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Abdelkader Benbouaza, Bachir El Kihel, Fabienne Delaunois, Hanae Azzaoui and Youssef Regad
Abstract The bearing is a very important element for the construction of rotating machinery, it is designed to run on very long terms, even under ideal working faults occur that affect the proper functioning of the system, due to the passage of the balls on repetitive tracks which leads to high mechanical stresses result in gradually degradation of metal fatigue and eventually cause the appearance of cracks and spalling.This article aims to make a comparative study of some methods for the detection of bearing defects by vibratory analysis. Index Terms vibration analysis; crest factor; kurtosis; the wavelet transform.

Introduction 2 Theoretical study of methods for detecting defects in bearings.

onitoring by vibration analysis, an essential tool for modern maintenance, since it allows for screening or diagnosis of faults, to avoid breakage and is working on a machine at the right time and for scheduled shutdowns of production. So vibration analysis is a very powerful tool for bearing fault detection, to detect these faults, several methods are discussed in this article: This is the method of envelope spectral analysis transform wavelet and the singular value decomposition. The study is divided into two parts: - One discusses the different methods of detecting a theoretical point of view, - The other studies the application of these methods on actual measurements taken on a vibrationbench.

2.1 Temporal method

2.1.1 Crest factor [1] Localized degradation of a bearing is manifested by a hard impact, periodic, appearing at the frequency of contact located at the damage. Induced vibrations are vibrations pulse type. The interpretation of the spectra of these defects can be difficult. Specific methods for obtaining, by special treatment, values significant overall degradation of bearing. Using indicators such properties are mainly the crest factor and kurtosis. This is the ratio between the peak value and the rms value of the acceleration: Crest factor


Nature of vibrations

Abdelkader Benbouaza is with industrial engineering Department,National School of Applied Sciences University Mohammed 1, BP669, OUJDA 60000 MAROC Bachir El Kihel is with industrial engineering Department, National School of Applied Sciences University Mohammed 1, BP669, Oujda 60000 Maroc, Fabienne Delaunois is with Metallurgy Department University of Mons Street of Epargne, 56 Mons 7000 Belgique

Priodique ou bruit de fond random impulse Periodic impulse type

1.5 2.5

default Misalignments Bearing breast bearing chipped

35 >5

2012 JCSE


Sinusoidal vibration type has a crest factor of 1.4 while a neighbor type vibration pulse has a crest factor much more important. A new bearing or a bearing in good condition generates a vibration of low amplitude, both in peak rms. The crest factor is low. A localized defect generates a vibration amplitude peak amplitude and high efficient low, so a large crest factor. For defects generalized vibrations generated peak amplitudes have strong and effective, therefore, a low crest factor. The major drawback of this indicator is to provide approximately the same values in the new state and end bearing life. Fig 2. Evolution of Kurtosis at different stages of degradation of the bearing It should be noted that in the case of a sharp deterioration of the bearing, the shape of the distribution becomes Gaussian with amplitude of about 3 K, but also a significant increase in the magnitude effective. So we must follow the Kurtosis and effective amplitude

Fig1. Evolution crest factor at different stages of degradation of the bearing If a signal is sinusoidal If a signal is complex tory) 2.1.2 Kurtosis [2]

2.2 Frequentiel method 2.2.1 Spectral analysis [3]: Has become the fundamental tool for processing vibration signals because it is much easier to work in the frequency domain than in the time domain. Thus was born the idea of the frequency analysis (spectral) where the signal amplitude / time is converted to signal amplitude / frequency using the Fourier transform of equation 1. This representation allows to know the spectral content of energy or power, present in the signal at frequency f, and thus to detect the presence of a defect shock generating periodic at a frequency of defects.
Equation 1


Distribution of the amplitude Kurtosis: This is a statistical signal processing time of the vibrations, based on the probability density curve of the distribution of vibration levels of acceleration. A rollover condition generates a signal whose vibratory amplitude distribution is Gaussian with a Kurtosis of about 3. For bearing gradient having shelling, indentations or a large gap, the shape of the distribution of the signal amplitude is varied and the Kurtosis K is greater than or equal to 4. The Kurtosis is determined in the [1 KHz-10 KHz]. Kurtosis (statistical moment of order 4):
K 1 x(t ) dt T 4 0
T 4

With the time interval T on which is defined the signal x (t). : The average of the signal x (t) over the interval T:
1 x(t )dt T 0

2.2.2 The envelope detection [4] (or "amplitude demodulation"). Its principle consists in filtering pass band in the time signal, and then performs the Fourier transform of the envelope of the signal obtained. The method thus allows overcoming the low frequency interference signals issued by other defects of the machine (unbalance, misalignment, etc...), and to keep only the signals emitted by the defects of the bearings (high frequency). Then it only remains to find the characteristic frequencies of defects on the spectrum of the envelope of the filtered signal.
"This method is useful for making a diagnosis at an early stage, and to highlight defects generally difficult to observe (when the signal strength is low and distributed over a wide frequency range).

: The standard deviation of the signal x (t) on the interval T: T

1 x(t ) 2 dt T 0


[5] It also helps to determine reliably and quickly repetition frequencies of shocks, even in the case of periodic shocks embedded in noise background. "However, it requires knowing the frequency domain of interest for filtering, and it is not suitable in the case of speed or variable loads. Finally, other techniques such as frequency analysis, it shows its limits in the low rotation speeds [6].

- In the outer ring which is connected to the repository Oyeze which rotates at e over Oy0z0. Calculate the rotational speed of a rolling element b around an axis passing through its center and the speed of rotation c of the cage relative to Oy0z0. Let: - i and e set, - The zero speed relative movements to the contact point C1 and C2. At point C1 Rii = cRi- b (Re-Ri)/2 (1) At point C2 Ree = c Re- b (Re-Ri)/2 (2) By adding (3)

By introducing the frequency fi of the rotation of the inner ring, outer ring fe and the contact angle , the frequency of cage is expressed as: (4)

Subtracting (1) (2): Re e - i = Ri (Re-Ri) c + (Re-Ri) b by introducing (3) the frequencys fi of the inner ring rotation of, fe the outer ring and the contact angle , the frequency of ball is expressed by: Fig3. Principle of the envelope analysis [7] (5) The formulas (4) and (5) defines the basic kinematic frequencies ball cage and from the frequencies kinematic rotation of the inner fi and outer fe. Defective bearings generate vibration frequency equal to the speed of rotation of each part of the bearing. They correspond in particular to the rotation of balls, rollers, or the cage and the passage of the balls on the rings. For each bearing type and dimensions according to its production can be considered characteristic frequency data following formulas [9].

Characteristic frequencie:
Defects, cracks, spalls ... may exist on inner rings, outer ball on and they generate shocks, so the periodic vibrations when the rotational speeds are constant.

The fundamental frequencies of these vibrations are related to the frequency of said cinematic base [8]: -fc: Frequency of rotation of the cage with respect to a fixed reference ("fc = /2)". -fb: frequency of rotation of a rolling element with respect to an axis passing through its center (fb = /2). Consider a rotation in a fixed reference Oy0z0. A repository is linked to each of the elements: -to the inner ring which is connected to the repository Oyizi which rotates at i over Oy0z0.

Fig4. Characteristics Frequencys for the defects of elements of a bearing [10].


2.2.3 The wavelet transform [11] When the signal is quasi-periodic in time, the Fourier transform is no longer applicable. It is then necessary to use another mathematical tool: the wavelet transform. The latest tool allows studying simultaneously the time and frequency information (the method of envelope processing signals in a field and then the other but never simultaneously). Many books describe the wavelet transform. In [12], it is mainly used to detect faults in the bearings. In this article, to exploit and interpret the information contained in the wavelet transform, the singular value decomposition is used. 2.2.4 The singular value decomposition [13] The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a tool for extracting the main components of a matrix. In the case of vibration signals, the main components are in fact related to data structures maximizing the signal energy. For example, the SVD of a matrix composed of vibration measurements at different points of a structure, allows under certain conditions to remove the dominant spatial modes present in the data [14]. In this article, SVD is used to decompose the resulting matrix of the the wavelet transform into its various components at high energy: the parasitic components of low energy, due to noise for exemple are then discarded. SVD thus highlights the "frequency-modes" corresponding to different components of high energy. The SVD allows zooming and showing the different frequency characteristics of the defects which are not clear at first wavelet transform. It acts like filtering components uninteresting in favor of the dominant components. 3 Application of different frequencie methods for detection of bearing defects This section aims to make a comparative practice study to the different methods (The singular value decomposition; the wavelet transform; the envelope detection and the Spectral analysis) on a test developed at our laboratory.

Fig5. Bearing controlled

3.2 Envelope Analysis 3.2.1 Bearing breast

There appear some peaks in frequencies that are not significant (18.8 Hz 259.4 Hz ...) with very low amplitudes.

3.2.2 Bearing with default on the outer ring

There is appearance of the peak frequency of the defect of the outer ring 193.8 Hz 387.6 Hz and multiple.

3.3 Spectrale Analysis 3.3.1 Bearing breast

Fig4. Picture of the test bench realized

3.1 Realised tests

With the help of a vibration analyzer we performed various tests of the singular value decomposition; the wavelet transform; the envelope detection and the Spectral analysis) on two 6005-2Z bearings (bearing breast; bearing with default on the outer ring) and we observed spectres for each test.

There appear some peaks in frequencies that are not significant, with very low amplitudes.


3.2.2 Bearing with default on the outer ring

ring but nothing really significant. It is impossible to saprecisely: the wavelet transform seems inappropriate.

3.5 The singular value decomposition

However, based on the results of the wavelet transform, it is possible to perform a singular value decomposition (SVD singular value decomposition or). The latter makes it possible to extract the high-energy components in the matrix of the results of the wavelet transform. The SVD can be applied to study the eventuelle presence a fault.

3.5.1 Bearing breast From this figure, no line is presented. This means that
Increasing the amplitude of the signal of (0.256 to 6.047) which significant occurrence of a defect.

3.4 The wavelet transform 3.4.1 Bearing breast

there is no default.

3.5.2 Bearing with default on the outer ring

From this figure, it seems that no fault is present. In fact, no line is visible which is actually logical since in this case it, the bearing is new. A highlight for still more: the maximum value of the amplitude is 0.016: the level is quite low.

3.4.2 Bearing with default on the outer ring

The first mode corresponds to a peak at 194 Hz (frequency equal to BPFO default): this means that the maximum energy is associated with this component. The fault is clearly demonstrated by this method. The changes in frequency over time can be followed with ease. In this case, the frequency remains constant throughout the sample: this is because the speed does not vary over time. From this figure, it is difficult to tell if a fault is present or not. It may be noted that the energy level rose significantly to 0.016 at baseline, we went to 0.035 in the case frequency of the defect of the outer ring. The dark areas are now more important. A very light line can be seen around the default frequency of the defect of the outer


To make a diagnosis on the state of bearings, first we must look of all these characteristics and types of mounting. According to tests conducted we conclude the following: - The envelope analysis is easier and more efficient for


the detection of defauls bearing. - Spectral analysis is used to designate the defective item of bearing.

5 Acknowledgments
The authors would like to acknowledge the partial support of the laboratory GIMPM ENSAO and the department metallurgy of Mons University.

instalations industrial by vibration analysis. Second B. Author Bachir El Kihel Professor of Higher Education Grade: C, head of department math and mechanical. PhD status in Structural Design. PhDUniversity of Compigne engineering school France in Vibration and cotrol non destructive. Third C. Author Prof. Fabienne DELAUNOIS Associate ProfessorHead of Service Metallurgy University of Mons. Fourth D.Author Hanae Azzaoui engineer research in industrial engineering. Fifth E. Author Youssef Regad engineer research in industrial engineering.

[1] Landolsi Foued During technical surveillance of the major faults. [2] CHAIB RACHID these contribution loptimisation de la maintenanceconditionelle par lanalyse vibratoire. [3] [4] A.Benbouaza B.Elkihel F.delaunois Analysis and diagnosis of the different defects of the bearings and gearings by vibration analysis Journal of Computer science and engineering, volume 13, issue 1, May 2012. [5] Jacky DUMAS & Bruno BENNEVAULT START MEASURING VIBRATION01dB-STELL (Groupe MVI technologies). [6] Ing. X. MILISEN Dr Ir V. LENAERTS Comparison of different methods for detecting faults in bearings. ISILF n20 2006 (Review of Scientific). [7] Abdelkader Benbouaza ; Bachir El Kihel ; Fabienne Delaunois diagnosis of the different defects of the bearings by vibration analysis CPI 2011. [8] [9] Roland BIGRET Jacques-Louis FERON diagnosticMaintenance availability models of rotating machines Measures - vibration analysis MASSON 1995. [10] Benllali. Yacine, Hadjadj. Aoul .Elias, Khalifa. Dalila Thesis, projection of conditional preventive maintenance of the bearings by vibration analysis. [11] Ing. X. MILISEN Dr Ir V. LENAERTS Comparison of Different methods for detecting faults in bearings. ISILF n20 2006(Review of Scientific). [12] LESCEUX J.M., Dtection prcoce de dfauts dans les roulements paranalyse vibratoire, Revue Scientifique des ISILF vol 10, Avril 1996. [13] LESCEUX J.M., Dtection prcoce de dfauts dans les roulements par analyse vibratoire, Revue Scientifique des ISILF vol10, Avril 1996. [14] LENAERTS V., Identification of structural models of nonlinear dynamics, Belgium, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Lige, PhD, 2003.

First A. Author Abdelkader Benbouaza engineer research in industrial engineering on the theme maintenance of the complex