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Unit 6

ERECTING A NATION

Image 6.1 George Washington Takes the Oath

E R E C T I N G A NAT I O N - S E C T I O N 1

Washingtons Presidency
Washingtons Presidency Section Overview In 1789, the Constitution was adopted. Land-owning white male Americans voted for our first President. The obvious choice to fill that role was George Washington. SECTION OBJECTIVES: Washingtons impact on our nations history started as a British commander during the French and Indian War. From there, as you have learned, he played a vital role in the United States fight for its independence. Now, Washington would become our first Chief Executive. Washingtons Presidency The First President After his inauguration, ceremony during which a person becomes president, George Washingtons first order of business was to ask Congress to help him carry out his duties as the Chief Executive. In response to his request, the new Congress created departments in the Executive Branch to assist Washington, and future
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Describe the major events, both foreign and domestic, of George Washingtons Presidency. Analyze the major events, both foreign and domestic, of George Washingtons Presidency. Section Author: Mr. Dorenkamp

presidents, with their responsibilities set forth in the Constitution. The leaders of these departments would be known as the cabinet. The first Presidents cabinet was: Alexander Hamilton - Secretary of the Treasury - Managed the nations money

Image 6.2 Election of 1789

Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of State - Handle relations with other countries Henry Knox - Secretary of War - Led the defense of the United States Edmund Randolph - Attorney General - Handled legal problems in the United States Washingtons Presidency Money Problems Lead to Rebellion The biggest problem now facing the United States was the lack of value in the national money, or currency. The national government did not have funds to run the country and payoff its huge debt that was incurred from the Revolution71

ary War. But, Congress did have the power to raise Image 6.3 National Government money through taxes. To Displaying the Executive Branch as a Part of the Rest of the Fed- address this obstacle, Alexander Hamilton and his aleral System lies in Congress proposed the creation of a Bank of the United States. The bank would be where the American government would keep its funds. It would also issue paper money that had a value guaranteed by the American government. Thomas Jefferson protested against Hamiltons idea. Jefferson believed that the Constitution didnt give the government the power to create a national bank. Citing the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution, the first Bank of the United States was created over the protests of Jefferson and his followers. With the taxes imposed on them by King George III still fresh in their minds, some Congressmen argued endlessly about what to tax, and at what rate. In 1791, Congress established a tax on the production and/or sale of certain products. Americans living west of the Appalachian Mountains were not pleased with this excise tax. It placed a tax, or duty, on the whiskey that they produced and relied on to make

money. These farmers argued that the excise tax made their whiskey too expensive. To show their displeasure, they refused to pay the tax. In response to this backlash to the tax, Congress lowered the tax. That was still not pleasing enough to most farmers in Western Pennsylvania. They still refused to pay. Even more, the Whiskey Boys, as the farmers came to be known, began to tar and feather tax collectors that were looking for payment. Image 6.4 Bower Hill, Scott Township, Pittsburgh, PA President Washington and the Federalists believed this rebellion as a threat to the new government created by the Constitution. The leader of the Federalists, Alexander Hamilton, encouraged the President, who, by order of the Image 6.5 Modern-Day Constitution, is the View of Bower Hill Commander-In-Chief of the United States Army, to lead troops to stop the rebellion. Washington personally directed state militia troops westward across Pennsylvania to easily defeat the rebels. Washing72

ton and his soldiers overwhelmed the Whiskey Boys and the rebellion ended. The Whiskey Rebellion was seen as the first major challenge to the new government here in America. Washingtons Presidency Revolution in France A few years prior to Image 6.6 Storming the Bastille the Whiskey Rebellion, after watching the success of the American Revolution, France was having a revolution of its own. Poor French peasants rebelled against the King and wealthy French elites. Thomas Jefferson and other Democratic-Republicans wanted the United States to support the French peoples fight for their own freedom. No matter what the cost, they wanted to see democracy spread to other parts of the world. Angry French revolutionaries started cutting off the heads of the wealthy ruling class. Nearly 20,000 frenchmen, including the King and Queen, lost their lives to those in revolt. Alexander Hamilton and his followers, the Federalists, most of whom were wealthy Americans, worried of the same thing happening in America. Would unhappy, poor Americans ever rise up and kill wealthy Americans?

President Washington felt political pressure from Democratic-Republicans and Federalists on whether or not the United States should support the French revolutionaries. He resisted supporting their bloody cause. He did not want the nation to become entangled in issues from other parts of the world. Washingtons Presidency Washingtons Foreign Policy In 1793, fresh off of their revolution, France went to war with Britain. President Washington faced another dilemma. On the one hand, during the American Revolution, the United States signed a treaty of alliance with France. As part of that agreement, the United States agreed to aid France in any future conflicts that the French may encounter. There were quite a few Americans that felt the country should stand by that agreement, even if that meant going into another war with their former mother-country. At the time, the United States was not prepared for a war. The Continental Army that fought against the British had been disbanded. It was not replaced because having an army required money that the United States government did not have. Also, Americans felt that a standing army might threaten their own individual rights. They preferred to rely on state militias to protect the nation. In regards to the conflict between France and Great Britain, Washington announced that the country would be neutral, or not choose sides. He felt that our foreign policy
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should be to steer clear of any alliances with other nations. This idea of not having alliances with other nations became known as isolationism and would be followed by many future American leaders. Washingtons Presidency Washington Says Goodbye These two incidents, the Whiskey Rebellion and the French Revolution, exposed a true division amongst Americans. While these same people fought side by side to gain their independence from Great Britain, they were now forming into two distinct political sides. The political fighting between Republicans and Federalists concerned Washington so much that he served a second term as President. Both parties believed the young nation was still in need of his wise leadership. Four years later, before leaving office for good, the President prepared a farewell message, or an address, to the American people. In it, the President shared his concerns regarding things he felt would threaten the future security of the United States. Washington believed Americans had two things to beware of: 1.entangling alliances with other nations 2.the sudden birth of political parties In this newly formed democracy, it was certain that people would have different political viewpoints, Washington explained. But, ongoing political fighting would be a detriment to American progress.

Washington's time as President is generally regarded as a success. He set precedents that are followed for over 200 years. Some of them are: Inauguration of a president First Inauguration Speech 2-term Presidency; only one President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt broke this precedent; 2 term limit is now part of the Constitution's 22nd Amendment Having a Presidents Cabinet Being Referred to as Mr. President Maintain U.S. Neutrality (observed until the late 1800s, early 1900s) Under his leadership, the Image 6.7 Washingtons new government got on its feet. Farewell Address The federal government was functioning much better than it ever did under the Articles of Confederation. Also, American population was expanding west to the Mississippi River, and foreign problems and wars had been avoided. That said, the political divisions that rose up during Washingtons time in office remained. His fear of political parties, and the negative impact that they could have on the United States, eventually came to fruition.
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Section 6.1 Review


Question 1 of 4

After the Constitution was adopted, every American was eligible to vote in the first Presidential Election.

A. True B. False

Check Answer

Image 6.8 John Adams, Second President of the United States

E R E C T I N G A NAT I O N - S E C T I O N 2

Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties


The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties Section Overview George Washington left office at the end of his second term, setting a precedent that a president would only serve up to two terms. This precedent would last until the 1930s when Franklin Delano Roosevelt would be elected to four terms in office. When Washington left, his Vice-President, John Adams, would follow him into office. Adams found himself leading a nation with a new development: political parties. John Adams, the Federalist candidate in the Election of 1796, narrowly defeated the Democratic-Republican candidate Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson, as the runner-up, would become Adams Vice-President, setting up a very tense situation between the Federalists and newly formed Democratic-Republican parties. The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties Its Party Time The two-party system that was in place leading up to and during Adams presidency actually began to form during Wash75

SECTION OBJECTIVES:

Evaluate the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Compare and contrast the Alien and Sedition Acts with similar legislation of the 20th and 21st centuries (i.e. the PATRIOT Act). Section Author: Mr. Welch

ingtons time in office. Those who identified themselves as Federalists, namely Alexander Hamilton and John Adams, openly believed that government should be ruled by the best people. They desired a strong central government at the expense of states rights and emphasized law and order at the expense of freedom. Hamilton also promoted establishing a National Bank that would serve as the deposit site of all federal money, be responsible for printing money, and be under the control of the elite. Jefferson and his Democratic-Republicans, though, believed that the federal government Image 6.9 Election of 1796 Map had no such power under the Constitution to create a National Bank. The party also believed that any informed white males should be allowed to vote and, like the AntiFederalists before them, pushed for a weaker central government and stronger state governments. The Democratic-Republicans also feared the government limiting the rights of free speech and free press. This set the scene for a very close Election of 1796.
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The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties The Election of 1796 Although seen by many as a leader of the Federalists, Alexander Hamilton would not become the Federalist candidate in 1796. The nomination belonged to John Adams of Massachusetts as Federalists believed that Hamilton was too unpopular with the common man to be elected. The Democratic-Republicans rallied their hopes around Thomas Jefferson, who gained support by criticizing the government for crushing the Whiskey Rebellion during Washingtons presidency. Adams received 71 votes to Jeffersons 66 in the Electoral College. At this point, second place finishers became Vice-President, setting the scene for future debates. The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties Past Problems - Setting the Scene During Washingtons presidency, he took action to prevent the United States from becoming involved in the French Revolution. Although some American leaders, including Jefferson, pushed for the United States to support the French Revolution. Britain become involved in the conflict, leaving the United States with a choice of whom it would support: the British or the French. In 1793, Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation, as he believed the nation was too dependent on British trade and too weak to become involved in a world war. Britain, though, also created a headache for President Washington as they were still occupying some of their forts in

the United States and Image 6.10 Impressment of were arming Native American Sailors Americans. Both of these actions were direct violations of the Treaty of Paris both nations had agreed upon in 1783. To resolve this problem, Washington sent John Jay, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, to London in 1794. The British, in Jays Treaty of 1794, agreed to remove their forts from American soil and pay for damages caused recently by impressingAmerican ships. The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties The French Problem The French were infuriated with Jays Treaty as they saw it as an early step towards some kind of alliance with the British. Additionally, they believed it was in violation of an earlier alliance the French had formed with the Americans as part of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. As a result, the French began allowing warships to seizeAmerican merchant ships. To cool the situation, President Adams sent a group including Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to France to negotiate some sort of settlement agreement. In France, the Americans met with three low level diplomats
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who demanded $250,000 from the American envoyeven to be seen with the French foreign minister, Charles Talleyrand. The American group was insulted and left to return to the United States. These three French diplomats, known only Image 6.11 Charles-Maurice as X, Y, and Z, infuriatedthe de Talleyrand-Prigord Federalists. When the envoy returned home, Federalists proclaimed Millions for defense, but not onecent for tribute. To an extent, this situation, which became known as the XYZ Affair, embarrassed the Democratic-Republicans as they had been promoting supporting the French war efforts against the British. Many Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton, even began to promote going to war againstthe French. However, Adams wanted no parts of the war on either side, eventually making him unpopular with both parties. The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties The Alien and Sedition Acts Even after the XYZ Affair, there were still pushes for entering the war on the side of the French. Adams and the Federalists were being sharply criticized. As a result, the Federalists passed a series of laws that would put a limit on a free

speech and press with the goal of silencing those who were promoting war. The first law, known as the Alien Act, lengthened the time needed for someone to become a citizen of the United States from five years to 14 years. Federalists did not want immigrants coming to the nation and joining Jeffersons Democratic-Republican party. Also, this act allowed the President to deport or imprison foreigners seen as dangerous, even during times of peace. The intention of this was to keep potential critics of the Federalists, especially the French, out of the country. The second piece of legislation, the Sedition Act, was a direct violation of the 1stAmendment. The Sedition Act stated that it was illegal to make critical or negative statements about the government or an elected official or to promote noncooperation Image 6.12 Section of the Sedition Act with the laws. Although this was clearly unconstitutional, the Supreme Court was firmly in the hands of the Federalist party. Thus, the Supreme Court was not interested in rulingit unconstitutional.
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The Adams Presidency & Birth of Parties The Laws Backfire Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans believed that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. In response, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison anonymously wrote resolutions in the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures stating that the laws were unconstitutional. Because of this unconstitutionality, they believed that individual states could vote to nullify the laws, thus making them void (or simply choose to ignore them). They thought that the federal government was a creation of the states and the states thus had the power of nullificationin being the final judge of federal laws. However, no other states wrote similar resolutions. This debate would continue until the Election of 1800, which once again would pit Adams against Jefferson.

Section 6.2 Review


Question 1 of 4

What surfaced following George Washingtons time in office?

A. A 2-Party System B. Years of Peace between Democrats and Republicans C. The Era of Good Feelings D. British armies ghting the Spanish in West Virginia

Check Answer

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Image 6.13 Thomas Jefferson

E R E C T I N G A NAT I O N - S E C T I O N 3

Age of Jefferson
Age of Jefferson Section Overview The Election of 1800, or, as Thomas Jefferson called it, the Revolution of 1800 resulted in the first time in our history that the government had changed hands from party to party. This peaceful transfer of power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans ended 12 years of Federalists rule under Washington and Adams. Jefferson campaigned on a promise of a laissez-faireform of government in which the federal government would stay out of the lives of citizens and the affairs of the states. Jefferson came into office with very idealistic views that the all people, namely land-owning white men, should have a hand in the government. However, Jeffersons time as president would lead him to be less radical and more moderate. Age of Jefferson Election of 1800

SECTION OBJECTIVES:

Analyze why the Election of 1800 was also seen as the Revolution of 1800. Describe how Federalists and Republicans wanted to determine unconstitutionality of laws. Argue whether Marshalls and the Supreme Courts decision in Marbury vs. Madison was benecial to the nation. Predict how embargo legislation will benet American manufacturing in the long-term. Section Author: Mr. Welch

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The Federalists entered the Election of 1800 as underdogs for numerous reasons. First, the party itself had split because of disagreements about going to war with France. Although President Adams had promoted peace, Federalists including Alexander Hamilton lobbied for war with the French. The passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts was also largely unpopular with many Americans. To combat these disadvantages, the FederImage 6.14 Election of 1800 alists began a mudslingingcampaign against the Republican nominee, Thomas Jefferson. They boasted that he was an atheist, robbed a widow and her children of money, and was the father of a child to one of his slaves. Nonetheless, Jefferson defeated Adams 73 to 65 by earning support from southern and western states. Interestingly enough, Jefferson was tied with his vicepresidential running mate, Aaron Burr, in terms of electoral votes. The House of Representatives voted thirty-six times over seven days in order to break the tie. Federalists wanted Burr to win as they saw him as they despised and feared Jefferson. Alexander Hamilton eventually swayed some Federal81

ists to not vote for Burr to allow Jefferson to win. Burr would end up hating Hamilton for this decision, and, would end up killing Hamilton in a duel. This voting process would be changed with the passage of the 12thAmendment. Age of Jefferson Jefferson Takes Office In his inaugurationspeech, Jefferson proclaimed that we are all Republicans, we are all Federalists in an attempt to unite the parties in some fashion. Some of his first duties as president were to reverse Federalist policies. He pardonedthose who had been punished under the Sedition Act and allowed the Alien and Sedition Acts to expire in 1801. He also immediately repealed the excise taxthat had been put in place under Hamiltons financial plan as he believed it hurt small farmers. Jefferson continued to push states rights and wanted to promote the idea of a nation of farmers. In spite of the Federalists fears that Jefferson would radically change the nation, Jefferson ended up keeping many other Federalists policies. Turning more moderate, he maintained the National Bank put in place under Washington. Jefferson had spoken out against having a standing army prior to taking office because he thought it promoted having a dictatorship where the government could use its army on its own people. However, he reversed this position and ordered 200 gunboats to guard the United States coastline. Age of Jefferson

Opportunity Knocks - Oui! Oui! In 1800, France acquired the land known as the Louisiana Territory from the Spanish. This territory included the Port of New Orleans, the port needed by American farmers to ship their crops south on the MissisImage 6.15 National Parks Service Map of the Louisiana Purchase sippi River. At the time, Napoleon Bonaparte led France. Jefferson saw Napoleon as a potential threat and feared that the nation would get dragged into a war involving the French over the Port of New Orleans. To prevent conflict and to ensure access to New Orleans, Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston to Paris. He instructed them to purchase New Orleans and as much land to the east as possible with $10 million. Jefferson considered making an alliance with Britain if the purchase failed. Needing money for his conquestof Europe, Napoleon offered to sell all of the Louisiana Territory to the Americans for $15 million. Jefferson was faced with a dilemma as he had always believed government should have very limited power. He knew
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that there was no power listed in the Constitution that allowed him to make such a purchase. Ironically, the Federalists now proclaimed that the President did not have the power to make such a purchase. Nonetheless, Jefferson accepted this purchase treatyand Congress quickly ratified it. Jefferson abandoned his principles for the good of the nation. The effect of the Louisiana Purchase cannot be understated. It doubled the size of the nation, provided the nation with control of the most fertile river systems in the world, created the possibility of land routes to the Pacific Ocean, boosted American nationalismand loyalty, and sent a message to westerners that the government cared about them. This would also begin a period of American expansionism. Age of Jefferson John Marshall and the Supreme Court The debate between the Federalists and Republicans of how to declare laws as unconstitutional raged on during Jeffersons time in office. Republicans believed that states could declare laws unconstitutional while the Federalists thought that power belonged to the Supreme Court. However, there was no provision in the Constitution for the Supreme Court to do this.

However, Chief Justice John Marshall would soon establish this tradition. In 1803, the case Marbury vs. Madisonwould come to the Supreme Court. William Marbury, who had been appointed as a judge in the final hours of Adams presidency, was not being allowed to take his post by Jeffersons new secretary of state, James Madison. Marbury claimed he was entitled to this federal job based on the Judiciary Act of 1789 because the law allowed courts to enforceappointments. However, Marshall ruled that the law was unconstitutional because only the executive branch had thepower toenforce a law. In this case, Marshall gave the Supreme Court power to rule a law to be unconstitutional and thus, void. This power is known as the power of judicial review. Because of this case, the power of the Supreme Court increased greatly. Age of Jefferson Jeffersons Second Term in Office In 1804, Thomas Jefferson would be elected to a second term as he defeated Charles Pinckney and Aaron Burr rather easily. Because Jefferson incorporated many Federalist beliefs into his presidency, Federalist hatred greatly subsided towards him. During Jeffersons second term in office, the fighting in Europe between France and Britain continued. Jefferson continued the Federalist goal of staying out the European conflict. However, this was becoming increasingly difficult to maintain as both Britain and France were violating Americas neutrality. Both nations were stopping seizing merchant
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ships bound for other countries. Image 6.16 Election of 1804 Results England used a policy of impressment. They would stop and board American ships and then take the sailors to work on British ships. Basically, the British needed more men to serve in the navy leading to the kidnapping of over 6,000 American seamen. Jefferson responded by asking Congress to pass the Embargo Act of 1807. This law created an embargoas it forbade the export of all goods from the United States. Jefferson believed that this would hurt France and Britain and force them both to respect American neutrality. Jefferson once again went against his initial philosophy of a weak central government by promoting the passage of the Embargo Act. The Embargo Act was a disaster for the American economy. For example, in 1807, American exports totaled $108 million. By 1808, they totaled $22 million. TheEmbargo Act devastated New England merchants and left unsold stocks of cotton, tobacco, and grain in the South and West.

This law was extremely unpopular and gave rise to illegal trading through Canada. Going against his initial philosophies once again, Jefferson asked Congress to pass harsh penalties for smuggling.

Image 6.17 Jefferson Defends the Embargo Act


Question 1 of 4

Section 6.3 Review

Why was the Election of 1800 called the Revolution of 1800?

A. There were riots in the streets B. It was the rst peaceful change of power from one party to another in American history C. The Constitution was ruled illegal D. John Adams was victorious over Thomas Jefferson

The unsuccessful Embargo Act of 1807 would be replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809. This allowed trade with Europe with the exception of England and France. This had a positive effect in New England, who began to start manufacturing their own finished products as they became self-sufficientrather than relying on England. When the Election of 1808 came, the Federalists were once again gaining support due largely to the failed Embargo Act. However, Republican James Madison defeated the Federalists candidate Charles Pinckney.

Check Answer

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Image 6.18 The Executive Mansion (White House) after burning by the British in the War of 1812

E R E C T I N G A NAT I O N - S E C T I O N 4

Madison and Monroe


Madison and Monroe Section Overview As 1809 began, Thomas Jefferson completed his second term in office. Jeffersons handpicked successor, James Madison, took office in March of 1809. James Madisons presidency was filled with many divisions within the country and within his own cabinet. During his two terms in office, Madison oversaw the War of 1812, the demise of the rival Federalist Party, and westward expansion before stepping aside for another Democratic-Republican, James Monroe. Monroe was a Virginian like Washington, Jefferson, and Madison. When inaugurated, he helped to build an era of nationalismand issued the boldest foreign policy statement in our nations history to that point. Madison and Monroe Madison Comes to Power Republican James Madison was victorious in the Election of 1808 against Federalist Charles Pinckney. It was very clear
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SECTION OBJECTIVES:

Argue why the War of 1812 could be called Americas Second War for Independence. List the causes of America engaging in a war with Great Britain. Assess the desire for war of different segments of the American population including New England, the South, and the Midwest. Evaluate whether the terms of James Madison should be characterized as the Era of Good Feelings. Conclude whether or not the Monroe Doctrine has been applied recently to modern American foreign policy. Section Author: Mr. Welch

that Madison had Image 6.19 Election of 1808 tough acts to follow after the presidencies of George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. It was also clear that Madison would have difficulties leading because of divisions that now existed within the nation as well as continued foreign relations issues with Great Britain. Britain and France continued to fight each other in Europe and both continued to seizeAmerican ships. The British began to blockadeAmerican ports and even impressedAmerican soldiers. Madison and Monroe War Hawks During Madisons Presidency, a new group of Americans were elected to Congress. This new wave of leaders was mainly from the South and West. Speaker of the House Henry Clay, of Kentucky, and Representative John C. Calhoun, of Virginia, representeda group of young, militant, and nationalistic Congressmen. Led by Clay, this group earned the nickname of the War Hawks. The War Hawks

Image 6.20 James Madison, Fourth President

urged President Madison to show Americas power and take on European nations, especially Britain.

Clay and the other War Hawks felt that British treatment of America was a challenge to our national pride. Theyalso demanded that our governmentdo something about Indian problems in the West. The desire of the War Hawks grewwhen two Shawnee brothers, Tecumseh and the Prophet, organized an alliance of Native American tribes east of the Mississippi River. They launched a surprise attack in November 1811 at Tippecanoein present-day Indiana. General William H. Harrison and his 1,000 men were able to defeat this attack, pushing Native Tribes further west. The War Hawks, though, believed that Britain was behind the Indian attacks by arming them and encouraging attacks against Americans. Madison and Monroe Reasons for War...and Peace The War Hawks were successful in their push for war with Britain. Now known as the War of 1812,the war had several causes, including the impressment of American soldiers, arming of Native Americans in the West by the British,
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the desire to expand Americas territory into Canada and Florida, and a strong sense of nationalism. The War Hawks believed that by invading Canada, America could knock out the British and Native American problem once and for all. They also considered that British Canada was vulnerable because Britain was busy fighting a war with France. Ironically, the group being hurt most by impressment, New England merchants, did not want war with Britain. New England was still making large profits from shipping, New England investors were loaning large sums of money to Britain, and New England farmers were selling supplies and food to British Canada. War with Britain would certainly hurt their business. Nonetheless, in June 1812, Congress passed a declaration of war against Britain. Still, the greatest opposition to the war came from the Federalists in New England. In fact, many New England shippers continued to do business with Britain afterthe war began. These shippers earned the name blue-lighters. New Englanders quickly named this Mr. Madisons War. Madison and Monroe The War of 1812 Begins The War of 1812 is known as one of Americas most poorly fought wars. The United States army was very small as it included fewer than 7,000 soldiers. The army, and nation as a whole, was not prepared for war. American leaders believed that they could quickly capture Canada at the start
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of the war. However, the Image 6.22 U.S. Capitol Burning invasion was largely unsuccessful. In fact, the British gained territory in New York and part of New England. Things got worse as New England governors refused to send their state militias to help in the war effort. In 1814, Britain finally defeated Napoleon and France, turning its attention to the war with America. Britain came up with a three-part plan to attack including an invasion from Canada, an attack on the nations capitalof Washington D.C., and an invasion from Image 6.21 Battle of Baltimore New Orleans. The British were able to reach Washington and burn the town, an act of retaliation as Americans, in 1813, had set fire to York. The British set fire to most of the buildings, including the Capitol and the White House. President Madison and his advisors were forced to flee the

nations capital. The British were finally halted at Fort McHenry near Baltimore, Maryland, where they had been pummeling American forces. The British were forced to withdraw from the area. Interestingly, Francis Scott Key, a prisoner aboard a British ship, composed the Star Spangled Banner during this fighting. Madison and Monroe New England and the War of 1812 Federalist opponents of the war met in Hartford, Connecticut in 1814. They demanded that they be compensated for the money they lost during the trade embargoes with Britain and France. They also wanted to make it more difficult for new states to be admitted into the Union. This was a result of the West being able to push the nation into war. The Federalists could see their power slipping away, as they were losing representatives in Congress, and losing political power along with it. Their demands during this time of war were considered by the rest of the nation to be treasonousand this was the beginning of the end for the Federalist Party. Madison and Monroe American Victories Andrew Jackson, the eventual 7thpresident, led the United States to military victories during the War of 1812. In 1813, the Mississippi Creek Indians launched an attack on Fort Mims in Alabama, killing 400 Americans. General Andrew Jackson retaliated in 1814, attacking and killing over 300 Native Americans during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.
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This was significant as Jackson forced the Creek Indians to sign away 23 million acres of land in Alabama and Georgia to the American government.

Image 6.23 Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans

Jackson then moved onto the Battle of New Orleans, where he commanded a 7,000-man force to repela British attack on the American city in 1815. This battle, which occurred two weeks after a peace agreement was in place between the British and Americans, was not necessary, but made Jackson a very popular figure with Americans. Madison and Monroe Treaty of Ghent America essentially fought Britain to a draw, but the British came to the peace treaty table as they still had their hands full in Europeand the costs of a war in North America were escalating. They were initially very demanding, saying that they wanted an Indian buffer zone to protect British Canada. This was refused by the United States and the

Image 6.24 Signatures on the Treaty of Ghent

Treaty of Ghent would be signed soon thereafter, officially ending the War of 1812. No land was gained or lost by either side during the war. However, the losers turned out to be the Native Americans, who were forced to give up large tracts of land north of the Ohio River in modern day Ohio and Indiana. Madison and Monroe Effects of the War of 1812 The War of 1812 is seen as the Second War for American Independence not in terms of a military sense, but in terms of an economic, nationalistic, and diplomatic sense. Prior to the war, American diplomats had been treated as weak representatives of an infant nation. Now, they were shown more respect and as if they were from a country that Image 6.25 James Monroe could fight. The war also united thecountry asit took great pride in fighting the British to a draw for the second time. The people of New England who resisted war were looked down upon for a long time. Development of an American culture was also evident. New American spellings of words, American literature, and American art gained momen89

tum. Economically, America became more independent as the war challenged the nation to develop its own industry and business. They were forced to do so as they had previously relied on Britain for many finished goods. America had put itself in a great position for the future. Madison and Monroe Monroe and the Era of Good Feelings The Election of 1816 was the final time that the Federalists had a serious presidential candidate. Itwas now Image 6.26 Election of 1816 seen as a party thatwas very sectionalin its views. James Monroe, a Virginian and Democratic-Republican, was elected in both 1816 and 1820, a time called the Era of Good Feelings. The Era of Good Feelings was a time of political peace, a growing sense of nationalism, and a country focused on building its infrastructure. Madison and Monroe Settlement of the West During this era, nine states were added to the country. There were many reasons for this expansion. First, it was fed by a large number of immigrants to the country. Second,

farmland in the east became somewhat exhausted as years of farming depleted the soil. Thus, farmers turned to the west to find new lands. Third, federal land projects made it easier to buy land. Lastly, western lands had recently been cleared of Native Americans, reducing the danger of westward migration. Along with the population growth, the west also grew in political strength. The traditionally powerful states of the east were losing their monopolyon power during this period. Madison and Monroe Foreign Affairs Under Monroe During this period, John Quincy Adams, a son of John Adams, served as James Monroes Secretary of State. This was a very important time in our foreign policy. First, in dealing with Canada, John Quincy Adams helped negotiate the Treaty of 1818 with the British, setting the border between the United States and Canada at the 49thParallel from the Great Lakes west to the Rocky Mountains. Second, Spanish-controlled Florida was seen as a problem. Spain had shifted many of its troops from Florida to Central America in order to deal with revolutions. General Andrew Jackson was sent to restore order in Florida, but wentway beyond orders. He invaded Florida, killed Native Americans, and plundered valuables. John Quincy Adams saw this as an opportunity to buy Florida. In the AdamsOnis Treaty (1819), Spain gave up Florida and its land claims in Oregon. The United States agreed to give up its claims to Texas, which was to become part of Mexico.
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Spain and other European nations had their hands full with revolutions in Central and South America. John Quincy Adams feared that Europe would invade and recolonize these places. America also felt threatened by Russia to the north, as Russians were coming from Alaska to the Oregon Territory. Our nation did not want other nations establishing colonies in North America. In response, the Monroe Doctrinewas issued. Written by John Quincy Adams, James Monroe declared that the period of colony building in North and South America was over. This part was directly pointed at Image 6.27 Applying the Monroe DocRussia. He also detrine; Protecting Central America from clared that European European Powers powers were not to intervene in the rebellions that were occurring in the Americas. The second part was a warning to European countries. The Monroe Doctrine was an expression of American isolationism. It was more of a statement against Europe than it was support for Latin America. Oddly, we did not have the army or navy to support such statements, however, the very idea that we issued these muscle-flexing warnings showed world powers that we were very serious.

Section 6.4 Review


Question 1 of 5

What word does NOT describe the War Hawks?

A. peaceful B. militaristic C. nationalistic D. young

Check Answer

91