# Stuff you MUST know cold for AP Calculus!

Note: Letters like a, b, c, d, m, and n are traditionally used to represent constants. Letters like f, g, h, u, v, x, and y and traditionally used to represent variables or functions. Basic Derivatives

d n x = nx n−1 dx

d (sin x ) = cos x dx d (cos x ) = − sin x dx d (tan x ) = sec2 x dx d (cot x) = − csc2 x dx d (sec x ) = sec x tan x dx d (csc x ) = − csc x cot x dx d (ln x) = 1 dx x d x (e ) = e x dx

More Derivatives

( )

Definitions of Derivative

lim

f ( x + h) − f ( x ) h →0 h f ( x ) − f (c ) lim x →c x −c

Differentiation Rules

Rolle’s Theorem If f is differentiable for all values of x in the open interval (a, b ) , and f is continuous at x = a and at x = b , and f (a) = f (b) = 0 , then there is at least one number x = c in (a, b ) such that f ′(c) = 0 . Mean Value Theorem If f is differentiable for all values of x in the open interval (a, b ) , and f is continuous at x = a and x = b , then there is at least one number x = c in (a, b ) such that f ′(c ) = f (b) − f (a) b−a Trapezoidal Rule

Chain Rule If f (x ) = g( h( x )) , then

f ′( x) = g ′(h( x)) ⋅ h′ (x ) . OR dy dy du = ⋅ dx du dx

Product Rule d (uv ) = v du + u dv dx dx dx Quotient Rule d u vu′ − uv ′ = dx v v2

+ 2 f ( x1 ) + L + 2 f (x n −1 ) + f (x n )]

Distance, Velocity, and Acceleration If distance, velocity and acceleration are represented by s, v, and a, dv d 2 s respectively, then a = = and dt dt 2 ds v= . dt

∫ f (x )dx = 2

a

b

1 b − a [ f (x 0 ) n

**d (sin −1 x ) = 1 2 dx 1− x d −1 (cos x ) = −1 2 dx 1−x d (tan−1 x ) = 1 +1x 2 dx d − (cot −1 x) = 1 + 1 2 dx x d 1 (sec−1 x) = dx x x2 − 1
**

d (csc−1 x ) = −1 dx x x 2 −1

“PLUS A CONSTANT!” The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

∫ f (x )dx = F (b) − F (a )

a

b

where F ′ (x ) = f (x )

Corollary to the FTC

change in v = ∫ a dt

t0 t1

t1

d dx

g ( x)

∫

a

f (t )dt = f ( g( x )) ⋅ g′ (x )

change in s = ∫ v dt

t0

d x (a ) = a x ln a dx d (log a x ) = 1 dx x ln a

If a function is differentiable, then it is continuous.

Intermediate Value Theorem If function f is continuous for all x in the closed interval [a, b] , and y is a number between f (a) and f (b ) , then there is a number x = c in (a, b ) for which f (c) = y .

**f (x ) 0 ∞ → or g( x ) 0 ∞ f (x ) f ′( x) then lim = lim x →a g( x ) x→ a g ′( x )
**

If lim x →a

l'Hôpital’s Rule