm0½kyf ponfudk qkonf[k ,l&m\/ ¬ d

rSwfcsuf
1-yXr£a`E´ukd ... tenmwnómrDwa`E´[í ac:qktyf\-[k pyfyg/ d l d 2-tenmwH-rod&ao;onfudk + ÚómrDw-od&ayvdrrnf[k (&nfí usiormjzpfaom) + £`E´,d hf hf l S d £a`E´ = tenmwnómrDw`d E´,-tenmwnómrDwa`E´-rod&ao;onfudk od&ayvdrrnf[k &nf½,í d d hf G f usiorm jzpfaom£a`E´/ hf l S

rSwfcsuf
1-tm - odNyD; tyki;tjcm;tm;jzifh + Ó - odaom + £`E´, - £a`E´tnd`ED,-tnda`E´-odNyD; d f d ´ tyki;tjcm;jzifh odaom£a`E´/ d f 2-tnmwm0D-odNyD;aomol\ + £`E´,-£a`E´= tnmwm0d`E´,-tnmwm0da`E´-odjcif;udpö NyD;NyD;aom d D &[EÅm\ £a`E´/ 3-£E´Eihf £`E´onf teufwyif/ £`E´-yki½iuudk + £,-jywwfonfaom ur®Z½ky?f qkvonfrm S l d f S f H d dk S aumif;-raumif;aom ur®Z½kyrsm;ukd axmufqí ukovuH tukovuudk od&onf? xkoYdk odatmif ur®Z½kyf f dk f dk f H d rsm;u jywwfonf? wenf; ,if;½kyrsm;jzifh jy&onf-[k qkv\/ þtvktm;jzifh yki½iuudk jywwfonf? f d dk d d f S f H wenf; jyaMumif;jzpfonf[íom teuf&\? tpk;&onf[aom teufuum; r&ay/ £E´o|-[laom teuf l d l dk d tvktm;jzifvnf; yki½iuu jzpfaponf[aom teufuom&onf? tpk;&onf[aom teufuum; r&ay/ d h d f S f H l dk d l dk

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

190

rSwfcsuf
1-£`E´ - &[ef;wkYd \t½Sib&m; + £, - a[mtyf odtyf rS0tyfonf = £`E´, - £a`E´ - jrwfpm f k D J d G bk&m;u a[mtyf - odtyf - rS0tyfaomw&m;=þtvktm;jzifvnf; tpk;&onf[aomteufudk r&ay/ D J d h d l 2-þü jyoifaom t"dyg,fonf ESm-365? rSwcsuf 3-ü yg0ifavNyD/ h Ü f 3-£E´-£`E´t& uHu,&mü £`E´,jzifh ur®zvjzpfaom £a`E´wYdkuom ,SOap&m\/ £E´-£`E´t& dk l d dk f bk&m;ukd ,l&mü £a`E´ 22-yg;vk;ukd ,SOap&m\? þokYd ,SOoifovkd ,SOap&ef nTejf yonf/ H f f h f 4-þtzGitvktm;jzifh ur®Zr[kwaom tjcm;£a`E´rsm;onf £a`E´rrnf&maomaMumif¤if;? ted`E´, hf d f h d ur®Z½kywYdk vnf; £a`E´rnfoif&maomaMumif¤if; oHo,jzpfz,½\/ f h h G f dS

rSwfcsuf
1-þtzGirsm;tvktm;jzifh bk&m;yGiawmfrNl yD;rS £`E´,[laom a0g[m&jzpfay:vmouJoYdk ½S\? okYd aomf hf d hf d h d vnf; £`E´,[laom a0g[m&ukd bk&m;ryGiruyif ajymqko;pGvsuf½Sd\/ 'DCedum,f omrnzvokwü d hf D d Hk J f bk&m;ryGiru ay:aeMuaom *kP;q&mBuD; 6-a,mufwYdk wif tZdwauourÁv\0g'ü vlaoaomtcg hf D d f G todEiqiaom £a`E´rsm;aysmufom;aMumif;ukd ]]£`E´,med tmumoH ouFrEÅ-rsupem;paom £a`E´wYdkonf S hf dk f G d d f d tmumoxJoYdk ajymif;uke\}}[k jyqkxm;\/ xkYd jyif [dEL0g' jAm[®P0g'wkYd ü rsupd em; ESm vQm uk,f (wp) f d ´ f d wkYd udk Ak'a`E´(tod£a`E´) ig;yg;[lí¤if;? EIwf vuf ajc 0pör*f yóm0r*fwYdk udk ur®a`E´ (tvky£a`E´) ig;yg;[lí ¨d d f ¤if;? re[laom Ob,da`E´ (tod tvkyf 2-yg;vkH; £a`E´) 1-yg;[lí¤if; 11-yg;aom £a`E´wYdk udk ajymqko;pGJ d Hk Mu\/ xkYd aMumifh £`E´, [laom trnfonf bk&m;ryGiruyif £E´,ü ok;pGaeaom trnfjzpfaMumif; d hf D d H J xif½Sm;\/ xktrsm;od trnfjzifyif (ornH emwd"ma0,s) [lonfEitnD jrwfpmbk&m;u £a`E´rnfxuaom d h S hf G dk f (22)yg;aom w&m;wkYd udk tjynftpkxwazmfí a[mMum;awmfrconf[l í rSwotyfayonf/ xkYd jyif þt&mü h H k f l hJ f d £E´rnfaomuH £E´rnfaom bk&m;ESipyfí £`E´, rnfyudk jyqkjd cif;rSm o'´genf;tm;jzifh jzpfoifaomaMumifh hf d Hk h okwyGg;ap&eftwGuom jyqkjd cif; jzpfonf[ívnf; rSw,&m\/ xkYd aMumifyif £`E´,o'´g\ vk&if;teufudk f l f l h d d jy&ef tyd p-ponfjzifh toifavsmfq; teufuvnf; jyqkawmfrcayonf/ h Hk dk d l hJ

rSwfcsuf
1-tydp-\ teufjzpfonf/ þenf;t& teufonfum; oHo,jzpfz,r½Sd ckiv\? aemufüjyrnfh udpö G f d f Hk a0zefcsufEivnf; ukun\? £`E´,ypön; a'oemESivnf; avsm\/ xkYd aMumifh (toif,wdå tjynfht0 S hf d f D d f hf f h k ½Sonf) [laom 0daooeukyg jznfpuí jyefvuonf/ þ teuf tzGit&tm;jzifh £E´ç £`E´ç £`E´, [laom d h d h G f dk f hf d o'´gok;ckv;ukyif teuft& wlonf[k rSw,&m\/ H Hk d f l

rSwfcsuf
1-NyD;aptyfaom ... rdr\ ... tjcif;t&mokdY-[k pyfyg/ d 2-ponfjzifh ... tpOfvuapjcif;-[k pyfyg/ dk f 3-w&m;wkYd udk ... tpOfvuapjcif;-[líyif pyfyg/ dk f 4-ponf qktyfaom ... tjcif;t&m-[k pyfyg/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

191

rSwfcsuf
1-ou'g*grdr*f tnda`E´\ umr&m* Asmyg'wkYd udk acgif;yg;apjcif;? tem*grdr*f tnda`E´\ ¤if;wkYd udk t<uif;rJh y,fjcif;? t&[wår*f tnda`E´\ ]ponf}t& usefoa,mZOfwYdkudk y,fjcif;-[k ok;yki;cGí ,l&m\/ H H d f J

rSwfcsuf
1-0dñem omoeuúar-[laom 2-yk'wYdk \ teufjzpfonf/ omoeuúar-yk'udk ww¬Eihf t&wl aygif;í k f f S vnf; teuf jyefMu\/ okYd aomf xkEpy'wYdk tvSr;a0;aomaMumif¤if;ç tm,weuxm ponfwYdk ü ww¬tpGEihf d S f k f f h J S nDapoifaomaMumif¤if; þü txufygtwki;jyefonf/ opöa'oemü uRrf;usifaom ynm ½S[onfudk þ h h d f d l tzGiü jyxm;onftwki; avhvmí uRrf;usifrnfynm½Sudk ,l&m\/ hf h d f h d 2-tenxm [lonfum; tjcm;tjcif;t&mrS uif;uke\ rESypufwwfjcif; tp½Saom tjcif;t&mrS f d f d qdwue\/ (#Dum) f k f

rSwfcsuf
1-teufoabmwkdYukd ... odtyfukef\-[k pyfyg/ 2-uk,qif;&J pdwqif;&J tjzpfjzif¤if;ç xkqif;&JEprsKd;\ taMumif;tjzpfjzif¤if; wnfjcif;onf yDVe|d f f h d S f h ESypufjcif; oabm rnf\/ (#Dum) tjzpftysufwYdk jzifh ESypufjcif;ukvnf; yDVe|-ü twGi;0ifonf[k ,loif\/ d f d f d f h 3-uk,qif;&J pdwqif;&J tjzpfwYdk jzif¤if;ç xkqif;&J\ taMumif;tjzpfjzif¤if; ylavmifapjcif;onf d f f h d h oEÅmy| rnf\? wenf; udavomtylwYdkEihf ,SOapjcif;onf oEÅmy|rnf\/ (#Dum) S f 4-teufoabm 4-yg;wkYd wif yDVe|onf 'kuopöm\ olUoabm&if;jzifyif xif½m;aom tjcif;t&m G © h S aywnf;? useo;yg;onf ork',r*¾ eda&m"wkYd udk jrifjcif;wkYd jzifh tpOftwki; xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd f Hk d f S aywnf;/ (#Dum) 'kuudk ½Iqifjcifcuü yDVe| xifay:\? ork',ukd jrifaomtcg ¤if;ESipyfí qifjcifMunfvQif © dk f hf h ocFw|xif½m;\? tb,faMumifenf;-y#doaE¨rpí wPSmork',aMumifh jzpfaom w&m;rsm; jzpfaomaMumifyif/ S h h S h r*¾\ udavom tylNidr;apykudk jrifaomtcg 'ku\ oEÅmy| xif½m;\? eda&m"\ rysufjcif;ukd jrifaomtcg f H © S 'ku\ azmufjyefysup;jcif; 0dy&dPmr| xif½m;\-[k qkv\/ © f D S d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-xkxtm½kH xkxb0ü ESpoufaysmfarGUonf\ tpGrf;tm;jzifh (tm+OD[eH) jyefYEYHSí BuHjcif;onf d dk d dk f (&modu&PH) qif;&Jtpkudk ûyjcif;onf 'kuudk jzpfapjcif;onf tm,l[ernf\? (qif;&Judk ESpoufjcif;ukyif © f d ,if;ukd aygif;pk,ouJoYdk jzpfaomaMumifh þokYd qkayonf? qif;&Jjzpfatmif ESpoufjcif;-tm;xkwjf cif;yif l h d f jzpfonf)/ wenf; ork',rSvmaomaMumifh tm,rnfaom 'kuudk (OD[eH y0wåe) jzpfapjcif;onf tm,l[e © H rnf\/ þ tm,l[eonf olUyifuoabmjzifyif xif½m;aom tjcif;t&maywnf;/ (#Dum) dk h S 2-r*f&jcif;ukd wm;jrpfjcif;onf 0g-r*fr&atmif wm;jrpfjcif;onf yvdaAm"|aywnf;/ þ ed'ge| oHa,m*| yvdaAm"|wkYd onf 'kuea&m"r*¾wYdk udk jrifjcif;wkYd jzifh xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd aywnf;/ (#Dum) © d S (tqkd 2-&yfaygif; jyvkuonf) d f 3-edó&P|onf eda&m"\ yifudk oabmjzifh xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mjzpfonf/ 0da0u tocFw S trw|wkYd onf ork', r*¾ 'kuudk jrifjcif;jzifh xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd aywnf;/ (#Dum) © S

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

192

rSwfcsuf
1-ed,sme|onf r*¾\ olUyifuoabmjzifh xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mjzpfonf/ a[wk 'óe tm"dy dk S aw,s|wkYd onf ork', eda&m" 'kuwYdk udk jrifjcif;wkYd jzifh xif½m;aom tjcif;t&mwkYd aywnf;/ (#Dum) þ 16© S yg;aom teufoabmwkYd xif½m;ykEihf pyfí tbd"r®w¬ o*F[ usrf;\tzGihf oacFy0PÖem#Dumü atmufyg S H S *gxmukd jyqkxm;onf/ d yXrH ouvu©Paruy'H? 'kw,m'dy'}ó ed'óeawm/ d oreD 'kerm or'l oed'?l 0dbaZ urawm yXare 0dem/ d yXrH {uy'H-yDVe|paom yXrwyk'f wyk'onf? tó-xkopöm av;yg;\? ouvu©P-toD; f d H toD;aom olUvu©Pmjyyk'f aywnf;/ yXare 0dem-yXr yk'udk MuOfí? 'kw,m'dy'H-'kw,yk'f ocFw| paom f d d ok;yk'f ok;yk'u?dk urawm-tpOftwki;? oreD-ork', r*¾ eda&m" wkYd u¤if;? 'kerm-'ku© eda&m" r*¾wYdk u¤if;? H H f d f dk d dk or'l-ork', r*¾ 'kuwYdk u¤if;? oed'-ork', eda&m" 'kuwYdku¤if;? ed'óeawm-jrifjcif;tm;jzif?h 0dbaZ© dk l © dk a0befí od&m\/ 2-tbdor,| t&onf yDVe| paom a½SUteuf oabmav;yg;yifjzpfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-þtzGihf tvktm;jzifh 'ku-yk'fü pufqkyfzG,f tcsnf;ESD;tcsnf;ESD; pufqkyfzG,f[k teuf & xk\ d © \? d qefYusibuf okc-yk'üvnf;aumif;aom tcsn;ES; tcsnf;ES; taumif;-[k teuf&&m\/ okYd jzpfvQif edAmeH f f f D D Á y&rH okc?H oEÅoc-[l&mwkYd üvnf; xkteufyif&&m\? þokYd pOf;pm;a0befMunfvQif þteuftzGiü oHo, d k H d h hf jzpfz,½\/ xkYd aMumifh okwyGg;&eftwGuom jyxm;jcif; jzpfonf[k ,l&m\/ avmuü okc 'ku© [laom G f dS f a0g[m&wkYd onf tvGeyif xif½m;uke\? aumif;jcif;-csrf;om[laom tvk½tyfaom oabmukd okc[kac:Mu\? f S f d dS raumif;jcif;-qif;&J[aom tvkr½Styfaomoabmukd 'ku[k ac:Mu\/ þt&mü raumif;jcif; qif;&J[aom l d d © l tvkr½Styfaom teuf oabmom vk&if;jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifyif Zmwd ponf 'kurnfaMumif; jy&mü d d d h © raumif;jcif;-qif;&J[aom þ teufuom jyxm;ayonf/ l dk

rSwfcsuf
1-þ tzGionfvnf; okwyGg;&ef twGuom jzpf&m\/ {0arwó au0vó 'kuuEó ork' a,m hf f © © ¨ a[mwd? ork',"r®mEkyóD? tmo0ork',m t0dZm ork'a,m-tp½Saom ygVdwYdk ü ork',o'´gonf jzpfjcif; Æ d teuf jzpfaMumif;teufudk a[maMumif; xif½m;\/ xkYd aMumifh þt&mü jzpfyg;aMumif;[laom teufom vk&if; S G d jzpfonf[k rSw,&m\/ f l 2-xkYd aMumifh (oHo&maESmiftrudk 'kua&m"[k qktyf\)[k tjynftpkqoifaomfvnf; xif½m;aom d f © d h H dk h S aMumifh vufonf;uGi; twGi;½Sd pum;rsm;ukd jr§Kyfxm;onf/ f f

rSwfcsuf
1-ed-r½Sd + a&m" - axmif = eda&m" - 'kuaxmifr½S/ 'ku-qif;&J\+eda&m"axmifr½Sd = 'kuea&m"© d © © d 'ku\ axmifr½S&m-'kuaxmifr½S&m-[k oifavsmfatmif teufjyef&m\/ © d © d h 2-'ku-qif;&J\+eda&m"-axmifr½SaMumif;-uif;aMumif;w&m; = 'kuea&m"-'ku\ axmifuif;aMumif; © d © d © -'ku© axmifuif;aMumif; w&m;[k oifavsmatmif teufjyef&m\/ þ teuf 2-ckwYdkü 'kuEihf eda&m" ormof h f © S wGpyfNyD;aomtcg ed-yk'udk ausmfí 'kuEihf a&m"-yk'wYdk udk waygif;wnf;qufpyfí ,l&jcif;onf o'´genf; J f © S f tm;jzifh racsmvSay/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

193

3-þ aemufq;tzGiü eda&m" o'´gonfum; ed a½S;½Sdaom ½k"-"mwfjzifh NyD;aom o'´gjzpfonf? ,w¬ Hk hf pu©K p ed½ZÑwd ½lyonm p ed½ZÑwd? ao tm,wae a0'dwaAÁ-paom ygVdwYdk Eivnf; nDnway\/ xkd yk'f\ k k S hf G f teufxü ]]rjzpfjcif;[laom csKyfjcif;}}[laom pum;jzifh csKyfjcif;[lonfrm rjzpfjcif;yif[k odap\/ xkYd aMumifh J S 'kuea&m"-'ku\ csKyfjcif;-csKyf&m-csKyfaMumif; w&m;[k teufjyef&m\/ © d ©

rSwfcsuf
1-'kuea&m" - 'ku\ csKyf&mokYd + *grdeD - oGm;a&mufaom + y#dy'g-(yk*Kd¾ vf\) a&mufaMumif; © d © tusifjh zpfaom t&d,opöm/ r*¾opömonf olu,wiu edAmefoYdk tm½kûH yaomtm;jzifh oGm;a&muf\? olUukd dk f dk f Á yGg;apaom yk*Kd¾ vf\ edAmefa&mufaMumif; tusivnf; jzpf\? xkYd aMumifh 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'g rnfayonf/ Á hf © d 2-t&d,-t&d,mwkYd odtyfaom+opö-opöm=t&d,opö-t&d,mwkYd odtyfaomopöm-trSew&m;/ f 3-t&d,-jrwfpmbk&m;\+opö-opöm-trSew&m;=t&d,opö-jrwfpmbk&m;\ opöm-trSew&m;/ G f G f

rSwfcsuf
1-tbdorÁK'¨wm-xk;xGi;í odNyD;onf\ tjzpfaMumif-[k twdtusjyefvQif NyD;aomaMumif-[laom å d f h h [dwEihf eD;uyfaeaomaMumifh jrefrmpum;racsm? xkYd aMumifh vu©Pteufjzifh vJv,íjyefonf/ f S S f 2-t&d,-t&d,mtjzpfudk NyD;apwwfaom 0g-t&d,m jzpfapwwfaom+opö-opöm-trSew&m; = t&d, f opö-t&d,m jzpfapwwfaom opöm-trSew&m;/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-'ku'uac: uk,pw\ qif;&Jjcif;ESihf xkqif;&JjzpfaMumif; edrwtjzpfonf ESypufjcif;rnf\/ © k © d f d f d d f d f wenf; jzpfjcif; ysujf cif;jzifh rjywfEypufwwfonf\tjzpfonf ESypufjcif;rnf\/ (#Dum) 'kuopömu dS f d f © uk,pw\ qif;&Jjcif;jzifvnf; ESypufwwf\? xkqif;&Jrsm;ukd jzpfapvsuvnf; ESypufwwf\/ jzpfjcif; d f d f h d f d f d f ysujf cif;jzifvnf; ESypufwwf\-[k qkv\/ h d f d dk 2-b0ponfwYdkü Zmwdponf\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if;ç rsufpa&m*gponf\ tpGr;tm;jzif¤if; rsm;aom f h d f h tjym;tm;jzifh qif;&Judk jzpfapjcif;onfyif yk*Kd¾ vfudk ylavmifapjcif; rnf\/ (#Dum) oEÅmy| t&mü zGicaom hf hJ teufuvnf; þü ,loif\/ dk h 3-oHo&mac: y0wå(rjywfjzpfaejcif;)ESihf 0darmu© (vGwajrmufjcif;) ac: ed0wdwYdkwif rjywfjzpfae d f å G jcif;oabmjzpfí (oabmtjzpfjzif) ,ltyf-odtyf\? xkYd aMumifh txufygtwki; qkayonf/ (#Dum) h d f d 4-tMuifwPSmrS qif;&Jonf pí jzpfc\? a½S;b0ESihf aemufb0onf rjywfpyfvsuf jzpfae\? xkt&if; hJ d rlvwPSmonf yb0-trGef tptaMumif;rnf\/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-]]wPSmtEko,ukd ry,f rEIwtyfao;vQif þqif;&J'uonf tzefzefjyefíjzpf\}}[k a[mawmfrl f k © onftwki; ('kuu)tzefzefjzpfapjcif;onf 'kurjywfpatmifûyjcif;rnf\/ (#Dum) h d f © dk © J 2-b0rSxuajrmufjcif;ukd wm;jrpfjcif;onf yvdaAm" rnf\/ (#Dum) a½S;yvdaAm"|-\ tzGiuvnf; G f hf dk jyefMunfyg/ h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

194

3-wPSmukejf cif; ponf\tjzpfjzifh (oAÁ'uoEÅwm) qif;&Jtm;vk;\ Nidr;onf\tjzpfonf 0gk © H f Nidr;jcif;onf oEÅrnf\/ (#Dum) ore-Nidr;jcif; oEÅ-Nidr;jcif;? udavomqif;&J 0#fqif;&Jtm;vk;\ Nidr;jcif; f d f d f H f ukyif oEÅvu©Pm[k qkonf/ d d d 4-tpöKwd&oEÅd tpöKwdorÜwu?H tp0eudpHö 0g/ (#Dum)þü udp[onfrmvnf; a½GUavsmrI aoysufrI åd ö l S r½Sjd cif;ukd udpuoYdk ûyí y&d,m,ftm;jzifh qkonf/ (#Dumyif) ö hJ d 5-cE¨mig;yg;[laom edrwuif;onf\ tjzpfaMumifh (t0d*[H [kwm) txnfj'Af ykoP²mef uif;onf d f ¾ G H jzpfí ,ltyf-odtyfaomaMumifh txufygtwki; qkonf/ (#Dum) d f d

rSwfcsuf
1-tEko,udavomwkYd udk t<uif;rJh y,fjzwfjcif;aMumifh oHo&maESmiftrrS xGuajrmufaMumif; tjzpf d f f onf ed,sme (xGuajrmufaMumif;)rnf\/ (#Dum) f 2-tvk;pkaom udavomwkYd udk rjzpfapjcif;[laom csKyfapjcif;onf udavomy,fjcif;ukd ûyjcif;rnf\/ H H (#Dum) 3-ocFg&tm½k[aom edrwr¤if;ç rjywfjzpfaeaom tusKd;0dyguftpOfr¤if; pdw\ xjcif;jzpfí ,ltyf H l d f S S f aomaMumifh 0k|meypöKy|me rnf\/ (#Dum) þü ocFg&tm½kudk ½Iae&mrS r*fpwjf zpfaomtcg ¤if;ukd tm½krûybJ H d H edAmef tm½kûH yonfudk edrwrS xonf[k qkonf? ork',ukd y,faomtm;jzifh aemiftcgjzpfrnfh tusKd;0dyguf cE¨m Á d f d tpOfy,fjcif;ukd rjywfjzpfaeaom tusKd;0dyguftpOfrS xonf[qonf/ k dk

rSwfcsuf
1-a½Tr[kwygbJ a½TuoYdk xif&aom rsufvnonf 0w¬K½S\? xkYd aMumifh ,if;rsuvn\ azmufjyef f hJ S hf d f S hf rSm;,Gi;onf\tjzpfudk qkonf/ a&uJoYdk xif&aom wHvyonfum; csOf;uyfowYdk tm; tcsnf;ES; jzpf\? ,if; f d h S f l D wHvy\ 0w¬Kukaomfvnf; rawGU&? xkYd aMumifh ,if;ukd cRwf,i;apwwfonf[k qkonf/ wHvyf rsufvnhf twå S f d G f d S S wkYd rS ajymif;jyefjzpfaom oabmonf (wpäm0dy&Dwblwbm0) rSeonf\tjzpf razmufjyefonf\tjzpf t[kwf f ½Sdonf\tjzpf rnf\? 0g-rSeaom razmufjyefaom t[kw½aomoabm rnf\/ (#Dum) f f dS 2-tjym;tm;jzifh rSeonf\tjzpf-ponfjzifh teD;üyif pyfí,lyg/ f 3-]]jzpfjcif;oabm ½Sue\? tkjd cif;oabm ½Sue\? aojcif;oabm½Sue\}}[k a[mxm;aomjzpfjcif; d k f d k f d k f ponfonf avmuyuwd-avmu\ yifudk oabmaywnf;/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-(£'ar0 opö) þt,lom rSe\? (armCrnH) tjcm; t,lonf tcsn;ES;om[kjzpfaom 'd|onf H f f D d rSeonf[k NrJNrHpm ESv;oGi;í jzpfjcif;aMumifh 'd|opöm rnf\/ (#Dum) f G Hk f d 2-edAmefudk y&rw¬opöm[k pmtrsm;wkYd ü ysufvsuf½\? pdwf apwoduf ½ky-[laom tjcm; y&rw¬ Á dS f opömwkdYESifh w ;wl jzpfaeaomaMumifroif/ y&ropöm-[k ½SrS tjrwfq;opöm[k teuf&aomaMumifh *kPajrmuf ef h h d Hk f ayonf/ y&r-tjrwfq;opömjzpfaMumif; #Dumü zGijhf yxm;onfrm ]]edAmefonf rysup;jcif; oabm½Sonf\ Hk S Á f D d tjzpfaMumifh (y&ropö)tjrwfq;opöm rnf\/ (þüvnf; y&rw¬opö-[k ysufvsuf½Sd\)rSe\-](tarmo"r®) H Hk H f H rysufp;jcif; oabm½Saom edAmefudk opöm-trSew&m;[k t&d,mwkYd odMu\}[k okweygwf 'G,wmEkyóem D d Á f å d okwü a[mxm;ayonf/ xkeAmefu¤if; ,if;okYd a&mufapwwfaom r*fu¤if; xk;xGi;odjcif;onf tjiif;tckH f d d Á dk dk d f uif;jcif;\taMumif;aywnf;? xkYd aMumifh edAmefEihf r*f ESpyg;vk;ukvnf; ]]trSef (opöm)onf wyg;wnf;om½S\? Á S f H d d ESpcajrmuf r½Say? ,if;trSew&m;ü 0g-trSew&m;ukd odaom t&d,m yk*Kd¾ vfonf rjiif;ckawmhay}}[laom f k d f f H þ*gxmü ]]opöm}}[k a[mawmfrl (tyf)\}} (#Dum)/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

195

rSwfcsuf
1-jrwfpmbk&m;onf ... tMuifw&m;wkYd udk a[mawmfr\-[kpyfyg/ G l

rSwfcsuf
1-ba0 tm*awm ]]b0ü vm\}}[k jyefoif&mü okwenf;olwYdk em;vnfv,ap&ef ]]b0ukd a[m\}}[k h G f y&d,m,fwyg;jzifh ajymif;vJí jyefonf? aemufüvnf; tvm;wly'wYdkudk enf;wlyif jyefxm;onf/ k f 2-þü Zmw\ teufuyif t&wlaomaMumifh Zmwd\ teuf[k qkonf/ dk d

rSwfcsuf
1-þüvnf; cE¨mwkYd ü-[k jyefoif&mü odv,ap&ef txufygtwki;jyefonf/ h G f d f 2-wckaom b0ü a½S;OD;pGm jzpfaom ½kyf emrfcE¨mwkYd udk y#doaE¨cE¨mwkYd [k qkonf? þtqkonfvnf; d d rkcsr[kwao;? xkYd aMumifh tjcm;rJü qufí ½Si;jyonf/ f h f 3-wckaomb0ü a½S;OD;pGm jzpfMuaom cE¨mwkYd \ jzpfq-Oyg'fonfomvQif rkcstm;jzifh Zmwd-topfjzpf J jcif; rnfonf[jk y\/

rSwfcsuf
1-okca0'emonf olaysmufu,om;aomtcg olUukd atmufarhí raeomrIudk jzpfapwwf\? Oyrm G f G ypön;aygrsm;aomolrm xkypön;rsm; aysmufysufom;vQif qif;&J&ouJoYdk ¤if;? om; r,m;ponf ta>ct&Hjzifh f S d f G h csr;omaeaomolrm xkta>ct&Hrsm; ysup;uGumoGm;vQif qif;&J&ouJoYdk¤if; jzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh 0dy&dPmr f S d f D J G h 'ku[qonf/ © k dk

rSwfcsuf
1-2-umrbkH ½lybkH t½lybk[aom bko;yg;wkYd ü twGi;0ifaom ½kyemrfw&m;wkYd udk awblruocFg& H l H Hk f f w&m;[k ac:onf/ þt&mü okcESihf 'kuwYdk udk toD;tjcm;'kursm;tjzpf jyxm;aomfvnf; ¤if;wkYd onf jzpfjcif; © © ysujf cif;\ tESypufcMH u&aomaMumifh þocFg&'kuü twGi;0ifMuonfom/ d f © f

rSwfcsuf
1-xkqif;&JwYdk wif ... 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumif-[k pyfyg/ y&d,m,'kuj© zpfaomaMumif[k qkvonf/ d G h h d dk 2-þZmwdonf ... 0w¬KjzpfaomaMumifh qif;&Jrnf\-[k pyfyg/ 3-jrwfpmbk&m;onfaomfvnf; tyg,fqif;&JwYdkudk ukeatmif ra[mEki?f Oyrmjzifom a[mawmfr&onfG f d h l H [laomteufudk ]]aomfvnf;}}[laom pum;jzifh jy\/

rSwfcsuf
1-xkoi,ftm; awGa0aom uk,0ef½aom rdcif\-[k jyefoif&mü odv,ap&ef txufygtwki;jyifí d l d f dS h G f d f jyefxm;onf/ rD;rzGg;Ekiojzifh om;tdrXmeü jzwfjcif; cGjJ cif;-[k pyfyg/ d f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

196

rSwfcsuf
1-þüvnf; odv,ap&ef tenf;i,fjzpfí jyefxm;onf/ G f 2-y#doaE¨pw\ tjcm;rJü yXrb0ifpwrpí pkwwiatmif wb0vk; 0dyguf ½kyemrfcE¨mwkYd \ rlv&if; d f h d f S d dk f H f uHaMumifh jzpfNrJyifrjywf jzpf&mumvukd y0wåumv-[kac:onf/ þüum; zGg;jrifNyD;onfrS aemufumvukd d y0wåumv[k qkonf/ d d

rSwfcsuf
1-tapvuusi0wf[onf t0wfr0wfyJ uk,w;vk;aejcif; w&ufjcm; ESp&ufjcm; ponfjzifh pm;jcif; hf l d f Hk H f ckepf&ufjcm; pm;jcif; ponfyif? ,if;usi0wfudk bk&m;vufxufu ed*P²y&dAZwYdk usiMhf u\? ,ckacwfü hf dk f *se;bmom0ifwYdk usiMhf u\/ d f 2-y&dwmyemEka,m*-\ teufjzpfonf? tvGetuRH usifonfudk ,ltyf\/ f h

rSwfcsuf
1-½kyf\ Z&mr&Pukd ½lyu©Emjzif¤if;? emrfcE¨mav;yg;wkYd \ Z&mr&Pukd ocFg&u©E¨mjzifh¤if; þokdY 2-yg; ¨ h aom cE¨mwkYd jzifh a&wGutyfonf[k qkv\/ f d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-oaAÁ bm,EÅd rpöKaem-[laom a'oemawmfEitnD a'goruif;ao;aomolwi; aojcif;ukd S hf dk f aMumufMu\/ xkoYdk aMumufz,aumif;í tvkr½Styfaom oabmjzpfaomaMumifvnf; r&Paojcif;onf 'ku© d G f d d h rnfonf [lívnf; qkoif\/ xkYd twlyif tkjd cif;ukvnf; aMumufz,aumif;aomaMumifh 'ku© rnfonf[í d h d G f l vnf;qkoif\/ d h

rSwfcsuf
1-ponft&jzifh abm*Asoe-pnf;pdrOpöm\ ysup;jcif;? a&m*Asoe-a&m*gqk;pGuyfEypufjcif;? f f D d J dS f oDvAsoe-oDvysup;jcif;? 'd|Asoe-t,lazmufjyefysup;jcif;wkYd Eihf 'ku"r®-owfjcif; aESmifzUJG jcif; tp½Saom f D d f D S © d qif;&JaMumif; trIwYdk udk odr;,lonf/ f

rSwfcsuf
1-aemufü jyvwHaom a'greóESihf w&m;uk,tm;jzifh wlaomfvnf; þaomuonf a'greó txl; h d f jzpfaomaMumifh toD;tjcm;vu©Pmponfudk jyonf[k qkv\/ d dk 2-ukuKú pöujdk y&müvnf; tEkaompe&o ½Sonf[k jyqkc\/ þt&müvnf; tEkaompeypöKy|mef d d hJ ½Sonf[k qkjd yef\? xktEkaompe 2-yg; tb,foYdkx;jcm;oenf;[k pOf;pm;zG,½aomaMumifh #Dumü jyxm; d d l f dS onfrm=ûyrdaomtukovf rûyrdaomukovvQif tm½k½aom ESv;romonfh tjcif;t&mjzifjh zpfaom (tEk S dk dk f H dS Hk aompeH) jyefvnfqifjcifí pk;&dryyefjcif;onf ukuKú pöaywnf;? ÓwdAsoeponfvQif tm½k½aom pdw\ d f l H dS f ylyefjcif; oufoufjzpfaom (tEkaompeH) jyefvnfqifjcifí pk;&dryaqG;jcif;onf aomuaywnf;? þonfum; d f l xkd 2-yg;wkdY\ xl;jcm;csuaywnf;/ (#Dum) f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

197

rSwfcsuf
1-orÇrypöKy|maem-yk'\teuf jzpfonf? ika<u;aom pum;oHonf xyfum xyfum tzefzef ywfcsm f d vnfvsuf jzpfaeaMumif; tvGeyifxif½m;ay\? xkYd aMumifh yXrteufudk rdr\ oabmustm;jzifh jyefonf? f S d 'kw,teufrm jynfeó,ü jyefxm;aom 'kw,teufjzpfonf? ,if;onf tEk#umtzGiudk rSíjyef[ef½Sd\? d S d d D hf D rlv#DumESitnD xkeó,ü jyefxm;aom yXrteufurl todcufaomaMumifh þü rjyyJ csefxm;onf/ hf d d dk tvkd½Sdygu xkd edó,ukd Munfhyg/ 2-bda,sm-[lonfum; aomu'kurS txufü/ rSe\ y&da'0onf aomuaMumifh jzpfonf/ (#Dum) © f aomuaMumifh ika<u;&onf? ika<u;onftwGuf aomu'kutjyif tqkygqif;&Judk &jyefonf[k qkv\/ d d h © d d dk xkYd aMumifh bda,smukd aemufxyf-[k jyefonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-pdw"mwfusqif;jcif;tm;avsmjh cif;ukd pdw\ epfusjcif;[lí¤if; xkoYdk pdw"mwfusaomtcg uk,\ f f d f d f tm;avsmjh cif; EGr;e,fyifyef;jcif;ukd uk,\ epfusjcif;[lí¤if; ,lí xkoYdk aomepfusjcif;ukd Oyg,mo-u f d f d jzpfaponftaejzifh ÓPftm;xifonf[k ,l&m\/ h

rSwfcsuf
1-AsoeypöKy|maem-yk'\ teufjzpfonf? aqGrsKd;cspfowYdk Eihf aoysufí jzpfapç raorysufyjJ zpfap f l S uGumjcif;ukd þt&mü ÓwdAsoe[lí¤if;ç pD;yGg;Opömysufp;í uGumjcif;ukd abm*Asoe[lí¤if; ,l&m\/ #Dumü J G D J G um; Asoeukd Oy'´0-[k zGijhf yxm;\/

rSwfcsuf
1-£pdw-rdrtvk½tyfaom wpkwcku+tvmb-r&jcif;onf=£pdwmvmbrnf\/ rSef\-]],rÜdpäH e ä d d dS H dk ä vbwd}}[k a[mxm;ayonf/ (#Dum) þ#Dum tvktm;jzifh £pä-tvkudk 0g-tvk½tyfonfu?dk ,H e vbwdd H d d dS tMuifr&? xkr&jcif;onfvnf; 'kuaywnf;-[k teufjyef&m\/ txufygbmomjyefü tqkrmrl ]],Ho'´gonf d © d S £pä[aomxky'udk iJaomtcg r&jcif;jziftxl;ûytyfaom tvkuqonf}}[laom rlv#Dum ESitnDjzpfonf? H l d k f h h d dk dk hf xkrv#Dum tvktm;jzifh ]],rÜ£päH tMuiftvkuvnf;? e vbwd-r&-0g-tvkdtwki; rjzpf? wrÜ-r&Ekiaom d l d d d dk d f d d f xktvkonfvnf; 0g-r&Ekiwmukd vkcsifaom xktvkonfvnf;? 'ku-qif;&Jaywnf;}}[k teufjyef&m\/ d d d f d d d H© þteuft& r&Ekiwmukd vkcsifjcif;ukyif 'ku[qonf/ xkYd jyif rlv#Dumü ,H-o'´gu e vbwd-ukd iJaom d f d d © k dk h tcg ]]£päH-tvkd½Sdygvsuf? ,rÜd e vbwd-tMuifr&? wrÜ-vkcsifygvsuf xkr&jcif;onfvnf;? 'ku-'ku© d d d H© aywnf;}}[k teufjyefí vkcsifrjI zifh txl;ûytyfaom r&jcif;ukd 'ku-[k qktyfaMumif;ukvnf; jyqk\/ okYd jzpf d © d d d vQif xkr&jcif;ukd 'ku[k t|uxmü tb,faMumifh rjyoenf;[lr- xkr&jcif;rSm y&rw¬oabmtm;jzifh d © h l d o½kyw&m;uk,f r½SaomaMumifh vu©Pmponfjzifh rjyEki?f xkYd aMumifh xkr&jcif;ukd 'ku[k rjyrlí vu©Pm f d d d d © ponfjzifh jyEkiaom £päm-tvkuomvQif 'ku[k jyaMumif;ukvnf; rlv#Dumü ½Si;jyxm;\/ owdy|meokwf d f d dk © d f tzGihf t|uxmürl ]],rÜpHä [lonfum; tMuifvcsifjcif; oabmjzifh r&Ekiaumif;aom 0w¬Kukd vkcsiygvsuf r&? d dk d f d f r&Ekiaom 0w¬Kukd xkvcsifjcif;onfvnf; 'kuaywnf;}}[k r&Ekionfuvcsifonfh wPSmukyif 'ku[k d f d dk © d f dk dk d © zGijhf yxm;\/ þt&mü wPSmonf ork',opöm jzpfygvsuf tb,faMumifh 'ku[k qkoenf;-[k apm'emzG,f h © d ½Sd\/ ,ckb0ü jzpfaom ½kyemrf[orQonf a½S;b0u NyD;cJaom wPSmvQif taMumif;&if; ½SaomaMumifh 'kuü f l h d © twGi;0if\? xkYd aMumifh r&Ekionfudk vkcsifonfwPSmukyif 'ku-[k qkonf [lí rSw&m\/ or®morÁK'¨ f d f d h d © d f *kPawmftzGihf t|uxmwkYd ü y#dporkyg'f t*FgtoD;toD;wkYd ü opömav;yg;jzifh a0befíodyudk nTejf yxm;\? f ö Ü Hk xkoYdk nTejf y&mü a0'emypö,m wPSm-ukd a0befaomtcg wPSmu 'kuopöm a0'emu ork',opöm[k a0bef d © &\/ xka0befyuvnf; 'mxl; owdûyí rSwom;&m\/ d Hk dk f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

198

rSwfcsuf
1-a½SUESm rSwcsufü jycJonftwki; £pdwmvmbonf o'´geuftm;jzifh vkcsifwm&jcif;yifjzpfonf? f h h d f ä d okYd aomf xkr&jcif;rSm y&rw¬tm;jzifh w&m;uk,r½SaomaMumifh ,if;ukd 'kuopöm-[k rqkxu?f xkYd aMumifh d d f d © d dk xky'jf zifh qkvonfrm r&Ekiwmukd vkcsijf cif;yif jzpfonf? þteufudk ]]£pdwmvmb [laom yk'jf zifh d k d dk S d f d ä (tvAÇae,s £päar0 0'wd) r&Ekionfudk vkcsifjcif;ukomvQif qkonf}}[k zGijhf yaom rlv#Dumjzifh odtyf\/ d f d d d

rSwfcsuf
1-ESypufuevsuf ... jzpfue\-[k pyfyg/ d f k f k f 2-tEkwK¬ ee'ku-yk'\ teuf jzpfonf/ pdw\jyif;pGm ylyefjcif; (Oyg,mo)aMumifh jzpfrS jzpf&avjcif; H© f f jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh Oyg,monf nnf;wGm;aMumif; jzpfonf/

rSwfcsuf
1-yke-yk'onf ouúwü yke&f-[k &um&EÅ jzpfonf? xkYd aMumifh aemufy'Eihf wGpyfaomtcg ykea'0 f k f S J (ykea&0-oif)? yke½kw?åd ykeyÜKeH? ykeAÇa0gponfjzifh '-(0g-&) tm*kvmjcif;ç a'G;abmfqifjh cif;wkYd jzifh ½kyNf yD;onf/ h H ykeAÇ0u&PoDvm-wzef b0ukd ûyjcif; tavh½aomaMumif-aygaemb0dum-rnf\-[laom #Dum zGijhf ycsuf dS h üum; yk-rS O-ukd Mo-0k'û¨d yí yke&f-rS t&f-ukvnf; Mo-ûyí aygaemb0dum[líom NyD;onf? a'G;abmfqif&ef d h rvkawmhay? xkYd aMumifh þü o'´,w½aom xkygXfuom jyonf/ d k åd dS d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-o[*w-yk'twGuf teuftxl;r&? eE´&m*jzpfaom-ESpoufwyfpwwfaom? 0g-ESpoufwyfpJG f D f JG f wwf\-[líom teuf&onf[k qkv\/ ESpoufwyfpjJG cif;oabm ½S\[k a½S;ü jyefcaom teufonfvnf; d dk f d hJ t&wlyif/ 2-jrefrmpmtkywYdk ü 'kuork',H [k ½S\? EkiijH cm;pmtkyf tcsKdYü 'ku-ork'a,m-[k ½Sd\/ ork'a,mf © d d f © yk'onf ed,wykvif jzpfí ork'a,m-[líom ½Sdoifh\? ork',H-[k eykvif jyefonf[k jyqkcsufvnf; ½S\/ f d’ d’ d d okYd aomf 0do'r*fr[m#Dum tm'De0ÓPftzGiü ]]OyÜga'gb,H-ponfü 'kuork' a,m t&d,opö-uJoYdk yif k ¨d hf © H h vdirwlyJ qkxm;aMumif; qk;jzwfxm;\/ xkdtqkH;tjzwfonf 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'g t&d,opö-[k vdiuvsuf f d H © d H f JG ½Saom ygXfEihf nDaomaMumifh omí oifjh rwfayonf/ xkYd aMumifh þ t&mü okwyGg;ap&ef ork'a,m[lí d S jyxm;onf/ 3-ork',opömrnfaom þwPSm\ jzpf&m ude;&mtm½kudk r[mowdy|meokwf ork',opöm tcPf;ü f H ]],H avmau yd,½lyH omw½ly?H {aw¬om wPSm OyÜZrmem OyÜZwd {w¬ ed0ormem ed0owd}} ponfjzifh tus,f Æ Æ d d jyxm;onf/ xkowygXf edó,rsm;rSm Munfyg/ xkygXfü OyÜZw-jzifh xkcspfz,f om,mzG,tm½kü wu,f d k f h d Æ d d G f H jzpfay:onfudk jy\? ed0owd-jzifh r½Irí tedpö 'ku© tewå[k rod&aom xkcspfz,f om,mzG,ftm½kHü d d d G ude;onfudk jy\/ xkYd aMumifh rlv#Dumü y&d,|meftEko,wkYd tvktm;jzifrvnf; OyÜw-jzpfjcif;? eda0of k d h l åd 0ifjcif;-ude;jcif;wkYd udk ,SOaptyfue\-[k zGijhf yxm;ayonf/ wu,fjzpf ay:onfudk y&d,|mef[k qkonf? f f k f k d taMumif;nDnwaomtcg jzpf&eftoif½aeonfudk tEko,-ude;onf [k qkonf? tm½kü ude;aom udavom G f h dS f d H f jzpfí tm&r®PmEko, [lívnf; ac:onf/

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

199

rSwfcsuf
1-þü eda&m"-ukd csKyf&m[k rqk?d csKyfjcif; [líom qkonf? csKyf&m[lívnf; rqkoif/ eda&m"-\ d d h csKyfjcif;[laomteufonf ygVdawmfvmteuf jzpfonf/ þteufudk txl;owdûyí rSwxm;oif\/ f h 2-þüvnf; ed½ZÑwd csKyf\-[líyif ½Sdonf/ csKyf&m-csKyfaMumif; [líum; rqkEi/ k d dk f

rSwfcsuf
1-okwyGg;&eftwGuf rl&if; *gxmygXfEihf edó,jyefuvnf; jyOD;tH/ S dk h ,xmyd rlav tEky'´a0 'aV§? qdaEémyd ½kau©m ykea'0 ½l[wd/ {0rdÜ wPSmEkoa, tEl[aw? edAwwD 'kur'H ykeyÜKeH/ Á å © d rlav-tjrpfonf? tEky'´a0-zsufq;jcif; ab;&efr½Sy?J 'aV§-ckiNf rJtm;½Saevwfaomf? ½kau©m-opfyif D d d d onf? qdaEémyd-ckwjf zwftyfNyD; jzpfaomfvnf;? yke-wzef? ½l[wd {0 ,xmyd-tuki;tcuf aygufa&mufvsuf d f pnfyifonfom jzpfouJoYdk? {0rd-þtwlyif? wPSmEkoa,-taMumif;nDnwvQif jzpfEiaom wPSmtEko, h Ü G f dk f uk?d tEl[aw-ry,frEIwf tyfao;onf½aomf? £'H 'ku-þ½kyemrf cE¨m qif;&Jonf? ykeyÜKeH-tzefzef? edAwwdS H© f Á å d jzpfNrJraoG jzpfaeawmhownf;/ ("r®y')

rSwfcsuf
1-({0-yifvQi) [laompum;jzifh jyqkcNhJ yD;jzpfaMumif; ay:vGiap\? þtzGiürl qkcNhJ yD;jzpfaMumif; f d f hf d xif½m;aeNyDjzpfí þt&mü ({0)ukd rqkyJ csefxm;onfjzpf&m\? jrefrmjyefüum; ay:vGiap&ef jznfpuf S d f h G jyefvuonf/ dk f 2-y[meH-yk'\teufjzpfonf? ygVd tok;ü y,fjcif; ysujf cif; uif;jcif;wkYd udk y&d,m,f tjzpfjzifo;\? f H h Hk xkYd aMumifh 0d&m*-ysujf y,fjcif;ukyif y[me-y,fjcif;[k jyqkayonf? þ0d&m*ESihf tjcm;rJh eda&m" wkiatmif d d d f ysujf y,fjcif; csKyfjcif;[laom abmteufudk zGijhf yxm;onf? pm*ponfwYdkuvnf; enf;wlyif nTejf yonf/ þ dk abmteufonf ygVdawmfwYdk ü wku½ua[mxm;aom teufjzpfonf/ d f dk f

rSwfcsuf
1-þrS pí t|uxmenf;t& 0d&m* eda&m" ponfwYdk udk abmteufr[kwyJ uHteuf tm"m& f teufrsm;udk zGijhf yonf/ 2-umr*kPmva,ok-t&mwGif umr*kPmv,m'Do-[k ½SoifaMumif;#Dumü jyqk\? xkdtqkdt& þü k d h d wPSm tmv,ukd jznfpuí jyefxm;onf/ h G f 3-a½S;ESm 392-ü ygVdawmf\jrefrmjyefwif ygVdawmfenf;ukd tav;ûyí (pma*gponfu) pGeYf jcif; G dk ponfjzifh abmteufudk t&if;cHûyí jyefconf/ þt&müum; t|uxmenf;t& pGeYf &mponfjzifh jyefonf/ hJ

rSwfcsuf
1-þpmwyk'v; aemufw;ygXf[k #Dumü qkonf/ d f Hk dk d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

200

rSwfcsuf
1-þü obm0t& t&d,r*faMumifh jzpfxuaom udavom cE¨mwkYd \ rjzpfjcif;[laom tEkyg'eda&m" dk f Ü ukd qkaomaMumifh oifatmif,vQif oifonfom jzpfonf? tbm0 r½Sjd cif;[kqaomfvnf; bmrQ r½Sjd cif;um; d h l h dk r[kway? udavom cE¨mwkYd \ Nidr;jcif;um; xif½m;½Say\? xkuavom cE¨mwkYd \ Nidr;jcif;onf oHo&mrS f f S d d d f vGwajrmufvowYdk\ vk&if;yifjzpfayonf/ f dk l d

rSwfcsuf
1-þ 0g-teufonf #DumzGicsufrS ,lí tusOf;csKyfjyaom teufjzpfonf/ hf

rSwfcsuf
1-&m*ponf x<ujzpfay:aeaom olwYdkrm oifavsmaomtm½kudk rS0o;aqmifjcif;jzifh xk&m* ponf S h f H D J Hk d ajyNidr;oGm;jcif;ukd &nfí tjypfwifjyonf? y&0g'DwYdk u xktwki;yifqygrl tjypfwifoifayvdrrnf/ okYd aomf f d d f dk h hf xkoYdk aom &m*ponf Nidr;ykwYdk udk y&0g'DwYdk u r&nf½,wef&m/ t&d,r*f\tpGr;aMumifh udavom d f H G f f rjzpfEiawmhyJ csKyfNidr;jcif;ukom qkonfjzpf&m\? tb,faMumifqaomf tvGeorarGUjrifjh rwfaom edAmef\ dk f f d d h h dk f d f Á t&mjzpfaomaMumifaywnf;/ okYd jzpfí þ tjypfwifcsufrsm;ü pOf;pm;zG,½\/ h f dS 2-t&d,r*f\tpGr;aMumifh &m*ponf\ tNyD;tjywfuejf cif; ½SaeaomaMumif¤if;ç xkuejf cif;ukom f k d h d k d qkjd cif;jzpf&maomaMumif¤if; þtaMumif;jypum;üvnf; pOf;pm;zG,½\/ h f dS

rSwfcsuf
1-t&d,r*f\tpGr;aMumifh udaomcE¨mwkYd \ rjzpfjcif;ukyif csKyfjcif;- eda&m"[lí¤if;? ukejf cif;- c, f d [lí¤if; qkonf? xkuejf cif;c,onf r*f\tpGr;jzifh NyD;ouJoYdk r*f\tm½kH edAmefaMumifvnf; NyD;onf? d d k f h Á h xkYd aMumifeAmefonf xkc,\ Oyedó,rnf\? okYd aomf Oyedó, ypön;tppfum; r[kw?f xkYd aMumifh ]]y&d,m,f h d Á d f tm;jzifh Oyedó, rnfaomaMumif}h }[k qkonf/ Oyedó, rnfaomaMumifh ... c,- ukejf cif;[k a[mawmfrl d (tyf)ayonf[k pyfyg/ þü qkvonfrm edAmefonf &m* ponf ukejf cif;\ Oyedó, taMumif;jzpfaomaMumifh d dk S Á tusK;jzpfaom c,\ trnfjzifh zvlypmenf;t& wifpm;í edAmefudk &m*u©a,m- ponfjzifh a[mawmfronf[k d Á l qkv\/ xkYd aMumifh &m* ponf\ ukejf cif;rQudk edAmef[k r,l&? xkuejf cif;\ taMumif;jzpfaom r*f\tm½kHukdom d dk Á d k ,l&rnf[ívnf; odap\/ þt&mü zvlypm [lonfrm tusKd;\trnfjzifh taMumif;ukd jyqkjd cif;yif? Oyrm l S axmywfu(tm,k) touf[í¤if;? wifvudk ovdy[í¤if; ajymqkouJoYdk yif/ dk l J f l d h

rSwfcsuf
1-jrwfpmbk&m;onf bk&m;jzpfNyD;aemuf ckepfXmewkYd ü ckepf&ufpD pHaeawmfrNl yD;aomtcg w&m;a[m&ef G qifjcifawmfronf? xktcg w&m;awmf\ eufeorarGUykudk qifjcifawmfrojzifh w&m;a[m&efaMumifMh urJh l d J d f H l tjzpfoYdk a&mufconf[k qk\/ xktqkt& azmfjyjcif; jzpfonf/ hJ d d d 2-uPm'&aoh\ 0g'ü tPkjrL 2-ckpyf 3-ckpyf ponfum; ysup;\/ tao;qk; y&rmPkjrLum; f D H rysup;yJ NrJonf[k qk\/ uydv&aoh\ 0g'ü yk&oac: twåEihf aygif;pyfraomtcg yuwdrS jzpfyg;vmaom f D d d S d G r[m-ponfwYdkum; ysup;wwf\? owG &Z wr [laom *kPo;yg;wkYd \ nDrQqJ tckujf zpfaom yuwdum; f D f Hk d ysufp;jcif;r½SyJ NrJonf[k qk\/ xkYd twlyif yk&oac: twåuvnf; NrJonf[k qk\? umv0g'Dy*Kd¾ vfwYdk u D d d d dk d k umvukd NrJonf[k qkMd u\/ xktqkrsm;onf Ak'omoemawmfu edAmefudk taMumif;ûyí qkMd uonfum; d d ¨ Á r[kway/ olwYdkoabmtm;jzifyif NrJonf[k qkMd ujcif;jzpfonf/ okYd aomf aemufumvüum; edAmefEiEi;ívnf; f h Á S hf dI f ûydiqiajymqkjd cif; ½ScMhJ uayvdrrnf? xkoYdk aom ajymqkcsufrsm;ukd ajz½Si;jyonf/ f dk f d hf d d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

201

rSwfcsuf
1-a[wkvu©Pó tEkyywdawm-[laom ygXf\ teufjzpfonf/ þt&mü Esm,usrf;enf;ESiwuG å hf tus,fudk odvvQif igwkYd a&;xm;aom 0do'r*f r[m#Dumedó, wwd,wGJ ESm 488-490-wkYd ü atmufajc dk k ¨d rSwcsufudk Munfyg/ f h 2-tPkjrL y&rmPkjrLwkYd ü twGi;0ifaom t|uvmyf½ywYdk um; xif½m;½S\? okYd aomf y&0g'DwYdk ,lq f k f S d xm;onftwki; wBuHwnf; wvk;wcJwnf; wnfaeaom tPkjrL y&rmPkjrLwkYd um; r½SMd uacs? xkYd jyif yuwdEihf h d f h H S yk&oac: twåwYdk onfum; vk;0yif r½SMd uacs? umv\ xif½m;r½Syrm odom\/ d H S d Hk S

rSwfcsuf
1-þü o[ Oyg'daoaoe ynmyD,wDw-[laom 0pew¬udk pmzwfowYdkrm xyfaeonf[k xifz,f d l S G ½SaomaMumifh csefxm;onf/ Oyg'd pGvrf;tyfaomcE¨m+aoo-t<uif;+o[-o-wuG=Oyg'daoo cE¨mt<uif; d J ESiwuG udavomNidr;rI-edAmef/ &[EÅmrSm y&deAmefrpHrD jzpfqJ 0dyguf cE¨m t<uif;½SaeaomaMumifh ,if;\ hf f Á d Á d udavom Nidr;jcif;oabmukd oOyg'daooedAmef[k ac:onf/ f Á 2-uHaMumifh rjywfjzpfaeaom ½kyemrfcE¨mwkYd udk y0wdcE¨m[k ac:onf/ f å 3-þüvnf; 0pew¬udk csefxm;onf/ e-tef-r½S+Oyg'daoo-<uif;aom cE¨m=tEkyg'daoo-cE¨m d t<uif;r½Saom edAmef/ &[EÅmrSm y&deAmefpwrS aemufü NyD;pD;aomedAmefjzpfonf/ d Á d Á k d Á 0do'r*f þ edAmeuxmt&mü edAmeftaMumif;ukd pdppf jyqkMd uaom t|uxm #Dumtqkrsm;ESipyfí k ¨d Á Á d hf igwkYd oabmusxm;aom edAmeftaMumif;ukd r[m#Dumedó, wwd,wGJ ESm502-rS pí jyqkxm;cJ\/ xkpum; Á d h d &yfudk jrefrmjyef zwf½owYdk tm; okwyGg;ap&ef þü azmfjyOD;tH/ I l h þt&mü tus,fw0ifh pdppfjyqkaom t|uxmESihf #Dumpum;wkYd u¤if; (ObdEHé tyÜ0wdå eda&m"opö) d dk H [laom t|uxmrS tyÜ0wå-yk'udk tyÜ0wdå edrw-[k zGiaom #Dumuk¤if; trSûD yí r*fzvwYdk \ tm½kjH zpfaom d f d Hå hf d dk f edAmeftppf eda&mpopömonf udavom cE¨m ocFg&wkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif;oabmrQ r[kw[k trsm;tm;jzifh ,lq Á f f ajymqkMd u\? xkoYdk ,lqajymqk&mü av;av;eufeuf qifjcifoifonfrm- udavom uH0ygufcE¨m[laom d d h S d 0#fqif;&J rjywfjzpfvsuf½aejcif;ESihf xk0#fqif;&J rjzpfay:EkibJ csKyfNidr;jcif; [laom þ ESprsKd;om ½Soifayonf? dS d d f f f d h þESprsKd;rS tvGwjf zpfaom toD;tjcm; oabmw&m;[lí r½Soifay? (þ pum;xJü 0#fqif;&Jr[kwaom r*fzvf f d h f dk wkYd uvnf; cE¨mrsm;yif jzpfí cE¨mxJrmoGi;í tusOf;csKyf jyqkxm;jcif; jzpfonf) tu,fí½SygvQif xkw&m;onf dk S f d d d tb,fXmeü tb,foYdk wnf½aeayrnfenf;? yk*Kd¾ vf toD;toD;\ oEÅmefü wnf½aeoavm? tvGwwae&mü dS dS f wnf½aeoavm? okYd r[kwf tESYH tjym; wnf½aeoavm? ajz&efcuf\? tyÜw|-[laom a'oemawmft& wnf&m dS dS d H t&yf r½S[í ajz&ayvdrrnf? okYd aomf csKyfNidr;jcif;rQ r[kwaom oabmw&m;wckjzpfygvsuf wnf&mr½S[aom d l hf f f d l xkd tajzukd oabmus auseyf&efcuf\? t½lybkü emrfw&m;wkYd onf 0w¬K½kyf [laom wnf&mr½Saomfvnf; H d bkXme[laom wnf&mum; ½Say\? xkYd aMumifh t½lybk½dS emrfw&m;wkYd rm auseyfz,f ½Say\/ H d H S G d xkYd jyif csKyfNidr;jcif;oabmrQ r[kw[k qkaom xkeAmefonf r*fzvf ypöa0u©PmwkYd jzifh od&½krQom f f d d d Á dk H jzpfonf? y&deAmefûyaomtcg xkeAmefoYdk a&muf&onfvnf; r[kw?f ¤if;\t&omukd cHpm;&onfvnf; d Á d d Á r[kwaomaMumifh yuwdEihf yk&ouJoYdkyif r*fzv\ tm½kûH y&eftwGuf tykoufouf BuHqwDxif xm;ouJoYdk f S d h dk f d G h ½Sd\/ trSepifppf vktyfonfrm taMumif;tusKd;qufvsuf rjywfjzpfaeaom udavom uH 0dyguf cE¨mwkYd \ f d S csKyfNidr;rlomvQif jzpfayonf? xkd csKyfNidr;rItwGuomvQif Ak'omoemawmfü jA[®p&d,ac: tusijhf rwfudk f f f ¨ usifMh u&ayonf? xkYd aMumifh ]]bk&m;xHü tusifjh rwfudk tb,ftusKd;iSg usifo;ygoenf;}} [laomtar;ukd h Hk ]]tEkyg'g y&dedAÁmew¬H-tpGtvrf; taMumif;uif;í tNyD;tjywf Nidr;jcif;tusKd;iSg usifonf}}[k t½SiyPÖ J f h f k tp½Saom rax&fjrwfwYdk u ajzMum;awmfrMl uayonf/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

202

okYd jzpf&mwGif {um ed|m-[laom bk&m;pum;awmft& wckwnf;aom tNyD;tqk; ed|monf udavom uH H 0dygufcE¨mwkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif; (oEÅvu©Pm) oabmyif jzpfoifoavm? okYd r[kwf csKyfNidr;jcif; (oEÅvu©Pm) f d h f d oabmr[kwaom tvGww&m;wckyif jzpfoifoavm[k qifjcif&m\/ igwkdY\ tvktm;jzifh udavom uH f f h d 0dygufcE¨mwkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif; (oEÅvu©Pm) oabmukyif {um ed|m-[k ,lv\/ taMumif;rlum; ]]ae0d"? e f d d dk [k&?H e Ob,rEÅa&e? {ao0aEÅm 'kuó}} [laom a'oemü {ao0 taEÅm-ESihf t&wlyif jzpfoifh © aomaMumifwnf;/ xkygXfü ]]{ao0-(þavmuESihf wyg;aom avmu ESpXmevk;ü r½Sjd cif;[laom) þoabm h d f H onfyifvQi?f 'kuó -udavomqif;&J 0#fqif;&J\? taEÅm? tqk;tyki;tjcm; (edAmef)aywnf;}}[k þokYd © H d f Á tqufjyef&mwGif {ao0-ukd tbma0g-[k zGiaom#Dum ESitnD ]]r½Sjd cif; qdwoO;jcif; csKyfNidr;jcif;}}[laom hf hf f k f f teufukdom &\? xkteufonfomvQif ]]ae0d"-þavmuü vnf;r½S/ e [k&-wyg;aom avmuüvnf; r½S/ e d d H d Ob,H-avmuESpyg;vk;üvnf; r½S}d }[laom a½S;0gus teufEihf oifavsmfayonf/ xka'oemygXfü ]]r½SaMumif;ç f H S h d d r½S&m? csKyfNidr;aMumif;ç csKyfNidr;&m}} tp½Saom teufwYdk uum; r&Ekiay? xkoYdk jyef½;jyefpOfvnf; r½S?d þt&mü d f f d dk d f d dk xkoYdk aom zGijhf ycsufvnf; r½Say/ xkYd aMumifh þa'oemrS taEÅmESihf {um ed|m-[laom a'oemrS ed|m-wkYd \t& d d ]]'ku©\ r½Sjd cif;ç qdwoO;jcif;ç csKyfNidr;jcif;yif jzpfonf}}[k ,loif\? ¤if;ukyif oEÅvu©Pm-Nidr;jcif;oabmf k f f h d d f [k qk&ayonf/ d xkYd twlyif 'kuea&m"-[l&müvnf; 'ku\ csKyfNidr;jcif;rQuomvQif jrwfpmbk&m; &nf½,awmfronf[k © d © f dk G G f l igwkYd oabmus\? csKyfNidr;aMumif;-[líum; qkvrnf rxifay? t|uxm #DumwkYd üvnf; þt&mü 'kuea&m" f d dk © d edrw-[k zGijhf yjcif;r½Say/ tu,fí tyÜ0wderw-[k zGiouJoYdk þt&mü 'kuea&m "edrw-[k zGivQif qif;&J d Hå d å d d Hå hf h © d d Hå hf csKyfNidr;aMumif; w&m;-[k ,lcvQif t&d,r*fuom t&aumuf,&ayvdrrnf/ tb,faMumifenf;[lr-'ku\ f hJ dk l hf h h l © taMumif;onf ork',opömjzpfouJoYdk 'kuea&m"edrw-'kucsKyfjcif;\ taMumif;onf r*¾opömom jzpfoifaom h © d d å © h aMumifaywnf;/ eda&m"-yk'udk t"du&Pom "e BuHí 'kuea&m" -'ku\ csKyf&m[laom teufonfum; h f © d © ]]tEkyg'daoom ye orÜ&m,dum? ,rSd ed½ZÑEÅd b0ged oAÁaom}} [laom £wd0wygVd (ESm 221)ü b0cE¨mwkYd \ k k f csKyfNidr;jcif;oabmrQ jzpfaom tEkyg'daooedAmefuyif csKyf&m tm"m&ûyí ,rS-[k qkouJoYdk Oypmy&d,m,f f Á dk d d h tm;jzifh qkonf[k ,lvQif oif&m\/ d h xkYd jyif y#davmry#dporkyg'ft&mü ]]£ró eda&m"m £'H ed½ZÑwd? t0dZmeda&m"m ocFg&eda&ma"m? ocFg& ö Ü k Æ eda&m"m 0dnmPeda&ma"m tp½SaomygXfjzifh edAmefudk a[maMumif; t|uxmwkYd ü jyqkxm;\? xkygXfü ]]eda&m"md Á d d csKyfjcif;aMumif/ ed½ZÑwd-csKyf\/ eda&ma"mcsKyfjcif;}}[líom teufjyef&\/ csKyfaMumif;oabmaMumifh csKyfaMumif; h k jzpfonf[k þokYd um; rjyef&? xkoYdk jyefq&ef zGijhf ycsufvnf;r½S/ xkYd aMumifh xky#dporkyg'fy#dvygVdü ]]t0dZm d dk d d ö Ü Hk Æ csKyfvQif ocFg&wkYd \ csKyfjcif;jzpfonf (NyD;pD;onf)? ocFg&wkYd csKyfvQif 0dnmPf\csKyfjcif;NyD;onf}} ponfjzifh csKyfjcif;oabmukomvQif edAmef tppf[k jyaMumif; xif½m;vSay\/ þt&mü t0dZm csKyfonf qk&m0,f t0dZm d Á S Æ d Æ wckwnf;om csKyfoavm¿ ponfjzifh apm'emrwuf oihonfrmvnf; xif½m;vSay\/ xkYd aMumifh &m*u©a,mf S S &m*\ ukejf cif;[l&mü &m*ukejf cif;u edAmefwck? a'gou©a,m-a'goukejf cif;[l&mü a'goukejf cif;u edAmef Á Á wck-þokdYponfjzifh edAmefrsm;jcif; tjypfudk jyqkcsuwYdküvnf; pOf;pm;qifjcifoif\/ t&d,r*f\ tpGr;aMumifh Á d f h f t0dZmtp½Saom udavomtm;vk;ESihf ocFg&tp½Saom ur®0#ftm;vk; 0dnmPftp½Saom 0dygu0#ftm;vk;wkYd Æ d H d H d H waygif;wnf; csKyfNidr;oGm;Muonfuyif t0dZmeda&m"m ocFg&eda&ma"m-ponfjzifh tpdwtpdwcí a[mawmfrl f dk Æ f f JG ouJoYdk &m* a'go arm[ tp½Saom udavomtm;vk;\ waygif;wnf;ukejf cif; Nidr;jcif;ukyif &m*u©a,m h d H f d a'gou©a,m ponfjzifh tpdwpwcí a[mawmfronf[k rQrQww,lvQif &m*ukejf cif;ponfuyif edAmef[k f d f JG l dk Á qkaom 0g'onf roihp&m taMumif;r½Say/ ynm½Sd owdjzpfconf[aom pum;ykt& owdûyoifv\/ d f d J l H h S xkYd jyif t0dZmeda&m"mocFg&eda&ma"m-ponfuoYdkyif &m*u©a,mponfjzifvnf; edAmefudk rkcstm;jzifh Æ hJ h Á a[monf? r*fzvwYdk urum; c,rnfaom edAmefudk tm½kûH yaomaMumif¤if;ç &m*ponfwYdk \ ukeaMumif; ponf dk f dk l Á h f jzpfaomaMumif¤if; Oypm y&d,m,ftm;jzifh a[monf[k ,lvQifvnf; roifp&mtaMumif; r½Say/ þtcsuf h h d ukvnf; owdûyoih\/ d f okYd jzpfí ygVdawmfrsm;tm;vk; wnDwnf;jzpfap&ef¤if;ç tEkyg'gy&deAmew¬-[lonfESifhtnD tvkd½Sdtyf H d Á H aom tusKd;ukd rkcstm;jzifh &ap&ef¤if; edAmefudk atmufygtwki; ,loif\/ Á d f h

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

203

(1) r*fzvwYdk \ tm½kjH zpfaom csKyfNidr;jcif;oabm edAmefonf udavomuH ½kyemrf ocFg&[lorQwkYd \ dk f f Á f csKyfNidr;qdwoO;jcif;[laom omrnedAmef jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifyif ¤if;ukd y&rokn-[lívnf; a[mawmfrl f f k f Á h H ayonf/ (2) udavomwkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif;[laom oOyg'daooedAmefEihf ½kyf emrf cE¨m ocFg&wkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif; f Á S f [laom tEkyg'daooedAmefwYdk onfum; r*fzv\tm½kjH zpfaom xkomrnedAmef\ tpdwtyki; jzpfaom 0daoo Á dk f d Á f d f edAmefwYdk jzpfMuonf? xk0aooedAmefwYdkonf r*fzv\ tm½kjH zpfaom omrnedAmefü twGi;0ifue\/ Á d d Á dk f Á f k f xkYd aMumifyif £wd0wygVd (ESm 221)ü ]]a, {w'nm, y'H tocFw?H 0drwpwm b0aewåocF,m}}[laom h k f k å d å d ygXfjzifh &[EÅmt½Sijf rwfwYdk onf xkoOyg'daoo tEkyg'daooedAmef"mwf ESpyg;ukd (t&[wår*fjzif) odí d Á f h b0aESmifêud; ukejf ywfvsuf t&[wåzvjf zifh vGwajrmufawmfrMl uaMumif;ukd jyqkawmfrayonf/ tu,fí dk f d l oOyg'daoo tEkyg'daoo edAmefwYdk u r*fzv\ tm½kjH zpfaom edAmef\ tusKd;oabmrQ jzpfí r*fzvwYdk \ Á dk f Á dk f tm½kr[kwvQif {w'nm,-[k a[mawmfrrnf r[kway/ þtcsufuvnf; av;eufpm owdûy&m\/ H f l f dk G okYd aomf r*fzvwYdk u tm½kûH yaomtcgü ]]&m* csKyfNidr;onf a'go csKyfNidr;onf}} þokYd ponfjzifh txl; dk f f f 0daooûyvsuf tm½kûH yMuonfvnf; r[kwue?f ]]½kycsKyfonf emrfcsKyfonf}} þokYd ponfjzifvnf; txl;0daoo f k f h ûyvsuf tm½kûH yMuonfvnf; r[kwue/ pifppfaomfum; udavom uH ½kyemrf cE¨m ocFg& tvk;pkwYdk \ csKyfNidr; f k f f H H f uif;qdwjf cif; oabmrQukom rsufarSmufawGUvsuf tm½kûH yMu ayonf/ d þt&mü udavom uH ½kyf emrf cE¨mwkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif;oabmukd bmrQr½Saom tbm0ynwf[k xifrwf f d S vsuf rxDrjhJ rif atmufarhwwf ajymqkwwfMu\? bmrQreufe[ívnf; xifwwfMu\? xkoYdkum; rxifrwf d J l d S oifay? tvGeeufeaomaMumifyif yg&rDr½SowYdk rm udavom cE¨mcsKyfNidr;atmif rpGr;EkiyJ ½SMd uacsonf? xkd h f J h d l S f f d f udavomcE¨mwkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif;u tvGetzk;wef jrifjh rwfaomaMumifomvQif udavom cE¨mwkYd udk csKyfNidr; f f d h f apEkiaom r*fzvwYdk onfvnf; jrifjh rwftzk;wefMuayonf/ d f dk f d pOf;pm;Munfyg? tvk½wi; wefc;zefqif;Ekiçf tvk½wi;jrifEiçf Mum;Ekiçf odEiaom avmuDtbdnmOf h d dS dk f dk d d dS dk f dk d dk f wkYd onf avmuzufuMunfvQif tvGetzk;wef jrifjh rwfMuayuke\? okYd aomf udavomcE¨mwkYd udk rNidr;apEkif h f d f f d aomaMumifh r*fzvÓPfwYdk uoYdk tzk;rwef rjrifjh rwfMuuke/ þtcsufudk axmufqMunfvQif udavomcE¨m dk f hJ d f h wkYd \ csKyfNidr;jcif;ukd taumif;tjrwfq;[lí oabmaygufygvdrrnf? xkYd aMumifyif t½SiyPÖ &[EÅmrax&fjrwf f Hk hf h f k u ]]ÓP'óe 0do'ac: r*fÓPftusKd;iSgvnf; usifonfr[kwyg}}[k jiif;y,fNyD;vQifç ]]tEkyg'gy&deAmew¬k ¨d h f d Á H tpGtvrf; taMumif;uif;í ½kyf emrf cE¨m csKyfNidr;jcif; tusKd;iSg usifygonf}}[k ajzMum;awmfrayonf/ J f h l edAmeftaMumif;ukd þxuf tus,fovvQif igwkYd pD&ifxm;aom 0dyóem ½Ienf;usrf; 'kw,wGJ tcPf; Á d dk d (6) ESm 320-rS 348-txd Munf½o;oyfygav/ h I Hk

rSwfcsuf
1-txuf ÓP'óe0do't&mü tus,fjyrnfjzpfaomaMumifh tusOf;tm;jzif[k qkonf/ k ¨d h d

rSwfcsuf
1-,SOaom ... y,fowfwwfaom ... oabmonf[-pyfyg/ f k 2-opö0bif;tzGihf rlv#DumESitnD jyefqcsujf zpfonf/ r[m#Dumürl Mum;emolwYdkudk odr;qnf;aMumif; d fh dk f r½Say? ¤if;rSm ay:vGiaom teufjzpfaomaMumifh rkcsyif ½Soif\? okYd jzpfí ¤if;twGuf (ZemeH) [laom yk'onf d f d h f aemufumv ul;,l&mü usae[ef½\/ dS

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

204

rSwfcsuf
1-,SOaom ... jzwfwwfaom ... oabmonf[k pyfyg/ f 2-avsmfaom ... ,SOaom ... tMuifvUHk vtm;xkwronf[k pyfyg/ f f I 3-,SOfaom ... oabmonf[k pyfyg/

rSwfcsuf
1-,SOfaom ... oabmonf[k pyfyg/

r*¾if ½Spfyg;tus,f
þt&mü r*¾i½pyg;qki&m ygVd t|uxmwkYd udk xkwjf yí r*¾opöm yGg;apykuvnf; jyOD;tH/ f S f d f H dk h uwrm p bdua0 or®m'd|?d ,H acg bdua0 'kau© ÓPHç 'ku© ork'a, ÓPHç 'ku©eda&ma" ÓPHç © © 'kuea&m" *grde,m y#dy'g, ÓPH? t,H 0kpwd bdua0 or®m'd|/ (r[mowdy|meokwponf) © d d ö © d f &[ef;wkYd or®m'd|-rSepmjrifjcif; [lonf tb,fenf;? &[ef;wkYd 'kuü todÓPfç 'kuork',ü d f G © © todÓPfç 'kuea&m"ü todÓPfç 'kuea&m"okYd qkua&mufaom tusifh (r*¾)ü todÓPf[aom tMuif © d © d d f l todÓPfonf ½Sd\? &[ef;wkYd þtodÓPfudk or®m'd|-rSepmjrifjcif;[lí qktyf\/ (jrefrmjyef) d f G d 'kau© ÓPH ponfjzifh pwkopöur®|mef;ukd jyonf/ xkdopömav;yg;wkdYwGif a½S; 2-yg;wkYd onf 0#fopöm? aemuf 2-yg;wkYd onf 0d0¥opömjzpfonf/ ¤if;wkYd wif 0#fopömü ur®|mef;ukd ESv;oGi;jcif; jzpfonf? 0d0¥opömü G Hk f ESv;oGi;jcif;r½S/ csJUíjytH-a½S;opöm 2-yg;wkYd udk tusOf;tm;jzifjh zpfap? tus,ftm;jzifjh zpfap q&mhxü Hk f d h H oif,Nl yD;vQif EIwjf zifh tzefzef jyefve½wqvsuf a,m*Donf tm;xkwrudk ûy\/ aemuf opöm 2-yg;wkYd ürl S f G f dk f I ]]eda&m"opömonf vkcsifz,f ESpoufz,f jrwfE;zG,aumif;\}} þokYd Mum;emjcif;rQjzifh trIuûdk y\ (þpum;jzifh d G f G dk f xkopöm 2-yg;ü pdwnwjf cif;ukd jy\? xkoYdkpwnwjf cif;jzifh xkopöm 2-yg;ü ûyzG,upNö yD;onf-#DumtzGi)/ d f G d d f G d f d hf þokYd ûyaom xka,m*Donf (t&d,r*fcPü) av;yg;aom opömwkYd udk wBudrwnf; xk;xGi; odjcif;jzifh xk;xGi; d f d f d f od\? wBudrwnf; awGUodjcif;jzifh awGUod\/ 'kuopömukd yki;jcm;í odjcif;[laom y&dnmy#da0"jzifh xk;xGi; f © d f d f od\? ork',opömukd y,fjcif;[laom y[mey#da0"jzifh xk;xGi;od\? eda&m"opömukd rsuarSmuf ûyjcif;[laom d f f opäu&,m y#da0"jzifh xk;xGi;od\? r*¾opömukd rdrü jzpfyg;apjcif; [laom bm0emy#da0"jzifh xk;xGi;od\/ d d d d f d G d f 'kuopömukd yki;jcm;í odjcif;[laom y&dnmbdor,jzifh awGUod\/y/ r*¾opömukd bm0embdor,jzifh awGUod\/ © d f þqkconftwki; xka,m*Drm (t&d,m r*foYdk ra&mufr) a½S;tzkYd u 'kuEihf ork', [laom opöm 2-yg;wkYd ü d hJ h d f d S D © S ur®|mef;enf;ukd oif,jl cif; (O*¾[)ç teufuar;jcif; (y&dypm)ç emMum;jcif; (o0e)ç EIwwufaqmifxm;jcif; dk k ä f ("m&P)ç ok;oyf½rwjf cif; (or®oe) wkYd tvktm;jzifh xk;xGi;odjcif; (y#da0") onfjzpf\/ eda&m"ESifh r*¾ 2-yg; H I S d d f wkYd ürl emMum;jcif; (o0e) tvktm;jzifomvQif xk;xGi;odjcif; y#da0"onfjzpf\/ (þpum;jzifh eda&m"ESir*¾wYdk d h d f hf ü txl;ESv;oGi; qifjcif&efrvk?d emMum;jcif;rQjzifyif udpNö yD;aMumif; jyonf) t&d,r*foYdk a&mufqJ aemuftzkYd rm Hk f h S 'ku© ork', r*¾ [laom ok;yg;wkYd ü udpNö yD;aomtm;jzifh xk;xGi;odjcif;jzpf\/ eda&m"opömü tm½kûH yvsuf H d f xk;xGi;odjcif;jzpf\/ (þpum;jzifh ]]t&d,r*fÓPfjzifh edAmefudk rsufarSmuf tm½kûH yí odonf? xkoYdk ojd cif;jzifh d f Á d useopömok;yg;wkYd ü y&dnm y[me bm0emy#da0" odjcif;udpö NyD;pD;onf}}[kjy\)/y/ þqkdcJhonfhtwkdif; f H eufeuef jrifEicueaom opömav;yg;wkYd ü oif,jl cif; ponf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh a½S;tzkYd ü ÓPfjzpfyudk &nfí J k dk f J k f f Hk 'kau© ÓPH-tp½Saom þpum;ukd a[mawmfrayonf/ (r[mowdy|me okwtzGihf t|uxmponf) d l f txufyg t|uxmü Oyg'geu©Em [laom 'kuopömESihf wPSm[laom ork',opömwkYd udk tusOf;jzpfapç ¨ © tus,jf zpfap oif,&rnf [kq\/ xdwif ork',opömrSm odv,\/ 'kuopöm [lonfrmvnf; Oyg'geu©Em l dk k G G f © S ¨ ig;yg;jzpfaMumif; jyqkcNhJ yD; jzpfonf/ ¤if;wdYk rm rdrwYdk \ oEÅmefü jrifwi; Mum;wki; eHwi; pm;odwi; xdowi; d S d dk f d f dk f dk f d dk f BuHowi; xif½m;jzpfay:aeaom ½kyemrf oabmrsm;yif jzpfonf/ ¤if;wkYd udk jzpfqJ jzpfqü r½Irí ½kyemrfrQ d dk f S f J d f jzpfaMumif;ç cPrpJjzpfysufaeaMumif;ç tedpö 'ku© tewå jzpfaMumif;rsm;ukd trSetwki;rodvQif igaumif f d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

205

owå0gaumif twåaumif taetm;jzifvnf; pGvrf;\/ ighOpömtaetm;jzifh ESpoufom,mvsuf pGvrf;\? edpö h J f J okc okb taetm;jzifvnf; pGvrf;\? xkoYdk pGvrf;EkiaomaMumifh jrifqponfü xif½m;aom w&m;wkYd udk h J d J d f J S Oyg'geu©Em pGvrf;rIwYdk \ tm½kjH zpfaomcE¨m[k a[mawmfrayonf/ ¨ J l xkOyg'geu©EmwkYd udk cE¨0*¾o,wü ]]½kyudk rNrJ[o\? a0'emukd onmukd rNrJ[o\? ocFg&wkYd udk d ¨ H k f f k d k d rNrJ[k od\? 0dnmPfudk rNrJ[o\}} ponfjzifh 0dyóemÓPfjzif½oyudk cGjJ crf;a0befí a[mawmfronf/ k d h I d Hk l oVm,we0*¾o,wüvnf; 'Gg& 6-yg;ü pu©KtedpEdÅ yZmemwdponfjzifh 'Gg&ç tm½kHç 0dnmPfç zóç H k f H ö a0'em[laom ig;yg; ig;yg;aom w&m;wkYd udk ½Ioyua[mawmfrayonf/ xkd a'oemawmfrsm;t& jrifqJ Mum;qJ d Hk dk l ponfü xif½m;ay:vmorQukd rjywf½rwaevQif 'kuopömrnfaom Oyg'geu©EmwkYd udk tedpö 'ku© tewå S I S f © ¨ tjcif;t&mwkYd jzifh trSetwki;od&\? þokdY odjcif;onf or®oey#da0" ÓPfaywnf;/ xkoYdk ½Irwí tedpö 'ku© f d f d S f tewå[k od&wki; od&wki; xko&aom cE¨mwkYd ü edpö okc twå[k pGvrf;í om,m wyfrufvsufjzpfrnfh d f d f d d J wPSmonf jzpfcir&yJ tEkyg'oabmjzifh csKyf\? xkYd aMumifh ork',ukd y,faomtm;jzifh odjcif;[laom y[me G hf Ü y#da0"udpvnf;NyD;\/ xdwPSmrS qufí jzpfrnfh uHç xku\ tusK;wkYd onfvnf; jzpfcir&yJ csKyfNidr;uke\? ö k d H d G hf f f þokYd w'*Ftm;jzifh uHEihf uH\tusK; b0opf cE¨mwkYd csKyfNidr;jcif;onf 0dyóemjzifNh yD;aom w'*Fea&m" S d f d aywnf;? xkYd aMumifh w'*Fea&m"ukd rsuarSmufûyjcif; opdu&,m y#da0"udpvnf; NyD;\/ ½Iwkdif; ½Iwkdif; 'ku© d f ä d d ö w&m;wkYd udk trSetwki;odaom 0dyóem or®m'd|EiwuG or®mouFyÜ paom r*¾iwYdk onf avmuDr*¾opöm f d f d S hf f aywnf;/ xkYd aMumifh avmuDr*¾opömukyg;aprI bm0emy#da0" udpvnf;NyD;\/ þokdY opömav;yg;wkdYukd d G ö xkuonftm;avsmpm odjcif;udpudk NyD;apaom 0dyóemÓPfjzifh odjcif;udk t|uxmü or®oey#da0"[k d f f G ö qkonf? bk&m;a[mygVdawmfü 'kau© ÓPH-ponfjzifh a[mawmfronf/ þrQjzifh 0dyóem or®m'd|çd r*f or®m'd|d d l jzpfyrsm;ukd tusOf;tm;jzifh em;vnfavmufayNyD/ Hk ygVdawmfü or®mouFyudk aeu©rouFyÜ tAsmyg'ouFyÜ t0d[omouFy-[lí ok;yg;a[mawmfr\/ Ü ® ð Ü H l t|uxmü xko;yg;wkYd onf a½S;tzkYd ü toD;toD; uGjJ ym;aMumif;? t&d,r*fcPü or®mouFyÜ udpo;yg;ukd d Hk ö Hk NyD;apvsuf wyg;wnf;omjzpfaMumif; zGijhf y\/ 0dyóem½Iqüvnf; tedpö 'ku© tewå[k od&aomtm½kwYdk Eipyfí J H S hf umrouFyponfwYdk jzpfcihf r½SaomaMumifh 0dyóemouFyÜ wyg;wnf;jzifh xko;udpNö yD;onf[ívnf; Ü G d d Hk l qkoif\/ d h or®m0gpm ponfwYdk ü rdpm0gpmrS MuOfa½Smifaomtcg or®m0gpmjzpf\? rdpmur®ErS MuOfa½Smifaomtcg ä ä Å or®mur®EÅ jzpf\? rdpmtmZD0rS MuOfa½Smifaomtcg or®mtmZD0 jzpf\? þokYd a½S;tzkYd ü wyg;csif;om jzpfaMumif;? ä r*fcPü ok;yg;vk;jzpfaMumif; t|uxmü jyqkxm;\/ 0dyóem½Iqüvnf; tedpö ponfjzifh trSetwki; H H d J f d f od&aom tm½kEipyfí rdpm0gpm ponf jzpfcir½SaomaMumifh 0d&wd w&m;uk,rsm; r,SOMf uaomfvnf; rdpm0gpm H S hf ä G hf d d f ä ponfrS w'*Ftm;jzifh MuOfa½Smifjcif;udpö NyD;aomaMumifh udpNö yD;aomtm;jzifh or®m0gpm ponfwYdkvnf; yg0ifonf [k ,loif\/ xkoYdk ,ygrS or®m0gpH bma0wd 0da0uedów-ponfjzifh a[mxm;aom r*¾*bm0emygVd h d l d H F (aumovoH,wf ponf)wkYd ü w'*F0a0urSyjHk yaom t|uxmpum;\ t"dyÜg,fudk ,lomayrnf/ k d D or®m0g,mrt&müvnf; t|uxmü rjzpfb;ao;aom tukovwYdkudk rjzpfap&ef tm;xkwjf cif; ponf l dk f wkYd \ uGjJ ym;aomaMumifh a½S;tzkYd ü uGjJ ym;aMumif;? r*fcPü or®m0g,mr r*¾iwyg;wnf;jzifyif udpav;yg;vk;ukd f h ö H NyD;apaMumif; jyqkxm;\/ 0dyóem½IqJüvnf; 0dyóemor®m0g,mr wyg;wnf;jzifh xkupö av;yg;vk;ukd NyD;ap d d d H Ekionf[k qkoif\/ d f d h or®mowdonfum; 0dyóem½Iqü um,mEkyóemponf toD;toD; uGjJ ym;aMumif; t&d,r*fcPürl J or®mowd wyg;wnf;jzifyif owdy|mefupav;yg;vk; NyD;aMumif; t|uxmü jyqkxm;\/ þt&mü jznfpuf h d ö H d h G zG,f r½Sday/ or®morm"donfum; a½S;tzkYd avmuDpsmef jzpfcuüvnf; yXrpsmef 'kw,psmef ponf toD;toD; dk f d uGjJ ym;\? t&d,r*fcPüvnf; xkYd twlyif uGjJ ym;\? xkoYkd ujJG ym;ykudk ocFg½kayu©mÓPft&m 0do'r*f pmyk'f d H k ¨d d eHygwf 798-ü jyxm;NyD; ½SavNyD/ d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

206

r[mowdy|meokwf tp½Saom ygVdawmfwYdkwif or®morm"dudk a0befjy&mü psmefav;yg;jzifom a0bef d G h jyawmfr\/ xkygVdutrSûD yí tcsKdUu ]]psmeform"dudk &rS avmuDor®morm"d jzpfonf? ,if;orm"d½rS 0dyóem l d dk dS ½Iaumif;onf}}[k qkMd u\/ y"meenf; Ouú|enf;wkYd tvktm;jzifh psmeform"dudk jy&mü tyÜ"me Morutm;jzifh d Oypm-orm"dç xkEihf nDrQaom 0dyóem cPduorm"drsm; yg0ifonfudk owd rûyrdMuaomaMumifh xkoYdkqjdk cif; d S d jzpfonf/ Oypmorm"d cPduorm"dwYdk onf eD0&Puif;jcif;tm;jzif¤if;ç 0dwuf 0dpm& yDwd okc {u*¾wm h psmeft*Fgig;yg;ESihf ,SOjf cif;tm;jzif¤if; yXrpsmefEihf wlnMD uay\? eD0&Puif;vQif pdw0o'¨d jzpf\? pdw0o'¨d h S å d k å d k jynfpvQif 'd|0o'paom ynm0do'wYdkjzpf&ef jynfpHk vkavmufawmhonfom/ h Hk d d k ¨d k ¨d h H okYd jzpfí owdy|mefowtzGihf t|uxmwkYd ü £&d,myxyAÁ orÜZnyAÁ "mwkreodum&yAÁ ponfwYdkudk k f Oypm&orm"d &apEkiaom Oypm&ur®|mef;rsm;[lí¤if;ç r*fzveAmef aygufa&mufapEkiaom ur®|mef;rsm;[lí¤if; d f dk f d Á d f jyqkxm;Muayonf/ d xkYd jyif t*Fw& quúeygwf t½Sir[mupön;a[maom Moumom"d*rokwü Ak'gEkówd ponfjzifyif k å d f f f ¨ h Oypmorm"du&í 0dyóem½Ivsuf edAmefudk rsuarSmufûyEkiaMumif; jyqkxm;ayonf/ xkMd oumom"d*renf;ukyif dk Á f d f d d trSûD yí þ0do'r*f pmyk'eygwf 362-'kw,tyk'ü Oypmorm"donfvnf; 0dyóem tusKd;tmedoifudk &apEkif k ¨d d f H d d f d aMumif; jyqkxm;ayonf/ xkYd jyif qtEkówdea'´o\ tqk;pmyk'eygwf 166-ü zkóa'0rax&fonf bk&m; d d H d f H *kPudk tm½kûH yvsuf yDwjd zpfí xkywudk 0dyóem½Ivsuf &[EÅm jzpfaMumif;vnf; jyqkxm;onf/ f d D d d jrwfpmbk&m; vufxufawmf umvu jrwfpmbk&m;\ w&m;ukd emaeMuaom &mç axmif ponfjzifh G G rsm;pGmaom y&dowfwYdk rm (uv’pw) cHusef;aompdwçf (rk'pw) El;nHaompdwçf (0de0&Ppdw) eD0&P uif;aom S d å h k d å h D å pdwçf (O'*¾pw) wuf<uaompdwçf (yoEépw) ,kMH unfaompdwf jzpfaeaomtcg opömav;yg;[laom d å d å omrkuoua'oemukd jrwfpmbk&m;u a[mawmfrí xkw&m;ukd em,if;yif 0dyóemÓPftpOfjzifh r*fzvw&m; Hú d G l d dk f xl;ukd &Muavonf/ xky&dowfrsm;rSm axmif aomif; rsm;pGm½Sí psmef&onf[íum; qk&efr½Say? eD0&P d d l d d uif;aom Oypmorm"djzifh 0dyóem½Ií r*fzvw&m;xl; &MuaMumif; xif½m;\/ dk f S þ 0do'r*füyif 'd|0o'ea'´o pmrsufEm 222-pmyk'eygwf 662-ü Oypmorm"dEiwuG ½Spyg;aom k ¨d d d k ¨d d S d f H S hf f ormywfwYdk onf pdw0o'rnfaMumif; jyqkxm;onf/ psmeform"dr½Saom oku0yóuyk*Kd¾ vfrmjzpfaom r*fonf å d k ¨d d d © d S yXrpsmefEihf ,SOaMumif;ukvnf; ocFg½kayu©mÓPft&m pmyk'eygwf 798-ü jyqkxm; onf/ S f d d f H d xkYd jyif orm"doarÁmZÑ*ø bma0wd 0da0uedów-tp½Saom ygVdawmfü 0dyóemorm"donf w'*F0a0u d H d d ukd rSaMumif; t|uxmwkYd ü jyqkxm;\/ xkorm"doarÁmZÑifonf r*¾it&mü or®morm"dr*¾if yifjzpfonf/ D d d f okYd jzpfí Oypmorm"dEihf 0dyóemcPdu orm"dwYdkonf yXrpsmefa'oemü tyÜ"me Moru enf;tm;jzifh S yg0ifonf[k rSw,&m\/ f l 0do'r*fü¤if;ç þatmufajcrSwcsufü¤if; jycJaom or®m'd|tp or®morm"d tqk;½Saom þr*¾i½pyg; k ¨d f h d H d f S f onf 0dyóem½Icuf cPü avmuDjzpfonf? ,if;0dyóem &ifoefjynfpí t&d,r*fjzpfaomtcg avmukw&m dk h h Hk å r*¾if jzpfonf/ þr*¾opöea'´ot&mü avmukw&mr*¾iuom ,ltyf\? okYd aomf 0dyóemESihf ruif;aumif;aom d å f dk aMumifh 0dyóemr*¾iwYdk uvnf; tajccHtjzpfjzifh ,ltyfonfyif/ xkYd aMumifh oar®m[0daem'eD t|uxmü f dk atmufyg twki; jyqkxm;ayonf/ d f d {o avmukwa&m t&da,m t|*Øaum ra*¾g? a,m o[ avmuda,e ra*¾e 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'gwd å © d ocø *awm/ {o-þqkcaom r*¾i½pyg;onf/ avmukwa&m? avmukw&mjzpfaom/ t|*Ðaum? t*Fg½Spyg;½Saom/ d hJ f S f å å f d t&da,m ra*¾g? t&d,r*faywnf;/ a,m? ,if;t&d,r*fonf/ o[ avmuda,e ra*¾e? avmuD0yóem d r*fEiwuG/ 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'gwd ocø? 'kuea&m"*grdeD y#dy'g[laom a&wGujf cif;okYd / *awm? a&muf\/ S hf © d © d

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

207

rSwfcsuf
1-y#da0"ÓPfuoYdk wBudrom odonfr[kw?f tzefzef xyfí jzpfwwfaomaMumifh tEk tEk-tzefzef + hJ f aAma"m-odaom ÓPfonf tEkaAm"rnf\/ wenf;um; wqifMh um;jcif;ç tjcif;t&mukd BuHjcif;awGUjrifonfudk ½Iqifjcifí oabmusjcif;rsm;okYd tpOfvuaom+odjcif;onf tEkaAm"rnf\? xktEkaAm"onfyif todÓPf dk f d aywnf;? xkYd aMumifh tEkaAm"dÓPf rnf\/ rSef\-xkd tEkaAm"dÓPfonf rsuarSmuftm;jzifh odonfr[kw?f f wqifMh um;ponf\ tpGr;tm;jzifh BuHqjcif;ukd a½SUoGm;ûyí od\/ (#Dum)/ þaemufq; 2-0gusjzifh ypöu© f Hk tm;jzifh odaom0dyóemÓPfudk qkv[ef r½Say? xkypöu© 0dyóemÓPfurl y#da0"ü xnfoi;í ,loif\/ d dk d d dk h G f h

rSwfcsuf
1-edAmefudk rsuarSmufojd rifojzifh 'kuuvnf; yki;jcm;í odEiNf yD? ork',onfvnf; uif;oiforQ Á f © dk d f dk h uif;\? t&[wår*fjzifrl tvk;pkuif;\? r*Fonfum; rdroEÅmefüjzpfaomaMumifh jzpfyg;apjcif;udpNö yD;\? þokYd h H H d G yki;jcm;í odjcif; y,fjcif; jzpfyg;apjcif;udprsm; NyD;onfuyif odonf[k qkdonf/ d f G ö dk 2-½kyf emrf 'kuopömw&m;wkYd udk avhvmoifMum;í aumif;pGmoabmaygufaeaom olrm xk½yemrfw&m; © S d k f wkYd udk yk*Kd¾ vfowå0g[k xifjrifaom ouúm,'d|d txift½Sm; tpGtNrJ rjzpfay:onfuyif qkwepfaponf[k J dk f qkonf? okYd aomf xkrQjzifh ouúm,'d|tpGtvrf;um; vk;0ruif;ao;? &Hcg&Hcgü jzpfO;rnfyif/ 0dyóemÓPfjzifh d d d J H D 'd|uif;uGmykurl 'd|0o't&mü jyvwH/ d H dk d d k ¨d h

rSwfcsuf
1-tud&,'d|[onfrm ukovûf yaomfvnf; ukovrjzpf ponfjzifjh zpfaom t,lrm;yif/ 0dyóem½Ií d d l S dk dk f S r*¾opömac: r*fw&m; jzpfyudk Mum;emjcif;ponfjzifh ,kMH unfoabmusaomolrm xkoYdkaom rdpm'd|d uif;uGm Hk S d ä onf[k qkv\/ d dk 2-£ó&ac: bk&m;ocifonf avmuukd jzpfap\-zefqif;pD&if\-epfap\- ½kyor; aysmufu,ap\ f d f G f [k £ó&[laom taMumif;ukd ,kMH unfowYdk u qkMd u\/ y"meac: rxif½m;aom yuwdrS avmuonf l S xif½m;jzpfay:vm\? (ysufcsdewefaomtcg) xkyuwdüyif ikyvsuf aysmufu,om;\[k (y"me) yuwd[aom S f d f G f G l taMumif;ukd ,kMH unfowYdku qkMd u\? (owG &Z wr-[laom *kPo;yg;wkYd nrQvsuf rxif½m;aom l f Hk D S tckutwefYudk yuwd-[k qkMd u\? yk&oac: twåEiaygif;pyfraomtcg ,if;yuwdrS r[m ponf d f d S hf d azmufjyefvsuf 0duwdjzpfvmonf[k qkMd u\? ,if;yuwdonf rxif½m;aomaMumifh tAswåvnf; rnf\? S wki;wm uefYowfwwfaomaMumifh rm,mvnf;rnf\? rjy|mef;aom r[m ponfwYdkudk jzpfapwwfaomaMumifh d f y"mevnf;rnf\[k xk0g'DwYdk u qkMd uonf/ þxuftus,f odvvQif 0do'r*f- jrefrmjyef pwkw¬wGJ ESm 8 d dk k ¨d ü¤if;ç r[m#Dumedó, pwkwwJG ESm 211-ü¤if; Munfyg)/ umvu owå0gwkYd udk ûyvky-jzpfap\? umvu ¬ h f owå0gwkYd udk ½kyor;aysmufu,ap\? umvu tdyaysmfaeolwYdk udk Ek;ap\? umvukd ausmveEic\}}[k f d f G f f d f G f dk f J umv0g'DwYdk u qkMd u\/ ]]ql;\ tzsm; cRefxufjcif;uJoYdk ¤if;ç oD;oD; ponfwYdk \ vk;0ef;jcif;uJoYdk ¤if;ç h H h om;aumif iSuf a>r uif;wkYd \ qef;Mu,fjcif;uJoYdk¤if; olUtvkvdk oabmtm;jzifyifvQif avmuonf jzpfvnf; h d h jzpf\ ysufvnf; ysuf\}}[k obm00g'DwYdk u qkMd u\/ tm'd-ponft&jzifh ]]tPkjrLwkYd rS avmuonf jzpf\}}[k (tPk0g'DwYdk u qkMd u\? ]]tvk;pkonf a½S;uûyxm;onfh uHtaMumif;aMumifom}}[k ykaAÁuw a[wk0g'DwYdk u H H h qkMd u\)/ ]]avmuonf NrJ\? rjywfEionfêh ud;jzifh oDxm;aom ausmufywåjrm;ESihf wl\? þavmuü wpkH dk f wa,mufrQ yk*Kd¾ vf\ ûyvkyjf cif;r½S}d }[k ed,wd0g'DwYdk u qkMd u\/ ]]tvkdtavsmuf jzpfukef\? tvktavsmuf d epfuef aysmufu,ue\? csrf;om qif;&Jonf tvktavsmufyif jzpfonf/ xkYd aMumifh owå0gtaygif;onf k G f k f d tvktavsmufjzpfjcif;½S\}}[k ,'dpm0g'DwYdk u qkMd u\/ ¤if;wkYd udk t"dporkyw0g'DwYdk [lívnf; ac:\/ þokdY d d ä ö Ü åd tp½Saom rlrrSeaom taMumif;0g'rsm;ukd (ponft&jzif) odr;,lonf[k rSwtyf\/ (#Dum) d f h f f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

208

rSwfcsuf
1-jzpfaom? [laom-yk'wYdk udk azmufjyefpm usifjh cif;ESihf pyfyg/ f G 2-&mrç O'uç tmVm& &aohponfwYdk uoYdk t½lybkü¤if;ç ed*P²wYdk uoYdk avmuxlyum-avmu\ hJ H hJ d txGwf (tonowfbHk 0g-ae0onmbk)ü¤if;(ty0*¾)qif;&Juif;&m(armu©)vGwajrmuf&medAmef[k ,ljcif;onf H f Á ty0*¾*g[rnf\/ tm'd-ponft&jzifh ]]y"me\ rjzpfjcif;onf¤if;ç *kPwYdk Eir,SOaom twå\ (yuwdEihf ¾ f S hf f S ryl;aygif;yJ) rdrtwåüomvQif wnfjcif;onf¤if;ç zefqif;ol jA[®mtwåEihf wlaom avmu½Sonf\tjzpfç eD;uyf d h S d onf\tjzpfç yl;aygif; a&maESmjcif;onf¤if;ç (ty0*¾armu©[k qkaom 0g'wkYd ¤i;f)'d|"r®eAme0g'wkYd ¤if;}} (þ d d Á aemufq;0g'onf oDvu©eygVdawmf jA[®Zmvokwü ½S\) þokYd tp½SonfwYdk udk ,ljcif;ukd rSwtyf\/ xyfí Hk f f d d f zGijhf yOD;tH-y"me\ rjzpfjcif;[lonfrm r[m t[Hum& ponf\ tjzpfjzifh razmufjyef rajymif;vJjcif; aywnf;? h S okYd r[kwf xif½m;ray:jcif;aywnf;/ S ]]yk&oac: twåaumif iguwjcm;? yuwd-uwjcm;}}[k yuwdEihf yk&owkYd \ uGjJ ym;jcif;ukd odjcif;jzifh d S d twåEihf okc 'ku© arm[ (owG&Z wr)wkYd ü waygif;wnf;,ljcif;ukd epfap-uif;apvQif qkcNhJ yD;aomenf;jzifh S d y"meonf (r[mponf) rjzpfawmhyJ ½Sowwf? xkoYdk y"me-u r[mponf rjzpfjcif;ukd 0darmu©-vGwajrmuf d d f jcif;[k uydv*kP;0ifwYdk u qkMd u\/ *kPwYdk Eir,SO[onfrm Ak'-tod ÓPfç okcç 'ku©ç £päm-tvkdç a'god f f S hf f l S ¨d ½Gre;jcif;ç y,wå-tm;xkwjf cif;ç "r®-ukokdvfç t"r®-tukokdvfç ocFg&-ÓPfjzifh ûyjyifjcif;[laom 9-yg;aom H k f twå\ *kPwYdk Eihf r,SOaom (twå)[lí uPm't,loYdk vkuaomyk*Kd¾ vfwYdk u zGiqMdk u\/ oavmuwmf S f d f hf [lonf jA[®mESiwaom avmu½Sonf\ tjzpfwnf;/ eD;uyfonf\tjzpf [lonf xkjd A[®m\ teD;ü jzpfjcif; hf l d wnf;? ylaygif;a&maESmjcif;[lonf xkjd A[®mtwåEihf waygif;wnf;jzpfjcif;wnf;/ owå0gwkYd \ toD;toD;aom h S twåuav;rsm;onf jA[®mtwåBuD;\ tpdwf tyki;uav;rsm;jzpfí xkd jA[®mtwåBuD;xJoYdk jyefí 0ifa&muf h d f h yl;aygif;oGm;vQif qif;&J uif;onf[aom 0g'ukd jyonf)/ (#Dum) l l

rSwfcsuf
1-]]rsufppaom £a`E´wYdk udk a&mif&apjcif; (êuduwwfonfh tm½krsm;ay;í cHpm;apjcif;) om;\ d h J f H rsufEmukd jrifjcif; ponfwYdk Eiuif;í ty0*¾ac: qif;&Juif;jcif;-qif;&JrS vGwajrmufjcif;rnfonf r½S}d }[k ,lí S S hf f xktjcif;t&mjzifh jzpfapjcif;onf umrokcv’umEka,m*rnf\/ tpmrpm;jcif; xef;aphjzifnyfí qHyifuEwjf cif; d d h dk I tp½Saom wy ac: ylyefyifyef;aponftrIudk usifjh cif;jzif¤if;ç uk,w;vk;aeaom tavhtusifh EGm;tavhtusifh d h h d f Hk H acG;tavhtusifh ponfwYdk jzif¤if; rdru,udk ylyefyifyef;apjcif;jzifh vGwajrmufjcif; jzpfonf[,í xktjcif; h d dk f f k l d t&mjzifh jzpfapjcif;onf twåuvrxrnf\/ (#Dum) þ#Dumü jyxm;aom umrokcv’umEka,m*rSm þt&mü d d edAmefoYdk a&mufaMumif;tusifqi&mukom jyjcif;jzpfonf? þrSwyg; umrokcv’umEka,m* tusifr½S[íum; Á h dk f d d h d l r,ltyf/ pifppfaomfum; umrcsr;omukd om,mcHpm;jcif;[lorQonf umrokcv’umEka,m*ü twGi;0ifonf f d f csnf;omwnf;/ xkYd aMumifyif Oy&dyPÖmoygVd t&P0db*Fowü ]]e umrokcrEk,aOÆ,s [De*r®aygxkZeuH h k f k H H Æ d te&d,tew¬o[w}H } ponfjzifh umrokccHpm;rI[orQukd MuOfa½Smif&rnfh tEÅ-tzkYd tpGe; t,kww&m;wck H H d l f f tjzpfjzifh a[mawmfrayonf? xkYd jyif 'DCedum,f ygxdu 0*f ygom'duokwf ESm 108-ü ygPmwdygwç l t'dEm'gefç rkom0g'wkYd jzifh rdru,udk csrf;omapjcif; (3-yg;)? umr*kPig;yg;wkYd jzifh aysmfyg;cHpm;aejcif; (1) yg;? é d dk f f þav;yg;aom okcv’umEka,m*wkYd rS Ak'omoedu &[ef;awmfrsm; uif;vGwaMumif; a[mxm;ayonf/ okYd jzpfí d ¨ f ypön;av;yg; ok;aqmifaomtcg ponfwYdk ü umrokcv’umEka,m*rS uif;vGwatmif y#docFg a,medaom pD0&H f H d f y#dao0wd ponft&jzifh qifjcifíaomf¤if;ç orx0dyóemwyg;yg;jzifh ESv;oGi;íaomf¤if; ok;aqmif&m\/ Hk f H

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

209

rSwfcsuf
1-tm,we 12-yg;wkYd üjzpfaom umr-b0-0db0wPSm ok;yg;wkYd \ tpGr;jzifh (12_3¼vDajr§mufí) H f wPSm0dp½kdwf 36-yg;wkYd udk odtyf\/ 2-or®m'd|race yk'\ wku½uteuf jzpfonf? or®m'd|[aom trª;jzifh y"mejzif[aom d k f d f dk f d l h l teufrsm;vnf; &Eki\/ okYd aomf 0Dro'yg'fponfEihf w&m;uk,t&wl jzpfí aemufvuçf rjy"mef; [líum; d f H d ¨d S d f dk qkoifonf r[kway? okYd jzpfí rsuEmtjzpf azmfjyxm;ojzifh azmfjyrxm;aom t&wl trnfuJG w&m;wkYd onf d h f f S vnf; twGi;0ifMuonf[aom teufum; roifz,f r½Say/ f l h G d

rSwfcsuf
1-pdworm"d-yk'\ teufjzpfonf/ ,if; yk'jf zifh pdw'yg'fuqaMumif;#Dumü zGijhf yxm;\/ pdwHå ynOö å f då ¨d dk dk bm0,H-[laom ygVdü pdw-jzifh orm"dudk jyouJoYdk pdw'yg'fjzifvnf; orm"dudk jyonf[k xk#umüyif Hå h då ¨d h d D jyqk\/ d

rSwfcsuf
1-orP-udavomNidr;ol t&d,m &[ef;+Ps-jzpfaMumif;=omrn-udavomNidr;ol jzpfaMumif; r*f f f 4-yg;? ,if; r*f 4-yg;\ tusK;jzpfaomaMumifh omrnzv-omrnzkv[k qkonf/ d d f d

rSwfcsuf
1-Oyg'geu©Em ig;yg;xJü wPSm yg0ifaeaomaMumif¤if;ç xkwPSmonf ork',opöm jzpfaomaMumifh ¨ h d ¤if; wPSmukd MuOfy,fí Oyg'geu©EmwkYd udk ,l&efjyonf/ ¨ 2-ork', ponfwYdkü (,SOyrm) wPSmrS <uif;aom udavom ponfwYdkonf (ponft& <uif;aom f Hk S tukovçf avmuDuovf rlvok;yg;ç avmuDuovf w&m;rsm;ukd ,ltyf\) trGef tp taMumif; teufoabm dk k dk H k dk aMumifh (tbd"r®m 0dbif;ygVdEitnD) ork', rnf\? þ 0do'r*fonf okwe\ tzGi[k ,lí (okwef a'oem S hf k ¨d å f hf å t&tm;jzif) t&d, opömum; rrnf? eda&m"onf t&d,opöm rnf\? ork', rrnf/ <uif;aom t&d,opöm 2h yg;onf rdrtusKd;tm; aus;Zl;ûyaom teufoabmaMumifh ork', rnfonf jzpfEi\? okYd aomf tMuifork',ukd d dk f y,f&ef jrwfpmbk&m;xHü tusijhf rwfudk usio;tyf\ç xky[mwAÁ tjzpfjzifum; ork', rrnfay/ cyfor;aom G hf Hk d h d f tjcif;t&mtm;jzifrl wPSmonf ork',vnf; rnf\ t&d,opömvnf; rnf\/ r*fEi,Oaom w&m;wkYd onf h S hf S f ¤if;ç omrnzkvwYdk onf¤if; tMuif ork',ukd y,f&ef bk&m;xHü tusifjh rwfudk usifo;tyf\ xky[mwAÁ tjzpf d f h Hk d tm;jzifh ork',vnf; rrnf t&d,opömvnf; rrnf/ ocFg&wkYd \ csKyfjcif;onf¤if;ç eda&m"ormywfonf¤if; eda&m"um;rnf t&d,opömum; rrnf/ ork',onf t&d,opöm rnf\ eda&m"um; rrnf/ <uif;aom t&d, opöm 2-yg;onf bif[aom cP eda&m½Sjd cif;aMumifh eda&m"rnfonf jzpfEi\? okYd aomf tMuif eda&m"ukd l dk f rsufarSmufûy&ef bk&m;xHü tusifjh rwfudk usifo;tyf\ xkopdumwAÁ tjzpftm;jzifh eda&m" rrnfay/ h Hk d ä cyfor;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifrum; tocFw"mwfonf eda&m"vnf; rnf\ t&d,opömvnf; rnf\/ d f h l <uif;aom (r*fEi,Oaom w&m;ponfudk jyqkaom) pum;onf qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;twki;yif/ t&d,r*frS S hf S f d d d f wyg;ukeaom r*¾iwYdk onf r*¾um; rnf\/ t&d,opömum; rrnf/ eda&m"onf t&d,opöm rnf\? r*¾um; f f rrnf/ <uif;aom opöm 2-yg;onf b0okYd a&mufaponfh tusijhf zpfaomaMumifh r*¾rnfonf jzpfEi\? okYd aomf dk f tMuif r*fudk jzpfyg;ap&ef bk&m;xHü tusifjh rwfudk usifo;tyf\? xkbma0wAÁtjzpftm;jzifh r*¾rrnfay/ G h Hk d cyfor;aom tjcif;t&mtm;jzifrum; eda&m"*grdeD y#dy'gonf r*¾vnf;rnf\? t&d,opöm vnf;rnf\/ d f h l <uif;aompum;onf qkcNhJ yD;aom enf;twki;yif/ (#Dum) d d f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

210

rSwfcsuf
1-0do'r*fü oE¨pyfy'udk xkwí cGjJ yonf? þjrefrmjyefü rlvuyif cGjJ yefcNhJ yD; jzpfaomaMumifh þt&mü k ¨d d k f f vk&if;ukomjyonf/ d d

rSwfcsuf
1-ûyjcif;rQom ½Sonf[aompum;ukd ork',opömuk&nfí qk\/ wenf;um; 'kuEihf ork',opömukd d l d d © S 0dygu0#fEihf ur®0#fjzifh a&wGujf cif;aMumifh ûyol\ 'kuopömtjzpfudk qk\/ rSef\-ûyjcif; ud&,monf S © d d ûytyfonfh trIjzpfjim;aomfvnf; ûyolruif;\? oufoufrr\ taMumif;wdYk aMumifh ,if;ud&,monf S d d d jzpfvwfaomf 'ku[qtyfaom ½kyemrfw&m;tpOfü ud&,m-trIudk ûyonf[aom a0g[m&rQjzpfonf/ Nidr;ol © k dk f d l f oGm;olwYdk üvnf; þenf;yif/ (#Dum)

rSwfcsuf
1-ork',ü 'ku\r½Sjd cif;aMumif[onfum; wzef b0opfudk jzpfapwwfaom wPSm (jzpfcu)ü wzef © h l dk f b0opf\ r½Sd (ao;)jcif;aMumifh ([k qkv\)/ wenf;um; yuwd0g'DwYdk \ (yuwdrS azmufjyefvmaom r[m d dk t[Hum&paom) 0dum&wkYd onf azmufjyefonfrS a½S;tzkYd ü (0g-razmufjyefao;rDu) (r[m t[Hum& ponfjzifh rxif½m;ao;yJ) jrKyfu,uevsuf (owG &Z wr[laom *kPo;yg;wkYd \ nDrQonfh tckutwefY[k qktyfaom) S G f k f f Hk d f d yuwdtjzpfjzifomvQif wnfueouJoYdk þtwl ork',ESihf ,SOaom 'kuonfaomfvnf; ork',tjzpfjzifh h k f h f © wnfonfr[kw/ (#Dum) yuwd0g'DwYdk u yk&oESiaygif;pyfraomtcg yuwdrS r[mponfwYdk xif½m;jzpfvm f d hf d S Muonf? xkoYdk razmufjyefao;rDu r[mponfwYdkonf yuwdxrmyif jrKyfu,vsu½MdS uonf[k ,lMu\/ d J S G f f xkyuwdü jrKyfu,aeMuaom r[mponfwYdkuoYdk 'kuonfum; ork',ü jrKyfu,vsuf ½Sconfr[kw[k d G f hJ © G f d hJ f qkv\/ d dk

rSwfcsuf
1-yuwd0g'DwYdk u yuwdrm yk&oESihf wGpyfraomtcg azmufjyef jzpfyg;rnfh r[m t[Hum& wr®wå S d J d G ig;yg;ç £a`E´ 11-yg;ç bkwig;yg;wkYd EiwuG wnf½í ¤if;r[m ponfjzpfyg;rnfh uk,0efrsKd;ukd aqmifaeouJoYdk f S hf dS G d f h ½Sonf[k qkMd u\/ xkuoYdk ork',üjzpfyg;rnfh 'kuu,0efrsKd;½Sonfr[kw?f r*¾üvnf; eda&m" uk,0efrsKd; d d hJ G © dk f d d f ½Sonf r[kw[k qkv\/ d f d dk 2-a[wkzvH-\ teufjzpfí taMumif;\tusKd;-[k jyefonf? tusKd;onf}[laom þrQom vk&if;jzpf d onf/

rSwfcsuf
1-y0wdbm0awm-\ edó, teufjzpfonf/ rjywfjzpfaeaomtusKd; ½kyemrftpOfudk y0wd[k qkonf/ å f å d xkYd aMumifh rjywfjzpfaeonfh ½kyemrftpOf\ tjzpftm;jzif[k jyefvQifomí ay:vGi&m\/ f h f 2-y0wåubm0awm\ edó,teuf jzpfonf/ rjywfjzpfapwwfonf\ tjzpftm;jzif[k jyefvQifomí h ay:vGi&m\/ f

0dok'¨dr*fjrefrmjyef(wwd,wGJ) rSwfcsuf

211

rSwfcsuf
1-orxESihf 0dyóem tjym;tm;jzifh [l&mü or®m'd|Eihf or®mouFywYdkonf 0dyóemaywnf;? usef d S Ü ig;yg;wkYd onf orx aywnf;[k q&mwkYd qkMd u\/ rSef\? oDvonfvnf; orxtm; aus;Zl;ûyaomaMumifh ¤if;ukvnf; orxjzifh odr;,lonf? þum; xkq&mwkYd \ tvkaywnf;/ wenf;tm;jzifrl orx,mOfjzifh &aom d f d d h r*fudk orx[kç 0dyóem,mOf oufoufjzif&aom r*fudk 0dyóem[k vmcJ&mtaMumif; tvktm;jzifh xktjym;ukd h h d d qkonf[k rSwtyf\/ (#Dum) d f

rSwfcsuf
1-pí acgufouJoYdk [lonfum; ]]rNrJ rNrJ}} þokYd ponfjzifh ynm\ udpEiwaom udpjö zifh h ö S hf l xuf0ef;usifrS acgufouJoYdk ¤if; (tm-ukd þü xuf0ef;usif teufzionf? okYd aomf pmyk'eygwf 71-0dwuf\ h G hf d f H tzGiüum; tm'dawm-[k zGic\/ xktzGit& txufü jyefxm;onf) ]]tedpHö c,a|e-ukejf cif;oabmaMumifh hf hf hJ d hf rNrJç 'kuH© b,a|e-aMumufz,oabmaMumifh qif;&J}} þokYd ponfjzifh vSní ay;ouJoYdk ¤if; (tm'g, OD[wm) G f hf h d G ,lí -BuHí (0dok'd¨r*fü tm'g,m'g,-[k ½Sí txufygtwki; jyefonf) ay;tyfonfuomvQif ynmonf d d f dk xk;xGi;í od\? or®m'd|Eihf or®mouFywYdkonf ûydiwyif jzpfMuaomfvnf; aus;Zl;ûyaom ypön;tjzpfjzifh d f d S Ü f l f or®mouFy-u a½S;usouJoYdk jyxm;onf/ (#Dum) Ü h 2-oZmwdawm [lonfum; ]]'kau© ÓPH}} ponfwYdk ü wlaom ynmZmwftm;jzif/ ud&,awm-[l&mü h d ynm (udp)ESiwaom udpudk ud&,m[k qkonf/ a½S;orm"d t&mürlum; orm"dtm; aus;Zl;ûyaom ¤if; ö hf l ö d d tm;avsmfaom udpudk (ud&,m[k qkconf)/ þonfum; þud&,m 2-yg;wkYd ü txl;aywnf;/ (#Dum) ö d d hJ d

rSwfcsuf
1-ow"mwf\ teufjzpfonf/ owy'D-uif;ajcrsm;? owawaZma&mifjcnfwefc; t&mrursm;pGm½Saom dk d ae? o[ó&Ho-a&mifjcnf taxmifru rsm;pGm½Saom ae? þokYd ponfwYdk üuJoYdk owo'´gukd taeuocFsm D d h a[m trsm;a[m[k ,l&m\/ 2-aum#d,m [lonfum; jr§m;\tpGe; om;NrD;zsm;jzif/ aum#ð[onfum; om;NrD;\yifvQif tpGe;uk/ f h l f d (#Dum) þtvkd jr§m;\tzsm;ü om;NrD;tpdwuwyfí xkjd zifh om;NrD; tpdwwck\ xdyzsm;ukd rSeatmif ypfonfudk f dk f f f ,l&m\/ rsm;pGmaom om;NrD;rQipnf;ukd cg;v,fü jzwfNyD;vQif xkjd zwf&m om;NrD;rQiwYdk\ xdycsif;wnfatmif f f f h ûyvky&ef cJ,Of;onfuvnf; ,loifouJoYdk ½S\/ f dk h h d

rSwfcsuf
1-'kuEihf ork',wkYd onf owå0gwkYd \ oEÅmefü xif½m;jzpfaeMuaomaMumifh omreftaetm;jzifh © S S xif½m;uke\? okYd aomf qif;&J[í¤if; qif;&J jzpfyg;aMumif;[lí¤if; [kwwi;rSepm od&efum; cJ,Of;\? S f l G f dk f f G xkYd aMumifh eufeonf[k qkonf/ J d 2-eda&m"ESihf r*¾opömwkYd onfum; olwYdk\ obm0twki;yif eufeue\/ xkYd aMumifh ,if;wkYd udk d f J k f ouf0efEicJ odEiconf[k qkonf/ dk f dk f J d 3-edAmefuvnf; r*fjzifh &tyfaomaMumifh ,if;r*f\ tusKd;[k nTejf ytyf\? xkYd aMumifh ]]tusKd;[k nTejf y Á dk tyfaom tm;jzif}h }[k qkonf/ ]]'kuea&m" ÓPH tw¬y#dord'g}} [lonfEihf tnDyif/ (#Dum) d © d Ç S

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful