Massive natural passive defense against air raid
By Anna Farahmand
The great defense against the air menace is to attack the enemy's aircraft as near as possible to their point of departure……………………………………………..….Winston Churchill
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Anna Farahmand (also known as Anna Sedaghat) is a researcher who scientifically devoted about 10 years of her life in aerospace industries. Then she retired because of her gender identity disorder and consequently her sex change from male to female in Thailand .An expert who hated Hijab and was influenced by her feelings and social pathology was accused of acting against national security and then jailed in a Solitary confinement in march 2010 in Iran , just three days after writing " sexual identity and sex change in Persian ". Following her arrest and because of her good knowledge and understanding of defense and space, committed to publishing books and articles against the west and particularly the U.S, although she never interested in politics or politicians. So, some of her books and articles don’t necessarily reflect her view and they have been written under the influence of the current political conditions. As she said everywhere, she is only a simple girl, interested in science that looking at the major goals of humanity regardless of race, religion or political affiliation of any kind and working in scientific organization like NASA is her wish. She is very curious to solve problems and simplify high technologies to be understandable by everyone. That's been apparent since she was very young. If there was something around the house that needed to be fixed or wasn't right (at least in her mind), she couldn't think about anything else except solving that problem. As she loves nature and thinks about anything through natural mechanisms, she prefers to publish her works based on nature. Keep in touch with me at: email@example.com, Annafarahmand1@gmail.com
Introduction Failure rates Increasing bombs failure rate by simulation orb webs Mesh design and structure References The most advanced, the most vulnerable: Modern vs. simple Electromagnetic Shielding EMP shielding in practice Shooting down drones & smart bombs The UAS CDLs vulnerabilities to external threat CDL Reliability and vulnerability References Anti aircraft mine Shooting down airplanes with balloons Modern wars and anti-aircraft balloons Technical information about anti aircraft mine Balloon bombs vs. current air defense References Improvised shelter & bunker Penetration mechanism High Performance bunkers based on improvised concrete Improvised UHPC with fiber reinforcement High density concrete Pontoon bridge damper Deflection of bomb penetration process Explosive reactive armor References Conclusion Other books from Anna 5 7 10 12 17 18 22 23 26 27 31 35 36 37 40 42 45 46 47 50 52 54 56 56 58 58 59 62 63
War is an inevitable hell that always has been and forces a choice between bad alternatives “evil and lesser evil” but there are ways to lessen its effects on the innocent people, industries, and infrastructures. Weapons of war are designed to kill and destruction – that is fact. History illustrate that, once a weapon is made available to a military force, defense systems also be made against. Almost all countries used to have a war ministry, but they later changed the name to the defense ministry or department of defense. Actually most of them, even those that are invaded tend to invest on technical offense rather than defense while the Nature over millions of years has developed the most advanced defensive/offensive systems that should be an inspiration for us to avoid increasing cost and optimizing defense system. Unfortunately, in spite of extensive progress in the field of offensive equipments, the technology is not developed well to stop them or it is only limited to a few countries. In recent decays that heavy airstrikes are accepted as a determining factor to win a war with destruction of the infrastructure of a country, the importance of air defense seems so vital. In addition to protecting people and infrastructure, Comprehensive defense will increase the cost and damage for intruders and makes advanced technologies inefficient. As an experienced expert I have seen thousands of documents on the manufacture of weapons and related items over the past 10 years, but rarely useful information about improvised effective air defense has been published on the web. That’s why I am interested to publish this document. Improvised defense using nature and unconventional warfare could able to create a balance between powerful and weak countries. Like weaving spiders that are "sit-and-wait" predators and generally build a beauty web to capture prey which is the most interesting aspect of spider behavior has fascinated people of many cultures through the ages, we can use such mechanisms to tackle almost all of the dropped bombs and missiles with a combination of natural defense systems and unconventional ideas. The idea here we are going to talk about for the first time is based on large statistical data of bomb failures during bombard. The new defense system makes air strikes inefficient in different ways as below: -Bomb fuses path deflection to increase failure rate and stop direct penetration -Bomb capture (spider mesh technique) -Electronic warfare technique (jamming, faraday cage…) -Anti aircraft mine (aerial balloon bombs) -Improvised shelter (UHPC & multi-layer bunkers containing materials with different density)
Additionally, in this paper the optimization of shelter based on ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) and anti aircraft mine as an integrated defense system against air raid will be discussed. The history contains documented examples of improvised defense systems such as body armor, helmet … to save vital organs and the technology has been developed to make them lighter, more flexible and more efficient. In war, there is a strong likelihood of undue crimes occurring .The killing of civilians is especially important in modern times. In the First World War from 1914-1918 only 5% of deaths were civilian casualties. In just over twenty years and with the advent of much larger and more technically advanced air forces, civilian casualties increased dramatically and during the Second World War over 66% of casualties were civilians. The allies were complicit in the deliberate targeting of civilians where over one quarter of American bombs during the war from 1941-1945 were directed at commercial and residential areas of German cities. This formed part of a two-pronged strategy to disable the urban industrial centers of military production, and lower the German people’s “determination to fight”. Now in the twenty first century, the proportion of civilian casualties in war has reached an astounding level of around 90%. There has been always some portion of aerially delivered bombs and other explosive ordnance fail to detonate that we call it UXO (unexploded ordnance) which are usually preferred to use mechanical fuse (more than electrical fuse). Here we introduce the artificial ways to increase the failure rate of dropped bombs and missiles that already has primed, armed, fused to use in an armed conflict. Dropped bombs and missiles are different in size from small arms ammunition to large bombs weighing about 7000 kg. The poor precision of last wars targeting techniques resulted in the area around the point target has led to design of smart which enable a target to be effectively attacked from high altitude with fewer or smaller bombs rather than the extensive bombing. A high explosive bomb is thick skinned for example has a very strong metal case that fragment on detonation. But if the bomb fails to detonate the H.E variety has (quite clearly from empirical evidence) sufficient structure strength to penetrate the earth. Till now, the way to deal with bombs and missiles are including the use of conventional shelters, camouflage and anti-missile rockets, but with the development of satellite communication and intelligence systems, risk confrontation is highly inevitable. So, using malfunction parameters of bombs and missile seems an effective complementary defense that is discussed here. Anna Farahmand Jan 2013
The failure of bombs to function as designed is one of the central concerns surrounding the weapon type. They are prone to failure for a number of reasons: Manufacture: damaged or faulty parts. Movement and storage: weapons spend long periods of their serviceable life in storage. Depending on the professionalism of the forces involved, stores will be subject to varying levels of care, preservation and servicing where errors may be made, leading to eventual failures in use. Transportation may result in damage. Loading, flight and landings: in wartime, under the pressures of conflict, ground crews make mistakes and the mechanical stresses of flying in combat increase the potential for failure. Ground impact: the environment is “critical in determining” the detonation as designed of all impact-initiated bombs. The ground surface must offer sufficient resistance to impact or the bombs will not detonate. Mud, snow, sand and surface water all lead to substantial numbers of duds and also result in bombs penetrating ground cover and going sub-surface. The reliability of bombs is further affected by plant overgrowth and forest. Bombs strike trees during descent and get caught up. Since there is no impact, the bomb fails to function. Alternatively, branches and overgrowth reduce the speed of falling bombs which then fail to detonate on impact. The bombs have a hard time getting through the tree line and impact rockets are not effective well in a tall tree covered jungles. According to FM 90-5 “Heavy vegetation in jungle battles degrades the effects of all types of munitions. More firepower or alternative fuze action is normally required to achieve effective results. The following guidance is offered when requesting or selecting shell-fuze combinations: - Proximity (VT) fuzed rounds lose much of their effect in tree canopies or other thickly vegetated areas by exploding above or high in the treetops. - Delay fuzes give better effects in Delay fuzes give better effects in heavy vegetation. - Time fuzed rounds also tend to lose some effect, in the jungle by exploding in tree canopies, due to the fuze impact function. Time fuzes, however, can be extremely effective when used for close, defensive fires (300 to 900 meters) with high-explosive (HE) munitions. - Superquick fuzing is useful in open, lightly vegetated, or secondary growth areas. Rounds may explode too soon in high, thick tree canopies, and like time fuzes, lose most of the shell’s effect. In low canopy jungles, however, airbursts can increase casualty-causing effects. As the tree
canopy is thinned out by bursting munitions, a switch to VT or time fuze maybe required if airbursts are the desired method of attack. Also, superquick fuzes should not be used in muddy or water covered terrain, such as swamps or paddies. The effects of superquick fuzed HE ammunition will be sharply reduced as blast and shell fragments will be directed upward. - Delay fuze can penetrate thick canopies. The fuze triggers in the treetops, and detonates the round in the air at a lower level. However, when used against troops in inundated areas or areas with soft, boggy soil conditions and no canopy to trigger the fuze overhead, delay rounds will bury themselves in the ground, losing their antipersonnel effect. - Improved conventional munitions (lCM) should not be used in thick foliage and water-filled rice paddies. The ICM submunitions may hang up in heavy foliage or fall undetonated to the ground, foliage or fall undetonated to the ground, creating a hazardous area, or they may submerge in water, rendering them ineffective. Appropriately fuzed HE rounds should be substituted for ICM, as necessary.
The giant B52 planes that were principally used to bomb Laos were capable of carrying 30 tons of bombs. Many of these bombs did not detonate, with failure rates as high as 30 per cent.
USAF Bombing Data Received in Lao PDR 1998 Sum of Load Quantity
238,500 9,897,600 2,821,764 159,155,421 656,338 794,688 2,837,166 324,540 5,486,400 11,370 420,320 3,324,780 1,754,378 5,981,760 12,506,240 2,816 285 13,176,956 288,485,886
BLU 17 BLU 18 BLU 24 BLU 26 BLU 3 BLU 39 BLU 4 BLU 42 BLU 43 BLU 45 BLU 49 BLU 54 BLU 61 BLU 63 BLU 66 BLU 7 BLU 73 SUB MUNITION MK118 Total
Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb Bomb
Failure rate 26%
62,010 2,573,376 733,659 41,380,409 170,648 206,619 737,663 84,380 1,426,464 2,956 109,283 864,443 456,138 1,555,258 3,251,622 732 74 3,426,009 75,006,330
Such sustained air assault with some of the same aircraft and weapons of the Vietnam War is employed the Gulf War in 1991. More than nine million of the bombs were of the type used by the US in Kosovo. An official US government assessment of Operation Desert Storm found: -unguided munitions including cluster bombs deployed at medium to high altitude were likely to miss the target - without radar, unguided bombing systems suffered from similar weather and environmental limitations as non-radar-guided munitions, especially at medium to high altitude. - Department of defense has been showed, cluster bombs released at medium to high altitudes are very susceptible to wind. There is no doubt that the US and Russian Federation military and many other forces perceive cluster munitions technology as central to their existing and future war-fighting strategy. Cluster munitions were a key element of the United States’ Joint Vision 2010.The most recent cluster bombs in the US army, CBU-78/B Gator, CBU-87/B CEM, CBU-89/B Gator and the CBU-97/B SFW, are designed for release at low altitudes where the plane and crew are at greatest risk; the WCMD is designed to allow release at medium to high altitudes, reportedly up to 45,000 feet. It consists basically of a bolt-on replacement tail unit and guidance system capable of adjusting the flight of the bomb to maintain course trajectory on a target selected prior to launch over a maximum range of eight miles.
Increasing bombs failure rate by simulation orb webs
As the ability of orb webs helps spider to stop insects in midflight and make them dominant predators of insects we can use artificial Mesh to stop dropped bombs, deflection in the path of the bomb fuses and consequently decrease bombardment hazards. The Mesh Simulates orb webs and Heavy vegetation in jungle. They are made of some of the toughest known material such as Kevlar thread or steel cable. The exceptional performances of the Kevlar thread (or steel cable), which composes the supporting radial threads and frames of the Mesh and the related elasticity are critical to absorb the tremendous kinetic energy of flying bombs and missiles. However, the threads could be combined together into complex, composite structures of steel cable and Kevlar threads, which undergo strong deformation during bombs contact. Thus, the work performed by the Mesh during bombs contact may be determined not only by the intrinsic material properties of threads, but also by how those cables and threads are interconnected. Unfortunately, while many studies measure and compare the material properties of discrete Kevlar threads and steel cables, the actual process of absorbing energy by the Mesh is uninvestigated. As the threads in a Mesh are stretched by a bomb, the kinetic energy of flight is transferred to the steel cable. Some of that energy stores in the structural deformation of the cable and will be returned to the bombs as the Mesh oscillates. However, it is ideal that much of the Energy being removed from the bombs through viscous dissipation as flight energy is converted to heat. In practice we could expect this phenomenon mainly for small bombs. Some energy absorbing material like rubber can absorb about 5 per cent of energy in a cycle of vibration. Heavy bombs or missiles with strong case and high velocity would pass the Mesh; however, there is a great chance to deflect them from the path and consequently some kind of failure or malfunction can be achieved. Energy dissipation by a Mesh can be partitioned into two components: - Internal dissipation within the Mesh matrix - Internal dissipation within the capture spiral damping cable The energy absorbed by the Mesh during high energy projectile contact can be measured by tracking the deceleration of the projectile in 5000 fps video.
Laser guided bombs with inert charge( like cement, chalk, …) could be released at a distance of 500 m -10 Km from the Mesh, so that ‘bombs’ impacted Mesh with kinetic energies very similar to typical bombs. A range of bombs sizes (from bomblet to massive ordnance) relative to Mesh masses should be used in order to measure net performance under both easy and extreme conditions.
Images could be captured using a MS55K 1280 x 1020 pixel (high speed camera) http://www.megaspeed.ca/ms55k at 5000 fps.
Kinetic energy of projectiles
The pre-impact kinetic energy (KEinitial) of each projectile will be calculated from the projectile's positions to impact. Total energy input to the Mesh can be calculated as the sum of the changes in kinetic and gravitational potential energies. The energy (R) dissipated by radius segment j at each time increment i can be calculated as Where HR is the damping capacity of thread or cable, ΔLR the incremental change in length and FR the instantaneous load on the thread segment. By conservation of energy, total energy dissipated by the Mesh should be equivalent to the total change in projectile energy. The energy absorbed by Mesh increased with increasing number of radii that were in direct contact with dropped bomb or missile. Typically Mesh with larger numbers of radial threads and more rows of capture spiral distribute energy more effectively to numerous rows of capture spirals.
Mesh design and structure
In practice, a combination of bombs traps that are woven of strong steel cables and Kevlar (or other strong fireproof fibers) should be used. Preferable orifice dimension of steel cables can be different and depends on heavy bombs calibers but the minimum mesh wire diameter “30 cm” is reasonable with rope diameter 5-10 mm. Although Kevlar fiber has better mechanical characteristics but it is vulnerable to extreme incendiary bombard and only can stand against temporal fire without losing its mechanical properties.
Here is a picture of such steel mesh made of 304,304L, 306,306L that resists to Corrosion and impact. Secondary mesh made of Kevlar with mesh diameter 5cm can be applied to tackle small caliber bombs like mortar.
The drogue parachute is caught up in tree canopy and, since there is no impact, the bomblet fails to function. This phenomenon was experienced in Kabul, Afghanistan. Branches and overgrowth exert a braking effect on bomblets, reducing speed of descent to a sufficient extent to cause a failure to detonate on impact. This is by no means a new problem. The BLU 24/B submunition, nicknamed orange, was designed specifically to overcome this problem by the incorporation of a spin-delay fuze to allow penetration of jungle canopy. Yet, the BLU 24/B is a commonly encountered unexploded bomblet in Southeast Asia today. To overcome the problems of malfunctions some manufacturers have attempted to incorporate self-destruct Mechanisms within each bomblet but such mechanism introduces one or more additional critical junctures into the chain. One of the most common reasons for bomblets not to function was simply that the ground did not afford sufficient resistance to initial impact. In the case of the BL755 a firm impact is required in order to crush the piezo-electric impact-sensing element; the ideal is a vertical impact. Angled impact or soft ground was a common reason for failure. The manufacturer’s warning is, however, accurate and important – moving or striking the munition is especially dangerous because the detonator is stab-sensitive which stresses a piezoelectric crystal which fires the main detonator. In the other hand Atmospheric conditions and the structure of wind field plays an important role in the process of precise bomb release, i.e. the highest possible degree of accuracy of target
hitting, being the main goal of this process. That’s one of our reasons why we prefer to build our strategic centers in highland. In our scenario, we should use bombs design flaws as a primary parameters to defend against them. It doesn’t matter how big they are and could be dangerous. Among them is Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) GBU-57A/B to targets buried deep underground. It is new generation of GBU-28 and GBU-37.
1944 - 1948 Weight 20 metric tons Impact Control: none Flight Profile: Ballistic 1990-2000 Weight: 2,268 kg Length : 7.6 metres Diameter: 35.6 centimetres Wingspan: 1.7 metres Impact Control: Angle-of-attack Flight Profile :Optimized GPS trajectory Penetration: more than 6 m in reinforced concrete and over 30 m in earth
2002-2012 Weight: 14,000 kg Length: 6.2 m Diameter:80 cm Impact Control: Angle-of-attack Flight Profile :Optimized GPS trajectory Penetration: around 8 m in reinforced concrete and over 60 meters in earth
It uses a combination of fuzing method from a combination of timer and a sturdy dynamic propeller on the rear of the bomb to a microphone and microcontroller. The microphone listens, and the micro controller counts floors until the bomb breaks through the desired numbers of floors or depth. They reach their target at the extra speed provided by a rocket motor that enables greater penetration. To reach maximum penetration depth vertical impact is necessary that controlled through angle of attack and their flight profile is based on Optimized GPS trajectory. It is clear if conventional air defense fails to destroy it, our mesh also couldn’t stop such heavy bombs but it can change the angle of impact and consequently decreases real penetration depth.
A precision- guided munition (PGM) is most accurate when dropped from mid altitude “15,000 to 23,000 feet” which allows enough time for the weapon to correct itself in flight. If dropped from a lower altitude, the weapon will have less kinetic energy and its steering fins less opportunity to correct the aim; thus, the weapon will usually land short of the target. From the pilot’s perspective, medium altitude allows time to identify the target at sufficient distance, “designate” it (if laser guided), and launch the weapon. In short, for PGMs delivered on a fixed target with an established position. Serbia—the optimum altitude to ensure accuracy lies at or above 15,000 feet. The most favorable drop altitude for the accurate employment of non-guided munitions is lower than that for a PGM. Even so target acquisition remains a limiting factor: coming in too low at 500 knots makes it nearly impossible to acquire the target, line up the aircraft, and place the bomb accurately. As a result, the compromise altitude for the delivery of unguided bombs is around 5,000 feet. However, flying at these altitudes, places aircraft right in the thick of ground fire. In 43 days, US forces delivered a mere 330 weapons (244 laser-guided bombs and 86 Tomahawk cruise missiles) against Baghdad targets. Those weapons represented 3 percent of all the precision ordnance used during the war, which in turn amounted to 7.4 percent of all the air weapons expended. As a consequence, the total tonnage falling on Baghdad during the war amounted to a scant 287 tons—a minute fraction of the total of 84,200 tons dropped by the Air Force that had enormous effect to attrit all Iraqi frontline divisions below 50 percent of their combat strength in tanks, artillery, and armored vehicles before ground operations began. Note: slat armor also known as bar armor or cage armor: it is a kind of wire fencing similar to that I have already explained about steel mesh. The technique is used in Vietnam War and modern era to preventing optimal detonation from occurring, or by damaging the fuzing mechanism. However, it can be defeated by tandem-charge designs, such as the RPG27 and RPG-29. Many American missiles use the tandem charges because they were designed in the Cold War era to counter the reactive armor that was a common feature on Soviet tanks. It shows that the technique is useful against bombard.
Slat armor (light netting type)
Protecting front with slat armor of Swedish tank
1- Cluster bombs, the military effectiveness and impact on civilians of cluster munitions by Rae McGrath, 2000 2-jungle operation, FM-90-5 3- The Bombing of Afghanistan: The Convergence of Media and Political Power to Reduce Outrage by Brendan Riddick 4- Risk Management Approach in Lao PDR by Tim Horner 5- Sensitivity of a bomb to wind turbulence by Andrzej Żyluk 6-unexploded ordnance (UXO) - A guide for the construction industries 7- Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy by Andrew T. Sensenig, Kimberly A. Lorentz, Sean P. Kelly and Todd A. Blackledge 8- The role of capture spiral silk properties in the diversification of orb webs 9- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GBU-28 10- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-12_Cloudmaker 11- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bunker_buster 12- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BOLT-117 13- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GBU-43/B_Massive_Ordnance_Air_Blast_bomb 14- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massive_Ordnance_Penetrator 15- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guided_bomb 16- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cage_armor 17- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Polish_Rosomak_in_Afghanistan.jpg 18- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OCPA-2005-03-09-165522.jpg 19- http://www.megaspeed.ca/ 20-technical manual: description and characteristics airborne bomb and rocket fuze manual: NAVAIR 11-1F-2
The most advanced, the most vulnerable: Modern vs. simple
Advanced technologies in comparison to old technology have both advantages and disadvantages and advanced technology does not necessarily mean efficient technology and sometimes it can bring new security holes to our life. Let me address you a concept which is related to our discussion and you are familiar with: Electronic warfare (EW) EW is a set of measures and actions performed by conflicting sides to detect and attack enemy electronic systems for the control of forces and weapons, including high precision weapons, as well as to electronically defend one’s own electronic systems and other targets from technical intelligence, jamming and non-deliberate interference Activities used in EW include: electro-optical, infrared and radio frequency countermeasures; EM compatibility and deception; EM hardening, interference, intrusion, and jamming; electronic masking, probing, reconnaissance, and intelligence; electronics security; EW reprogramming; emission control; spectrum management; and wartime reserve modes EW activities have been developed over time to exploit the opportunities and vulnerabilities that are inherent in the physics of EM energy and subdivided to following categories: -Electronic attack (EA) -Electronic protection (EP) -Electronic warfare support (ES) Many modern equipments and offensive weapons are sensitive to Electronic attack. For example communications jamming can be used to prevent or at least to degrade communications (GPS, GSM, Radio, IR …) by electromagnetic means to cause delays in transmission and reception. Jamming may be used in conjunction with deception to achieve an overall electronic countermeasure (ECM) plan implementation. Jamming devices are an alternative to more expensive measures against cell phones, such as Faraday cages, which are mostly suitable as built in protection for structures. Theoretically, electromagnetic waves naturally flowed around the surface of conductive materials, not through them. Therefore The Mesh inherently is a Faraday cages and in conjunction with pulsed jammers located on the supporting towers makes the most of the bombs inefficient. In practice, Jamming system is being used for electronic warfare purposes against offensive guided weapons and the mesh will trap the dropped bombs and missiles or at least change their angle of attack. Of course, any gaps will allow some radiation to leak out and the smaller the gaps, the less leakage there is. To determine the shielding effectiveness for a given wavelength of RF radiation use Es = 20log (l / 2L) where l is the wavelength of the radiation, and L is the aperture width.
Main supporting towers of the mesh could be earthed to enhance protection against lightening, E.W and electromagnetic bombs. Modern strategic air attack theory identifies five zones as below which are all vulnerable to electromagnetic bombs: 1-Nation's leadership (C3 system) 2-Essential economic infrastructure (automated machinery, PLC control systems, banking) 3- Transportation & communication network (road/rail signaling,) 4-Population (radio, T.V, domestic computers, cell phones& satellite receivers) 5-Filded military forces (embedded computers, support facilities, battle filed c3) Modern electromagnetic bomb is capable of producing electrical energies of tens of Mega Joules in tens to hundreds of microseconds of time, in a relatively compact package. With peak power levels of the order of tens of Tera Watts that produce the current to a thousand times greater than that produced by a typical lightning stroke. Buildings housing government offices and thus computer equipment, production facilities, military bases and known radar sites and communications nodes are all targets which can be readily identified through conventional photographic, satellite, imaging radar, electronic reconnaissance and humint operations. These targets are typically geographically fixed and thus may be attacked providing that the aircraft can penetrate to weapon release range. With the accuracy inherent in GPS/inertially guided weapons, the electromagnetic bomb can be programmed to detonate at the optimal position to inflict a maximum of electrical damage.
Mobile and relocatable air defense equipment, mobile communications nodes, while radiating, their positions can be precisely tracked with suitable Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and Emitter Locating Systems (ELS) carried either by the launch platform or a remote surveillance platform. Tracking of Unintentional Emission (UE) is used against hidden targets and Van Eck radiation can only be suppressed by rigorous shielding and emission control techniques, such as are employed in TEMPEST rated equipment. The most effective method is to wholly contain the equipment in an electrically conductive enclosure, termed a Faraday cage, which prevents the electromagnetic field from gaining access to the protected equipment. However, most such equipment must communicate with and be fed with power from the outside world, and this can provide entry points via which electrical transients may enter the enclosure and effect damage. While optical fibers address this requirement for transferring data in and out, electrical power feeds remain an ongoing vulnerability. Older equipment and systems may be impossible to harden properly and may require complete replacement. In simple terms, hardening by design is significantly easier than attempting to harden existing equipment. It must be noted that thermionic technology (i.e. vacuum tube equipment) is substantially more resilient to the electromagnetic weapons effects than solid state (i.e. transistor) technology. Any wires running into the protected area could act as antennae and conduct the electromagnetic Shock wave into the equipment. These points of entry into a shielded area must be protected from EMP by using specially designed surge protectors, special wire termination procedures, screened isolated transformers, spark gaps, or other types of specially designed electrical filters Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, and other vendors have recently marketed a new product commonly called a “Portable Data Center” (PDC) where computer equipment is placed on racks that are pre-grouped inside a modular room, which can be moved and connected to other portable computer room modules, as needed. For example, a portable module can hold as many as 1,200 servers along with power supply and a cooling system. All this computer equipment fits into a box that can be placed inside a 40-foot standard freight shipping container, which can also be mounted on a truck for portability. This new method for housing computers is intended to reduce the cost for computer facility installation
In addition department of defense (DOD) has published Mil-Standard 188-125, which describes methods for protecting against High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse for ground-based command and control facilities.
In comparison with an Anti Radiation Missile (ARM - a missile which homes on the emissions from a threat radar), the established and specialized tool in the conduct of SEAD operations, an electromagnetic bomb can achieve kills against multiple targets of diverse types within its lethal footprint. In this respect an electromagnetic device may be described as a Weapon of Electrical Mass Destruction. For example High-Power Microwaves pulse can be created as an instantaneous electromagnetic pulse, i.e, when a powerful chemical detonation is transformed through a special coil device, called a flux compression generator, into an intense electromagnetic field or other methods like combining reactive chemicals or using powerful batteries and capacitors to create HPM. In 2001, a U.S. Comanche helicopter, flying in New York while performing a radar test involving HPM weapons, generated a low-level energy pulse that reportedly disrupted for two weeks the global positioning systems (GPS) being used to land commercial aircraft at a nearby airport in Albany, New York. Conventional electronic warfare will initially concentrate on saturating the opponent's electronic defenses, denying information and inflicting maximum attrition upon electronic assets while electromagnetic weapons vastly reduces the number of air assets required to inflict substantial attrition, and where proper electronic reconnaissance has been carried out beforehand, also reduces the need for specialized assets such as ARM firing aircraft equipped with costly emitter locating systems. Electromagnetic weapons provide a particularly high payoff when applied against a highly industrialized and geographically concentrated opponent. Unless optical fiber networking is used; the networking cables are themselves a medium via which electromagnetic effects can be efficiently propagated throughout the network, to destroy machines. So, centralize networking of information technology systems produces a major safety to electromagnetic attack by hardening computer rooms. In brief, the massed application of electromagnetic bombs to Electronic warfare operations will provide for a much faster rate of attrition against hostile electronic assets, achievable with a significantly reduced number of specialized and multirole air assets. This will allow even a modestly sized force to apply overwhelming pressure in the initial phase of an electronic battle, and therefore achieve command of the electromagnetic spectrum in a significantly shorter time than by conventional means.
EMP shielding is designed to limit the influence of electromagnetic fields and radiation on a device or object. The process uses a barrier made from conductive material containing electric charges of either positive or negative properties at the subatomic particle level. Usually, this material is used to separate the electrical components on the inside of the device from the outside world. Cables also utilize the concept to separate wires from outside environments. When used to block radio frequencies, it is known as RF shielding. The exact purpose of this shielding is to protect devices from the coupling effect, the transfer of one form of energy to a device that uses a different form. This is commonly caused by radio waves, electrostatic fields, and the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. The full level of protection is based on the amount of reduction to the electric and magnetic fields. This depends on the size, shape and orientation of the shielding. No matter the standards in place, however, shielding cannot protect against low-frequency magnetic fields. A variety of materials can be used as electromagnetic shielding to protect an electrical device. Examples include ionized gas in the form of plasma, metal foam with gas-filled pores, or simply sheet metal. In order for holes within the shielding to be present, they must be considerably smaller than any wavelength from the electromagnetic field. If the shielding contains any openings larger than the wavelength, it cannot effectively prevent the device from becoming compromised. Household devices often use a different shielding method due to the likelihood of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Plastic enclosures usually use some sort of metallic ink consisting of copper or nickel in a small particular state. This material can be sprayed onto the enclosure, producing a conductive layer of metal that acts as protection. The main reason this layer works is due to its close proximity to the grounding of the device. Many common day-to-day items contain electromagnetic shielding. One of the most common examples of this is the microwave oven found within most kitchens in the United States. With the metal housing working in unison with the screen on the window, a full electromagnetic shield is created. While visible light is able to pass through the window screen, electromagnetic waves cannot.
EMP shielding in practice
1. Whenever feasible, shielding of the overall building should be done in preference to room or area protection. Individual room or area shields should only be utilized to provide additional protection of critical equipment when normal protective methods will not reduce EMP to an acceptable level, or where, in retrofitting an existing structure, the cost of protecting the entire building is excessive. 2. Commercial enclosures may be used for small rooms and bolted construction is acceptable. For large room construction, however, continuously welded steel is preferred. 3. Electrical wiring and components should be protected from EMP fields by a shield such as ferrous conduit, RF shielded raceway, or cable armor, that completely surrounds the items to be protected. Electronic components may be shielded with sheet metal housings. 4. All metallic penetrations of the facility shielding should enter at a common location as illustrated below. All shielded cables, conduits, and pipes should be bonded to an entry plate as shown hereinafter. This plate should be large enough so that no penetrations will occur within 1 foot of the nearest edge. The entrance plate should be continuously welded, around its perimeter, to the building shield. The conduit should be of steel with threaded or welded couplings. Conduit runs should be as short as practical with joints held to a minimum
EMP Bonding Practices
- Homogeneous welds should be used whenever possible because they offer the best protection against penetration of the EMP signal. - When bolts are used as fasteners, the body of the bolt should not be welded or brazed. The nut and washers should be located inside the shield region where they will not be exposed to the incident field. Nuts should be checked for tightness periodically during EMP hardness assurance test cycles. - Pipes, conduit, and connector shells should be welded or brazed to the shield completely around their perimeter at the point of penetration of the shielded region. Conductors used for grounding purposes shall not penetrate any metallic barrier designated as an EMP shield ,i.e., shielded enclosure, EMP vault etc., but shall rather be bonded to a welded stud on the barrier. - Indirect bonding jumpers and straps should be as wide as practical and as short as possible to minimize the inductance of the path for the EMP-induced current.
Important construction guidelines 1- Isolate power by using internal motor-generator sources and installing lightning arresters on lines. 2- Put all external wires in continuous, properly grounded ferrous conduit. 3- Screen over air-conditioning ducts, where they enter shielded areas, must be peripherally bonded to the shield. d. Interconnect the steel reinforcing bars in concrete into the shielding and grounding systems for the structure. 4- Use lightning arresters on power station transformers. 5- Provide all surge arresters with shortest possible leads. 6. Ground cable outer shields and insure that the shields are continuous and closed throughout their lengths. 7- Bury power and signal cables in ferrous conduit as deeply as is economically feasible (greater than 0.9 meter (3 feet)) to reduce current surges and to slope wave fronts induced on the cables. 8- Install transient protective devices (TPD's) on all antennas and other electric lines exposed to the external environment. 9. Educate personnel in proper protection practices; for example, extension cords connected to outside plugs should not be brought into shielded areas. 10- Bond together and ground all nonelectrical conductors such as elevator cables, metal air ducts, and storage cabinets. 11- All conduit penetrations must be peripherally bonded to the shield. 12- Avoid use of non-conducting lubricants when fastening conduit pipes together.
13- Ensure that a low resistance circumferential electrical weld exists wherever conduit penetrates the EMP barrier. 14- When closed, the cover should provide peripheral contact with the box. 15- Either use adequate surge protection on oil-filled transformers and other high voltage gear to Prevent explosions or use only dry transformers inside the shielded enclosure. 16- Provide adequate surge protection for emergency power equipment. 17- Do not rely on fuses or circuit breakers for EMP protection. 18- Provide automatically closing doors in preference to manually closed doors. 19- Put single-phase protection on each phase of S-phase power systems as well as on the neutral. 20- Use passive low pass L-C radio interference filters on signal, control, and telephone lines. 21- Since electromagnetic fields in the corners of a shielded structure are usually higher than in other parts of the structure, when convenient do not locate known sensitive equipments in corners.
Shooting down drones & smart bombs
Undoubtedly, UAS technology and their utilization have exploded globally and such systems have changed the face of 21st century warfare. Drones don’t need to eat or sleep and are unbound of human limitations. In spite all of advantages; they have some disadvantages in comparison with manned aircraft. They are still tending to human error due to their being flown by ground-based operators. Their development and accusation cost has grown exponentially as capabilities increase. According to UAS, their accident rate is 100 times greater than manned aircraft. As they need a constant control signal we can increase their crash or even take control over them by exploiting signal to interrupt the data feed. That is why the researchers are trying to change them into the complex robotic with fully artificial intelligence designed to operate in austere environments. Although the first Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has designed and tested in 1917, but the preprogrammed with an area target of such devices (auto-piloted V1, V2) were developed and used during world wars. Nowadays, Unmanned systems that gather intelligence , observe key terrain, disable explosives, clear underwater mines, and perform many other missions are becoming a mainstay on the modern battlefield . Remotely operated Unmanned Aircraft systems require two separate radio communications links to operate: One communications link feeds FMV to a Remote Viewing Terminal (RVT) through a Video Data Link (VDL), the other communication link controls the UAS through a Common Data Link (CDL). The VDL uses an Omni-directional antenna to broadcast its communication feed in all directions, allowing any RVT tuned into the UASs VDL frequency to observe the UASs FMV. Video quality and consistency of reception is dependent on the VDL signal strength. The CDL can use either an Omni-directional antenna or a directional antenna that broadcasts only in the direction of the Ground Control Station (GCS). If a CDL experiences frequency interference, the UA executes a self-recovery program known as a “lost link procedure” and attempts to reacquire the CDL from the GCS. If smaller UA, such as the RQ-11 Raven, fails to reacquire the CDL, it continues its self-recovery program and returns to a preprogrammed recovery point. When some larger UA, such as the RQ-7 Shadow, fail to reacquire the CDL, the operators may identify the UA as rogue and deploy a recovery parachute to avoid endangering manned aircraft From a defensive point of view, we should represent a tactical victory by denying commanders the ability to effectively use a UAS.
The UAS CDLs vulnerabilities to external threat
The UAS CDLs have similar CDL structure depends on their classes which is categorized into three main classes: Man-Portable, Tactical, and Theater UAS and some of their capabilities are mentioned in table below:
Man-Portable: they are small, self-contained UAV that operate at low altitude share airspace and shorter range than other systems due to their dependence on LOS communications. They are controlled through maintaining CDL between the UA and the GCS and broad cast their FMV to any RVT systems within the range which is monitoring the correct VDL. They use omnidirectional antenna for CDL/VDL and multiple operators can command single UA by transferring command using a CDL handshaking. Of course incorrect handshaking process can cause a crash. Here is the review of some current UAS of this type: RQ11, RQ14 and RQ16.
RQ-16 T-Hawk: it is used to combat roadside bombs in Iraq in a range of up 10 kilometers and airborne for 50 min at 46 MPH with gasoline operated engine. It takes off vertically and communicates on L-band (UHF) and can record Electro Optical (EO) and Infra-Red (IR) images and up to 240 minutes of FMV imagery by GCS. Drawbacks: LOS communication, moderate rain, high temperatures and heavy wind. RQ-11 Raven: it is one of the world’s most popular UAS that hand launched with an electrical engine and range up of to 10 Km and remains airborne of 110 min and flown either manually or on a preprogrammed route, flies up to 50MPH at 500 feet AGL, and performs a conventional belly landing. The system includes the Joint Common Interoperable Ground Control Station (JCIGCS) that provides FMV, captures screen images, stores data for playback during target assessment, and communicates on L-band UHF frequencies. It has two sensor payloads: a dual forward and side-look EO nose camera with a stabilized electronic pan-tilt-zoom feature for daytime operations, and a forward and side-look IR nose camera for night operations. Drawbacks: LOS communication, moderate rain, heavy wind. RQ-14 Dragon Eye: it was canceled and replaced with RQ-11. It is bungee launched, flown using an autopilot or on preprogrammed GPS. It uses an EO payload and an IR payload for daytime and night respectively. Drawbacks: LOS communication, moderate rain, heavy wind. Puma AE: IT is similar to the RQ-11 Raven but can land in water with a range of up to 15 kilometers and can airborne for up to 2 hrs and flown on a pre-programmed GPS route, flies up to 45MPH at 500 feet AGL, and performs a conventional belly landing on land or water and uses both EO and IR sensors. WASP III: it has an ultra-quiet electrically powered engine and side-look EO camera, a highresolution EO camera with electronic pan/tilt/zoom, and an IR imager with a range of up to 5 kilometers and can be airborne for up to 45 minutes and flown manually or on a preprogrammed route, flies up to 40MPH at 1000 feet AGL, and performs a conventional belly landing. Drawbacks: LOS communication, moderate rain, heavy wind.
Tactical UAS: They are larger than Man-Portable UAS and maybe launched using external power or take off under its own power but some can land by parachute. They need professional experts and high-power mobile GCS to maintain control which is often dependent on maintaining constant LOS communication. They have complex sensors for all mission profile. Among them are RQ-7 (Shadow 200,400,600): they uses aviation gasoline fueled pusher propel engine with range of up to 125 kilometers that can remain airborne for up to 6 hours and launched using a trailer mounted pneumatic catapult rail system, flown manually, flies up to 140MPH at 14,000 feet MSL, and uses an automated Take Off and Landing System (TALS) to land conventionally on fixed landing gear. The RQ-7B is equipped with plug-in optical payload (POP) 300, thermal imager, an EO sensor, a laser range finder (LRF) and an IR illumination for target identification. The Shadow 200 uses One System Ground Control Station (OSGCS) which can simultaneously control numerous UA and conducts video coding and decoding, and can archive up to 30 days of ISR data. These types of UAV are using S-band UHF/SHF frequencies for its CDL and Cband SHF frequencies for its VDL and they are limited to LOS communications. Drawbacks: LOS communication, moderate rain, heavy wind or weather turbulence.
MQ-5 Hunter: it uses a heavy fuel engine and has a range of up to 200 kilometers, can remain airborne for up to 18 hours, and flies up to 125MPH at altitudes up to 18,000 feet MSL. it is manually flown, and lands using fixed landing gear and equipped with EO/IR sensor, an IR illuminator, a laser range finder designator (LRFD), and a communications relay package (CRP). MQ-5 can use the GBU-44/B, Viper Strike, a glide bomb that uses the Hunter’s LRFD to attack targets. The Hunter uses the same OSGCS similar to Shadow 200 and uses a C-band SHF frequency for both its CDL and VDL.
I-GNAT: there are many types of I-GNAT and depending on the variants, using either an aviation gasoline or a heavy fuel pusher prop engine with a LOS (Line of Sight) of range of up to 250 kilometers or a BLOS (Beyond Line of Sight) range of 2500 kilometers, can remain airborne for up to 40 hours, and flies up to 140MPH at altitudes up to 25,000 feet MSL. It is manually flown and lands using retractable landing gear and equipped with sensors includes an EO/IR sensor, LRFD, and a CRP. Most of them uses the OSGCS and are limited to LOS
communications operating on C-band SHF frequencies, but some uses BLOS satellite communication, radio operating on Ku-band EHF frequencies.
MQ-1C Sky Warrior/Gray Eagle That was the Extended Range/Multi-Purpose (ERMP) product. Engine: heavy fuel pusher prop Engine, LOS range: 500 Km, BLOS range: 1200 Km Fly: over 30 hours, and flies up to 170MPH at altitudes up to 29,000 feet MSL Take off /landing: conventional /using landing gear Payloads: EO/IR, LRFD, CRP AND a Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indication (SAR/GMTI) sensor, 4 laser guided AGM-114 based on Laser Range Finder Designator (LRFD) Storing data: for 30 days Communication: both LOS and B LOS using Ku-band EHF frequencies Control: OSGCS
CDL Reliability and vulnerability
The more dependent on technology a military force, the more vulnerable the force is to EW. P. W. Singer in his book “Wired for War” directly addresses incidents of military UAS CDL interference and suggests that any radio frequency can be jammed. CDL communications appear to be susceptible to both jamming and mimicking although there is limited literature addressing enemy counter-UAS attacks. U.S air force statistics, Communications failure is the primary cause for 15 percent of Army UAS reportable accidents. An electronic attack against a UAS CDL is a likely threat scenario due to the CDLs susceptibility to EMI being public knowledge. This attack would come in the form of an active jammer designed to drown out the CDLs communications. Jamming is a form of EA using an electronic device, known as a jammer, to transmit high power signal at receiver to disrupt signal quality to disrupt signal quality in the three forms: broadband noise, tone, and swept jamming. The doctrine recommends avoiding flight within a set distance of active jammers, turning jammers off when using UAS or programming jammers to not broadcast against the UAS designated frequency. The doctrine also states that operation of multiple UAS in a concentrated area could cause CDL interference. The most common causes for these failures are malfunctioning power plant or props, flight control malfunctions, human error, and communications failures, but UAS may be subjected to offensive electronic warfare, computer network attacks, computer network exploitation, and signal intelligence exploitation. The symptoms of an EA on a UASs CDL and the results of EMI on a UAS CDL are similar. An EA against a UAS CDL is a likely threat scenario due to the CDLs susceptibility to EMI being public knowledge. This attack would come in the form of an active jammer designed to drown out the CDLs communications. Jamming disrupts communication waveforms by flooding a receiver with noise and any signal can be jammed with sufficient power. Disruption of UAS CDLs will cause a system to execute its lost link programming and force an aircraft to depart the mission area. Jamming is a form of EA using an electronic device, known as a jammer, to transmit high power signal at receiver to disrupt signal quality in the three forms: broadband noise, tone, and swept jamming. These jammers each have advantages and disadvantages on the modern EW battlefield but their limiting factor is the power available to apply to the jamming signal. The goal of noise jamming is to send a threat signal sufficient strength to “out shout” the transmitter sending the attacked frequency. Noise jamming disrupts the communication waveform by inserting noise onto the receiver. The bandwidth of the signal may be as wide as the entire spectrum used by the communications system or it may occupy only a single channel.
Broadband jamming is also known as full band or barrage jamming. This type of jamming can be effective against all forms of anti-jamming (AJ) communication systems. This type of jamming raises the background noise level at the receiver, creating a higher noise environment for an AJ system. If the noise is increased, it makes it difficult for a communications system to operate. Effective noise jamming may reduce the range of the communications or if the noise is sufficient, the jammer may deny communication. An effective noise jamming attack can disrupt UAS CDL communications and cause the UAS to execute its lost link programming. The greatest advantage of broadband noise jamming is the simplicity of the system. A jammer operator selects a frequency band and creates as much noise as possible to degrade an entire frequency spectrum. It does not require a smart means to acquire the specific transmitting frequency or the need to chase a frequency hopping system. The greatest disadvantage of broadband noise jamming is the strength of the jamming signal. The larger the spectrum being jammed, the less power is available to create noise. Sweep jamming occurs when narrowband noise is swept across a frequency band of interest. The jammer focuses on a specific frequency and a small portion of the band around the single frequency. This sweep can jam a selected band in rapid succession and have effects similar to a barrage jammer. However, a swept jammer concentrates its full power against specific frequencies on the band of interest and this allows swept jammers to have greater range than broadband jammers. The greatest advantage of swept jamming is the ability to jam a broadband while maintaining adequate power to project its signal. Timing is the key to effective sweep jamming and if timing is correct, the jammer can hop around a spectrum with sufficient power to degrade communications. Timing is also the greatest disadvantage to swept jamming. If the jammer hops the spectrum too quickly, it may not loiter on a selected frequency long enough to achieve the degradation desired. Spot jamming, or single tone jamming, occurs when a jammer concentrates all of its power on a single frequency. These jammers are effective against communications systems that do not hop and are in use by the opposition. Spot jamming does not move along the frequency spectrum and this limits the utility of such jammers against modern military equipment. The greatest advantage of spot jamming is the power available to project on its disrupting power at a target. These jammers may have greater range than systems that attack a broad frequency spectrum. The greatest disadvantage of spot jamming is its inability to target modern frequency hopping communications and the intelligence requirement of identifying the specific target frequency. Man-Portable UAS are the systems most likely to experience an EA against their CDLs. These systems operate at low altitudes and in close proximity to threat forces. Their flight profile allows enemy forces to visually or acoustically acquire and track the system throughout their mission. Man-Portable UAS CDLs communicate on an L-band UHF frequency that is easy to jam. The CDL does not use any electronic protection (EP) such as a frequency hopping radio or a coded receiver. Lastly, the UAS uses an omnidirectional that can receive commands from any
direction throughout its flight profile. Tactical UAS are less likely to experience an EA against their CDLs but it is still at greater risk than Theater UAS. These systems operational altitudes are higher than Man-Portable UAS but are often within audio or visual range of threat forces. Directing a jamming signal able to disrupt Tactical UAS CDLs would likely require an advanced directional antenna in order to project and focus its signal. Tactical UAS Man-Portable UAS CDLs operates using S-band UHF/SHF frequency and although more jam resistant than the Lband, it is still vulnerable to jamming. Lastly, the UA uses an omnidirectional that can receive commands from any direction throughout its flight profile but the GCS transmits its signal using a directional antenna. If a CDL experiences frequency interference, the system executes a selfrecovery program known as a “lost link procedure” and attempts to reacquire the CDL from the GCS. If a Man-Portable UAS fails to reacquire its CDL, it continues its self-recovery program and attempts to return to a preprogrammed recovery point. If a Tactical UAS fails to reacquire its CDL, the operators may identify the UA as rogue and deploy the systems recovery parachute to avoid endangering manned aircraft. Electronic protection is the subdivision of EW where military forces take action to protect personnel, facilities, and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy use of the electromagnetic spectrum that degrade, neutralize, or destroy friendly combat capability. Electronic protection subcategories into spectrum management, Electromagnetic (EM) hardening, and emission control. Also counter-jammers and Communications Security measures should be considered as self-protective measures. Designing equipment that protects personnel, facilities, and equipment by filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and shielding against undesirable effects of EM energy is hardening. All military electronic equipment receives some hardening such as filtering, attenuating, grounding, and bonding during the production process that is one of the key differences between civilian and military UAS. Most military systems receive some degree of shielding but the amount varies depending on the system. EM shielding can drastically increase the weight of a system and weight is a major concern for aircraft designers. Systems at risk from EW may execute a preemptive attack against a threat using defensive EA. These measures use the electromagnetic spectrum to protect personnel, facilities, capabilities, and equipment. A vulnerable system conducts a defensive EA to deny an enemy the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to attack the system that we call it electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM). Common defensive EA component designed for aircraft is a counter-jammer. An airborne counter-jammer jams in the same manner as a ground based system. They detect a jamming signal directed against an aircrafts communications system and transmit a counterjamming signal toward the threat jammer. It is very difficult to develop a completely effective ECCM system due to the dynamic nature of EW. Military forces may invest millions of dollars and an incredible amount of time to develop
an ECCM that is obsolete soon after fielding. ECCM equipment often countered by electronic counter- counter countermeasures (ECCCM) and countering portion of the ECCM term can be carried to the ridiculous extreme. Electronic warfare philosophy is based on that designers cannot make a communications system jam-proof but they can make a communications system jam-resistant. The ability to jam communications or the ability to resist jamming is a question of power. If sufficient power is available, any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum can be jammed. Most ManPortable UAS are battery powered and do not have the capability to produce their own power. Any power diverted for electronic self-protection would drastically affect their mission. A Tactical UAS generates the power required to operate its systems but its ability to support additional power requirements is questionable. The power production capability of a UAS is limited and the power potential of a UAS counter-jammer will be equally limited. And it should be noted that any modification used to improve UAS CDL security affect on weight, size, cost and technological capabilities. Denying unauthorized forces information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications is COMSEC. These protective measures mislead or deny unauthorized persons attempting to interdict friendly communication which is still under development by applying cryptographic measures. COMSEC system encrypts a communications signal with a code prior to transmission and the receiver must decrypt the signal with a key to interpret the information. Coding communications does provide some EP to the transmitted signal particularly when a smart jammer attempting to hop over a specific signal. This kind of jammer will fail unless it has the correct timing and frequencies. Nevertheless it does not mean that a coded signal is jam-proof but it is more jam resistant. Some forms of jamming, such as broadband jamming, are not dependant on timing or frequency specificity. If enough power is available, a jammer can jam any frequency along the spectrum it is targeting. According to the pictures revealed, the downed RQ-170 with an apparent damage to one part of the wing and underbelly of the plane was first jammed (on CDL/GPS) and then forced into autopilot to simulation landing as its home landing base. There are actually 2 types of GPSsystems using the same satellites, one is the normal, commercial GPS-systems, in which it is possible to spoof the GPS signals, but in some commercial GPS-receivers, a built-in algorithm compares the signal strength of the satellites, and if some signals are way too strong, like in spoofing, the receiver would actually mark the satellite as being suspicious, and ignore all data coming from the suspicious satellites. A high-power broadband signal in the GPS-band (1575.42 MHz), will overload the front-end, and making the system inoperable. The C/A codes on the L1 band, is unencrypted, so making it possible to be spoofed. Military GPS's uses the L2 band (1227.60 MHz), and the data is very heavily encrypted, of which the codes is changed once a week, to avoid spoofing.
1-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Directed-energy_weapon 2-www.UAVforum.org 3-Wired for War, by P. W. Singer 4-Jane’s Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Targets 5-Fundamentals of Electronic Warfare, by Sergei Vakin 6-GSM Mobile jammer by Dept.of ECE TKM Institute of Technology 7-Modern communication techniques cell phone jammer by J.SUDHA RANI 8-Cell phone jammer complete notes 9-Design of user specific intelligent cell phone jammer; Embedded Systems Projects, IEEE 2012 Abstracts, firstname.lastname@example.org 10-Joint Doctrine for Electronic Warfare; Joint Publication 3-51 11-Remotely Piloted Aircraft; Future Air Force Science and Technology by Dr. Mark T. Maybury 2011 12-Advances in UAV Data Links: Analysis of Requirement evolution and implications on future equipment by XBaiotti, G. L.Scazzola, G. Battaini, E. Crovari 13-Modern Communications Jamming Principles and Techniques Second Edition by Richard Poisel 2011 14-The vulnerabilities of unmanned aircraft system common data links to electronic attack by 15-JAYSEN A. YOCHIM, MAJOR, US ARMY B.S., Weber State University, Ogden, Utah, 1998-2010 16-Airpower Myths and Facts by PHILLIP S. MEILINGER 2003 17-Shielding Methods for Radio Frequencies by Anton Brink 18-Army unmanned aircraft system operations; FMI 3-04.155-April 2006 19-Military handbook,grounding,bonding and shielding for electronic equipments and facilities vol II-1987 20-High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and High Power Microwave (HPM) Devices: 21-Threat Assessments; CRS report for congress by Clay Wilson 2008 22-Laser and GPS/Laser Precision Guided Bombs; Raytheon 23-High-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) for ground-based C41 facilities performance critical time-urgent mission part 1; fixed facilities; MIL-STD-188-125-1 24-Advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: State of the Art and the Road to Autonomy by Kimon P. Valavanis 25-Regenerative jammer with multiple jamming algorithms; Robert Eugene Stoddard, John Lorin Anderson; Pat No. US 2009/0061759 A1
Anti aircraft mine
Before examining technical issues relating to anti-aircraft mines as an effective way to use in air defense, it is necessary to explain its history related to this technology. With the invention of the airplane in the early twentieth century and the development of this industry, the vulnerability of such invention was recognized by the phenomenon called, bird strike that is the risk of birds colliding with aircraft. Bird strikes are a significant threat to flight safety, and have caused a number of accidents with human casualties. Bird strikes happen most often during takeoff or landing, or during low altitude Flight. However, bird strikes have also been reported at high altitudes, some as high as 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to 9,000 m (30,000 ft) above the ground: According to the FAA wildlife hazard management manual for 2005, less than 8% of strikes occur above 900 m (3,000 ft) and 61% occur at less than 30 m (100 ft). The force of the impact on an aircraft depends on the weight of the animal and the speed difference and direction at the impact. The energy of the impact increases with the square of the speed difference. Hence a low-speed impact of a small bird on a car windshield causes relatively little damage. High speed impacts, as with jet aircraft, can cause considerable damage and even catastrophic to the vehicle. The energy of a 5 kg (11 lb) bird moving at a relative velocity of 275 km/h (171 mph) approximately equals the energy of a 100 kg (220 lb) weight dropped from a height of 15 meters (49 ft). Note however that the momentum (as distinct from the kinetic energy) of the bird in this example inconsiderably less than that of the tonne weight, and therefore the force required to deflect it is also considerably less. The Federal Aviation Administration estimates the problem costs US aviation 600 million dollars annually and has resulted in over 200 worldwide deaths since 1988. In the United Kingdom the Central Science Laboratory estimates that, worldwide, the cost of birdstrikes to airlines is around US$1.2 billion annually. This cost includes direct repair cost and lost revenue opportunities while the damaged aircraft is out of service. Here are some pictures to see this event:
Shooting down airplanes with balloons
Arachnocampa luminosa larvae (known as spider worm) are accomplished predators with a most unusual hunting method that usually live in the ceiling of dark, secluded caves in New Zealand. The larvae spin a nest of silk and hang several silk threads from the cave ceiling, around the nest. Each one of these threads is covered on sticky droplets of mucus, sometimes loaded with venom for hunting flying insects such as moths. Similarly here, we want to introduce anti aircraft mine as a lesson from nature!
Like all great armed conflicts, the Second World War brought an industrial and technological revolution to all warring nations. Oddly enough, despite the military innovation of that period, to fight bombings over cities and other strategic targets, armies turned to an 18th century invention: aerostats. Moored balloons played a key role in the defense of London, the Invasion of Normandy and the Battle of Moscow, where this system was employed in its most massive and sophisticated way. with the development of aviation and the first bombers, which had a rather low flight ceiling and lacked of bombsights to accurately drop their load, aerostats became useful for a new aim: to deny low-level flights by creating nets of moored balloons. The risk of crashing into the tethering cables or the balloons itself pushed enemy airplanes to fly at higher altitude to bomb their targets, thereby decreasing surprise and bombing accuracy while enhancing ground-based air defenses and intercepting fighters. The British Army was the first to use barrage balloons. During the last years of World War I barrage balloons were deployed to protect London against German bombers. Each one of those early barrages consisted of an apron of three blimps, 500 yards apart joined together by a heavy steel cable, which was raised up to 10,000 feet high. The balloons that protected London over a
year had a very successful performance, since they practically denied the low-level attacks by the enemy bombers and allowed antiaircraft guns and RAF fighters to engage Luftwaffe planes in the narrow expanse of airspace left. The success achieved by the barrage balloons in the First World War led the British to use more than 2,000 of them during the Second one. Besides some technical improvements, the main change in the way of using barrage balloons was leaving aside the apron concept. Instead, single balloons were used because they could be sent aloft more quickly and were easier to operate. During those years balloons were not just used to protect London, but lots of other strategic sites like airfields, harbors and important buildings. A 20 meters long and 8 meters wide balloon above a specific target meant a great added hindrance to any attempt of dive bombing, like the ones carried out by the well known Stukas, which threw themselves into the targets to drop their bombs. Although since World War I the airplanes had improved their capacity to fly at high altitude, Nazis were still unhinged by the presence of barrage balloons and would try their best to destroy them by all possible means: from air missions devoted to shoot them down to equipping their bombers with all kinds of devices in order to dodge and cut the anchoring cables. All those attempts turned out too costly and not much effective, since the fallen balloons were replaced shortly. Besides the Battle of Britain, the allies also used aerostats in several other occasions, like the defense of the US West Coast in 1942 or the deployment across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. Among all those occasions, the main turning point would be the Invasion of Normandy, when hundreds of ships sailed protected by barrage balloons to deter any attack from German planes. The USSR found inspiration in the British experience in World War I and the battle of Britain, and would decide to use aerostats to fight the massive bombings carried out by the Luftwaffe over Moscow during 1941 and 1942, in Hitler’s attempt to take the city. Soviet defenses against German air force were set up along three concentric circles: in a radius of 120 kilometers from Moscow city center were located several airfields in order to intercept German bombers within a range from 150 to 200 kilometers away from the capital, subsequently, in a radius of 35 kilometers, were deployed the first anti-aircraft guns, and finally, within a radius of 8 kilometers around the Kremlin, were scattered hundreds of barrage balloons following a chessboard pattern, covering all city center and the most important buildings.
Each post of the net consisted of a 12 people team and 2 identical blimps, which would be sent aloft separately, reaching a maximum height of 8,200 feet, or in tandem mode, reaching a maximum height of 14,700 feet:
Diagram of barrage balloons used in tandem mode Besides the benefits already mentioned, offered by the barrage balloons, Soviet blimps had mines attached to their anchoring cables. Thereby, in case a German plane struck a cable, it wouldn’t just get seriously damaged and crash, but may explode in the air after pulling the contact bomb against its fuselage. Since 1941 until the end of the Battle of Moscow, 120 German planes crashed due to impacts against the steel cables and 35 exploded in flight after detonating a hanging mine. Diagram:
As a result of the large amount of casualties, the Luftwaffe sent fighters to shoot down the barrage balloons, but they were replaced so quickly and Nazi planes used to receive such a heavy response by Soviet fighters and ground defenses that finally switched to night bombings. The Soviet response to jeopardize the enemy bombers was to keep the barrage balloons in the air at
night and lower them before dawn. The total number of blimps deployed was over 3.000 units, which were sent aloft more than 300.000 times during the war. Luftwaffe lost over Moscow 491 planes, including those shot down by anti-aircraft guns and those brought down after crashing into barrage balloons. Another weapon used in middle of 20 century was devices called UP and AA Mine Discharger. UP was un-rotated British Projectile rocket launched parachute aerial mine system for ship Defense.
Parachute mines deploying
Modern wars and anti-aircraft balloons
THE United States and its NATO investigated the Low-Level Threat and SAM Limitations which is published in the power journal in summer 1989. Barrage balloons disappeared after World War II as newer, more sophisticated air defense weapons were introduced. The threat from low-flying aircraft, however, continues to be a problem. Aerial barrages still offer a viable deterrent against this form of attack, and we should use them. The Falkland Islands War offers a solid example of the effectiveness of high-speed, low altitude tactics in negating SAMs. During the course of the war, British pilots flow even lower to break radar lock once their radar warning receiver indicated SAM activation, throughout the entire war, SAMs destroyed only two British aircraft. The barrage balloon was simply a bag of lighter-than-air gas attached to a steel cable anchored to the ground. The balloon could be raised or lowered to the desired altitude by means of a winch. Its purpose was ingenuous: to deny low-level airspace to enemy aircraft. This simple mission provided three major benefits: (1) It forced aircraft to higher altitudes, thereby decreasing surprise and bombing accuracy; (2) It enhanced ground-based air defenses and the ability of fighters to acquire targets, since intruding aircraft were limited in altitudes and direction (3) The cable presented a definite mental and material hazard to pilots.1 many people think that a barrage balloon system was designed to snare aircraft like a spider web capturing unwary flies. British and American experiences with barrage balloons reveal two major facts:
(1) The low-level air threat is a continuing problem (2) Barrage balloons can aid in countering that threat.
Therefore, it is rather surprising that aerial barrages are not mentioned in the history books. Balloons would be just as useful today as they were in the forties and would effectively complement the SAMs, rapid-fire AA guns, and fighters of the modern air defense system. Based on the performance of barrage balloons during World War II--when they successfully defended ports and factories from low-level attack--it seems logical to protect one of NATO's most important installations--the airfield. The Soviets fear the aerial might of the United States and its allies and will do everything possible to destroy it quickly and completely. Therefore, a massive low-level attack on NATO air bases, which many have called the Achilles' heel of air power, is a certainty. These targets deserve extra protection, and barrage balloons offer that capability. As mentioned earlier, the barrage balloon offers several distinct advantages that have been proven in wartime: it denies the low altitude to enemy aircraft, enhances air defense systems, and presents a definite mental and material hazard to the enemy pilot. Aerial barriers are also cheap and durable. Aerial barriers are also cheap and durable. Wallop Industries of Great Britain has developed a balloon called the Skysnare and a barrage of six costs approximately $18,000. Maintenance and training are equally inexpensive, and the only "fuel', for the system would be the helium or hydrogen gas to lift the balloon. Considering the price tag of modern weapon systems and ammunition, the cost-effectiveness of the balloon is impressive. Consisting of a cable, a single-ply plastic envelope, and a winch, the system is extremely robust and can remain airborne for up to two weeks per inflation. The 4-mm Kevlar cable gives the Skysnare system extraordinary strength and destructive power should an aircraft strike the cable.
Disadvantages: The advantages of the barrage balloon are many, but--as with any weapon system—there are drawbacks. First, it is susceptible to high winds: during the Battle of Britain, a heavy gale destroyed or damaged approximately 250 balloons. Timely weather reports could help solve this problem. A second disadvantage of balloons is the fact that their very presence signals the enemy that a target must be nearby. This drawback was partially corrected in World War II by camouflaging both balloon and "balloon bed." Anyway their deterrent value more than compensates for its disadvantages. Last, balloon cables are indiscriminately hazardous-friendly aircraft may inadvertently be caught in them. However, Peter D. John suggests using "procedural control" to reduce the chance of a friendly aircraft's hitting a cable. This method worked very well during World War II when hundreds of friendly planes safety negotiated aerial barriers. In our search to build a better mousetrap, we often neglect the lessons of history.
Technology has produced a marvel of engineering in the modern fighter plane, enabling it to fly higher, faster, and lower than ever before. In battle, the jet fighter's forte is high speed, low-level attack--a tactic difficult to combat. The barrage balloon disappeared after World War II, but this capable asset deserves to be used again. Naturally suited to defend small, important areas, barrage balloons would be perfect for NATO's vital airfields. Col R. E. Turley, an American advocate of barrage balloons during World War II, emphasized the team approach to air defense in an article written in 1942: When employed alone, barrage balloons ordinarily would not be effective. . . In conjunction with other arms, barrage balloons constitute an element in the antiaircraft defense system complementary to antiaircraft artillery and pursuit aviation, the balloons being most effective at low altitudes where the complementary arms are least efficient. Simply he stated: barrage balloons optimize air defenses.
Technical information about anti aircraft mine
Technology to build the balloon goes back over 200 years ago. Early balloons were empty bags filled with hot air made by burning torch, which was located in the lower part. These balloons are used today in various forms for different purposes such as travel, celebrations, etc. As described earlier, military balloons were actually used in the 19th century and early twentieth century and among them hydrogen balloon had the most lifting power. Since hydrogen gas is considered the world's lightest gas, so it has greatest difference density related to air than other gases and every cubic meter of this gas at sea level is able to raise more than one kilogram of payload from the Earth without using any fuel or propulsion system .The altitude of the Hydrogen balloon depends on air pressure, air temperature, balloon material and weight of payload .The altitude is reduced with more payload weight. Hydrogen balloons could reach to very high altitudes between 60,000 to 120,000 feet (18 to 37 km). They can even launch into what is termed "near space"—the area of Earth's atmosphere where there is very little air, but which is not high enough to be in the realm of satellites. Balloons are categorized into two types: Rigid that can fix its altitude Flexible which is made of latex and being inflated when is climbing up and its altitude alters with time.
Weather balloons are made of a highly flexible latex material, though Chloroprene may also be used. It should be noted that hydrogen gas has a high penetration power and is able to leak out of the balloon wall. So balloons lose their height over time. But in an anti-aircraft mine leaking gas at the time of the operation is negligible. So, Anti-aircraft mines can be used in two different forms: fixed and mobile. Fixed type of balloons made of strong and rigid plastic material that is connected to motor at the ground by a string of Kevlar fibers. In the plan introduced here, the use of explosives with sufficient sensitivity in the 500 meter distance from each other along the towline is recommended. In practice, the high-speed collision between aircraft or missiles with hanging sensitive Explosive causes them to explode without any detonator. In this design the mine can be pulled down in non-emergency situations and be used frequently. If the mine is placed at an altitude of 5000 meters will capable to lift 10 shipments of explosives attached to the string in the 500 meter distance from each other. As 100 grams of sensitive high explosives is sufficient to destroy an aircraft completely, so a balloon with a capacity of 2 cubic meters is sufficient for such purpose. Although Fiber weight and weight of the inflated balloon should be noted. Since an aircraft in a good condition and during a rotation in flight will pass over 500 meters of space, thus the distance between the payloads seems to be enough. Today as modern airplane have much more speed and pass the same space much faster than before, so the chance of collision with hanging mines increases dramatically. Another type of proposed mine is small balloon that is made of rubbery material such as latex and carry small shipment individually. This type of mines can be prepared in advance on the ground and connect to launching system which is a facility to charge them with hydrogen gas and self destruct activation system before release. Self-destruct Delayed system is to prevent space contamination with suspended ammunitions. The designed mines can be released by airplane or even a cluster bomb. In the cluster type, it is necessary to charge the balloon by the combustion of hydrogen-generating compounds or other mixtures such as TiH3NH4N3 with following reactions: 2 NH4F.HF + NaBH4 -> NaF + BF3 + N2 + 7H2 70 % Hydrogen by volume, 9.2% by weight 4 H2NNH2.BH3 + 6 NH4F.HF -> 4 BF3 + 7N2 + 29H2 72.5 % Hydrogen by volume, 11 % by weight 2 CaH2 + 2 NH4F.HF -> 2 CaF2 + N2 + 6 H2 67 % Hydrogen by volume, 10.2 % by weight The proposed compounds above can be placed inside a small capsule and after initiation they start to produce hydrogen gas to inflate the balloon similar to the mechanism take place in airbag. It is also possible to use some other chemical reaction in the field methods for producing hydrogen to use in balloons such as the reaction of sodium hydroxide and aluminum, calcium hydride and water or already prepared hydrogen tanks. Each bomblet to use in cluster weapons has a dimension about 500 cubic centimeters that consists a latex balloon to involve 100 liter of
hydrogen gas at sea level and atmospheric pressure, 100 gram of sensitive ammunition, gas generator and its starter, delayed self destructor system and also nylon string. As these suspended weapon are known as sky pollutant so a light delay system should destroy them in a timing method. Therefore a column with delay time of 30 minutes seems appropriate for this purpose. The delay time can be controlled in a mechanically, chemically or even an electronically manner. For example, an inexpensive delay can be made of a cotton wick that is lighter than other system, but effective when there is no rain and the humidity is not so high .The lightest chemical delay system that I have tested had the weight less than 1 gram! Note: cotton wick after burning will not extinguish till to finish by its slow ignition. Balloon can be made of polyethylene or other useful polymers. Recommended layout of aerial mines would be zigzag that is focused toward the center. In this arrangement, if the plane passes through two adjacent mines will face the Risk of collision with a mine in the middle of the two that is located one kilometer away. Such aerial mines can be deployed near the borders and the strategic points that radar can not track any airplanes also we should note that these kind of mobile aerial mine are not seen in a radar scope whether by intruder airplane or land radar. Even if the shipments were not explosive (such as steel bullet); they yet load a massive force to the airplane because of collision impact. To understand this better, suppose a 1 pound duck that impact to an airplane traveling at 600 mi/hr (880 ft/s) and let to calculate impulse: 1 pound duck whose length is 1 foot and the time of collision is assumed to be the time of transit of the duck's dimension of 1 foot, so 1/880 second
It is a simple example of kinetic weapons which have no explosive but are destructive. A bomb with 900 kg that is dropped from an aircraft with a speed of approximately 220 meters per second has the energy equivalent of 4.7 kg of TNT. In other words, if it was filled with a passive material like cement, its energy equivalency was about 5 kilogram of TNT. So kinetic energy of
a solid military rocket with speed of mach5 and approximate weight without propellant 1500 kg with non-separation warhead is calculated 2041875000 j that its TNT equivalency is 4.6 MJ/kg, it will load a force as equal as 434 kg of TNT while charge of explosive in this kind of rockets is only about 300 kg! Also a significant portion of energy from explosive is wasted into heat and the blast wave. This simple calculation proves the ineffectiveness of such rockets and is recommended charging them with cluster munitions of depleted uranium with high penetration and incendiary abilities.
Balloon bombs vs. current air defense
1- The old methods used for air defense are not accurate. i.e. antiaircraft canon. 2- Modern air defense systems are vulnerable to electronic warfare and electromagnetic bombs. 3- Current defensive systems do not stop air strikes. 4- The current systems require experienced staff. 5- The current air defense systems are so expensive. 6-ballons can be used as multi purposes weapons against different target depend on the payload they can carry. The payload can be: conventional ammunition like different kind of bullet with/without explosive, surveillance system, broadband jammers, TV/radio transceiver, infrared sensor, proximity electromagnetic bombs, ozone destructor catalyst (iodine), NBC agents such as nano scale plutonium … 7- The gas filled balloons are themselves invisible to radar that is why they carry lightweight reflecting radar "target" made of aluminum foil and foam plastic which allows them to be tracked to great distances. Radar can pick up a flying human (and flying birds). If it's slow moving then anti-clutter programming may filter it out. (Radar normally doesn't display birds, but only because the signal filters out such slow moving objects).
1- Sodhi, Navjot S. (2002). "Competition in the air: birds versus aircraft." http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3793/is_200207/ai_n9133434/pg_1 The Auk 119 (3): 587–595.doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0587:CITABV]2.0.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1642/0004-8038(2002)119[0587:CITABV]2.0.CO;2 2- Richardson, W. John (1994)."Serious birdstrike-related accidents to military aircraft of ten countries: preliminary analysis of circumstances" (PDF). Bird Strike Committeen Europe BSCE 22/WP22, Vienna. http://www.int-birdstrike.org/Vienna_Papers/IBSC22 WP21.pdf 3- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Aviation_Administration 4- http://www.fab.mil.br/portal/operacoes_aereas/cruzex5/index.php?page=mostra&id=34 4&idioma=1 5- Tactics Department of the AAA School, "Notes for AA Tactics, " in Pamphlet 20,Barrage Balloons, 15 June 1943, 5-7. 6- "Tethered Anti-Aircraft Balloon," International Defense Review 20, no. 5 (1987): 687. 7- Wallop Systems Limited, "Rampart Low Level Defence System," London, 1987, an advertisement. 8- Jeffrey Ethell and Alfred Price, Air War South Atlantic (New York: Macmillan, 1983), 30. 9- History, 4th Antiaircraft Command, 146. 10- Bruce W. Watson and Peter M. Dunn, eds., Military Lessons of the Falkland Islands War; Views from the United States (Boulder, Colo.; West view Press,1984), 45. 11- Lessons of the South Atlantic War, Proceedings of the Conference on the Anglo-Argentine War of 1982(Washington, D.C.; Defense & Foreign Affairs Ltd.,1982), 88. 12- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Projectile 13-http://library.sciencemadness.org/library/books/the_chemistry_and_manufacture_of_hydr ogen.pdf 14- http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=14777 15- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airship 16- U.S patent no: 3734863; Hydrogen generating compositions
Improvised shelter & bunker
A lesson from history
The first air-dropped bombs carried by 200 of unmanned balloons were used by the Austrians in the 1849 although the first manned bombing from a fixed-wing aircraft took place in 1911 when the Italians bombed the Turkish lines in what is now Libya, during the Italo-Turkish War. The first large scale dropping of bombs took place during World War I starting in 1915 with the German Zeppelin Airship raids on London. One raid on the 8th of September 1915 dropped 1800 kg of high explosives and incendiary bombs, including one bomb which weighed 270 kg. I think it is well for the man in the street to realize that there is no power on earth that can protect him from being bombed. Whatever people may tell him, the bomber will always get through. The only defense is in offense, which means that you have to kill more women and children more quickly than the enemy if you want to be saved. Recognizing such a position, Germany made attempts to protect itself passively from future air attack in the 1920s, even though active defense -- searchlights, flak guns, and so on -- were forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The basic concepts turned on the collective nature of the enterprise: any program was to cover the whole city, and the program had to be worked into any urban development programs. The Code gave preference to aboveground shelters, because underground shelters were costlier. In addition, it specified various details, such as the number of gas locks for entry (preferably two), the width of entries, the size of the staircases, the need for washrooms, first aid rooms, and so on. 1940 By the time of its issuance, Germany was reconciled to a long air war; therefore the details of the program were meant to be comprehensive and prescriptive, as a listing of some of its provisions that are still valid today shows: 1. For buildings (municipal buildings, dwellings, lots) which up to now have either inadequate air raid shelters or none at all, do-it-yourself air raid measures will be adopted. 2. Existing or newly constructed streets or transportation paths (e.g., subways and tunnels) are to be adapted for the construction of underground and bombproof air raid shelters. 3. The openings to the outside in existing air raid shelters are to be removed and at the same time connections are to be made (to other shelters) with collapsible fire walls. 4. New public air raid shelters are to be constructed, and existing air raid shelters are to be made as bombproof as possible.
5. All new constructions, particularly in buildings for the armaments industry, are henceforth to be equipped with bombproof air raid shelters. Such shelters are to have the same priority as the structure being built itself. That also had a support center in the event of air raids which was further subdivided: 1-security and police 2- Firefighting crews 3- Technical and emergency repairs including bomb disposal and the rescue of bombing victims 4- Red Cross and the municipal health authorities, in handling all problems of health, emergency care, and hygiene that grew out of the bombing raids. There was even a special department devoted to veterinary care, with emergency stations for the care of draft animals and pets. 5- Decontamination Service The most basic shelter was the home shelter, or do-it-yourself shelter. According to the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, such shelters were subject to inspection and approval by the local authorities and had to meet the following specifications: 1-at least rudimentary gas-proofing, 2-at least one emergency exit (usually to an adjoining cellar through a collapsible fire wall) 3-the sealing of all other openings to the outside 4-in some cases rudimentary struts of wooden beams or brick. A secondary category involved semi-public shelters, which included schools and other municipal buildings. These were probably the most numerous of the various dual purpose shelters that served a public function; the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey specifies that they were equipped with gastight steel doors. hey were of concrete, they did not catch fire, and since they were detached from other buildings they were not as directly affected by other burning buildings; hence the effects of heat or gases would not be as great . In the Hamburg raids of late July 1943, the second to last of which created the famous firestorm, only 100 people in aboveground shelters died, largely as a result of two direct hits on smaller structures. Considering that more than 50,000 people were killed that night and that over eleven hundred tons of high explosives were expended, that seems a remarkably low total. the most unusual public air raid shelters was caves that lie beneath the city, several hundred meters in length, caused by water cutting through the rock formations. ventilation in the air raid shelters was a problem insofar as it had to provide sufficient air per person (11 cubic feet per minute), had to provide temperatures in the acceptable range, and provide for humidity control.
In addition, the more secure shelters would be flooded with refugees in the event of severe raids. Overcrowding was always a problem. The underground shelters were more like "tube bunkers." When you came through the steel door, fitted with rubber around the edges to make it airtight, you entered a diagonal hallway. This hallway was joined by three or four tube-like hallways perpendicular to it. Each of these, in turn, was a separate bunker. Much of the debate regarding airpower and strategic bombing has been colored by accusations, misconceptions, inaccuracies, myths, and simple untruths. In truth, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) reported that “bombing appreciably affected the German will to resist. Its main psychological effects were defeatism, fear, hopelessness, fatalism, and apathy. In addition, air attack had an enormous effect on German troops, representing “a chronic cause of fear, discouragement and confusion, and a potentially serious disrupter of discipline. . . . Air power when employed against lines of communication and transportation plays a vital role not only in producing the more obvious military isolation of the battlefield, but intensifies feelings of anxiety and frustration. In mid 1945, when the bombing campaign against Japan reached its height, absenteeism in Japanese factories approached 50 percent. Nearly 8.5 million people had fled the cities to escape the bombing campaign nationwide; of those, nearly one third were factory workers—certainly not an indication of increasing morale. United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) showed that the people directed their anger at their leaders for failing to protect them not against Allied airmen.
Before discussing on improvised shelter, it is worth to know how a penetrator works. Terminal ballistics is what happens when the bullet hits the target which involves so many variables, Impact velocity, bomb/missile weight, shape, material, how thick its jacket is, hardness of the core, stability, the media structure to hits, etc, etc, etc. according to Newton's approximation , the impact depth for cylindrical projectiles at high velocities can be calculated as below:
D: penetration depth L: projectile length A: projectile density B: target density According to Newton's approximation, a full metal projectile made of uranium will pierce through roughly 2.5 times its own length of steel armor and similarly a uranium projectile at high speed and 1 m in length would punch its way through 6 m of rock (density 3 g/cm³) before coming to a stop. This is usually true if the impactor's speed is much higher than the speed of sound within the target material. One of the most important things to know in ballistics is the sectional density of the projectile and is the ratio of a projectile’s mass to its cross-sectional area: = SD is the projectile sectional density F is projectile’s weight; kg d2 is the bullet or shell diameter squared, m2 or in2 P is pressure To achieve maximum penetration in modern weapons 3 parameters are critical: 1- Maximum density: heavy elements and their compounds such as depleted uranium alloy and tungsten hard alloy 2- Maximum hardness: ceramic compound like tungsten carbide 3- Maximum speed: high speed missile, bombs with rocket motor like bunker buster 4-Vertical impact to the target
These are things implemented in ultimate penetrator Massive Ordnance Penetrator (MOP) GBU57A. That is a good idea to take a look at their characteristics publicly revealed: Weight: 13600 kg warhead: 2400 kg of insensitive high explosive Length: 6.2 m Diameter: 0.8 m Penetration depth: 61 m in usual soil According to above information we can find more details about such weapon. For example: Its cross-sectional area; SDballistic=21250 kg/m2 As it is obvious the designer would like to increase penetrator density, it is reasonable to deduce such weapons should be contained depleted uranium in combination of hard ceramic to achieve maximum density about 19gr/ cm3. If we assume that 1200 kg of total weight is related to instrument, rocket motor, fins,…. then we have 10000 kg , 2400kg for high density core and warhead explosive respectively . 10000 kg equals 0.526-0.530 m3 for density 19gr/cm3 and 2400 kg equals approximately 1.2-1.4 m3 for density around 1.9-1.7(such as TATB or TEX with binder and metal powder knows as PBX) So the critical parameter to design such penetrator is explosive with low density in comparison to high density core. To avoid premature detonation, warhead must be protected by shell with high density strength. According to the equations above and to achieve the maximum penetration depth designers increase the bomb length and charge the explosive at tail-end in an extended cavity. This design keeps safe fuze and other control systems from being crashed. Yet, it has some flaws is sensitive to side force during penetration and drop. The mesh can change its angle of impact before impact and multilayer bunkers with different density can change the penetration path. Thus a passive defense specialist should be looking for ways to counteract effective penetration. For example he could design a bunker with higher density and strength and fabricate it as multilayer with different density.
High Performance bunkers based on improvised concrete
In the mid 60's, concrete with strength ranging from 40 to 80 MPa, named high performance concrete (HPC) and more recently, compressive strengths concrete over 120 MPa have been known as Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) to describe a fiber-reinforced, super plasticized, silica fume-cement mixture with very low water-cement ratio (w/c=0.3) characterized by the presence of very fine quartz sand (0.15-0.40 mm) instead of ordinary aggregate. Silica fume is an essential ingredient of UHPC. This material comprises extremely fine particles and not only fills up the space between the cement grains, but also reacts with the cement which increasing the bond between cement matrix and aggregate particles. UHPC opens up new possibilities for high rise building, seismic-resistant structures, nuclear waste storage, bridges, roofs, piers, and structures designed to resist impact loading like improvised bunkers to protect underground strategic facilities. Three of the key attributes to HPC are strength, ductility and durability that differ scientifically from normal and high strength concretes due to the high-packing density of fine, coarse aggregates, very low amounts of water and high amounts of cement. The optimization of granular mix for UHPC minimizes the number of defects such as micro cracks and pore spaces and allows ultimate load carrying capacity and enhances durability properties. From the strength point of view, the concretes can be classified as below: 1) Normal Strength Concrete (NSC) up to B 41/60 MPa 2) High Strength Concrete (HSC) B41/60 to B70/90 MPa 3) Very High Strength Concrete (VHSC) B70/90 to B120/150 MPa 4) Ultra High Strength Concrete (UHSC) B120/150 to B200/250 MPa 5) Super High Strength Concrete (SHSC) from B200/250 MPa UHPC may incorporate larger quantities of steel or synthetic fibers and has enhanced ductility, high temperature performance and improved impact resistance.
UHPC components and compressive strength Materials Cement Water Silica fume Silica fume replacement level* Quartz powder Quartz sand (0.2-0.4 mm) Density 1661/m3 Unit Kg/m3 Kg/m3 Kg/m3 % Kg/m3 Kg/m3 Mixture A 600 180 93 15.5 300 315 460 530 Mixture B 630 189 63 10 300 315 460 530 Mixture C 660 198 33 5 300 315 460 530 19.8 92 2501 Mixture D 693 207.5 0 0 300 315 460 530 20.7 81 2493
Basalt aggregate (0.6-1.18mm) Kg/m3 Density 1750kg/m3 Basalt aggregate (2.36-6.3 mm) Density 1725kg/m3 Kg/m3
Kg/m3 18 18.5 Super plasticizers MPa 128 107 Mean compressive strength (kg/m3) 2520 2512 Mean density *A pronounced effect of the using silica fume was observed
Cement: High Strength Portland with mortar compressive strength 26MPa/3days, 40MPa/7days and 54MPa/28days. Aggregates: they are usually inexpensive inert fillers such as basalt, quartz sand and large particles of the aggregate are undesirable. The cleaner aggregates, the more cement aggregate bond strength. Admixture: The chemical admixture used is superplastisizer and retarding admixture as per ASTM C494 Silica fume: highly amorphous silicon dioxide from the reduction of high-purity quartz with coal or coke and wood chips in an electric arc furnace during the production of silicon metal or Ferrosilicon alloys. Specific gravity: 2.3 with at least 95% SiO2, particle size
UHPC mixing procedure 1) Adding 40 % of superplastisizer to the mixing water. 2) Placing all dry materials (cement, silica fume, crushed quartz and aggregate) in the mixer pan, and mixing for 2 minutes. 3) Adding water (with 40% of superplastisizer) to the dry materials, slowly for 2 minutes.
4) Waiting 1 minute then adding the remaining superplastisizer to the dry materials for 30 seconds. 5) Continuation of mixing as the UHPC changes from a dry powder to a thick paste. The time for this process will vary. Western countries have been looking at the military uses of UHPC. A study carried out between 2004 and 2006 in Australia confirmed that UHPC resists blasts as well as direct hits. The tests, carried out at Woomera (once the British Empire’s equivalent of Cape Canaveral), involved a charge equivalent to six tonnes of TNT. These fractured panels made of UHPC, but did not shatter them. Nor did it shake free and throw out fragments, as would have happened had the test been carried out on normal concrete.
Improvised UHPC with fiber reinforcement
It is possible to increase he compressive strength of UHPC by fiber reinforcement. The fibers could be artificial polymer compound like Kevlar or can be made from steel. In preferred design includes steel fibers. Steel fibers with density around 7.8 ton /m3 increases total density of concrete which is the critical parameter against penetrator bombs. Sometimes steel shaving can be used instead of steel fibers at the ratio 20 percent per volume as an upper bound. Using steel fibers of 1.5 percent per volume as an upper bound is allowable with 20 % of steel shaving for good workability and surface finishing. Such product so called conductive concrete used as the most cost-effective bridge deck deicing method. Normal Concrete HSC High strength UHPC
UHPC composition Cement Sand Silica flour silica fume Superplastisizer Water fibers 31.6 30.6 8.8 12.3 0.4 6.6 9.8 Water/cement , ambient cure up to 20000 psi, Heat cure up to 30000 psi, accelerated curing: 2-7 hr at 70 , Compressive strength 150 MPa
Here is a two sample of steel fiber and fiber reinforced high performance concrete:
100kg high explosive equivalent to TNT
Panel house before explosion panel house after explosion Panel dimension: (3.5m*1.3m*100mm) Ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete helps to protect the organizations operating critical national infrastructure. According to the experiments UHPFRC had an enhanced tension and compression strength which was 500 per cent greater than conventional concrete.
High density concrete
High density or heavyweight concrete is concrete with a density greater than 2600kg/m3. Its primary use is in radiation shielding, either in nuclear power plants or in radiation therapy units. It can also be used as ballast in offshore locations such as pipelines. High density concrete can be made from natural heavyweight aggregates such as barites, magnetite, galena(natural Lead sulfide) which typically give densities of 3500kg/m3 , 3900kg/m3 , 3000kg/m3 , 7500kg/m3 respectively. They can also be made using iron or lead as a replacement for a portion of the aggregate. These give even greater densities of 5900kg/m3 for iron or 8900kg/m3 for lead. If radiation shielding is our goal, it is allowable to replace some percent of aggregates with Datolite (CaBSiO4 (OH); alkaline calcium boron silicate) that contains 21.8% B2O3 and density around 3000kg/m3 or D-UO2 (Depleted uranium dioxide). Boron is an effective element in capturing thermal neutrons and releases alpha particles which are easily shielded.
Silica flour 100kg
In practice it is possible to integrate UHPC technology with high density concrete to create ultimate protected construction.
Here is a sample High Strength Portland Cement 600kg Quartz Silica sand flour (0.20.4mm) 300kg 300kg silica fume 350 Lead Superplastisizer Water ore (Galena) 3000kg 20kg 200kg fibers
Pontoon bridge damper
Persian engineers were the first people who constructed and used pontoon bridge for military purposes in 480 B.C. According to Herodotus, the bridge was made of 676 ships stationed in two parallel rows with their keels in the direction of the current. Iranian used the technology again at the operation “KHEIBAR” in Iran-Iraq war. The KHEIBAR Bridge was built of pieces measuring 5m x 3m with strong surface made of steel sheet stuck to polyurethane foam covered with fiberglass, for waters with a maximum speed of 2 meters per second crossing equipment weighing 6 tons.
Specification Length: 14 Km Width: 3 m Weight Capacity: 4 Tons Number of parts: 5000 pcs
Of course, our discussion is not about how to build pontoon bridge. But, it is useful to understand the mechanisms for designing the most effective structure against penetrating bombs. The bombs could be designed for blast, fragmentation or penetrating purposes and there are many designs to decreases blast and fragmentation hazards of conventional weapons or even usual anti armor rocket, but there is not much information about massive penetrators. Penetrator bombs lose some of their kinetic energy during impact on target before explosion. In view point of defense we would like to decrease kinetic energy of penetrators as much as possible. Most of penetrator weapons are designed with some main characteristics: density, hardness, mechanical strength and velocity. As previously mentioned, a defense expert should design structures with dense and high mechanical strength materials. But how can he decrease the velocity of the bombs? The answer is kinetic energy dampers like Pontoon bridge. For example imagine a national infrastructure such as nuclear enrichment facilities located underground at a depth of 50 m and is in danger of air attack with massive ordnance penetrators. There are different ways to reduce the energy of a falling projectile in different ways possible but practical methods in battle field are limited and chosen defense system should be highly resistant to high temperatures, high speed fragmentation and strong shock waves with reasonable price. A high speed penetrator should reach its target before losing the kinetic energy on impact and through passing the armor. We can design a bunker made of several meter fiber reinforced UHPC but it is too expensive to apply it completely for strategic zone. So it is better to implement sufficient thickness of fiber reinforced UHPC for underground construction. Improvised pontoon bridge can be used to protect ground surface above the buried national facilities. In practical design, pools with 6-8m in depth, 10 m width and 10 m length should be created that pontoon bridge should be floated on it. Pontoon bridge for this system should be built in a dimension of 3m*3m. The surface of floating blocks (pontoon bridge) must be made of resistant material with a very high density like depleted uranium alloy, tungsten allow or reinforced high density concrete, in a dimension of 3m*3m. The upper layer of pontoon bridge must have the sufficient thickness and density to deal with massive penetrator (MOP) which equals the bomb caliber at the same density. For material other than depleted uranium alloy, the thickness of protective layer increases as density decrease. For
example, the thickness of the protective layer of high density UHPC is 4 times the thickness of the protective layer made of depleted uranium alloy. in the other hand floated protective block simulates a spaced armor( should not be confused with slat armor) and consequently activate the explosion mechanism of the bomb and effectively increases the distance between the armor and the buried target, Such improvised pontoon bridge also plays a dashpot role during collision to reduce maximum kinetic energy in to three ways: 1- High density of protective layer: according to Newton's approximation, the impact depth of a high velocity cylindrical penetrator decreases when target material density grows. 2- Transfer of large amount of kinetic energy into the saline in the pool. The process is similar to hit the nail on the piece of wood on water. 3- The blocks have a cross-section which causes the upper protective layer to rotate away from the impact or explosion, increasing its effect on the penetrator. Note: Saline has a higher density than ordinary water and improvised pontoon bridge floats easier on it. In a time of peace, created pools can be used for economic purposes such as fish farm or cultivating spirulina as a super food and during war the pools can be filled quickly with saline and improvised protective blocks.
Deflection of bomb penetration process As light and sound refract when passing through different medium, the path of penetrators can be changed in multilayer target with different density. The ideal situation is that the thickness of each layer be at least equal to the length of the penetrator. Although this is a passive effective method to change bomb penetration process, but is not a cheap and reasonable method to protect a large area.
Explosive reactive armor If it is not possible to build deep pools or pontoon bridge with sufficient thickness of protective layer, explosive reactive armor is the next option that was originally designed to defeat High Explosive Armor Piercing (HEAT) warheads. The impacting penetrator transfers much kinetic energy to the armor, so the material of the armor loses its structural integrity and behaves as a fluid.
Israel tank with ERA Explosive reactive armor (ERA) is explosive sandwich between two plates that disrupt the penetrator by change the effective velocity and consequently kinetic energy reduction and decreasing angle of incidence. It is possible to use the same method in large scale against big penetrator. For example if we want to use ERA against massive penetrator, we must use thick and heavy plates made of heavy alloys and a correspondingly thick explosive layer to stop penetration in a dimension of 1m*1m. The dimension varies depend on where the reactive armor being used.
1-Handbook for Proportioning Fly Ash as Cementitious Material in Airfield Pavement Concrete Mixtures; Report IPRF-01-G-002-06-2 2- Behavior of ultra high performance concrete structures by Adel A. Al-Azzawi, Ahmed Sultan Ali and Husam K. Risan 3- Chemical, physical and micromorphological properties of termite mounds and adjacent soils along a toposequence in Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil 4- High strength & very high strength concrete, 80 – 100 + Mpa 5- Design, Construction, and Field Testing of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete Pi-Girder Bridge 6- Experimental investigation on ultra high strength concrete containing mineral admixtures under different curing conditions by Arunachalam.K, Vigneshwari.M 7- Feasibility and application of sulfur concrete for lunar base development. A preliminary study. I. Casanova, School of Civil Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Gran Capità s/n, Mò dul C1, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain 8- Seismic performance of high rise RC frame structure using ultra high strength concrete by Akiko SANADA and Makoto MARUTA
9- High performance concrete by TRAIAN ONET 10- High Performance Concrete: Fundamentals and Application by Oral Büyükö ztürk* and Denvid Lau 11-high strength concrete; P.K. Mehta and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials 12- High-Strength Concrete at High Temperature – An Overview by Long T. Phan 13- Hydration and microstructure of ultra high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash by Nguyen Van Tuan, Guang Ye , Klaas van Breugel , Oguzhan Copuroglu 14- Material Property of Characterization of Ultra-High Performance Concrete. Publication No. FHWA-HRT-06-103 15- Mechanical Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete Produced in Gaza Strip by Mahmoud Karmout 16- Nano-engineering Ultra-High- performance Concrete with Multi-walled Carbon Nano tubes by Kay Wille and Kenneth J. Loh 17-effectivness of polycarboxylate superplasticizers in ultra high strength concrete: the importance of PCE compatibility with silica fume by johann plank ,christof shroefl 18- Production of lunar concrete using molten sulfur by Husam A. Omar 19- Properties of Expansive-Ultra High-Strength Concrete by by M. Suzuki, I. Maruyama, and R. Sato 20- Strength and Durability Performance of Waterless Lunar Concrete by Houssam Toutanji, Becca Glenn-Loper, Beth Schrayshuen 21- Sulfur concrete-a new construction material by Robert E. Loov, Alan H. Vroom, Michael A. Ward 22- Summary of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Laboratory Testing 23- Trends in High Performance Materials by Louis N. Triandafilou, P.E. 24- Ultra high performance concrete incorporating rice husk ash for sustainable development in construction in Vietnam by Nguyen Van Tuan, Ye Guang , Pham Huu Hanh, Bui Danh Dai 25- Ultra High Performance Concrete: Mix design and practical applications by N. Cauberg & J. Piérard, O. Remy 26- Ultra High Performance Concrete Using Waste Materials for High-Rise Buildings by Nguyen Van Tuan1, Nguyen Van Tuan1, Le Trung Thanh, Ye Guang, Marios N. Soutsos, Chris I. Goodier 27- Ultra high performance fiber reinforced concrete “I” beam subjected to shear action by Ţibea Ciprian, Bompa Dan, Văgîi Victor, Măgureanu Cornelia 28- MDF and DSF - The New Ultra High Strength Concretes; A new generation of ultra high strength concretes has been developed to rival the properties of metal! David Bennett reports. 29- Ultra high performance concrete material properties by B.A. Graybeal, P.E. , J.L. Hartmann, P.E.
30- Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC): What It Is, Its History, and Why We Care by Brian H. Green, R.P.G., and FACI 31- Ultra-High Performance Concrete with ductility byHenry Nowodworski, P. Eng. and Kris Rosiak, P. Eng. 32- Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials by Srinivas Allena, Dr. Craig M. Newtson 33- Ultra-High Strength Concrete Mixtures Using Local Materials by Srinivas Allena and Craig M. Newtson 34- Characteristics of Concrete Linked to Ballistic Resistance Design of Testing Materials by Ariel Irizarry Perez 35- Ballistic Penetration Test Results For Ductal® and Ultra-High Performance Concrete Samples by Tom F. Thornhill, William D. Reinhart 36- http://orvatolvosqa.blogfa.com/post/85 37- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_jet_cutter 38http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Collision_two_objects_equal_mass_which_one_experiences_the_gre ater_force_of_impact 39- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashpot 40- http://alibrotherz.com/anti-blast-walls.php 41http://www.concretecentre.com/technical_information/building_solutions/special_concrete/high_ density_concrete.aspx 42- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolframite 43- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galena 44- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barium_sulfate 45- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_armour 46- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precision_bombing 47- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sectional_density 48- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chobham_armour 49- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminal_ballistics 50- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_armour 51- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_energy_penetrator 52- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armor-piercing_shot_and_shell 53-optimization of performance of explosive reactive armor by M.M Ismail, A.M Rayad, H.Alwany and T.Alshenawy 54- Protection of Light Armors against Shaped Charge Projectiles by Prof. Ph.D. D.Sc. Adam Wisniewski 55-http://greathistory.com/how-reactive-armor-works.htm 56-non-explosive energetic material and reactive armor element using same
Although war and defense are both principle of survival, but man often prefer to be stronger aggressor rather than to be a good defender, while the Nature over millions of years has developed the most advanced defensive system. There are many animals that equipped with natural massive defense, /offensive systems like hedgehogs, turtles, spiders, electrical fish, bats, snakes and … However, depending on animal abilities, sometimes the best defense is attack and sometimes is fighting. These are the lessons that should be an inspiration for us to avoid increasing cost and optimizing defense system. According to this report, Anna’s strategy for unconventional passive defense against air raid identifies five zones as below that should be taken into account as a supplemented defense system: Layer 1: Attack analysis: reconnaissance- Detection of enemy aircraft before entering the country’s air lines through advanced radars. Layer 2: border protection: anti aircraft mine and broadband jamming - Create an unsecure space for enemy where their air fleet enters the country’s border. It can be done by local broadband jamming, high altitude electromagnetic bomb and barrage balloons. Layer 3: protection of cities and industrial zone - Automated spot jamming against warplanes communication (needs signal processing of attackers) before they reach to their targets. This protected layer can be supported and supplemented by anti aircraft mine. Layer 4: Target protection- increase bombs failure rate and electromagnetic protection by steel rope net Layer 5: Target protection- national facilities strengthening by improvised reinforced UHPC, high density concrete; surface Dashpot with/without explosive reactive armor.
Other books from this author
1-Unseen Hands behind Sep 11, WTC Collapse: The best online document about untold secrets of WTC collapse in 2001 with 5 movies attached and the best military pictures 2011: http://www.scribd.com/doc/78548228/Unseen-Hands-Behind-Sep-11-Wtc-Collapse-WithMilitary-Photos-of-the-Twin-Towers-by-Anna-Farahmand-Michael-Webber-Benson-terroristHandbook-paladin-Pre 2-Mass Destruction of Ozone Layer; an Analytical approach to Future Weather Weapons2011: catalytically destruction of ozone layer http://www.scribd.com/doc/77348939/Mass-Destruction-of-Ozone-Layer-An-AnalyticalApproach-to-Future-Weather-Weapons-Terrorist-Handbook-paladin-Press-ragnar-Benson 3-Anti Aircraft Mine Intercontinental Launching Balloon Bombs through Jet Stream2012:http://www.scribd.com/doc/80947528/Anti-Aircraft-Mine-Intercontinental-LaunchingBalloon-Bombs-Through-Jet-Stream-Fire-balloon-Japanese-Balloon-Bombs-TerroristHandbook-on-awind-and 4- Practical Digital Self Defense 2012 Volume 1: Practical digital self-defense in offline mode with two embedded videos and over 20 tools , Security underground, data encryption and Steganography: http://www.scribd.com/doc/92371731/Practical-Digital-Self-Defense-Volume-1securityundrground-data-encryption-and-Steganography-by-AnnaFarahmand-and-michaelwebber 5- Practical Digital Self Defense Volume 2: online security, circumvention Censorship with proxy ,VPN Secure live system : http://www.scribd.com/doc/92377253/Practical-Digital-Self-Defense-Volume-2-onlinesecuritycircumvention-Censorship-with-proxy-vpn-and-more-by-annafarahmand-and-michaelwebber 6- Improvised Wireless Networking 2012: long range Wi-Fi based on mesh; underground Internet in shadow; it is unique book about how to establish cheap internet infrastructure based on popular Wi-Fi with 5 movies attached and over 40 tools embedded : it is not a usual book, it is a package! http://www.scribd.com/doc/92507117/Improvised-Wireless-Networking-long-range-wifibasedon-mesh-underground-internet-in-shadow-by-AnnaFarahmand-and-michael-webber 7- Minerals of the World with an Excellent Portable Mineral Software-2012: http://www.scribd.com/doc/94036706/Minerals-of-the-World-With-an-Excellent-PortableMineral-Software-By-Annafarahmand-and-Michael-Webber 8- Periodic Table of the Elements: With an Embedded Portable Software and Video-2012: http://www.scribd.com/doc/94326371/Periodic-Table-of-the-Elements-With-an-EmbeddedPortable-Software-and-Video-by-Annafarahmand-2012 9- Sexual identity and sex change edition 2012:
http://www.4shared.com/office/8s7RFOia/Sexual_identity_and_sex_change.html 10-The Human Termination Guide book: ultimate anarchy 2009 http://www.scribd.com/doc/66027714/The-Human-Termination-Guide-Terrorist-HandbookRagnar-Bendon-Paladin-Press-Twin-Towers 11-The Battle of Armageddon: underground political agenda against the world 2012 http://www.scribd.com/doc/105212391/The-Battle-of-Armageddon-WWIII-in-2012-Protocolsof-Zion-Audiobook-economic-and-energy-crises-by-Annafarahmand-lord-Lindsey