“Gh.

Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

1




Environmental Engineering

-Project-
Student: Movileanu Alex-Constantin
Group 3216





Coordinators: Prof. dr. ing. Irina Baran
Prof. dr. ing. Dan Covatariu
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

2



Project theme
Is required to determine the environmental impact assessment of a civil
building, the destination of individual housing for one or two families, with the
operating of height S + P +1 E.
Consider the building located in urban or rural areas on a platform with
the slope peak of 5%, having provided measures of leakage water from
rainfall, waters are deep under the quote of Foundation.
It is considered that the building can be connected to an urban heating
or has an own heating system.
The strength structure of the building consists of:
- carrying walls of brick full masonry ;
- floor of reinforced concrete monolith or prefab;
- the foundations are rigid, in the form of continue Soles, under the walls;
- stairs are reinforced concrete or wood;
- roof slopes are large, the structure of the strength type framework on
chairs and various covers(cover sheet, tiles);

Inferior carrying walls will be building with full brick.
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

3

Separating walls will be build from full brick place on edge from BCA,
slabs of reinforced plaster.
- Warm floor is made of laminated parquet classic (run cold floor of
mosaic or ceramic plates)
The project will study the following issues:
- the geometric characteristics of the building
- determining the specific thermal unidirectional resistance (R);
- determining the specific thermal resistance corrected (R`);
- the average thermal resistance (R’
m
);
- G coefficient determination based on values R
m
;
- the annual heating requirement for heating Q;






















“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

4


Project of medium engineering


The project will contain:
A) WRITTEN PIECES:

a. Project theme;
b. The contain;
c. Technical Memorium;
d. Thermal bridges;
e. Notes of calculation;


B) Drawn pieces:
1. First floor plan, scale 1:50;
2. Second floor plan, scale 1:50;
3. Static scheme;
4. Static scheme of thermal bridges;
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

5

Technical Memorium
The investment having the following destination as living structure is
placed in the city of Medgidia on the Stefan cel Mare street and it has a plan
shape of a rectangle.
This building has a two floor structure like P+1 and is composed of 4
longitudinal spans and 5 vertical spans.
The building placed in the Medgidia city has the following
characteristics:
The outside temperatures will be considered at -20 C in winter .
The resistance structure will be made of load-carrying walls made of
pressed or normal brick, strength pylon and wall capping made of reinforced
concrete.
The foundation for this kind of structure is a continuous type under
walls, having the width of 50 cm for the outside walls and 40 cm for the inside
walls.
The foundation depth of the walls will be:
- Outside walls: 1.00 m
- Inside walls: 0.80 cm
This foundation will be made of reinforced concrete.
This structure behavior on the vertical will be made of reinforced
concrete slabs, and over the final floor having reinforced concrete slabs.
The building closes with a roof type framework having 6 water slopes
and a roof covering made of red tiles.
The vertical access is done by a 2 way staircase made of reinforced
concrete.
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

6

The reinforcing of the pylons will be made using longitudinal rods made
of type PC52 steel and claps made of type OL37 steel.

The rooms destinations and the surface will be the following:
















GROUND FLOOR
ROOMS Surface
S1: entrance hall 9.50 sqm
S2: kitchen 9.38 sqm
S3: living 23.28 sqm
S4: hall way 8.64 sqm
S5: bathroom 3.67 sqm
S6: Dining room 9.38 sqm
S7: Garage 11.68 sqm
S8: Workshop 8.67 sqm
FIRST FLOOR
ROOMS Surface
S9: bedroom 23.28 sqm
S10: bedroom 9.38 sqm
S11: bedroom 11.68 sqm
S12: hall way 8.64 sqm
S13: dressing room 3.88 sqm
S14: office 9.38 sqm
S15:bathroom 4.62 sqm
S16:bathroom 3.67 sqm
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

7

The behavior of the structure on the longitudinal way is done by load
carrying walls and the behavior of the structure on the vertical way is done by
reinforced concrete slabs.
The outer finishing is done from apparent brick and decorative coating
having white cement and marble powder. The inside finishing is done from a
mixture of white lime and pottery.
The floors will be made from stoneware on the bathrooms and on the
kitchen floors and parquet in the other rooms.
The electrical power for the building is done from the local energy
system and the water supply is done by the main water supply.
The heating of this structure is done by mounting a central heating in
the kitchen and the pipes that carries the heat is made of required material
that is heat resistant.
The neighbors are:
N: Private Propieties
S: National road
E: National road
W: Private Propieties
External walls
Heat is lost through the floors, roofs and walls of the house. In order to
reduce the amount of heat lost through the external walls one of three
methods of insulating the wall can be used. The single most cost effective
measure is to install cavity wall insulation. Alternatively if the wall does not
have a cavity, or it is not suitable for filling, then either an external wall
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

8

insulation system can be applied, or an internal insulated dry-lining. Each
method is described briefly below.
Cavity Wall Insulation
The majority of masonry cavity walls built since the 1930s are suitable
for filling with cavity wall insulation. Insulation, either polystyrene beads or
mineral fiber are blown into the wall cavity through a number of holes drilled
in the exterior of the wall. Once the insulation is installed these holes will be
filled up with mortar. Before the insulation is installed a survey should be
carried out to confirm the wall is suitable for insulating and if any defects are
identified these should be corrected first.
Internal Wall Insulation
Where the walls of the house are either solid masonry or a cavity wall is
not suitable for cavity wall insulation then it can be cost effective to insulate
the internal surface of the wall. This is most often done by applying an
insulated dry-lining, a layer of plasterboard with a rigid insulation material
bonded to it. This is most cost effective when the existing plaster is being
renewed, or existing services or fittings, such as kitchen units are being
replaced. Applying the insulation internally has the benefit of ensuring that
the wall surface warms up quickly helping to improve thermal comfort. It has
the disadvantage of reducing the size of the room by the thickness of the
insulation. The insulation layer can be up to 50mm thick. This also requires
all electric sockets, switches and pipe work to be relocated once the
insulation work is complete.
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

9

Calculus notes
Determination of the thermal resistances specifics unidirectional(R).
- Drafts-Exterior wall, platform over the basement, platform over the
ground floor.
- Sheet-Exterior wall, platform over the basement, platform over the
ground floor.

1. Determination of the geometrical characteristic of the building.
a) Floor’s aria A1 and last Ceiling’s aria (which is under the roof) A2
b) Exterior wall’s aria A3
c) Blank’s aria A4 (doors and windows)
d) Building’s envelope A=A1+A2+A3-A4







Facade A
1
A
2
A
3
A
4
93.635 93.635
North 54.885 8.295
South 63.18 15.6
East 43.875 5.4
West 43.875 4.8
Total 205.815 34.095
Envelope's surface (A1+A2+A3-A4) m
2
358.99
0.0
00
2.70
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

10


Thermal resistance in current area

[M²K/W]
R
i
= exterior walls, superior floor
R
e
= inferior floor
R
e
= all the elements
The R value is a measure of thermal resistance used in the building
and construction industry. The bigger the number, the better the building
insulation’s effectiveness.
The R value is a measure of insulation's heat loss retardation under
specified test conditions. The primary mode of heat transfer impeded by
insulation is convection but unavoidably it also retards heat loss by all three
heat transfer modes: conduction, convection, and radiation. The primary
means of heat loss across an un-insulated space is by natural convection,
which occurs because of changes in air density with temperature. Insulation
greatly retards natural convection. Most insulations trap air so that significant
convective heat loss is eliminated leaving only conduction and radiation
transfer.
The primarily role of such insulation is to make the thermal
conductivity of the insulation that of trapped, stagnant air. However this
cannot be realized fully because the glass wool or foam is needed to prevent
convection and increases the heat conduction compared to still air. Radiation
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

11

heat transfer is minimized by having many surfaces interrupting a "clear view"
between the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation. Such multiple
surfaces are abundant in batting and porous foam. Radiation is also
minimized by low emissivity (highly reflective) surfaces. Lower thermal
conductivity and, therefore, high R values can be achieved by replacing air
with argon when practical such as between sealed double-glazed windows
and special closed-pore foam insulation.
a) Exterior walls










4
2 3

Interior surface 0.125
1 Interior plaster M50 0.01 0.84 0.011904762
2 Full brick masonry 0.15 0.7 0.214285714
3 Thermal insulation 0.1 0.04 2.500000000
4 Exterior plaster 0.005 0.84 0.005952381
Exterior surface 0.06

ext.
int.
1
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

12

Ext
.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Int
b) Inferior Floor







Interior surface 0.125
1 Woodwork 0.02 0.17 0.117647059
2 Leveling plate 0.03 0.91 0.032967033
3 Reinforced concrete floor 0.15 1.74 0.086206897
4 Thermal insulation 0.1 0.04 2.500000000
5 Layer filter 0.1 1 0.100000000
Exterior surface 0.04

c) Superior Floor

Interior surface 0.125
1 Interior plaster M50 0.01 0.87 0.011494253
2 Reinforced concrete floor 0.15 1.74 0.086206897
3 thermal insulation 0.2 0.04 5.000000000
4 Woodwork 0.02 0.17 0.117647059
Exterior surface 0.04




Ext.
.
Int.
5
4
3
2
1
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

13






SPECIFIC THERMAL RESISTANCE
Element No. MATERIAL name
Layer
thickness
d (m)
Thermal
conductivity λ
Specific
thermal
resistance
Total resistance
element
S
u
p
e
r
i
o
r

f
l
o
o
r

Interior surface 0.125
1 Interior plaster M50 0.01 0.87 0.011494253
2 Reinforced concrete floor 0.15 1.74 0.086206897
3 thermal insulation 0.2 0.04 5.000000000
4 Woodwork 0.02 0.17 0.117647059
Exterior surface 0.04 5.380348208
I
n
f
e
r
i
o
r

f
l
o
o
r

Interior surface 0.125
1 Woodwork 0.02 0.17 0.117647059
2 Leveling plate 0.03 0.91 0.032967033
3 Reinforced concrete floor 0.15 1.74 0.086206897
4 Thermal insulation 0.1 0.04 2.500000000
5 Layer filter 0.1 1 0.100000000
Exterior surface 0.04 3.001820988
E
x
t
e
r
i
o
r

w
a
l
l
s
Interior surface 0.125
1 Interior plaster M50 0.01 0.84 0.011904762
2 Full brick masonry 0.15 0.7 0.214285714
3 Thermal insulation 0.1 0.04 2.500000000
4 Exterior plaster 0.005 0.84 0.005952381
Exterior surface 0.06 2.917142857



“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

14



Thermal Bridges
A thermal bridge is created when materials that are poor insulators
come in contact, allowing heat to flow through the path created. Insulation
around a bridge is of little help in preventing heat loss or gain due to thermal
bridging; the bridging has to be eliminated, rebuilt with a reduced cross-
section or with materials that have better insulating properties, or with an
additional insulating component
In construction, thermal bridges are classified as:
- Repeating thermal bridges - where bridges occur following a regular
pattern, such that made by wall ties penetrating a cavity wall.
- Non-repeating thermal bridges - such as the bridging of a cavity wall by
a single lintel
- Geometrical thermal bridges - at the junction of two planes, such as at
the corner of a wall
-
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

15




Determination of the improved specific thermal resistance(R').

Ψ – Linear specific coefficients of thermal transfer

in the thermal
bridges zone.
l – The length of thermal bridges



“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

16

Preliminary calculation to determine the thermal resistances R' corrected
throughout the building
Building
element
Thermal
Bridges
Ψ [W/m]
l [ m
]
Ψ*l
Area
[m2]
R R'
North Façade
Outer corner 3 x 0.05 5.85 2.106
Entering corner 1 x 0.01 5.85 0.0585
Current bridge 1 x 0.02 5.85 0.117
H.R eaves 1 x 0.14 11.8 1.625
H.Current
1 x 0.07 2.85 0.1995
1 x 0.08 2.85 0.228
H.R socle 1 x 0.225 11.8 2.655
contours of
woodwork
1 x 0.25 6.625 6.655
Total
13.213
5
216.2
1
2.98285
7
0.76524
7












Building
element
Thermal
Bridges
Ψ [W/m]
l [ m
]
Ψ*l
Area
[m2]
R R'
South Façade
Outer corner 3 x 0.05 5.85 2.6325
Entering corner 1 x 0.01 5.85 0.0585
Current bridge 1 x 0.02 5.85 0.117
H.R eaves 1 x 0.14 11.8 0.23128
H.Current
1 x 0.07 0.1995
0.59737
5 1 x 0.08 0.228
H.R socle 1 x 0.225 11.8
0.59737
5
contours of
woodwork
1 x 0.25 44.9 11.225
Total
14.8616
6
216.21
2.8928
57
0.76524
7











“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

17




Building
element
Thermal
Bridges
Ψ [W/m]
l [ m
]
Ψ*l
Area
[m2]
R R'
West Façade
Outer corner 2 x 0.05 5.85 1.17
Entering corner 0 x 0.01 0 0
Current bridge 2 x 0.02 5.85
0.0093
6
H.R eaves 1 x 0.14 7.3 0.1666
H.Current
1 x 0.07 2.85 0.4303
13
1 x 0.08 2.85
H.R socle 1 x 0.225 7.3 1.9125
contours of
woodwork
1 x 0.25 14.4 1.0125
Total
2.7887
73
216.2
1
2.89285
7
0.76524
7
















Building
element
Thermal
Bridges
Ψ [W/m]
l [ m
]
Ψ*l
Area
[m2]
R R'
East Façade
Outer corner 2 x 0.05 5.85 1.17
Entering corner 2 x 0.01 5.85 0.234
Current bridge 1 x 0.02 5.85
0.0023
4
H.R eaves 1 x 0.14 1.19 0.166
H.Current
1 x 0.07 2.85
0.4303
13
1 x 0.08 2.85
H.R socle 1 x 0.225 8.5 1.6425
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

18

contours of
woodwork
1 x 0.25 16.2 13.45
Total
15.453
25
216.2
1
2.89285
7
0.76524
7







Superior
floor
H.R eaves 1 x 0.24 1 x 52.2 12.528
Area
[m2]

H.R interior walls 1 x

0.2
1 x 11.7 4.95

Total
17.478
5.268
4 1.78 0.56







Inferior floor
H.R socle 1 x 0.3 1 x 52.2 15.66 Area
[m2]


H.R interior walls 1 x 0.2 1
x
24.7
5 3.7125
Total

2.9720
2.972
0 1.33 0.75

The determination of the Global Coefficient of the thermal
isolation- G
It is an thermo-energetic parameter of the building cover on its
assemble and has the semnification of a sum of thermal dissipated
flux(direct heat loss) on the cover surface for a temperature difference of 1
Degree related to the building Volume for which is added those for the inside
air refreshing.
G=

∙∑

+0.34∙n [W/M
3
∙k]
G= 0.408149 [W/M
3
∙k]



' '
in f _
in f _
'
sup _
sup _
'
_
_
'
Tamplarie
Tamplarie
planseu
planseu
planseu
planseu
ext pereti
ext pereti
R
A
R
A
R
A
R
A
R
A
t t t t
t
·
+
·
+
·
+
·
=
¿ |
.
|

\
| ·
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

19


∑(

)
Where:
- V – the interior heat volume of the building;
V = A
1
* H
i


= 794.313 m
3

- n - the natural ventilation speed of the building, the number of changes
of air per hour;
n=0.6
- - the corection factor of the exterior temperature;
=1
Anual neccesary heat=Q
an
[KWh/m3*an]

Q=15.100097[KWh/m
3
*an]
Q-the anual necessary heat on m
3
heated [kWh/m
3
*an];
C- the corection coefficent; C=0.93
G- the global coefficient of thermal isolation of a building;

- the number of days degrees of corresponding calculus of locality where
is the building;
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

20

Q
i
-the useful share of heat resulted by the habitation of the building;
Q
s
-the useful shareof heat out of the solar raditation;
Q
i
+Q
s
-the free useful share of heat;
Q
an
- Q*V
incalzit

=

-(20-)*D
12

=2840; = 11.5; D
12
= 187;

= 1251

Where:

- the number of days degrees of corresponding calculus of locality where
is the building;

i
-inferior temperature if the building [C];
D
12
-Length of conventional heat period corresponding exterior temperature
who mark the beginning and closing the heat
e
=+20 C [days].
Free heat input Q
i
+Q
s
Q
i
– the useful heat input provided by inhabited;
Q
s
- the useful heat input provided by solar radiation;
Q
i
= 7, for inhabited buildings;
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

21

Becomes from thermal flow of those who habits the building, use of hot water,
preparing food, the lightning of the rooms, the function of different electronics
devices.
Free heat input provided from solar radiation -Q
s
Free heat input provided from solar radiation it’s presumes that provide only
through surfaces that the light passes (windows and exterior doors whit
glass).

Q
s
=0.40∙∑I
Gj
∙g
i
∙A
Fij
/V [kWh/m
3
*an]
Q
s
= 3.768 [kWh/m
3
*an]

Where:
g
i
= 0.5 ; V=794.313 m
3
; A
F
= 15.55 m
2
;
Q
s
-the quantity of heat from solar radiation receipted on a building during
the heat sezon reported on m
3
of heat volume;
I
Gj
-global solar radiation of each cardinal orientation ”j”; [ kWh/m
3
*an]
g
i
-the degree of penetration through windows “i” of exterior woodwork;
A
Fij
-the exterior area of woodwork provided with clear glass “i” and
disposed after cardinal orientation “j”;
“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

22


I
Gj
=24/1000∙D
12
∙I
Tj
[kWh/m
2
∙an];
I
Gj
= 962.4384
Where:
D
12
-the conventional period of heating, corresponding to exterior
temperature that marks the beginning and stopping the heating;
T
Tj
-the intensity of solar radiation, with values depending cardinal
orientation “j” and by the place where the building is placed [W/m
2
]


The annual requirement of fuel and annual emission of CO
2
On the basis of annual requirement of heat Q
an
= Q*V
incalzit
determined we can
calculate:
Q
an
= 11994.896;
- the annual requirement of fuel ;
- the annual emission o
f
CO
2
SO
2 ,
NO
2
etc.
E
CO2
=Q
an
*n
CO2
; n
CO2
=0.36
E
CO2
=4318.162

“Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi
Civil Engineering and Building Servicies Faculty
Civil Engineering

23


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