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Bea Diaz Period 2 WHAP 1.23.


Ch. 21 Reading Notes

Chapter Title: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade Chronology (time period & major events):

Significant Characteristics & Developments: Social

Reason for high volume (slaves): Mortality rates high Fertility low Reproduction level higher in south usa Pop concentration: Latin America- 80-90 % Britain America- 25% Family problems; Males outnumbered femals- 3 to 1 Families sold away at whim Marriages not legally/religiously sanctioned Merchant towns: Mortality rates quite high-tropical diseases-malaria American slave societies: Saltwater slaves- African born Creole slaves- American born Mulattos/sexual exploitation/miscegenation Hierarchies based on skin color Creoles/mulatttos given more freedom


Slaving and African politics: Intensified enslavement and altered nature of slavery Many competing city-states Military importance Some historians argue slavery led to more wars -results Europe blocked coastal states from gaining to much political and economic power\ Interior kingdoms gained more power-turned to cycle of guns for slaves Asante and dahomey: -asante on gold coast-example of empire that benefitted from slave trade Controlled gold and slave trade -benin controlled slavery, but never let it dominate -dahomey controlled slavery by royal court Creativity emerges with centralized states Leaders challenged by local officials Art flourished -most of africa remained politically independent


Atlantic slave trade: Portuguese voyagers-set up small scale forts -traders Ivory, pepper, animal skins, gold for slaves initially Mulattos and portuguese gradually spread inland

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Commerce leads to political, social, religious relations -portuguese exploration Set up settlements on the west coast Goal primarily commercial/military, but also missionary -patterns of conduct/shared ideas Fortified trading stations Combination of force and diplomacy Alliances with local leaders Predominance of commercial relations - $ uniting factor History of African slave trade: Slavery existed in rome, replaced by serfdom in middle ages Brought to Mediterranean intermittently by Iberian peninsula After 1441 became common trading item -sugar made carribbean major terminal -Africa becomes linked to European economy End of slave trade: Result of economic, political and religious changes -based on factors beyond African control Enlightenment, age of revolution, Christian revivalism, industrial revolution -african begin to trade other items Peanuts, palm oil, cotton


Trends; (intro) -Islam increased position in East -Christianity stayed in Ethiopa -Growth of Africa Kingdoms Trends toward expansion: -number of slave 1450-1850 12 million slaves shipped Mortality rate 10-20% on ships Millions more die in capture process/resulting wars Largest period in 18th CE 7 milllion Atlantic slave trade-> Kongo kingdom fully converted to Christianity East africa and the sudan: -islamization Enters violent phase in 18th CE Reform movement Effects: New political units New islam eliminated pagan practices Literacy spread Afro-american roots: Religion Converted to catholicsim in spain/Portugal -adaptation of old Dont have all the priestly class immigrate Held both beliefs Harder for muslim Africans to maintain


slave trade led to decline of Africas population Effects of global interactions: -forced movement of Africans improved western economies -transfer of African culture; adapted to create new culture -most of africa remained politically independent Influence of Europe: -path of africa becomes linked to European economy -diaspora-mass exodus of people leaving homeland -slave trade dominated interactions -not all of Africa affected to the same degree Demographic patterns: -types of capttives Trans-saharan focused on woman

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Atlantic slave trade focused on men Demographic effects: Population cut by 50 percent Become skewed towards women New crops-maizemanioc allowed numbers to recover

Key People or Individuals (briefly identify): - Nzinga Mvemba: ruler of the Kongo kingdom (1507-1543); converted to Christianity; his efforts to integrate Portuguese and African ways foundered because of the slave trade - Osei Tutu: important ruler who began centralization and expansion of Asante. - Luo: Nilotic people who migrated from the Upper Nile regions to establish dynasties in the lakes region of central Africa. -Usuman Dan Fodio: Muslim Fulani leader who launched a great religious movement among the Hausa - Shaka: ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa during the early 19th century; developed military tactics that created the Zulu state. -Surinam Maroons: descendents of 18th century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rainforests of Surinam and French Guiana.

Comparison/Relations with Other Societies: -AMERICA/AFRICA: political,economical, social organization While there were slaves in Africa, there were not mixed classes like Creoles, Mestizos, or Mulattos. Also, the Americas saw an influx of slaves while Africa was the main exporter. Africas economy and exports were always based predominantly on slaves while the Americas had silver, gold, sugar, and cacao. Questions & Connections (What argument or point remains unclear? Any thought that comes to mind, triggered by the text? What historical, global, thematic, or even personal connections can you make?):

QUESTIONS: - How were some slaves able to runaway and find refuge in rainforests? Or build an independent kingdom? How did they get the money to buy slaves and firearms?


Bea Diaz Period 2 WHAP 1.23.13

-Africa and the African Diaspora in World Context: africa placed at a disadvantage in world markets, movement of millions of people, created vibrant new cultural forms, altered political, economic structures. The legacy of the slave trade, as European rulers practiced forced labor policies, lingered into the 20 th century.