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RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B


5. stone vault
noun, a vault made from blocks of stone, so
shaped or cut that when assembled they form a tightly wedged and stable construction whose weight can be concentrated upon the proper supports

1. ethereal
adjective, heavenly, characterized by lightness and insubstantiality, intangible e.g. "combination of massive grandeur and ethereal grace" romanian translation:

e.g."the nave was given a new stone vault ..." romanian translation:bolta de piatra(arta prin care se construieste se numeste stereotomie)

6. lierne vault
noun, A vault in which lierne ribs are used
lierne: an arch of hewn v-shaped stones that strengthens the ribs of a cross vaulting made of small stones. The use of the lierne in Gothic architecture was one of the first examples of the division of a construction into a strong framework and a light filler.

2. dereliction
noun, the act ob abandoning, abandonmnent, willful neglect; e.g."saved from dereliction by Henry..." romanian translation:dezintegrare,

3. episcopal see
noun, the official seat of a bishop, contextual sense reffers to the town in wich are the seat of the bishop e.g."we have decreed that the site of the said monastery be an episcopal see" romanian translation: resedinta eparhial, episcopal

4. abbey church
abbey, monastic house, especially among
Benedictines and Cistercians, consisting of not less than 12 monks or nuns ruled by an abbot or abbess.

e.g."Here we can see soaring columns, a great lierne vault ninety-two feet above the floor..." romanian translation: bolta cu nervuri

e.g."Ethelfleda was burried in the abbey church" romanian translation: aprox. biserica de schit

7. cloisters
noun, unroofed space forming part of a
religious establishment and surrounded by the various buildings or by enclosing walls.

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

Generally, it is provided on all sides with a vaulted passageway consisting of continuous colonnades or arcades opening onto a court



e.g."and the north transept remodelled, work began on the cloisters" romanian translation: schituri,

noun, the tribune of an orator. e.g."..though the medieval pulpitum was destroyed and replaced..." romanian translation:zon nnlat din faa altarului de unde se predic n bisericile catolice

8. fan vaulting
noun, a series or system of fan vaults e.g."with the first signifiant fan vaulting in the country"



noun, carvings in Gothic churches that adorn

choir stalls provided for the use of the clergy during services

e.g."Among other features are a series of mistericords and, in the south transept..." romanian translation: sculpturi care impodobesc traveele corului, in bisericile gotice

romanian translation: bolt n evantai noun,


apprenticeship, system of learning a craft or

9. triforia
noun, a gallery of arches above the sideaisle vaulting in the nave of a church e.g." ..the bridge which links the north and south triforia whispering gallery" romanian translation:triforium

trade from one who is engaged in it and of paying for the instruction by a given number of years of work The apprentice would bind himself to work for the master for a given time. After that time he would become a journeyman, working for a master for wages, or he set up as a master himself.

e.g."and is reckoned to commemorate a apprentice who fell to his death while working on the vault above" romanian






noun, a place of religious devotion or commemoration e.g."There was no shrine here to despoil"



noun, ornamented wall or screen that rises romanian mormant translation:memorial, cenotaf,
behind the high altar of a church, forming a background for it

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

e.g."including Scott's reredos behind the high altar" romanian





noun,a temporary structure for holding workers a nd materials duringthe erection, repair, or decorati on of a building.
e.g." I first saw it without scaffolding in its full glory"

romanian translation:schel

noun, a portion of an interior rising above adjacentroofto ps and having windows admitting daylight to the i nterior.
e.g. " Norman cathedral and which are incorpored in windows in the north of the nave and in the south clerestory "

noun, plural clerestories. romanian translation: lucarna, vitraj aflat la nivel superior

e.g."with their soaring piers, clusterred..." noun 1.a support of masonry, steel, or the like for sustai ning verticalpressure. 2..a long passageway or corridor that extends from a central areaof a building, especially one at an ai rport that leads to boardinggates. romanian translation: pil, stvilar.

noun 1.a.that part of a column or pier between the base and capital.See diag. under column. b.any distinct, slender, vertical masonry feature en gaged in awall or pier and usually supporting or fe igning to support anarch or vault.

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

. 2.any welllike passage or vertical enclosed space, as in a building: an elevator shaft. . e.g."clustered rounded shafts, and collumns of Purbeck marble" romanian translation: sgeat, bolta intersectat,

canopy noun,an ornamental, rooflike projection or coveri ng. romanian translation: baldachin carve verb (used with object) cut (a solid material) so as to form something: to carve a pieceof pine. form from a solid material by cutting: to carv e a statue out ofstone. romanian translation: a sculpta

5.chapter house
e.g."At the end of the thirtenth century York aquired its chapter-house" noun a building attached to or a hall forming part of aca thedral or monastery, used as a meeting place for t hechapter. romanian translation:consistoriu; incapere unde se iau hotarari bisericesti, de sinod

e.g. "It is known as the 'Heart of York' because the tracery at the top suggests the shape of a heart" noun, plural 1.ornamental work consisting of ramified ribs, bar s, or the like, asin the upper part of a Gothic wind ow, in panels, screens, etc. romanian translation: ornament traforat

6.intricately carved canopy stalls

e.g. "This has no central column, but all around are marvellous and intricately carved canopy stalls "

stall noun 1.a compartment in a stable or shed romanian translation: travee intricate adjective 1.having many interrelated parts or facets; entangl ed or involved:an intricate maze. Synonyms 1. knotty, tangled, labyrinthine.

noun,a work of art, as a painting or stainedglass window, executed ingrisaille. e.g.".. it is the best example in England of that gently coloured glass known as grissaile" romanian translation: vitraliu colorat cu tente pale

romanian translation: nclcit, complex
noun, ancient Rome, originally (beginning in the first century B.C.) a municipal district; during the principate,

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

part of a province. From the period of Diocletian, at the end of the third century A.D., the diocese was a large administrative unit including several (up to 16) provinces. A total of 12 dioceses (later 15) were formed. The vicarius, who was subordinate to the praefectus praetorio, headed the diocese e.g. "..the cathedral church not only of the diocese of York, but also...."


1.chain of fortress
noun, large fortified place; a fort or group of forts, often including a town; citadel
e.g. "Edward it's a great chain of fortress in North Wales..."

romanian translation: eparhie ,dioceza

romanian translation: "lan de cetate"

2. gatehouse
Noun,a building above or beside an entrance gate to a city, university, monastery etc., often housing a porter or guard, or (formerly) used as a fortification e.g. "the near impregnable gatehouse which is so characteristic a feature of the Edwardian fortress..." romanian translation: poarta aflata la intrarea intr-o cetate, manastire, castel fortificata, incorporata intr-un corp al ansamblului in care se face accesul

noun, a deep wide ditch, usually filled

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

with water, typically surrounding a fortified medieval town, fortress, or castle as a protection against assault. e.g. "... another stone circuit and moat beyound it" romanian translation: "an de aprare"

romanian translation:garnizoan

7. chamber
noun , a room in a house, especially a bedroom. e.g. "there was good accommodation in many tower chambers"

4. bailey
noun, The space enclosed by the outer wall of a
castle. e.g. "...standing at the south-east corner of tre inner bailey..."

romanian translation: odaie other meanings: - chambers A room in which a judge may consult privately with attorneys or hear cases not taken into court. - chambers Chiefly British A suite of rooms, especially one used by lawyers. - A hall for the meetings of a legislative or other assembly. - A legislative or judicial body. -. A board or council. -. A place where municipal or state funds are received and held; a treasury.

romanian translation: curte interioar n castele feudale

5. revetment
noun,a facing of masonry or the like, es pecially for protecting an embankment. e.g."planned concentric castre ...revetted in stone" romanian translation: finisaj de protectie din piatra

8. mural tower
noun,In a medieval fortification, one of a number of towers built along a curtain wall, usualy made from stone e.g."each of the mural towers along the outer curtain wall...." romanian translation:turn de piatra

6. garrison
noun, military personnel, soldiery, troops soldiers collectively e.g. "to promote the fire-power and the mobility of the garrison"

9.arrow slit
noun,a vertical slit for archers in medieval fortification walls, with jambs deeply splayed toward the interior.

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

e.g. "the great inner curtain ... is pierced by arrow slits backing onto embrasures alog its lenght , with drum towers..." romanian translation: gauri lasate in perete pentru a proteja arcaii care trag din incinta

2.a small tower at an angle of a buildin g, as of a castle or fortress,frequently b eginning some distance above the grou nd. e.g. "with central turrets against the wall-walk" romanian translation: turel,turnule

noun,the opening in a wall or parapet, especially one through which a gun is fired. . The crenels or intervals between the merlons of a battlement.

13. sally port

Noun, a gateway permitting the passage of a l arge number of troops ata time. e.g. " a small sally-port in the northwest curtain..." romanian translation: poarta de acces pentru trupe, pentru mase de oameni

embrasure: B e.g. "the great inner curtain ... is pierced by arrow slits backing onto embrasures alog its lenght , with drum towers..." romanian translation: creneluri,

14.banded masonry
noun,stone masonry that have thin and nearly parallel bands of different textures, colors, and minerals. e.g. "parallel to the polygonal towers and distinctive banded masonry" romanian translation: zidrie stratificat

11. drum tower

A round tower whose diameter is greater than its height.

12. turret tower

noun 1.a small tower, usually one forming pa rt of a larger structure.

15. drawbridge
At the entrance of fortifications, a bridge over the moat or ditch, hinged and provided with a raising and lowering mechanism so as to hinder or permit passage.

RESEARCH Berindeanu Daniel Ionu 21B

e.g. "after the drawbridge, there are no fewer than five doors and six porticullises..."

romanian translation: punte rabatabila, ( in castelele medievale,se rabate peste anul de aprare)

16. portcullis
noun, a defensive grating, of massive iron or timber, movable vertically in retaining grooves cut in the jambs of a fortified gateway. e.g. "after the drawbridge, there are no fewer than five doors and six porticullises..." romanian translation:gratii de fier, impiedica accesul in cetate