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Sugar and Sugar Containing Drugs Specimen English Name Vernacular Name Scientific Name and Family (Botanical

Origin) Part Used(Origin) Important Markings Major Constituents Uses Pharmaceutical aid (syrup), demulcent, nutrient, bacteriostatic, preservative, mask disagreeable taste and retards oxidation Of iron prep. monosaccharides - glucose and fructose
a. Medicinal: Relieve pain in infants b. Pharmaceutical: Sweetening agent and as pharmaceutical aid c. Commercial: Used in food as a preservative, additive and sweetener


Cane Sugar, Refined sugar

Asukal, Tubo

Stem of sugarcane (saccharum officinarum) Family: Poaceae Roots of sugarbeets (Beta vulgaris) Family: Chenopodiaceae

white, odorless, crystalline powder

Bark dark gray and smooth Manna Ash or South European Flowering Ash Tubangamericano Leaf - opposite pairs, pinnate, 20-30 cm long, with 5-9 leaflets; the leaflets are broad ovoid, 5-10 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, with a finely serrated and wavy margin, and short but distinct petiolules 515 mm long Rhizome is hollow except at the nodes, strongly furrowed longitudinally. Where the nodes occur, traces of rootlets may be found on the under surfaces and the fibrous remains of sheathing leafbases on the upper surfaces. mannose, mannitol (from mannose reduction),Glucose (seed),Saponin (leaves) Osmotic diuretic, laxative, diabetic food, bacteriological culture media, diagnostic aid


Fraxinus ornus

Dried exudate from stem


Couch grass, Witch grass, Dog grass, Bermuda Grass

Agropyron repens

dried rhizomes and roots

Triticin, Dextrose, Levulose

Medicinally: for irritable bladder and cystitis, a stimulant, refrigerant, diuretic Pharmaceutically: sweetener antioxidant, antiinflammatory, astringent, diuretic, sedative, antitussive


Wild Cherry, Sweet Cherry, Mazzard,

Wild Cherry, Sweet Cherry, Bird Cherry, Gean

Prunus cerasus


distinct reddish brown bark

malic acid, anthocyanins, flavonols, citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol

a. Medicinal: cough (whooping) and cold remedy, asthma, used for treatment of indigestion, worms, burns, labor pains,

diarrhea, headache, bronchitis and tuberculosis, cystitis, oedema. Blood tonic. Antioxidant. b. Pharmaceutical: Antitussive; Astringent; Diuretic;Tonic; Antispasmodic; Inhalant c. Commercial: Flavorant; preservative; Dye; Furniture (Bark); turnery; instruments; gum

ingredient in prep og cherry syrup; flavored vehicle to disguise pharmaceutical mixtures Suppresant, Diuretic, Blood purifier, Aphrodisiac agent Leaf: deciduous leaves are palmate, deeply divided into 3 to 7 main lobes, and irregularly toothed on the margins. The blade is up to 10 inches in length and width, fairly thick, rough on the upper surface, softly hairy on the underside. Igos, Higo, Higos Demulcent, laxative, nutrient
Medicinal >colds, soothing the mucous membranes of our respiratory tract. > boils and small (maturating) tumors. > White, milky juice extracted from the stems and leaves is used for removal of warts. >treatment of gumboils, dental abscesses > Figs increase the mobility of male sperm and increase the numbers of Sperm as well to overcome male sterility. Pharmaceutical: >It is usually employed in preparations of laxative syrups, combined with


Common Fig, Fig, Edible Fig, Ficus Passa, Caricae

Ficus carica

Fruit (partially dried)

Flower: small and inconspicuous Trunk/bark/branches: droop as the tree grows Breakage: susceptible to breakage either at the crotch due to poor collar formation, or the wood itself is weak and tends to break

Glucose, starch, gum, mucilage

Senna and carminatives. > laxative > expectorant and analgesic > Demulcent, >Emollient >Poultice Commercial: (Mostly used when dried) >Jam >Fig-roll or Fig-Newton (biscuit filling) >Alcohol is obtained from fermented Figs

Cassia fistula

Golden Shower Tree, Caa fistula, Pudding Pipe Tree, Indian Laburnum, Purging Cassia

Fistula, Cana Pistula Kaapestula, kanyapistula, lapad-lapad, Lombayong

Old: Cassia fistula, New: Cathartocarpus fistula


Dried fruit (pulp)

Pods finely striated transversely, the striations appearing as fine fissures. The rounded distal ends bear a small point marking the position of the style. It is divided by thin, buff coloured, transverse dissepiments at intervals of about 0.5cm. Each compartment contains one seed which is flat, oval, reddish brown with a well-marked raphe. edible, pod-like fruit contains 5 seed cavities with generally 2 seeds each

sugar, pectin, tannins, albuminous principle

laxative or purgative; to treat skin infections; cathartic; sometimes added to tobacco and smoked;Suppresant, Diuretic; Blood purifier; Aphrodisiac agent

Tamarind Apple

Tamarind, Tamarindo Apple, Pyrus malus

Sampalok Mansanas

Tamarindus indica

Partially dried fruit Longitudinal portion

Tartaric, Citric, Malic acid sugar, malic and ascorbic acid

Astringent, Tonic refrigerant, laxative, purgative reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke, antioxidant

Malus domestica

Polysaccharides Starches Specimen English Name Vernacular Name Scientific Name and Family (Botanical Origin) Part Used (Origin) Important Markings Major Constituents Uses Thickening agent, Diuretic, Poultice
a. Medicinal Considered anodyne, antilithic, antiseptic, cholaggogue, demulcent, diuretic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, lithotriptic, tonic, vasodilator b. Pharmaceutical Its starch is used as thickening agent Source of corn syrup

Corn Starch

Corn, Maize



Zea mays

Endosperm (corn kernel)

The grains are about the size of peas, and adhere in regular rows round a white, pithy substance, which forms the ear

Anthocyanin, Tannin

Thickening agent, binder, alternative to allpurpose flour

a. Medicinal- antidiarrheal, antigastric, demulcent b. Pharmaceutical- thickening agent, emollient c. Commercial- nutritional staple food, Rice bran is a healthy additive to the making of muffins, cakes, cookies, providing both fiber and nutritive value.

Rice Starch

Rice flour, Rice powder


Oryza sativa


Starch, Proteins, Iron, Calcium

Pastes, Explosives, Sizing textiles, Alcoholic beverage, Synthetic rubber

Uses: a. Medicinal- base for nourishment, for detoxification, treatment of ulcerative colitis and red blood cell formation b. Pharmaceutical thickening agent c. Commercial- flour, bread (and the like) making

Wheat Starch



Triticumaestivum L.

Caryopsis, grains

Essential amino acids, Pectin

Antidiarrheal, Sweetener

Arrowroot Starch



Marantaarundinaceae L.

Rhizome (rootstock)

It is a low perennial herbaceous plant with thick, fleshy and creeping roots and long white fibers

B-carotene, Niacin, Thiamine

Uses: a. Medicinal Remedy for diarrhea, dietary aid in gastrointestinal disorders, and applied on the skin to soothe painful, irritated, or inflamed mucous membranes. b. Pharmaceutical - thickeners, starches, gels, stabilizers and emulsifiers

c. Commercial - used in making puddings, cakes, biscuits, hot sauces and noodles, used in making carbonless copy paper

Thickeners, binders, used to manufacture alcoholic beverages

a. Medicinal rheumatism, for frost-bites b. Pharmaceutical starch as disintegrant or diluents filler of tablets and capsules c. Commercial - Boiled with weak sulphuric acid, potato starch is changed into glucose, or grape sugar, which by fermentation yields alcohol this spirit being often sold under the name of British Brandy. Ripe potato juice is an excellent cleaner of silks, cottons and woollens. Flour for cakemaking.

Potato Starch





Tannin, Sugars

Cassava Starch

Manioc, Tapioca, Cassava



Tuber, leaves

The cassava root is long and tapered, with a firm, homogeneous flesh encased in a detachable rind, about 1mm thick, rough and brown on the outside. typical grains elongated, pyriform-, sack-, sausage-, cigar-, or sickle-shaped, some with protuberances. Up to 85 microns in length. ling stalked herbaceous plant with tuberous, enlarged and storage roots. The leaves are large, petiolated, ovate, glaucous, margins entire, and a broad triangular base with petiole attached to a third or half of the leaf. Green and purple petioles are observed. The inflorescence observed is a spadix which is smaller than the spathe and is usually green to yellow. The pods are up to 15 cm long.

Antibacterial, Analgesic, Anthelmintic, Antiamoebacidal Cyanogenic glycoside

Medicinal: relieves rheumatism, headache, rashes, prickly heat Commercial: biofuel, animal feed, production of glue

Banana Starch

Banana, Plantain


Musa sapentum

Fruit, leaves, bark

25% starch, 5% proteins and others, and 70% water

Rich in vitamins A, B, and C; a fair source of iron. Plant fibers used in the manufacture of paper and clothes. Laxative, used for internal hemorrhages, otalgia and adenitis. Tubers are used for rheumatic joints, for Alopecia
a. Medicinal - used to arrest arterial hemorrhage. It is sometimes used in earache and otorrhoea and also an external stimulant and rubefacient. The juice of the corm of this species is used in cases of alopecia. Internally it acts as a laxative, and is used in cases of piles and congestion of the portal system, and also an antidote to the stings of wasps and other insects. c. Commercial used in cooking

Gabi Starch


Gabi, Lagbai, Abalong

Colocasiaesculenta Linn.


Flavonoids, glucose, sucrose, fructose, fiber, maltose

Lima Bean

Lima bean,




Hydrocyanic acid, cyanide,



Butter bean


The mature seeds are 1 to 3 cm long and oval to kidney shaped. In most varieties the seeds are quite flat, but in the "potato" varieties the shape approaches spherical. White seeds are common, but black, red, orange and variously mottled seeds are also known. The immature seeds are uniformly green.

trypsin-inhibitor, lectin, phytin and tannin Contains linamarin

Lunatusin / Antimicrobial / Antimicrobial / Antiproliferative Estrogen-like Activity Trypsin Inhibitors / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibition

Teas, stimulant, carminative, GIT-related illnesses, treatment for the common cold
a. medicinal: It is used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting from motion sickness, pregnancy, and cancer chemotherapy, for the treatment of colds. It is also used as a digestive aid for mild stomach upset, to reduce pain of osteoarthritis (anti-inflammatory), and may even be used in heart disease or cancer. b. pharmaceutical: binder c. commercial: cooking spice

Ginger Starch





Rhizomes - knobbly and fleshy, covered in ring-like scars.


refrigerant, appetizer, fattening, laxative, alleviative of bile, phlegm and burning of the skin. fiber, protein, vitamins (folate and vitamin C), minerals (iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc), and lutein. starch, albuminoids, an oil, galactolipids, alkaloids, trigonelline and piplartine, essential oil, soluble carbohydrates, D-alanine. Flour from the seeds is considered emollient and resolvent and it is applied as cataplasm
a. Medicinal: "Seeds are thought to cause dysentery when eaten raw. In Spain, flour is considered emollient and resolvent, applied as a cataplasm. It has been reported that seeds contain trypsin and chymotrypsin which could be used for contraceptive, ecbolic. fungistatic and spermicide"(Duke, 1981). Smart (1990) reported that there are no significant amounts of toxicity or anti-metabolites in peas. b. Pharmaceutical: c. Commercial: production of bioplastic

Green Pea Starch

Green pea, Pea, Garden Pea, Snow Pea

citzaro, chicaro


The small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit. Each pod contains several peas.

A long, weak annual herb with hollow stems, 1-2 m long. Leaves abruptly pinnate with auricled stipules, in two or three pairs of broad oval leaflets; Flowers white, blue or purple (pink). Pods straight or curved, 5-10 cm long; seeds 6-9

Sago Starch

Sagu, Tapioca balls



starch extracted in the spongy

The stems, which grow to 30 feet (9 meters high), are split

Glucose and other carbohydrates

Thickener, textile, paper, sugar

center, or pith, of various tropical palm stems

out. The starch pith is taken from the stems and ground to powder.

a. Medicinal: used as a source of carbohydrate b. Pharmaceutical: dusting powder c. Commercial: Paper production Textile production Commercially used in making noodles and flour Thickener in dishes

Good source of vitamins A, B and C, iron, calcium and phosphorus The edible tuberous root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin whose color ranges between yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its flesh ranges from beige through white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange, and purple. Sweet potato varieties with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. High in complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber; deficient in protein.
a. Medicinal: Plant pacifies vitiated vata, pitta, burning sensations, constipation, general weakness, renal calculi, and sexual stimulant. b. Pharmaceutical: Antibiotic, bacteriostatic, fungistatic, Upper Respiratory Treatment, Skin Relief, Gastrointestinal Relief, Fever Reducer, Diabetes Treatment, Immune Booster, Powerful Antioxidant, Mineral Salts c. Commercial: Starch and industrial alcohol production, dyes, stains, inks, tattoos and mordants

Camote Starch

Sweet Potato

Kamote, Camote


Ipomoea batatas Linn.


polyphenolics anthocyanins and phenolic acids

Polysaccharides Cellulose Filament of Cotton in water Filament of Cotton in Schweitzers Reagent Vernacular Name Scientific Name and Family (Botanical Origin)


English Name

Part Used (Origin)

Important Markings

Major Constituents

Uses made into surgical cotton, made into gun cotton for explosives, mechanical protectant, avoid microbial growth made into pulp for papermaking
a. Medicinal - Used to treat nasal polyps, asthma, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, dysentery, uterine fibroids and certain cancers, antifertility, antitumor, antiparasite, and anti-HIV b. Pharmaceutical Diuretic widely used in China as a male contraceptive c. Commercial Ornamental, insecticide, textile industry (string and fabric), raw cottonseed oil as cooking oil, shortening, soaps, cosmetics





Gossypium hirsutum

cotton fruit or boll, around the sound hair of the seeds

soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants


Carbohydrate Derivatives Gums &Mucilages Specimen English Name Vernacular Name Scientific Name and Family (Botanical Origin) Part Used (Origin) Important Markings Major Constituents Uses Emulsifier, stabilizer, nutritive, demulcent and thickener Suspending agent, emollient, adhesive, binder
a. Medicinal: cure for rabies (folk medicine) b. Pharmaceutical: Gum Arabic: A substance used in adhesives, some medicines, and as a thickening agent in frozen desserts, astringent medicine,Tannin: Found in the bark of the tree, tannin is used to dye ink. c. Commercial: ornaments(leaves, flowers, tree itself, timber); paints; blossoms or flowers (added as a flavoring to desserts and liqueur); the flower's essential oils are also used in perfumes; pulpwood; land reclamation; wood (used to make flooring, furniture, jewelry, weapons and toy); and seeds (some can be eaten raw or ground and added to sauces).

Arabic gum, Gum Tears of Acacia

Senegal, Galam Gum

arabic, Gum acacia, Gum mimosae, Gum

Acacia Senegal (Fabaceae)

Stems and branches

roundish tears of various sizes, or broken into angular fragments, with a glass-like, sometimes iridescent fracture, opaque from numerous fissures, but transparent and nearly colorless in thin pieces;spheroidal tears of varying size with a matte surface texture

polysaccharides and their calcium, magnesium, and potassium salts, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. arabin


Goats thorn Gum dragon, Syrian tragacanth Gum tragacanth Agar-Agar, Agar Weed, Japanese/Chinese Isinglass, Red

Astragalus gummifer (Fabaceae)

Gummy exudates (stem), Dried sap

Gummy, mucilaginous sap This perennial seaweed grows up to three feet long, comprising of reddish-brown, translucent, multibranched ribbons and fronds,

Tragacanthin, Bassorin

Suspending/ Emulsifying agent, adhesive, demulcent, stabilizer Microbiology Culture Media



Gelidium cartilagineum (Gelidiaceae), Gracilaria

Entire Plant

Agarose Agaropectin

Pharmacy- Laxative, gelling agent, thickening agent,

Algae, Ceylon Moss, Ictiocola, Veg. Gulaman

conferviodes (Sphaerococcaceae)

called thalli (singular thallus), that sprout from a permanent base every year. The thallus is cylindrical or flattened, subdivided, and tough

stabilizer, bulking agent, suspending agent, emulsifier, surgical lubricant, tab excipient, disintegrant Other uses thickening agent, clarifying agent, vegetarian gelatin substitute
a. Medicinal: treatment of constipation, hemorrhoids, obesity b. Pharmaceutical: Laxative c. Commercial: stabilizer, thickening, gelling, bulking agent and food additive, gulaman

Animal Gelatin

Gelatin, Collagen Hydrolysate, Hydrolyzed Gelatin, Marine Collagen Hydrolysate

Animal sources:

Bos taurus

Sus scrofa (Suldae) Ovis aries (Bovidae)

Collagen (which is obtained from various animal products)

A translucent, colorless, brittle (when dry), flavorless solid substance

Chondrin (gelatinizing agent) Glutin (adhesive substance)

Althea Root

Marshmallow root, Sweet Weed, Althea, march mallow, white mallow root, Mallards, Mortification Root Marshmallow

Halamanngmasmelow, HalamangMarsmalo

Althaea officinalis


small scars in the roots parallel to each other and projections of roots. brown corky layer and small roots

altheahexacosanyl lactone, 2-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and altheacoumaringlucoside, along with the known phytoconstituentslauric acid, -sitosterol and lanosterol

Gels, in the manufacture of capsule shells, cosmetics, in weight loss, in the manufacture of paper, culture media base, food, suppository vehicle, emulsifying agent, coat pills expectorant, soothes and softens tissues while controlling bacterial infections, confection, forms protective layer of mucilage on the mucous linings of the body, treat inflammation and ulceration of digestive system, used also externally for localized inflammation, aphrodisiac, antacid gargle for sore throat, demulcent, excipient
a. Medicinal: treatment of sore throats, bronchitis, and for dry hacking coughs, b. Pharmaceutical:, expectorant, laxative

Antioxidant Anti-inflammatory The plants are tall, usually annual herbs, reaching a height of 2-4 m, unbranched or with only a few side branches. The leaves are alternate, simple, lanceolate, 5-15 cm long, with an acuminate tip and a finely serrated or lobed margin. The flowers are small (2-3 cm diameter) and yellow, with five petals; the fruit is a many-seeded capsule. It thrives almost anywhere, and can be grown year-round. Excipient, demulcent
a. Medicinal: Indicated for: Coughs and bronchitis; inflammations of the mouth and throat b. Pharmaceutical: plant is largely used as an emollient fruit: demulcent and emollient; leaves: emollient c. Commercial: Decoration, Food, Natural yellow dye

Mallow Leaf

Malvas, Common Mallow



Ca, P, Fe, K, Fiber, Vit. A, thiamine, ascorbic acid, riboflavin

Industrial-can be spun into thread, twine, or rope Pharmacological- demulcent, tea, nutritional supplement, abordifacient Slippery Elm, Red Elm

Elm Bark

Ulmus fulva


deeply furrowed and brownish red

Galactose, Mucilage (Rhamnose, Galacturonic acid, Xylose)

Medicinal-Sore throat, Cough, Gastroesophogeal reflux disease (GERD), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and irritable bowel syndrom (IBS), Diarrhea, Wounds, burns, boils, psoriasis, and other skin conditions (external) Demulcent, emollient

Chondrus crispus

Irish moss or Carrageenan moss


Chondrus crispus

Whole plant (dried)


Gigartina mamilosa

this protist is soft and cartilaginous, varying in color from a greenishyellow, through red, to a dark purple or purplish-brown. It grows from a discoid holdfast and branches four or five times in a dichotomous, fan-like manner Marine plant

Demulcent,Bulk laxative, thickener and stabilizer

Carageenan hydrocolloids, Galactans

Soothe mucus membranes

Carrageenan, mucilage,



and skin, bulk laxative, thickening agent

iodine, bromine, iron, and vitamins A and B