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Fire extinguisher disc was found missing during a walk around inspection.

What is your action to make the aircraft serviceable? 1. Debrief pilot, check tech log. 2. Refer M.M. 3. Fire extinguisher disc is used to indicate bottle discharge. Normally red for thermal discharge and yellow for intentional firing. 4. Inspect pressure gauge or c/out weight check on fire bottle to confirm discharge. C/out check on control circuit and squib test to verify system integrity. If found bottle not discharged, change the missing disc. 5. If found red disc missing, inspect for cause of thermal discharge. Rectify the defect, change bottle, clean affected area and replace missing disc. 6. If yellow disc found missing and fire reported, ground aircraft for thorough investigation to ascertain cause of fire. 7. Change APU if found damaged, if not damaged c/out check on fire detection system. Inspect APU compartment and its structural components for fire damage and rectify. 8. Replace bottle, clean affected area, replace disc and issue CRS. State what are the sequences to carry out ground run on propeller aircraft (assume that pre-start inspection has been carried out). 1. Refer to M.M. 2. Start engine & monitor engine parameters during starting. 3. Ensure pitch change mechanism is operating properly before applying full power. 4. When engine stabilise at idle power, record engine parameter readings (RPM, EGT, vibration, fuel flow, oil pres., torquemeter). Bring to high power and record readings. 5. C/out proper propeller system operations, including constant speed operation, feathering, reverse pitch and pitch change mechanism throughout entire travel range. 6. Check propeller synchronization or synchrophasing system is working properly. 7. Ensure generator warning light out. 8. Check water methanol system if installed. 9. Check propeller elec. de-icing.

10. After engine shutdown, visually check propeller for condition and any signs of fluid leakage. 11. Always ensure engine temperature and propeller speed are within limits at all times. An engine is suspected to have FOD ingestion. Detail the investigation to be done on the engine. 1. Refer to MM. 2. Debrief the pilot and check tech log entry for type of ingestion, change in engine parameters. 3. Visually inspect the engine inlet for debris or damage to these components: Inlet cowl Spinner Fan rotor blades 1st stage stator vanes Acoustic panel OGV 4. Check for any damage,blockage or debris on temp sensor, generator oil cooler, and pressure manifold ports. 5. Visually check for any metal particle at turbine exhaust area as this indicates damage to the compressor section. 6. Carry out borescope inspection on compressors blades, combustion chamber and turbine blades if the debris appears to have entered gas generator or bird strike or FOD have resulted in missing material to the fan blades. 7. If damage found exceeds limits prescribed in the appropriate MM, remove engine from service. 8. If no damage found, carry out EGR to check for correct operation to ensure all parameters are within limits and without stall. During normal engine operation, EGT is above normal. State possible causes. 1. Faulty EGT sensor and indicator. 2. FCU/MEC faulty or out of trim causes an incorrect scheduling of fuel. 3. Defective pressure/speed/temperature sensor. Continue --

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Dirty compressor blades and/or vanes which reduce compressor efficiency. VBV/VSV improper rigging or incorrect operation. Damaged gas path components (compressor, combustor, turbine section). Accumulation of ice at the inlet restricts airflow into engine due to defective anti-icing system or anti-ice not activated. Bleed air valve or anti-ice valve stuck or fail in open position. Reduce engine performance. Damage to engine case or crack on compressor case.

Hot oil temperature. Possible causes/investigation. 1. Faulty sensor/indication. 2. Oil cooler blockage or damaged, leaking, faulty thermostat, bypass check valve stuck open. 3. Filter blockage. 4. Vent system coking (carbon build-up). 5. Bearing damage or failure causes increase in friction. 6. Oil pump damage which causes reduced oil flow and increasing internal pressure. 7. Wrong oil specification used. 8. Low oil quantity. 9. Investigation: a. Check MCD and filter for metal particles. b. Check oil tank level. c. Check oil cooler and its components for condition. d. Check high vent pressure. e. Check serviceability of sensor and indicator. What are the typical defect found on the prop. And how to rectify? 1. Defects: a. b. c. d. e. Corrosion Erosion or pitting Cracks, bend, twist Gouge, nicks, scores, scratches, dent Lightning damage continue next column --

f. Unbalanced prop, vibration g. Non-concentric due to shock load or heavy landing h. Oil Leakage i. Anti/de-ice component defect j. Overspeeding 2. Rectification: a. Cuts/gouges Blend out b. Lightning Remove damage plus extra material etching, then inspect for abnormalities. Check electrical circuit c. Corrosion Remove and treat d. Overspeeding Depending on overspeeding margin e. Leaking Replace worn seals. Tighten nuts, replace gaskets for leakage at mounting face of CSU/PCU. Leakage at other parts, replace units f. Minor dents/erosion Allowed until prop removed g. Bent/twisted/cracked/severe surface damage Change How does APU control its governed speed? What protection is needed should a defect occur? 1. APU is a fully automatic machine, which does not need pilot input to control its operation. 2. It is a self contained, gas turbine engine, which has a FCU with flyweight governor to automatically schedule fuel flow to maintain its constant speed operation under varying conditions. 3. The flyweight governor controls amount of fuel to the combustor and excess fuel is bypassed back to pump inlet. 4. The protections are: a. Auto shutdown when low oil pressure, high oil temperature, overspeed, high EGT, loss of EGT signal or fire. b. When APU fails to reach 100% governed speed within a specified time frame, starting will be automatically aborted. c. Fire protection system using fire detector unit and fire extinguisher. d. APU starter will not crank if inlet door not fully opened. Explain what could cause an APU fail to reach its governed speed.

1. FCU faulty or out of trim. 2. Acceleration limiter valve defective in open position, causing reduced fuel to combustor. 3. Fuel filter element clogged or fuel lines leak or clogged. 4. Fuel pump damaged. 5. APU electronic control system defective. 6. APU starter defective, low starting current (battery weak). 7. APU bleed valve or bleed surge valve fail in open position causing air to bleed off during starting. 8. Deteriorated/dirty APU compressor/turbine section. Internal air leak from compressor section. 9. APU air inlet passage blocked. Define and explain the term fixed pitch propeller, variable pitch propeller and feathering. 1. Fixed pitch propeller a. Propellers which its blade angle cannot be changed in normal operation. b. It is designed to be most efficient at one combination of RPM and airspeed. c. Normally used on light, single-engine airplanes. 2. Variable pitch propeller a. The propeller blade angle can be adjusted in flight from fine to coarse and also reverse pitch on some aircraft to aid in landing. b. Also known as constant speed propeller. c. The propeller blade angle is adjusted by a governor to maintain selected RPM in all flight conditions. d. Most VPP system has the capability of being feathered. 3. Feathering a. Is when the propeller blade chord is in line with airflow. b. This is done to prevent windmilling of propeller if the engine stops in flight thus preventing an increase in drag and possibly, damage to engine. c. Some engines incorporate automatic feathering when low torque is sensed by the torquemeter.

What indication would pilot monitor in turbo-prop aircraft cockpit during flight? What are the indications which varies with changes in prop speed? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Engine RPM Propeller RPM Torquemeter EGT Fuel flow Oil temperature and pressure De-icing system (ammeter) Engine RPM varies along with torque pressure when the propeller RPM changes. 9. However, on free turbine engines, engine RPM remains but torque pressure changes with propeller RPM. What checks to be carried out during EGR after engine installation? 1. Refer M.M. 2. Start engine, monitor starting sequence and limitations not exceeded. 3. At idling RPM, check and record all instruments readings (RPM, EPR, fuel flow, EGT, oil temp/press) 4. Check generator output are correct. 5. Check hydraulic pressure to ensure hydraulic pump is working properly. 6. Check the bleed air pressure to ensure that bleed system components are working properly. 7. Fully open throttle and check that all parameters are within limit. 8. Check the acceleration and deceleration time. 9. Carry out vibration survey, make sure that it is within limit. 10. Check anti-icing system components. 11. Check water injection system if installed. 12. Recheck idling speed, then do thrust reverser functional test. 13. Shut down engine, check run-down time. 14. After EGR, check for components leak. Engine cant reach maximum take-off power. What sequence of checks need to be carried out to release aircraft.

1. Refer M.M. 2. Check for full and free movement of engine control. C/out rigging if necessary. 3. Check for fuel leakage between FCU and nozzle. 4. Check for FCU trim adjustment or linkage problem which cause improper fuel scheduling. 5. Check for fuel filter clogging which degrade spray pattern. 6. Check for fuel pump for correct output pressure or any damage. 7. Check VBV for correct operation, maybe air bleed ports not fully closed/binding/jam. 8. Check condition of anti-ice valve. 9. Check VSV for correct operation. 10. Check bleed air valve for operation and condition, check bleed air ducting for security or leakage. 11. C/out borescope inspection to check for any damage at compressor, combustor or turbine section. 12. After completion of rectification c/out EGR and observe indication and correct functioning of engine systems. 13. If satisfactory, issue CRS. During acceleration, engine stalls. What checks must be carried out before releasing aircraft? 1. Debrief pilot, refer to Tech log. 2. Refer M.M. 3. Inspect inlet area (IGV, fan blades, spinner, acoustic liners, cowls) for any damage, loose rivets which would cause turbulent airflow. Also check for FOD ingestion. 4. Check for VBV for correct operation, early closing of bleed ports may cause stall condition. 5. Check for VSV operation. 6. MEC or FCU fuel S.G. adjustment. 7. Check for anti-ice components for condition. Ice build-up at inlet disrupt airflow. 8. Check temperature or pressure sensor for condition. 9. C/out borescope inspection at compressor, combustor or turbine section.

10. After completion of rectification c/out EGR and observe indication and correct functioning of engine systems. Check parameters within limits and engine operates without stall. 11. If satisfactory, issue CRS. Engine overspeed. What are the causes and rectification to be carried out? 1. Engine overspeeding is prevented by an overspeed governer in FCU/MEC. It protects the engine from exceeding its rotational speed limit. 2. Failure of this governer along with the FCU may cause engine to overspeed at high throttle settings. 3. The extent of check to be carried out after an overspeed occurrence depends on the overspeed margins and limits. 4. Refer M.M. 5. Above a certain limit of overspeeding, the engine needs to be removed and sent for thorough checks. 6. If overspeeding occurred but within inspection limits c/out as follows 7. Check rotating assemblies for freedom of rotation or abnormal noise. 8. Check inlet and exhaust areas for unwanted materials or damage. 9. Check fan blades and spinner cone for condition and security. 10. Check oil system filters and MCDs for metal particles. 11. Check engine controls for full and free movement. C/out rigging if required. 12. Check engine RPM indication for serviceability. 13. Check FCU for condition and presence of leaks. C/out rigging if necessary. 14. C/out borescope of compressor, combustor and turbine section if suspected internal damage. 15. Perform EGR upon completion of inspections and replacement of damaged components. 16. With engine running, check for leaks and on shutting down, check rundown time. During routine inspection, metal found in oil filter. State action.

1. Refer M.M. 2. Fine particles of metal of filter surface is normal. Can be found after first operation of new engine. 3. If contamination level is excess of manufacturers limit or any larger metal chips are found, source of contamination must be located and corrected. 4. Metal particles, contaminated filter and oil sample should be sent for examination to trace for source of contamination. 5. Check for presence of metal at MCD. 6. Based on the test result, if confirmed that oil pump has failed, c/out replacement. If found that main bearings, internal gearings from accessory gearbox fail, remove the engine and send to shop for investigation. 7. Drain oil tank and refill. Replace filters. 8. Operate engine for prescribed period of time and recheck filter and MCD. 9. Let the aircraft to continue in service, recheck filters and MCD after a few cycles of flight as prescribed in MM. Oil was found in engine intake. What are the possible defects? 1. Some engine uses hot scavenge oil routed to engine inlet for anti-icing purposes. Leakage of this oil could cause oil getting into the inlet area. 2. Oil leak from fan/forward bearing chamber during windmilling or long start-up procedure condition, where bearing chamber air pressure is insufficient causing allowing oil to seep out through the labyrinth seal and accumulate in inlet area. 3. Inoperative scavenge pump for the forward bearing chamber may cause oil to leak out. Absence of bearing chamber air pressure may cause oil to leak too. 4. Leakage of oil pipelines at the inlet area carrying oil to and from the forward bearing chamber. 5. Damaged seals or loose attachments on accessory components which are at the fan case area may cause oil to get into the intake. 6. For propeller aircraft, leaks from the reduction gearbox or propeller pitch change mechanism could get into the intake area. 7. Overservicing of oil tank may cause oil leaks that may be carried into the intake.

Why do we control airflow at compressor intake? How are they controlled? 1. Air intake under all operating conditions, delivery of air to engine should be of minimum loss of energy occurring through the duct. 2. Airflow to the compressor must be at the correct pressure, velocity, angle of flow and smooth to obtain maximum efficiency/performance and proper engine operation. 3. Engine is designed to operate within a wide range of operating conditions. This is possible with the control of airflow entering the compressor thus minimizing stall/surge tendencies. 4. Inlet duct (is normally of pitot type for maximum ram effect) is normally divergent for subsonic aircraft to increase air pressure and reduce velocity. 5. For supersonic aircraft, a variable geometric duct is used to slow down the airflow to subsonic speeds at the face of the engine. It should also prevent shock waves from affecting the engine operation. 6. VIGV and VSV are used to control airflow in the early stages of compressor to maintain correct airflow angle thus maintaining optimum AOA of compressor blades. 7. VBV controls amount of air in the compressor to prevent compressor choking. 8. VSV and VBV can be electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically operated by FCU/MEC. How do you carry out heavy landing check on engines. 1. Refer M.M. 2. Check engine controls for full and free movement. 3. Examine engine mountings and pylons for damage or distortion. Tubular members should be checked for bow greater allowed limits and crack at welds. Mounting bolts and attachments should be checked for damage and indications of movement. 4. Examine engine cowlings for wrinkling and distortion. Check fasteners for security. Continue next page --

5. Check rotating assembly for freedom of rotation and no unusual noises. Inspect engine intake area and compressor front stage for obvious damage. 6. Check fuel, oil and hydraulic pipelines for leaks. 7. If applicable, check propeller shaft for shock loading in accordance with M.M. 8. Check oil system filters and MCD for metal particles. 9. If no damage or distortion found, then c/out EGR to establish satisfactory engine operation at all systems and controls. 10. With engine running, check for leaks and on shutting down, check rundown time. Microbiological contamination in fuel tank. Detail check to be carried out. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Refer M.M. and AN43. Collect fuel sample to check for contamination. Drain fuel tank and purge. Perform fuel tank entry to c/out inspection. Visually inspect and identify contaminated area for fungal deposits, which are normally brown, black slime adhering on horizontal upward facing surfaces. Clean affected areas thoroughly. Inspect for corrosion and damage sealant. C/out removal and repair as per SRM. Inspect fuel boost pump, fuel quantity transmitter, suction valve, drain valve and fuel filters for obstruction. Flush fuel feed lines to remove traces of microbes. Reapply protective coating and sealant. Restore tank to original condition.

4. If stain or seep leakage is found, aircraft can be release to service, with frequent monitoring of leakage area. 5. If running leak is found, ground aircraft and rectify problem. 6. Defuel tanks, open access panels and purge tanks. 7. Observe all safety precautions before c/out tank entry. 8. Identify leak area and find cause of leakage (structural damage or sealant damage). 9. C/out repair as per SRM/M.M. Reapply protective coating and sealant. 10. Clean work area and restore tank to original condition. 11. Refuel and check for leaks. 12. If found satisfactory, an Airframe LAE to issue CRS. Describe the merits of a high bypass engine comparing to turboprop engine. How is the power indicated? 1. Turbofan normally used for longer range flights, at relatively higher altitude and speed. 2. Increase in thrust at forward speeds similar to turbofan, result in relatively short take-off. 3. Turbofan thrust is not penalized with increasing airspeed, up to approximately Mach 1 with current fan design. Better TSFC at speeds above 400 mph. 4. Lighter weight than turboprop of similar thrust. Better power to weight ratio. 5. Ground clearance less than turboprop. 6. Quieter than turboprop. 7. No need reduction gearbox and CSU/PCU thus reducing maintenance. 8. Lower vibration level. 9. Turbofan power indicated by EPR or fan RPM (N1). 10. Turboprop power indicated by torque pressure, sensed by torquemeter. What do you consider when installing an APU? What check do you carry out after installation? 1. Refer M.M. 2. Ensure APU master switch is off, CBs tripped and position warning placards. Continue next page ----

Fuel leak found on integral fuel tank. State procedures to rectify fault and who sign for work? 1. Refer M.M. 2. Check tank panels, components attached externally to tank (booster pump, sump drain vales, etc.) for leaks. 3. Assess fuel leakage on tanks. Leaks can be classified under i) stain ii) seepage iii) running leaks

3. Clean APU compartment and inspect soundproof liners, heat shield and fireproof seal for security and condition. 4. Inspect mounting attachments for condition and security. 5. Examine air intake and ducting for presence of FOD and condition. 6. Check new APU for condition, leakage and free movement of rotating parts. 7. Check pipelines and electrical cables for condition. 8. Check APU hoist assembly before usage. 9. Upon installation, torque load mounting bolts, connect pipelines, cables, ducting, sleeves and clamps. Ensure fire detection loops are installed properly. 10. Examine APU compartment for FOD before restoring panels. Top up oil tank. 11. Start APU for operational check. Observe parameters during and after startup. 12. Check for leakage, generator and bleed air operation. 13. Shut down APU and replace oil and fuel filters before issuing CRS. What is the purpose of IDG/CSD fitted to engine? What problems are associated with these components? 1. The purpose IDG/CSD is to convert the varying speed of engine to constant speed to the generator, to produce required constant frequency for component operation. 2. Constant Speed Drive (CSD), which is driven by AGB and its output spline is used to drive generator at a constant speed. 3. Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) is a CSD and generator in one unit. 4. Problems associated with IDG/CSD: a. Unable to get constant output speed (frequency). b. Unable to disconnect from cockpit due to solenoid fail. Unable to reengage on ground. c. Overheating or high oil temperature due to internal damage, filter or oil cooler blockage. d. Low oil quantity due to underservicing or leakage. e. Low oil pressure f. Internal gearing damage, which is caused by misalignment of the CSD due to QAD ring not properly installed and torque loaded.

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