Functional Team Structure - These teams are grouped by discipline and have a subfunctional manager as well as a senior functional

manager. The major advantage is that the company benefits from prior experience and they hold the organization's depth of knowledge, while the major disadvantage is that each development project differs in its objectives and performance requirements. When used for product development, the primary responsibility for the project is passed sequentially from function to function, also known as "throwing it over the wall." When used for technical problem solving, or competency building, these teams can be quite effective. Lightweight Team Structure - These teams are represented by a liaison person from each functional area, usually managed by a middle or junior level person who has little influence, status, and/or power. Team leaders usually spend only 25% of their time on a single project. These teams have the same strengths and weaknesses of the functional team structure, but have improved communication and coordination with regard to expectations. However, the lightweight team leader can sometimes feel ignored. For incremental product improvements, lightweight teams are great training grounds. Heavyweight Team Structure - The manager of a heavyweight team has direct access to top management, and are responsible for the work of everybody involved in the project. They have the clout, experience and influence, and dedication of core members. Heavyweight teams are especially good at developing next-generation components or products. Autonomous Team Structure - Also called "tiger teams," autonomous teams usually begin their project with a clean sheet of paper, creating their own policies and procedures. These teams take full responsibility for a project's failure or success. They have no established boundaries and usually provide unique solutions as a result. However, their autonomy often causes major problems. This type of team is volatile, depending on its success or failure. They are especially successful in creating new business areas by creating new components or products.

The Challenge of Heavyweight Teams
Creating an effective heavyweight team, especially in a large firm, is hard to do. Even just selecting a team leader and forming a team can be challenging. These teams have the feeling of ownership and commitment of the project, and they can also turn into autonomous tiger teams where management does not give sufficient direction. In addition, the team appears to separate themselves from management and goes off on a tangent. These teams want control over not only their project but also the supporting activities. Heavyweight members can become very demanding. To avoid this type of behavior, management needs to set clear guidelines and principles for the heavyweight team to follow or have support groups with specific roles designated. The desired goal is to have a balance between the needs of the individual project and the needs of the broader organization. Heavyweight teams are looked upon favorably because they bring integration and integrity through the system solution, which is set by customer needs. They produce a complex, but effective and efficient system using only a few key people. However, a lack of depth can be considered a disadvantage. The system may be broad and overlook some weaknesses and flaws that functional specialists would have noticed.

Managing the Heavyweight Team
Because of the lack of depth in technical solutions and technical support, one can imagine the tension this creates with heavyweight teams. These teams sometimes overstep their bounds, either created or not created by management. To help deal with these problems, six categories were defined to reinforce the team's basic concepts while helping the team take advantage of the functional support available to them.

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