This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dissolved Gas Analysis of Alternative Fluids for Power Transformers
Key Words: oil/paper insulation, DGA, esters, overheating, low and cold corona-type discharges
onventionally, the insulation system of power transformers consists of mineral oil, cellulose paper, and pressboard. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of environmentally-friendly fluids such as synthetic esters and natural esters in place of mineral oil. This has been particularly prevalent at distribution voltage levels , but it now also is taking place at transmission voltage levels . The main driver for the use of alternative fluids from the electrical supply utility perspective is the environmental benefits that result from their use with no compromise on safety or reliability . Mineral oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons and is refined from crude oil. Mineral oil has a low biodegradability (20% of mineral oil will biodegrade within 28 days) resulting in the need to construct bund walls around large transformers preventing escape into the environment should a leak occur. In the case of an oil leak, significant financial penalties would be imposed by environmental enforcement agencies. In contrast, esters are very biodegradable (95% or more of esters will be biodegraded within 28 days ,), and they conform to the readily biodegradable definition according to the OECD 301 series of tests ,. In addition to their better environmental performance, esters have higher flash and fire points than mineral oil. This is desirable from a fire safety perspective, particularly for a transformer operating underground or offshore. Esters have been used in distribution transformers for several decades without fires being reported . Esters also are far more hygroscopic than mineral oil as the ester group (COOR) in the molecular chain structure has a higher ability to participate in hydrogen bonding. The high moisture saturation level means that, for the same moisture content expressed in absolute parts per million, esters will have a lower relative humidity in comparison with mineral oil. This means that moisture has less of an impact on the dielectric strength of esters than mineral oil. When esters are used in conjunction with cellulose paper and pressboard, cellulose is kept in a drier
Imad-U-Khan, Zhongdong Wang, and Ian Cotton
Electrical Energy and Power System, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD UK
TJ/H2b Analytical Services Ltd., Chester CH1 6ES UK
Ester-based transformer fluids have the same DGA fingerprints as mineral oil. However, with lower volumes of gas produced, they will demand more precise dissolved gas measurements and modified or new ratio criteria to allow fault detection and diagnosis.
condition and the rate of cellulose degradation consequently is slower than in mineral oil . This article examines the impact of alternative fluids on dissolved gas analysis (DGA). DGA has been used for many years as an effective and reliable tool to detect incipient faults in mineral oil-filled transformers. The information provided by DGA analysis is extremely important to the asset managers with electricity supply companies. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that traditional DGA analysis techniques still can be used if alter-
September/October 2007 — Vol. 23, No. 5 0883-7554/07/$25/©2007IEEE
arcing. The various DGA standards then subdivide these basic types of fault in different ways. Indicator of system leaks.. respectively. Midel 7131. CO) in ppm. overheated oil Corona. the glycerol backbone in blue and the fatty acid parts in red . and high energy discharges (D2). For the thermal tests involving both oil and paper. a synthetic ester. moisture contents in the samples were measured by Karl Fischer titration method using Metrohm KF 786 coulometer and KF Thermoprep 832 (Metrohm.e. thermal faults are represented as being in three temperature bands.6% by weight. Table 1 gives the types of dissolved gases evolved during transformer faults and their indicative relationships with types of faults in mineral oil. A number of diagnostic methods are available to identify the types of faults and their intensities. the natural ester. Fault indicator gases. arcing if the fault involves cellulose Indicator of system leaks. FR3. C2H6. it is necessary to determine if the same types of fault gases are generated. and a natural ester — FR3. or changes in pressure or temperature. and their concentration in the alternative fluids against a mineral oil benchmark. In IEC 60599 . instead of using the concentration of five gases and three ratios to define the type of fault. and overheated oil Corona. which is used to visualize a DGA fault diagnosis. low energy discharges (D1). <300ºC (T1). O2/ N2 : Trending Ratio used to determine system leaks.native oils are used in transformers. the key gas C2H2 is for arcing. C2H2. At the end of preprocessing. the Kraft papers were preprocessed by drying at 105°C in an air circulating oven for 24 hours followed by further drying at 85°C under vacuum for 24 hours. >300ºC (T2) and >700ºC (T3). and CO is for overheating of cellulose. The fluids used are a mineral oil — Nynas Nytro 10GBN. The paper samples had moisture contents of less than 0. and 16 ppm. The average moisture contents of mineral oil. Following the drying of both the oil and the paper. All of the fluid and fluid/paper samples then were sealed in glass bottles and heated uniformly in an air circulating oven at temperatures of 90°C. all the fluids were preprocessed by drying at 85°C under a vacuum for 72 hours. For example. IEEE standard and Duval triangle diagnosis methods –. there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms in the chain. These include the IEC. or changes in pressure or temperature. or changes in pressure or temperature. The triangular graphical representation of Duval. 24 ppm. over-pressurization. CO2/CO:Trending Ratio used to determine severity of cellulose degradation. Electrical faults can be further classified as partial discharges of the cold plasma (corona) type (PD). http://www. over-pressurization. 150°C or 200°C for periods up to 14 Table 1.metrohm. over-pressurization. The IEEE analysis method uses the concept of key gases . Similarly. Fault gases H2 (hydrogen) CH4 (methane) C2H6 (ethane) C2H4 (ethylene) C2H2 (acetylene) CO (carbon monoxide) CO2 (carbon dioxide) O2 (oxygen) N2 (nitrogen) Overheated oil Arcing Overheated cellulose Key indicator Corona Secondary indicator Arcing. The fluids were preprocessed by drying at 85°C under a vacuum for 48 hours. 6 IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine . overheated oil Corona. For the oil/paper mix. For the tests involving only oil. The synthetic ester. the relative percentage of three gases is used for the analysis in the Duval diagnosis technique . Two broad categories of faults in a transformer can be detected by DGA: thermal faults and electrical faults. arcing Severely overheated oil Arcing if the fault involves cellulose Overheated cellulose.com). the oil/paper ratio was 20:1 by weight. uses the same subdivisions as the IEC standard. is a natural triglyceride ester with a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. the paper was impregnated in the preprocessed fluid and dried under vacuum for an additional 24 hours. The triglyceride ester molecule may be represented as in Figure 1(b). Fault Gases Evolved by Simulated Thermal Faults Thermal tests of both oil and oil/paper mixes have been carried out. and the dominating percentage of this gas to the others is used to diagnose the fault. TDGC: The total concentration of the six combustible gases (H2. Midel 7131. consists of four ester groups with saturated chains as shown in Figure 1(a). However. The generation of various forms of fault within three dielectric fluids and the analysis of dissolved gas produced are under investigation in this article. C2H4. The key gas for each type of fault is identified. to identify the generation rate. CH4. low intensity PD or corona produces mainly H2. i. This article gives the results of experiments that have simulated a number of faults that can be found in power transformers and looks at the DGA analysis results in each case for a number of oil types. In order to clarify that DGA diagnostic techniques still yield the correct result when applied to ester filled transformers. Midel 7131 and FR3 were 6 ppm. C2H4 for overheating oil.
lower in Midel 7131. This should not be the case for the temperatures of 150°C and 200°C at which chemical decomposition will take place. All the DGA results presented are the average of three samples to improve accuracy. indicating paper integrity may be preserved . Fault Gases Evolved by Simulated Electrical Faults A. The fault gases then dif- September/October 2007 — Vol. Figure 2 shows the relative percentages of fault gases in the total dissolved combustible gases (TDCG) at 90°C and at 150°C. For the test carried out at 200°C. none of the three types of fluid produced ethylene. days. in both mineral oil and esters. 150°C. As with all of the other tests described in this article. and 200°C Table 3 compares the concentration of fault gases of mineral oil. 23. In the case of mineral oil and Midel 7131. 150°C. The inclusion of paper has caused an increase in the concentration of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for the 90°C temperature. The generation of CO is less in esters than in mineral oil suggesting that they may be protecting the paper in some way. the dominant gas is carbon monoxide. it will degrade the oil locally as the energy being dissipated causes the molecular structure of the oil to be disrupted. Midel 7131 generated the smallest amount of fault gases. Chemical structure of synthetic and natural esters. In FR3. In terms of gas volume. the primary indicator for high energy thermal faults. When the breakdown occurs. In all cases. DGA Results from Low-Energy Arc Tests A 220 V/40 kV. the inclusion of paper also increases the level of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide significantly. 5 7 . Ethane is generated in significant quantities. and the least in FR3 at this temperature. therefore. B. both mineral oil and esters should be stable for a long period of time. methane is not present in significant quantities. In contrast. DGA Results from Thermal Tests of Oil at 90°C. which usually taken is to be a characteristic of high energy thermal faults (see Table 1). This allows the formation of fault gases like acetylene. the concentration of carbon monoxide is similar to that without paper. It is more dominant in the results relating to the 150°C test (see Figure 3 for clarity. particularly in the case of the 90°C test. which is plotted without H2 and CO). no significant dissolved gas should be evolved. This is expected as Kraft paper generally starts to be thermally degraded at temperatures above 105°C. Midel 7131. These gases are key indicators for cellulose degradation. At 90°C. At 150°C. and 200°C At the 90°C maximum top oil temperature found under operating conditions. This is a positive result as the oils are expected to be stable at this temperature. however. a number of control samples of fluid and fluid/paper were kept for DGA tests to provide a benchmark. FR3 generated a significant amount of ethane and hydrogen.Figure 1. This testing was intended to simulate the maximum top oil temperature found in a transformer during operating conditions (90°C) and two cases of low intensity thermal faults (150°C and 200°C). the gases ethylene. ethane. Ethylene. DGA Results from Thermal Tests of Oil/Paper at 90°C. 8 kVA test transformer was used to generate a breakdown across needle to plane electrode configuration with an oil gap distance of 15 mm. Figure 5 shows the same results with H2 and CO excluded to allow viewing of the other fault gases more prominently. A. In Midel 7131 and mineral oil this is not the case. for FR3. and FR3 in the presence of Kraft paper (these tests were carried out for 14 days at 90°C/150°C and 1 hour for 200°C). The concentrations of CO and CO2 are the highest in mineral oil. Figure 4 shows the relative percentage of fault gases in the TDCG for the oil/paper mix at 90°C and at 150°C. is negligible in concentration at 90°C. No. and methane were generated with approximately the same ratios seen at 150°C. Table 2 compares the concentration of fault gases found in the three oils under the different test conditions.
There was at least a 1-minute interval between each breakdown. Oil samples for DGA testing were taken from the bottom valve of a sealed test vessel. and it therefore. As the test vessel is sealed.Table 2. a total of 20 breakdowns was produced in oil that had previously been preprocessed in a similar way to that described for the thermal tests. is a primary indicator for this type of fault. a homogeneous distribution of fault gases can be expected when enough time is left after the tests for the fault gases to diffuse into the bulk of the oil. but it could reach 100 ms in certain cases. The oil was naturally forced into glass syringes according to the BS EN 60567 standard . This relay. For each breakdown test. This is found in the largest concentration in all samples. It normally operated within 20 ms after the formation of the breakdown. was set at a 3-A limit to ensure rapid interruption of the current following formation of the arc. Table 4 shows the results of these tests. Dissolved gas content in parts per million (ppm) for thermal tests of oil only at 90°C aAnd 150°C for 3 and 14 days and at 200°C for 1 hour. Although the same level of low energy Figure 2. Hydrogen and ethylene also usually are evident in significant amounts. Oil type Test temp Test time H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO CO2 TDCG C 5 1 0 1 1 18 73 26 3d 16 2 1 1 0 25 165 45 90°C 14d 38 4 2 1 1 98 502 144 Mineral oil 150°C 3d 14 48 28 7 0 262 1976 359 14d 16 194 125 14 0 592 3354 941 200°C 1h 21 95 48 9 5 148 1006 326 C 7 0 0 1 0 9 111 17 90°C 3d 9 1 1 0 0 17 89 28 14d 7 1 0 1 0 60 283 69 Synthetic ester (Midel) 150°C 3d 14 7 2 3 0 152 1073 177 14d 14 40 49 34 0 533 3514 670 200°C 1h 8 16 4 3 0 74 521 102 C 8 1 2 1 6 6 82 24 3d 64 1 18 0 0 16 129 98 90°C 14d 253 4 103 1 0 53 430 414 Natural ester (FR3) 150°C 3d 59 7 88 5 0 171 1586 330 14d 19 23 179 16 0 540 5359 777 200°C 1h 17 7 177 4 0 68 914 273 fuse from the local fault location to the bulk volume. To ensure a sufficient concentration of fault gases. the voltage was steadily ramped up until the oil gap broke down. The current was interrupted by the operation of an over-current relay. on the low voltage side of the power supply. The values highlighted in bold italics are considered to be significant shifts in dissolved gas values (only combustible gases examined). Acetylene should be one of the key gases produced during lowenergy arc discharge faults. 8 IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine . Relative percentages of dissolved combustible gases for mineral oil and esters at 90°C and 150°C (oil only).
the acetylene concentration in mineral oil is about 5 to 10 times higher than that seen in the esters. The electrical circuit and test electrodes used were the same as the ones in the arcing test with the addition of a water resistor to limit the current in case of inadvertent break- down. 5 9 .5 kV for Midel 7131. The partial discharge inception voltages were 27. Midel 7131 has the lowest amount of dissolved gas as a result of this test. The PD level measured during the tests was less than 100 pC for all of the types of oil. Relative percentages of dissolved combustible gases (without H2 and CO) for mineral oil and esters at 90°C and 150°C (oil only). Oil type Test temp H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO CO2 TDCG Control 8 1 0 1 1 6 108 17 Mineral oil 90°C 46 10 2 2 1 590 3407 654 150°C 34 259 187 25 1 9187 101167 9693 200°C 19 90 43 5 0 890 19603 997 Synthetic ester (Midel) Control 7 1 1 1 1 5 45 16 90°C 13 3 0 1 1 307 2212 325 150°C 24 40 33 16 0 3815 56508 3928 200°C 14 15 4 4 1 541 9524 579 Control 8 1 1 1 1 6 82 18 Natural ester (FR3) 90°C 244 6 116 2 0 88 1354 456 150°C 26 31 179 19 0 5472 60675 5727 200°C 23 10 171 7 1 1330 18717 1542 September/October 2007 — Vol. Table 4 shows the DGA results of three types of fluid for PD activity with a normalized duration of 1 hour (owing to the different generation rates. on Midel 7131 for 4 hours. Dissolved gas content in parts per million (ppm) for thermal tests of oil and paper at 90°C and 150°C for 14 days and at 200°C for 1 hour.9 kV for mineral oil. Mineral oil had the highest generation rate. B. DGA Results from Partial Discharge Tests The fluids used for the partial discharge test were preprocessed as earlier described. and 12 kV for FR3. Figure 6 shows the relative percentages of fault gases in the total dissolved combustible gases (TDCG). 23. discharge took place in the three oils. No. The values highlighted in bold italics are considered to be significant shifts in dissolved gas values (only combustible gases examined). this is the same result as that seen in the thermal tests. As shown in Figure 5.Figure 3. 15. and Midel had the lowest. the test on mineral oil was carried out for half an hour. The partial discharge tests used a standard PD detection circuit. Table 3. and this was found significantly in all of the oils. hydrogen is the key indicator for low-energy discharges. and on FR3 for 1 hour).
the results for mineral oil and the natural ester showing an incorrect diagnosis of a highenergy discharge. the magnitude of the thermal fault is overstated for the case when it was tested with paper. Other authors have suggested that the use of the Duval triangle is indeterminate.e. the result from the test involving the synthetic ester is correct. This result is to be expected if the laboratory tests are assumed appropriate. overheating < 300°C). The temperature was low enough for the oils or oil/paper being stable enough for insufficient fault gases to be generated. The results of this analysis are given in Table 5.02 and 0.. At 150°C. In doing this. results need to have dissolved gas that is >98% CH4 and <2% C2H4. tests using all of the oil types with and without paper correctly diagnose thermal faults in the low temperature range (<300°C). 300°C< T <700°C). therefore. arc discharge is correctly allocated into the D1 region. The results of the corona test were not analyzed for reasons that will be detailed later. and a large amount of C2H4 was generated in the synthetic ester. and acetylene in Table 4. Results from the thermal tests and the low-energy. arc discharge test results in the allocation of the data points into the D1 region. For FR3. Table 7 shows the results from the final method of analysis that was examined. The next form of analysis carried out uses the IEC 60599 standard . To confirm the diagnosis of PD. arc discharge faults correctly as is shown in Table 6. all thermal test results ended up as being identified as being in the T2 region. is over-estimated in this case as was the case for Midel being tested at 150°C.e. overheating temperature T. the correct diagnosis as per test conditions. ethylene. For the synthetic ester. the IEEE method  that is based on the identification of key gases. the CH4/H2 ratio also should be approximately between 0. Relative percentages of dissolved combustible gases for mineral oil and esters at 90°C and 150°C for 14 days (oil and paper). To allow the correct diagnosis of this form of discharge using the Duval technique. the Duval triangle places the oil used in the 200°C thermal test into the T1 region (i. but the values are very low. Again. For the electrical faults. the Duval triangle DGA fault diagnosis method. The oil subjected to the 150°C thermal tests was placed incorrectly into the T2 region (i. This was the case for all tests at 90°C. In the case of cold corona type discharge (PD) the fault gases concentrations are not sufficient to allow a diagnosis. The low-energy. For partial discharge. For faults involving overheating of oil. This is expected to be 63% of the 10 IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine . For the tests at 200°C. the IEC 60599 diagnosis method  recognizes all of the low-energy. low-energy.14. DGA Diagnosis The results obtained were taken as inputs into DGA diagnosis based on the various standards. For Midel 7131. the key gas is ethylene. Some results produced during the tests lead to a no valid result being placed into the table.Figure 4. The reason for this is that a low concentration of C2H6 was generated in mineral oil. These are cases in which the gas concentration produced during the tests was not sufficient to fall into the code ranges within the standard. it has to be noted that the laboratory measurement error expected during the DGA measurements is ±10% for the 50 ml (minimum) oil samples used in these tests. arc discharge test were analyzed. the generation of methane in the natural ester is too low to diagnose the fault correctly. use of the Duval triangle method diagnosed all faults correctly as being either in the T1 region (thermal fault of less than 300°C) or in region D1 (lowenergy discharges). unless the PD activity is intense and/or occurs over a long period of time . In terms of the results for mineral oil. Figure 7 shows the results of the first analysis technique to be assessed. There is some evidence of generation of methane. thermal overheating temperature.
Therefore. the results suggest that the paper degradation is occurring in all cases for the test sample that uses the synthetic ester. Table 9 shows the results of the KGM on the fault gases generated as a result of electrical faults. For the low-energy. Relative percentages of dissolved combustible gases for mineral oil and esters. No. 5 11 . a view also expressed in  ”In mineral oil. Table 8 shows the analysis of the KGM for thermal tests involving both oil and paper. its percentage of the TDCG is less than the specified level of 85% by the KGM method. Relative percentages of dissolved combustible gases (without H2 and CO) for mineral oil and esters at 90°C and 150°C for 14 days (oil and paper). 23. total dissolved combustible gases with 20% of ethane also being present. only the 150°C test indicates the correct fault for the mineral oil and natural ester tests. None of the samples exhibit this gas concentration. suggesting that the KGM is applicable in this case. Overheating of cellulose is indicated by having a relative proportion of CO above or equal to 92%. however. In all cases. the discharges are of the high Figure 6. September/October 2007 — Vol. The test results show that hydrogen is the dominant gas that is generated. In case of a cold corona-type discharge. When C2H2/H2 is close to or more than 1. It is felt that defining a range of percentage would be more appropriate. the ratio of the C2H2 and H2 gas concentrations usually reflects the intensity of electrical discharges. This is the case for both mineral oil and both of the alternative fluids. This was the case for all three oils.Figure 5. arc discharge. H2 is the primary indicator and the relative percentage should be greater than or equal to 85%. its percentage of the TDCG is not at that level. C2H2 is the key indicator of that form of fault and the relative percentage according to KGM should be greater than or equal to 30%. no fault would be diagnosed by using the key gas method (KGM). These results lead to doubts on the applicability of setting exact percentages of key gases for fault diagnosis (both for mineral oils and for alternative fluids).
IEC 60599 diagnosis results for thermal tests. IEC 60599 diagnosis results for electrical tests. In terms of the diagnosis of the DGA samples using three different methods. Figure 7. When C2H2/H2 is smaller than one. suggesting that this also should be used as a key indicator of thermal faults in combination with ethylene in equipment using this type of fluid. Conclusions Although the molecular structures of esters are different from those of mineral oil. Test method Low energy discharge Oil type Mineral oil Synthetic ester Natural ester Cold corona-type discharge Mineral oil Synthetic ester Natural ester Diagnosis result Discharge of low energy Discharge of low energy Discharge of low energy Discharge of high energy Partial discharge Discharge of high energy 12 IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine . the reduction in the total gas generation will make it more difficult to identify faults at an early stage in practical applications unless the analysis process sensitivity can be improved. However. the temperature range of the fault is overestimated for the tests involving the 14 days at 150°C Mineral oil Synthetic ester Natural ester 1 hour at 200°C Mineral oil Synthetic ester Natural ester Table 6..e. energy type. and hydrogen is the key fault indicating gas for partial discharges. the thermal test results show that the gases generated by a selection of thermal and electrical faults are not different from those generated by mineral oil.Table 4. However. a b : Low energy arc-discharge test. Esters are particularly stable under medium tempera- Table 5. less gas is evolved by esters in comparison to that evolved by mineral oil. FR3 is shown to generate a significant amount of ethane for thermal faults. thermal faults in all three oils are correctly diagnosed by the Duval triangle method. : Corona type discharge test. For both forms of fault. Midel 7131 – red and FR3 – green) under thermal and electrical faults. For electrical faults. DGA results for low energy arc discharge and cold corona type discharge in mineral oil and esters. PD)”. Again. the discharges are weaker and belong to the low energy discharge category (i. The thermal tests also confirm that carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are the key indicators of cellulose degradation in both mineral oil and esters. Duval triangle diagnostic results for three oils (mineral oil – black. Test method Oil type Diagnosis result (oil only) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault t< 300°C) No valid result (CH4 too low) Diagnosis result (oil and paper) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (t< 300°C) Thermal fault (300°C< t <700°C) No valid result (CH4 too low) ture range thermal faults. The rate of generation of dissolved gases in esters is less in comparison with mineral oil. acetylene is the key fault gas observed for low energy discharges. Oil type Sample H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO TDCG C* 5 1 0 1 1 18 26 Mineral oil LEDTa CDTb 901 145 24 270 1540 6 2886 20 2 0 2 2 2 28 C 7 0 0 1 0 9 17 Synthetic ester LEDT 97 9 2 26 126 37 297 CDT 5 2 0 0 0 2 9 C 8 1 2 1 6 6 24 Natural ester LEDT CDT 191 14 10 63 280 51 609 23 2 1 2 2 8 38 *: Control samples.
4 0. 23. C. 5 13 .5 0 1. and Z. The authors particularly appreciate the help given from Ian James. John Noakes. Esters have the same DGA fingerprints as mineral oil but to yield the correct fault diagnosis result. Russell Martin. Stenborg.3 0. U.5 Arcing in oil 22 8 21 N/A Arcing in oil N/A Natural ester 14 days at 150°C 3 1 hour at 200°C 6 10. IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference. Dai. For electrical discharges. Paul Jarman. Key gas method analysis for thermal test (oil only). WI. Oil/gas (%) Mineral oil Time (days) H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO 21 29 6 15 3 3 13 15 7 4 23 65 1.04 87  K. Khan. the only exceptions being natural esters tested with paper at 200°C in which no result could be produced (not enough methane was generated) and synthetic esters tested with paper at 200°C in which case the temperature of the fault was overestimated. Peter Docherty. 2000. Mullen. For corona discharge. J.3 0.5 0. TJ|H2b analytical services and United Utilities for their financial and technical support to form the research consortium ‘Alternative fluids for large power transformers’ at The University of Manchester. CP0414. “An overview of the suitability of vegetable oil dielectrics for use in large power transformers.5 3 1 hour at 200°C 1.5 0. United Kingdom. M & I Materials.5 0. 2006. 308–312. Claiborne. 2000. No. all methods correctly identify the low-energy arcing fault. IEEE Elect. 2004. Paul Dyer. Phase 1 state of the art review. Nov.6 11 0. CA. Alan Darwin. but only the test involving the synthetic ester that was then diagnosed using the IEC technique yielded the correct results.5 46 5 5 esters. and C. I. “Biodegradable electrical insulation fluids”. Dave Walker. References Table 8.” Palo Alto. in Proc.03 85 0 0. Dielect. Cooper Power Systems. “Cooper Power Systems field analysis of Envirotemp FR3 fluid in sealed versus free-breathing transformers”. Phenomena.” in Proc. November 28–30. 5th Annual Euro TechCon. EdF Energy. Key gas method for electrical tests. Key gas method analysis for thermal test (oil and paper). and E. Chicago. C. 1997.  T.  T. the criteria of fault gas ratio or percentage needs to be redefined. Correctly identified faults for different types of analysis.8 0 1 0 2 3 10 7 9 0 53 7 42 0 Diagnostic result 14 days at 150°C 2 1 hour at 200°C 7 0.5 56 31 61 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO 5 7 3 22 2. September/October 2007 — Vol.6 1 1 hour at 200°C Natural ester 2.  EPRI Report 1000438: “Environmentally acceptable transformer fluids. Walsh.5 3 14 days at 150°C 0. and Tony Byrne for providing invaluable expertise and technical guidance toward the project.” in Proc.7 0. When comparing the three diagnostic methods on different types of oil under thermal and electrical tests.1 0 97 93 96 Overheated cellulose N/A Overheated cellulose Overheated cellulose Overheated cellulose N/A 14 days at 150°C 0.Table 7. Scottish Power. Chester.5 0 0 0 0 63 46 80 70 70 25 Diagnostic result N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Table 9.5 3 5 3 2 1. Oil/gas (%) Mineral oil Test type LED CDT Synthetic ester LED CDT Natural ester LED CDT H2 31 72 32.  D. Conf. Oommen. it is concluded that Duval triangle and IEC methods are more applicable than the IEEE KGM (see Table 10).5 5 0. Waukesha. significant hydrogen is generated in all cases. Claiborne. “A new vegetable oil based transformer fluid: Development and verification. C. pp. National Grid. James O’Neil. 465–468. Oil/gas (%) Mineral oil Time (days) H2 Diagnostic CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO result 2 4 1 0.7 0. Correct identification of thermal faults also takes place for the majority of samples assessed using the IEC technique. Insul.4 0. Standard diagnosis methods Mineral Oil Synthetic Ester Natural Ester Duval 6 of 7 5 of 7 4 of 7 IEC 5 of 6 6 of 6 3 of 6 IEEE 2 of 6 3 of 6 2 of 6 Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank AREVA T & D. Table 10. Wang. J. V Oommen. C.4 3 1 hour at 200°C 2 9 Synthetic ester 14 days at 150°C 0. Phase 2 Laboratory testing of fluids.01 95 0. T.2 Arcing in oil 7 N/A Synthetic ester 14 days at 150°C 2 1 hour at 200°C 8 12. pp. V. and P. Rapp. D. Martin.
2001.  T. 18. McShane.D.. IEEE/PES Transmission Distribution Conf.) degree in electrical engineering from the National University of Science and Technology. High Voltage Eng. He is currently a Ph. 6–11. XIVth Int. 2005.. 34–41. McShane. 8–17. Exposition. Mar. 17. “Interaction mechanisms of natural ester dielectric fluid and Kraft paper. pp. Mar. C.  IEC60599. 18.” pp 19–39. vol. 2. 8. pp. Luksich. 1992./Feb. G.” in Proc. Duval and A. “A review of faults detectable by gas-in-oil analysis in transformers. Tsinghua University. and J. Oct.  BS EN60567 ”Oil-filled electrical equipment — Sampling of gases and of oil for analysis of free and dissolved gases — Guidance. (Hons. Corkran. OECD 301 test series “OECD guideline for testing of chemicals.” IEEE Elect.  K. He is a student Member of the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET). where she now is a senior lecturer.  M. Insul. 1999. on July 17.” IEEE Industry Appl. and power-system induced corrosion. June/July 1991. 28–Nov.  C. K. France.  C. Mag. Wang joined the Electrical Energy and Power Systems Group of the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Manchester in 2000. She is the Operational Director for TJ|H2b Analytical Services European Centre.” in Proc. Mag. His current research interests include power systems transients. 2005.  X. His research interests include alternative transformer insulation./Apr. Ian Cotton (M’98.D. Imad-Ullah-Khan received a BEng. 393–396. transformer modeling and FRA and transients’ simulation. Gauger. Chen. Conf.  M.” Adopted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Council. in electrical engineering from UMIST in 1999. Insul. student at the Electrical Energy and Power Systems Group at the University of Manchester. Pakistan. 2005. Chen and W. Paris. vol. “Research of relationship between partial discharge and dissolved gases concentration in oil. and alternative insulation materials for transformers.. Jan. (Hons. Duval. and a Ph. Symp. 14 IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine .” IEEE Elect. whose roles are to evaluate and update methods for the analysis of insulating media. Her current research interests include condition monitoring.D. Susan Northcote is a Chartered Chemist and a Designated European Chemist. J.) degree in electrical engineering from the University of Sheffield in 1995 and a Ph. Mag. electric stress analysis using FEM and dissolved gas analysis. “Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in service: Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and free gases analysis. “Aging of paper insulation in natural ester dielectric fluid. 31–41. vol. Oommen “Vegetable oils for liquid filled transformers.” IEC Publication 60599 (1999–2003)..” IEEE Elect. insulation aging. pp.  “IEEE Guide for the Interpretation of Gases Generated in OilImmersed Transformers. Liquids. Rapp. pp. He is a member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers and a Chartered Engineer. degree in electrical engineering from UMIST in 1998. Dielect. vol. 2001. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Electrical Energy and Power Systems Group of the School Of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Manchester. China.” IEEE Standard C57. Dec. the use of higher voltage systems in aerospace applications. Ms. 2002. ”Interpretation of gas-in-oil analysis using new IEC Publication 60599 and IECTC 10 Databases. August 25–29. Dr. Rapp. Luksich. P. degrees in high voltage engineering from Tsinghua University of Beijing in 1991 and 1993. Mag. McShane. May/ June 2002. Zhongdong Wang received the BEng. and J..” in Proc. dePablo. pp. Beijing.104-1991. and MEng. SM’07) received a Class I BEng. Insul. V. IEEE Int. May/June 2002. “Vegetable oil based dielectric coolant. Northcote represents the Royal Society of Chemistry on the British Standards Gel 10 committee and represents the UK on a number of IEC maintenance teams. in 2004.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.