“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP

1 | P age





BY



AT

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
2 | P age






FULL NAME RAHUL JASHAWANTBHAI PATEL
ENO. No. 106440319068
MOBILE No. 1. 9033245790 2. 9825512095
EMAIL Rahulmansa.patel@gmail.com
COLLEGE
NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
ADDRESS
18, Ambika Nagar Society, Part – 1, Mansa
Mansa, Gujarat
Dist. – Gandhinagar
BRANCH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER 5
th
SEM. YEAR 2012-2013
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT
R. J. Patel




FULL NAME MAULIK SHAKARABHAI PATEL
ENO. No. 106440319050
MOBILE No. 1. 9558670675 2. 9429156422
EMAIL maulikpatel675@yahoo.com
COLLEGE
NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
ADDRESS
Umiya Nagar Society, Aakhaj
Aakhaj, Mehsana
Dist. – Mehsana
BRANCH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER 5
th
SEM. YEAR 2012-2013
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT
M. S. Patel
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
3 | P age



FULL NAME JAY YOGESHBHAI SHUKLA
ENO. No. 106440319030
MOBILE No. 1. 9574953096 2. 8866849289
EMAIL shuklajayy@gmail.com
COLLEGE
NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
ADDRESS
Near of Takteshvar Temple, Mansa
Mansa, Gujarat
Dist. – Gandhinagar
BRANCH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER 5
th
SEM. YEAR 2012-2013
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT
J. Y. Shukla





FULL NAME ABHISHEK VISHNUBHAI PATEL
ENO. No. 106440319067
MOBILE No. 1. 9537000072 2.
EMAIL abhipatel3456@gmail.com
COLLEGE
NAME
B.S.PATEL POLYTECNIC, GANPAT UNIVERSITY.
ADDRESS
D/Block, Uma Hostel, Ganpat University
Kherva, Mehsana
From – Surat, Guarat
BRANCH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER 5
th
SEM. YEAR 2012-2013
SIGNATURE
OF STUDENT
A. V. Patel







“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
4 | P age



INDUSTRY GUIDE
NAME Mr. J. A. Patel ( Junior Engineer )
CONTACT
ADDRESS
GUJARAT STATE ELECTRICITY CORPORATION LTD.,
GANDHINAGAR THERMAL POWER STATION
GANDHINAGAR, GUJARAT
MOBILE NO. 9904158731
EMAIL ja.patel@gspclmail.com
SIGNATURE
OF GUIDE



INDUSTRY
NAME GANDHINAGAR THERMAL POWER STATION (GTPS)
ADDRESS
GUJARAT STATE ELECTRICITY CORPORATION LTD.,
GANDHINAGAR THERMAL POWER STATION
GANDHINAGAR – 382010
GUJARAT
PHONE NO. 079-23215663/ 23218255/ 23215664/ 23218200
FAX NO. 079-23217673/ 74
EMAIL tech.gtps@gebmail.com
NAME OF
INDUSTRIAL
ESTATE
COMPANY
LOGO















“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
5 | P age


Date: - -

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled “WELDING
DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL
POWER PLANT” has been carried out by Rahul Patel
(106440319068), Maulik Patel (106440319050), Jay Shukla
(106440319030), Abhishek Patel (106440319067) students of VI
(5
th
) semester of Mechanical Engineering Department of B. S.
Patel Polytechnic, Ganpat University, kherva. Under the
guidance of Mr A. M. PATEL Sir & Mr J. A. Patel (J.E) towards
the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Diploma
Mechanical Engineering.














“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
6 | P age


Firstly, we sincerely thank to Prof. K. P. Patel, Head of Department,
Mechanical Department, B. S. Patel Polytechnic, Ganpat University for giving us
permission to IDP project, who always looking to provide great training to students
in any case, motivate us to do something extra-ordinary.

We are also thankful to Mr. A. M. Patel, Professor of BSPP & Mr. J. A. Patel
(J.E), who helped continuously in our project by their uncompromising demand for
quality and because of their insistence for meeting the deadlines we can do such an
excellent work.

We offer out Special gratitude to the entire BSPP College family for their help
and support. We thank them for providing us such a warm atmosphere to make our
project training delightful and memorable.


Regards






“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
7 | P age



With the correct welding conditions, techniques and material quality
standards, the welding process will yield a very high quality weld deposit.
However, as with any other welding process, weld defects can occur. Most defects
encountered in welding are due to an improper welding procedure. Once the causes
are determined, the operator can easily correct the problem.

It includes incomplete penetration, incomplete fusion, undercutting, porosity,
and longitudinal cracking. This section deals with the corrective action that should
be taken.













“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
8 | P age

Chapter Table of Contents Page No.
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
1
2
3
4
Student Particulars
Industry Particulars
Certificate
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Figures
Introduction to Thermal Power Plant Systems
Introduction to Project
Detail Description of Problem
Method of Non-destructive Weld Examination
2
4
5
6
7
8-9
10-11
12
15
16
26

Chapter Sub-Table of Contents Page No.
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
Detail description of problem
Types of cracks
Distortion
Gas inclusion
Slag inclusion
Lack of Fusion and Incomplete Penetration
Lamellar tearing
Undercut
16
17
21
22
22
23
24
24

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
9 | P age

Chapter Sub-Table of Contents Page No.

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.14.1
4.14.2
4.14.3

Method of Non-destructive Weld Examination
Introduction
Visual Inspection (VT)
Radiographic Inspection (RT)
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)
Liquid Penetrant Inspection (PT)
Ultrasonic Inspection (UT)
Eddy Current Inspection
Leak Inspection
Welding Procedure Qualification Inspection
Positive Material Identification
Hydrostatic Inspection
Ground Penetrating Radar Inspection
Digital Imaging Inspection
Inspection by following Instrument
Flashlight Gauge
Magnifying Glass
Undercut & Palmgrin Gauge



27
27
28
30
35
38
40
42
44
44
45
46
46
47
48
50
50
51

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
10 | P age


Fig. No Figure Description Page No.

1
2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9


Block Diagram of Coal Fired Thermal Plant
Welding defects in steam pipes
Hat Crack
Collection of weld defects: Cracks
Collection of Weld Defects: Solid Inclusions
Lack of Fusion
Incomplete Penetration
Undercut
Collection of Weld Defects: Incomplete Fusion
Collection of Weld Defects: miscellaneous
Human Eye
Visual Inspection
Radiography Inspection
Specimen of RT
X – Ray Tube
Gamma Ray Source
Onsite Darkroom ( RT )
Stages of Inspection by Digital Radiography
Magnetic Particles Testing ( MT )


13
15
18
19
20
23
23
24
25
26
28
29
30
30
33
33
33
34
35

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
11 | P age

4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
4.25
4.26
4.27
4.28
4.29
4.30
4.31
4.32
Wet Fluorescent MT Weld Indication
MT Machine
Liquid Penetrant Inspection ( PT )
Visible PT Indication
Fluorescent PT Indication
Ultrasonic Inspection ( UT )
Ultrasonic Flaw Detector
Digital Thickness Gauge
Eddy Current Inspection
Multi Frequency Eddy Current
Vacuum Box For Leak Inspection
PMI Instrument
Hydro Pump & Digital Pressure Gauge
Ground Penetrating Radar
Digital Imaging Inspection
Display of Digital Imaging Machine
Flashlight
Magnifying Glass
Digital Welding Gauge
Weld Undercut Gauge
Bridge Cam Gauge
Automatic Weld Size Gauge
Single Weld Gauge
37
37
38
39
39
40
41
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
48
50
50
51
51
52
52
52

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
12 | P age



 Power and Energy are buzz words in today’s world.
 Electricity is emerged as basic necessity with Food, Shelter and Clothing for
human being.
 Life without electricity has become highly unimaginable.
 Electric locomotives, Heating, Cooling, Fans, Blowers, Motors, Illumination
are some applications that converts electrical energy into useful work.
 Progress of any nation is measured in terms of per capita consumption of
electrical energy.(KWH consumed per person per year)

 India- 500 KWH / person per year
UK- 15 times that of India
US- 30 times that of India

 Reasons of Popularity of electricity :-
 Clean environment for user
 Higher efficiency
 Better controllability
 Quick transfer of power from source to load
 Energy conservation is simple.

Power Generation Scenario In India
Thermal Power - 1,00,000 MW
Hydro Power - 65,000 MW
Nuclear Power - 10,000 MW
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
13 | P age

Other sources - 20,000 MW
Total Installed Capacity - 1,95,000 MW

Sources of Electrical Power Generation
A. Conventional Sources
 Thermal (Coal)
 Nuclear
 Gas
 Water
B. Non-conventional Sources
 Wind
 Solar- PV
 Biomass

Fig. 1 Block Diagram of Coal Fired Thermal Plant


“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
14 | P age

Coal Based Thermal Power Plant
 India has rich stock of coal as natural resource.
 Chemical energy stored in coal is transformed to electrical energy.
 Coal powder is fired in boiler that converts water into steam at high
temperature and pressure.
 This steam is injected over the blades of steam turbine (prime mover) in
controlled way and hence, rotor of 3 PH a.c. generators rotates.
 Mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy at rated voltage (10-
30KV).
 Used steam is cooled down to water using cooling towers and condensers.
 This preheated water is again injected in boiler tubes to convert back to steam.
 Flue gases are passed into atmosphere and fine particles of ash are collected
through ESP.
 Ash (40% of coal weight) is collected and transported to AHP.

Merits of Coal Thermal Plant
 Coal is cheap and available in abundance at present.
 It is a time tested process, so no experimentation is required.
 Less space required as compared to Hydro based
 Station and less hazardous than Nuclear power plant.
 Less initial cost as compared to other conventional process of power
generation.

Demerits of Coal Thermal plant
 Calorific value (Kcal/ Kg) of Indian coal is very low and large ash content.
 Huge volume of ash is produced daily and its disposal is burning issue today.
 Atmospheric pollution is very high.
 Transportation of coal to plant and transmission of generated power to load
Centre involves large expenses.




“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
15 | P age



This project work attempts to study welding defects in steam pipes of thermal
power unit. The main objective this study is to reduce welding defects in steam
pipes.
In construction of power plant welding is major technique for joining
different parts of the equipment components like boiler, water pipes, steam pipes,
different types of valves, etc…. In severe regime through which the welding process
proceeds, the weldments are likely to be affected and if proper case is not taken, they
are likely to end up with certain defects. During or after welding certain defects
observed likes welding distortion, cracks, slag inclusion, lamellar tearing, undercut
etc…
According to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) welding
defect causes are broken down into the following percentages: 41% poor process
conditions, 32% operator error, 12% wrong technique, 10% incorrect consumables,
and 5% bad weld grooves.










Fig. 2 Welding defects in steam pipes


“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
16 | P age



A welding defect is any flaw that compromises the usefulness of the finished
weldment.

Welding defects occurs due to following reason:
3.1 Cracks
3.1.1 Arc strike cracking
3.1.2 Cold cracking
3.1.3 Crater crack
3.1.4 Hat crack
3.1.5 Hot cracking
3.1.6 Under bead crack
3.1.7 Longitudinal crack
3.1.8 Reheat cracking
3.2 Distortion


3.3 Gas inclusion

3.4 Slag Inclusion

3.5 Lack of fusion and incomplete penetration

3.6 Lamellar tearing

3.7 Undercut
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
17 | P age


Arc strike cracking occurs when the arc is struck but the spot is not
welded. This occurs because the spot is heated above the materials upper
critical temperature and then essentially quenched. This forms martensite,
which is brittle, and micro-cracks.


It generally occurs at room temperature after the weld is completely
cooled. This can be generally seen in the heat affected zone. Residual stresses
can reduce the strength of the base material, and can lead to catastrophic
failure through cold cracking, as in the case of several of the Liberty ships.
Cold cracking only occurs when all the following preconditions are met
-susceptible microstructure (e.g. martensite)
-hydrogen present in the microstructure (hydrogen embrittlement)
-service temperature environment (normal atmospheric pressure)100 to
+100 °F.

Crater cracks occur when a crater is not filled before the arc is broken.
The centre of the weld pool becomes solid before the outside of the weld pool,
which creates sufficient stresses to form a crack.

Hat cracks get their name from the shape of the cross-section of the weld,
because the weld flares out at the face of the weld. The crack starts at the fusion
line and extends up through the weld. They are usually caused by too much
voltage or not enough speed.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
18 | P age

Fig. 3.1 Hat Crack
This type of cracks occurs when the weld starts solidifying, in the pasty
state, as it possess very little strength and so residual loading is likely to cause
is to brake before it has fully solidified. Other causes include too high welding
current, poor joint design that does not diffuse heat, impurities (such as
sulphur and phosphorus), preheating, speed is too fast, and long arcs.

An under bead crack, also known as a heat-affected zone (HAZ) crack,
is a crack that forms a short distance away from the fusion line; it occurs in
low alloy and high alloy steel. The exact causes of this type of crack are not
completely understood, but it is known that dissolved hydrogen must be
present. The other factor that affects this type of crack is internal stresses
resulting from: unequal contraction between the base metal and the weld
metal, stresses from the formation of marten site, and stresses from the
precipitation of hydrogen out of the metal.

Longitudinal cracks run along the length of a weld bead. There are
three types: check cracks, root cracks, and full centreline cracks. Check cracks
are visible from the surface and extend partially into weld. They are usually
caused by high shrinkage stresses, especially on final passes, or by a hot
cracking mechanism. Root cracks start at the root and extent part way into the
weld. They are the most common type of longitudinal crack because of the
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
19 | P age

small size of the first weld bead. If this type of crack is not addressed then it
will usually propagate into subsequent weld passes, which is how full
centreline cracks (a crack from the root to the surface) usually form.

Reheat cracking is a type of cracking that occurs in HSLA steels,
particularly chromium, molybdenum and vanadium steels, during post
heating. It is caused by the poor creep ductility of the heat affected zone. Any
existing defects or notches aggravate crack formation.






















Fig. 3.2 Collection of weld defects: Cracks
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
20 | P age




























Fig. 3.3 Collection of Weld Defects: Solid Inclusions
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
21 | P age



An object is said to be distorted when it is put out of shape or it becomes un-
shapely. During welding, when weld metal is deposited, the base metal is heated
and thus it expands, and, when after the welding, it cools, the base metal plus the
weld metal shrinks.
It is therefore obvious that the shrinkage of a welded joint is far greater than
the expansion. This non uniform expansion and contraction of the weld metal and
the adjacent base metal which occurs during the heating and cooling cycle of the
welding process results in the distortion of a weldment.

To gain insight into how base metal expansion and base metal plus weld
metal shrinkage cause distortion, it is helpful to look at
(A) What happens to base metal, and
(B) What happens to base metal plus weld metal

(i) During welding, the base metal near the arc is heated to the melting point. A few
centimetres away, the temperature of the base metal is substantially lower.
This sharp temperature differential causes non uniform expansion followed
by base metal movement, or metal displacement if the parts being joined are
restrained. Also, the expansion of the hotter base metal (i.e., which is nearer the
welding arc) is subject to restraint, due to the resistance of comparatively colder
metal away from the welding arc. The metal nearer the arc expands more than that
away from the arc.
As the arc passes down the joint, thus removing the source of heat, the base
metal begins to cool and shrink. If the surrounding metal restrains the adjacent base
metal from contracting normally, internal stresses build up. These combine with the
stresses developed in the weld metal and increase the tendency to distort.
The volume of this adjacent base metal which contributes to distortion can be
controlled by welding procedures. Achieving higher welding speeds through the use
of powdered iron type manual electrodes and semiautomatic or fully automatic
equipment using submerged arc or self-shielded welding reduces the amount of
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
22 | P age

adjacent material that is affected by the heat of the arc and progressively decreases
distortion.
(ii) During most of the welding, filler metal is added from the electrode. The molten
filler metal and melted base metal combine to form the weld metal. Just as the weld
metal solidifies, it is in its maximum expanded state actually occupying the greatest
volume it can occupy as a solid.
Upon cooling, it attempts to contract to the volume it would normally occupy
at the lower temperature, but is restrained from doing so by the adjacent base metal.
At the time the weld reaches room temperature assuming complete restraint of the
base metal so that it cannot move the weld tends to have lockedin tensile stresses
approximately equal to the yield strength.
If one or more of the restraints are removed such as clamps holding the
workpiece the locked in stresses find partial relief by causing the base metal to move
thus deforming or distorting the weldment.
To Conclude
(i) Unequal expansion and contraction due to non-uniform (welding) heating,
restraint from within the base metal, restraint due to other structural members
joined with the base metal being welded tend to pull base metal out of original
alignment and cause distortion.
(ii) Distortion of all kinds increases with the volume of metal deposited.



Gas inclusions are a wide variety of defects that includes porosity blow holes,
and pipes (or wormholes). The underlying cause for gas inclusions is the entrapment
of gas within the solidified weld. Gas formation can be from any of the following
causes: high sulfur content in the work piece or electrode, excessive moisture from
the electrode or workpiece, too short of an arc, or wrong welding current or polarity.



Slag is formed by the reaction with fluxes, that is why this type of defect
usually occurs welding processes that use flux, such as shielded metal arc in
welding, flux-cored arc welding, and submerged arc welding. This defect usually
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
23 | P age

occurs in welds that require multiple passes and there is poor overlap between the
welds.



Lack of fusion is the poor adhesion of the weld bead to the base metal and
incomplete penetration is a weld bead that does not start at the root of the weld
groove. Incomplete penetration forms channels and crevices in the root of the weld
which can cause serious issues in pipes because corrosive substances can settle in
these areas. These types of defects occur when the welding procedures are not
adhered to; possible causes include the current setting, arc length, electrode angle,
and electrode manipulation.


Fig. 3.4 Lack of Fusion


Fig. 3.5 Incomplete Penetration


“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
24 | P age



It is generally seen at the edge of the heat affected zone . It appears as a long
and continuous visual separation line between the base metal and heat affected zone.

This is caused by the presence of the elongated inclusion such as Mn, Fe and S
in the base metal.



“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
25 | P age


























Fig. 3.7 Collection of Weld Defects: Incomplete Fusion
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
26 | P age

fig. 3.8 collection of weld defects: miscellaneous
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
27 | P age


The philosophy that often guides the fabrication of welded assemblies and
structures is "to assure weld quality." However, the term "weld quality" is relative.
The application determines what is good or bad. Generally, any weld is of good
quality if it meets appearance requirements and will continue indefinitely to do the
job for which it is intended. The first step in assuring weld quality is to determine
the degree required by the application. A standard should be established based on
the service requirements.
Standards designed to impart weld quality may differ from job to job, but the
use of appropriate examination techniques can provide assurance that the applicable
standards are being met. Whatever the standard of quality, all welds should be
inspected, even if the inspection involves nothing more than the welder looking over
his own work after each weld pass. A good-looking weld surface appearance is
many times considered indicative of high weld quality. However, surface
appearance alone does not assure good workmanship or internal quality.

Non-destructive examination (NDE) methods of inspection make it possible
to verify compliance to the standards on an on-going basis by examining the surface
and subsurface of the weld and surrounding base material. Five basic methods are
commonly used to examine finished welds: visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic
particle, ultrasonic and radiographic (X-ray). The growing use of computerization
with some methods provides added image enhancement, and allows real-time or
near real-time viewing, compare active inspections and archival capabilities. A
review of each method will help in deciding which process or combination of
processes to use for a specific job and in performing the examination most
effectively.


“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
28 | P age

Visual inspection is often the most cost-effective method, but it must take
place prior to, during and after welding. Many standards require its use before other
methods, because there is no point in submitting an obviously bad weld to
sophisticated inspection techniques. The ANSI/ AWS D1.1, Structural Welding
Code-Steel, states, "Welds subject to non-destructive examination shall have been
found acceptable by visual inspection." Visual inspection requires little equipment.
Aside from good eyesight and sufficient light, all it takes is a pocket rule, a weld size
gauge, a magnifying glass, and possibly a straight edge and square for checking
straightness, alignment and perpendicularity.

Fig. 4.1 Human Eye
Before the first welding arc is struck, materials should be examined to see if
they meet specifications for quality, type, size, cleanliness and freedom from defects.
Grease, paint, oil, oxide film or heavy scale should be removed. The pieces to be
joined should be checked for flatness, straightness and dimensional accuracy.
Likewise, alignment, fit-up and joint preparation should be examined. Finally,
process and procedure variables should be verified, including electrode size and
type, equipment settings and provisions for preheat or postheat. All of these
precautions apply regardless of the inspection method being used. During
fabrication, visual examination of a weld bead and the end crater may reveal
problems such as cracks, inadequate penetration, and gas or slag inclusions. Among
the weld detects that can be recognized visually are cracking, surface slag in
inclusions, surface porosity and undercut.
On simple welds, inspecting at the beginning of each operation and
periodically as work progresses may be adequate. Where more than one layer of
filler metal is being deposited, however, it may be desirable to inspect each layer
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
29 | P age

before depositing the next. The root pass of a multipass weld is the most critical to
weld soundness. It is especially susceptible to cracking, and because it solidifies
quickly, it may trap gas and slag. On subsequent passes, conditions caused by the
shape of the weld bead or changes in the joint configuration can cause further
cracking, as well as undercut and slag trapping. Repair costs can be minimized if
visual inspection detects these flaws before welding progresses. Visual inspection at
an early stage of production can also prevent under-welding and over-welding.
Welds that are smaller than called for in the specifications cannot be tolerated. Beads
that are too large increase costs unnecessarily and can cause distortion through
added shrinkage stress.
After welding, visual inspection can detect a variety of surface flaws,
including cracks, porosity and unfilled craters, regardless of subsequent inspection
procedures. Dimensional variances, warpage and appearance flaws, as well as weld
size characteristics, can be evaluated. Before checking for surface flaws, welds must
be cleaned of slag. Shot-blasting should not be done before examination, because the
peening action may seal fine cracks and make them invisible. The AWS D1.1
Structural Welding Code, for example, does not allow peening "on the root or
surface layer of the weld or the base metal at the edges of the weld."
Visual inspection can only locate defects in the weld surface. Specifications or
applicable codes may require that the internal portion of the weld and adjoining
metal zones also be examined. Non-destructive examinations may be used to
determine the presence of a flaw, but they cannot measure its influence on the
serviceability of the product unless they are based on a correlation between the flaw
and some characteristic that affects service. Otherwise, destructive tests are the only
sure way to determine weld serviceability.

Fig. 4.2 Visual Inspection
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
30 | P age


Radiography (X-ray) is one of the most important, versatile and widely
accepted of all the non-destructive examination methods - Fig. 4.3.

Fig. 4.3 - Radiography is one of the most important, versatile and widely
accepted examination methods.

Fig. 4.4 - Thicker areas of a specimen being x-rayed or higher density material
absorbs more radiation and the corresponding areas on the radiograph will be
lighter.
X-ray is used to determine the internal soundness of welds. The term 'X-ray
quality," widely used to indicate high quality in welds, arises from this inspection
method.
Radiography is based on the ability of X-rays and gamma rays to pass
through metal and other materials opaque to ordinary light, and produce
photographic records of the transmitted radiant energy. All materials will absorb
known amounts of this radiant energy and, therefore, X-rays and gamma rays can be
used to show discontinuities and inclusions within the opaque material. The
permanent film record of the internal conditions will show the basic information by
which weld soundness can be determined.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
31 | P age


X-rays are produced by high-voltage generators. As the high voltage applied
to an X-ray tube is increased, the wavelength of the emitted X-ray becomes shorter,
providing more penetrating power. Gamma rays are produced by the atomic
disintegration of radioisotopes. The radioactive isotopes most widely used in
industrial radiography are Cobalt 60 and Iridium 192. Gamma rays emitted from
these isotopes are similar to X-rays, except their wavelengths are usually shorter.
This allows them to penetrate to greater depths than X-rays of the same power,
however, exposure times are considerably longer due to the lower intensity. When
X-rays or gamma rays are directed at a section of weldment, not all of the radiation
passes through the metal. Different materials, depending on their density, thickness
and atomic number, will absorb different wavelengths of radiant energy.
The degree to which the different materials absorb these rays determines the
intensity of the rays penetrating through the material. When variations of these rays
are recorded, a means of seeing inside the material is available. The image on a
developed photo-sensitized film is known as a radiograph. The opaque material
absorbs a certain amount of radiation, but where there is a thin section or a void
(slag inclusion or porosity), less absorption takes place. These areas will appear
darker on the radiograph. Thicket areas of the specimen or higher density material
(tungsten inclusion), will absorb more radiation and their corresponding areas on
the radiograph will be lighter - Fig. 2.
Whether in the shop or in the field, the reliability and interpretive value of
radiographic images are a function of their sharpness and contrast. The ability of an
observer to detect a flaw depends on the sharpness of its image and its contrast with
the background. To be sure that the radiographic exposure produces acceptable
results, a gauge known as an Image Quality Indicator (IQI) is placed on the part so
that its image will be produced on the radiograph.
IQls used to determine radiographic quality are also called penetrometers. A
standard hole-type penetrometer is a rectangular piece of metal with three drilled
holes of set diameters. The thickness of the piece of metal is a percentage of the
thickness of the specimen being radiographed. The diameter of each hole is different
and is a given multiple of the penetrometer thickness. Wire-type penetrometers are
also widely used, especially outside the United States. They consist of several pieces
of wire, each of a different diameter. Sensitivity is determined by the smallest
diameter of wire that can be clearly seen on the radiograph. A penetrometer is not an
indicator or gauge to measure the size of a discontinuity or the minimum detectable
flaw size. It is an indicator of the quality of the radiographic technique. Radiographic
images are not always easy to interpret. Film-handling marks and streaks, fog and
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
32 | P age

spots caused by developing errors may make it difficult to identify defects. Such film
artifacts may mask weld discontinuities.
Surface defects will show up on the film and must be recognized. Because the
angle of exposure will also influence the radiograph, it is difficult or impossible to
evaluate fillet welds by this method. Because a radiograph compresses all the defects
that occur throughout the thickness of the weld into one plane, it tends to give an
exaggerated impression of scattered-type defects such as porosity or inclusions.
An X-ray image of the interior of a weld may be viewed on a fluorescent
screen, as well as on developed film. This makes it possible to inspect parts faster
and at lower cost, but image definition is but image definition is possible to
overcome many of the shortcomings of radiographic imaging by linking the
fluorescent screen with a video camera. Instead of waiting for film to be developed,
the images can be viewed in real time. This can improve quality and reduce costs on
production applications such as pipe welding, where a problem can be identified
and corrected quickly.
By digitizing the image and loading it into a computer, the image can be
enhanced and analysed to a degree never before possible. Multiple images can be
superimposed. Pixel values can be adjusted to change shading and contrast, bringing
out small flaws and discontinuities that would not show up on film. Colours can be
assigned to the various shades of grey to further enhance the image and make flaws
stand out better. The process of digitizing an image taken from the fluorescent
screen - having that image computer enhanced and transferred to a viewing monitor
- takes only a few seconds. However, because there is a time delay, we can no longer
consider this "real time." It is called "radioscopy imagery."
Existing films can be digitized to achieve the same results and improve the
analysis process. Another advantage is the ability to archive images on laser optical
disks, which take up far less space than vaults of old films and are much easier to
recall when needed. Industrial radiography, then, is an inspection method using X
rays and gamma rays as a penetrating medium, and densitized film as a recording
medium, to obtain a photographic record of internal quality. Generally, defects in
welds consist either of a void in the weld metal itself or an inclusion that differs in
density from the surrounding weld metal.
Radiographic equipment produces radiation that can be harmful to body
tissue in excessive amounts, so all safety precautions should be followed closely. All
instructions should be followed carefully to achieve satisfactory results. Only
personnel who are trained in radiation safety and qualified as industrial
radiographers should be permitted to do radiographic testing.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
33 | P age


Fig. 4.5 320 KV fixed X-ray Tube Fig. 4.6 Iridium 192 gamma ray source


Fig. 4.7 Onsite Darkroom ( RT )

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
34 | P age


Fig. 4.8 Stages of Automatic Inspection by Digital Radiography

Radiographic Image Acquisition :
A digitization process is normally divided into two stages: the sampling
stage, in which its spatial resolution is defined, and the quantization stage, in which
the resolution of the grey tones of the image is defined. These two stages are very
important, because they determine the level of information that the image will
contain after being digitized [6, 7, 8]. ( Fig. 4.8 )
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
35 | P age

Radiography is used when volumetric inspections are necessary to insure part
reliability. We are equipped with a portable 160 KV x-ray tube, a fixed 320 KV x-ray
tube, Iridium 192 and Cobalt 60 Gamma ray sources which provide us with a wide
range of capabilities from small electric components to 8 inches of
steel. Radiographic Testing and Industrial Radiography are Non-Destructive
Testing method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of x-
rays to penetrate various materials.
Film processing is accomplished by an automatic processor at our facility as
well as a portable darkroom when immediate results are needed in the field.


Magnetic particle inspection is a method of locating and defining
discontinuities in magnetic materials. It is excellent for detecting surface defects in
welds, including discontinuities that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, and
those that are slightly subsurface.
This method may be used to inspect plate edges prior to welding, in process
inspection of each weld pass or layer, post-weld evaluation and to inspect repairs -
Fig. 4.8.

Fig. 4.9 - Applications for Magnetic Particle Testing include inspecting plate edges
prior to welding, in process inspection of each weld-pass or layer, post weld
evaluation and repairs.
It is a good method for detecting surface cracks of all sizes in both the weld
and adjacent base metal, subsurface cracks, incomplete fusion, undercut and
inadequate penetration in the weld, as well as defects on the repaired edges of the
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
36 | P age

base metal. Although magnetic particle testing should not be a substitute for
radiography or ultrasonic for subsurface evaluations, it may present an advantage
over their methods in detecting tight cracks and surface discontinuities.
With this method, probes are usually placed on each side of the area to be
inspected, and high amperage is passed through the workplace between them. A
magnetic flux is produced at night angles to the flow of current - Fig. 4.9. When these
lines of force encounter a discontinuity, such as a longitudinal crack. They are
diverted and leak through the surface, creating magnetic poles or points of
attraction. A magnetic powder dusted onto the surface will cling to the leakage area
more tenaciously than elsewhere, forming an indication of the discontinuity.
For this indication to develop, the discontinuity must be angled against the
magnetic lines of force. Thus, when current is passed longitudinally through a
workpiece, only longitudinal flaws will show. Putting the workpiece inside a
solenoid coil will create longitudinal lines of force (Fig. 4.9) that cause transverse and
angular cracks to become visible when the magnetic powder is applied.
Although much simpler to use than radiographic inspection, the magnetic
particle method is limited to use with ferromagnetic materials and cannot be used
with austenitic steels. A joint between a base metal and a weld metal of different
magnetic characteristics will create magnetic discontinuities that may be falsely
interpreted as unsound. On the other hand a true defect can be obscured by the
powder clinging over the harmless magnetic discontinuity. Sensitivity decreases
with the size of the defect and is also less with round forms such as gas pockets. It is
best with elongated forms, such as cracks, and is limited to surface flaws and some
subsurface flaws, mostly on thinner materials.
Because the field must be distorted sufficiently to create the external leakage
required to identify flaws, the fine, elongated discontinuities, such as hairline cracks,
seams or inclusions that are parallel to the magnetic field, will not show up. They
can be developed by changing the direction of the field, and it is advisable to apply
the field from two directions, preferably at right angles to each other.
Magnetic powders may be applied dry or wet. The dry powder method is
popular for inspecting heavy weldments, while the wet method is often used in
inspecting aircraft components. Dry powder is dusted uniformly over the work with
a spray gun, dusting bag or atomizer. The finely divided magnetic particles are
coated to increase their mobility and are available in grey, black and red colours to
improve visibility. In the wet method, very fine red or black particles are suspended
in water or light petroleum distillate. This can be flowed or sprayed on, or the part
may be dipped into the liquid. The wet method is more sensitive than the dry
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
37 | P age

method, because it allows the use of finer particles that can detect exceedingly fine
defects. Fluorescent powders may be used for further sensitivity and are especially
useful for locating discontinuities in corners, keyways, splines and deep holes.
On Ferro-magnetic materials, magnetic particle can detect surface flaws that
would not be seen visually. Particles can be of the wet or dry variety in both visible
and florescent types. Through use of coils, prods, head shots, and hand yokes, this
method can be used on a wide variety of parts in both field and shop environments.
Magnaflux is a method of testing ferromagnetic materials using Magnetic
Particles to detect surface and sub-surface flaws.

Fig. 4.10 Wet Fluorescent MT weld indications

Fig. 4.11 4000 amp MT machine
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
38 | P age


Surface cracks and pinholes that are not visible to the naked eye can be
located by liquid penetrant inspection. It is widely used to locate leaks in welds and
can be applied with austenitic steels and nonferrous materials where magnetic
particle inspection would be useless.
Liquid penetrant inspection is often referred to as an extension of the visual
inspection method. Many standards, such as the AWS D1.1 Code, say that "welds
subject to liquid penetrant testing shall be evaluated on the basis of the requirements
for visual inspection."

Fig. 4.12 - Dye penetrant inspection is similar to liquid penetrant inspection except
vividly colour dyes visible under ordinary light are used.
Two types of penetrating liquids are used - fluorescent and visible dye. With
fluorescent penetrant inspection, a highly fluorescent liquid with good penetrating
qualities is applied to the surface of the part to be examined. Capillary action draws
the liquid into the surface openings, and the excess is then removed. A "developer" is
used to draw the penetrant to the surface, and the resulting indication is viewed by
ultraviolet (black) light. The high contrast between the fluorescent material and the
object makes it possible to detect minute traces of penetrant that indicate surface
defects.
Dye penetrant inspection is similar, except that vividly colored dyes visible
under ordinary light are used - Fig 4. Normally, a white developer is used with the
dye penetrants that creates a sharply contrasting background to the vivid dye colour.
This allows greater portability by eliminating the need for ultraviolet light.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
39 | P age

The part to be inspected must be clean and dry, because any foreign matter
could close the cracks or pinholes and exclude the penetrant. Penetrants can be
applied by dipping, spraying or brushing, but sufficient time must be allowed for
the liquid to be fully absorbed into the discontinuities. This may take an hour or
more in very exacting work.
Liquid penetrant inspection is widely used for leak detection. A common
procedure is to apply fluorescent material to one side of a joint, wait an adequate
time for capillary action to take place, and then view the other side with ultraviolet
light. In thin-walled vessels, this technique will identify leaks that ordinarily would
not be located by the usual air test with pressures of 5-20 Ib/ in
2
. When wall
thickness exceeLiquid Penetrant ds 1/ 4 in., however, sensitivity of the leak test
decreases.


Fig. 4.13 Visible PT Indication Fig. 4.14 Fluorescent PT Indication

On Non-Magnetic Materials, liquid penetrant can detect surface flaws that
would not be seen visually. Penetrant can be of the visible or fluorescent variety in
both water washable and solvent removable types. This method can be used on a
wide variety of parts in both field and shop environments. is a low cost inspection
method where a Penetrant may be applied by dipping, spraying or brushing, to
locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
40 | P age


Ultrasonic Inspection is a method of detecting discontinuities by directing a
high-frequency sound beam through the base plate and weld on a predictable path.
When the sound beam's path strikes an interruption in the material continuity, some
of the sound is reflected back. The sound is collected by the instrument, amplified
and displayed as a vertical trace on a video screen - Fig. 4.15.

Fig. 4.15 - Ultrasonic inspection detects discontinuities both on and
below the weld surface. Compact, portable equipment makes it easy to use in
the field.
Both surface and subsurface defects in metals can be detected, located and
measured by ultrasonic inspection, including flaws too small to be detected by other
methods.
The ultrasonic unit contains a crystal of quartz or other piezoelectric material
encapsulated in a transducer or probe. When a voltage is applied, the crystal vibrates
rapidly. As an ultrasonic transducer is held against the metal to be inspected, it
imparts mechanical vibrations of the same frequency as the crystal through a couplet
material into the base metal and weld. These vibrational waves are propagated
through the material until they reach a discontinuity or change in density. At these
points, some of the vibrational energy is reflected back. As the current that causes
the vibration is shut off and on at 60-1000 times per second, the quartz crystal
intermittently acts as a receiver to pick up the reflected vibrations. These cause
pressure on the crystal and generate an electrical current. Fed to a video screen, this
current produces vertical deflections on the horizontal base line. The resulting
pattern on the face of the tube represents the reflected signal and the discontinuity.
Compact portable ultrasonic equipment is available for field inspection and is
commonly used on bridge and structural work.
Ultrasonic testing is less suitable than other NDE methods for determining
porosity in welds, because round gas pores respond to ultrasonic tests as a series of
single-point reflectors. This results in low-amplitude responses that are easily
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
41 | P age

confused with "base line noise" inherent with testing parameters. However, it is the
preferred test method for detecting plainer-type discontinuities and lamination.
Portable ultrasonic equipment is available with digital operation and
microprocessor controls. These instruments may have built-in memory and can
provide hard-copy printouts or video monitoring and recording. They can be
interfaced with computers, which allow further analysis, documentation and
archiving, much as with radiographic data. Ultrasonic examination requires expert
interpretation from highly skilled and extensively trained personnel.

Fig. 4.16 Ultrasonic Flaw Detector
Ultrasonic testing can be used to detect defects such as cracks, laminations,
shrinkage cavities, gas holes, slag inclusions, incomplete fusion, incomplete
penetration and lack of bond in a wide variety of materials. Ultrasonic thickness
testing is also a widely used application to determine integrity of the material in
service. By using high frequency sound waves, Ultrasonic Testing helps in Thickness
Testing.

Fig. 4.17 Digital Thickness Gauge
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
42 | P age


This module is intended to present information on the NDT method of eddy
current inspection. Eddy current inspection is one of several methods that use the
principal of “electromagnetism” as the basis for conducting examinations. Several
other methods such as Remote Field Testing (RFT). Eddy current inspection is used
extensively to inspect tubing at power generation and petrochemical facilities for
corrosion and erosion.
Although not as widely utilized as the other methods, eddy current can be
used to detect defects, sort material, test thickness and test conductivity on a wide
variety of materials. Chiller system tubing is easily tested using this method. Eddy
Current inspection is used to locate defects in non-ferrous tubing. Primary
applications include chilled water units, turbine condensers, Welding Inspection,
and material sorting.
Crack Detection :

Crack detection is one of the primary uses of eddy current inspection. Cracks
cause a disruption in the circular flow patterns of the eddy currents and weaken
their strength. This change in strength at the crack location can be detected.


Fig. 4.18 Eddy Current Inspection

Multi-Frequency Eddy Current Instruments :

Multi-Frequency instruments usually refer to equipment that can drive
inspection coils at more than two frequencies either sequentially (multiplexing) or
simultaneously. This type of instrumentation is used extensively for tubing
inspection in the power generation, chemical and petrochemical industries.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
43 | P age

These instruments are often capable of being computer networked and may
have as many as four probes attached to them at one time.


Fig. 4.19 Multi Frequency Eddy Current Instruments


Advantages of Eddy Current Inspection :
• Sensitive to small cracks and other defects
• Detects surface and near surface defects
• Inspection gives immediate results
• Equipment is very portable
• Method can be used for much more than flaw detection
• Minimum part preparation is required
• Test probe does not need to contact the part
• Inspects complex shapes and sizes of conductive materials

Limitations of Eddy Current Inspection :
• Only conductive materials can be inspected
• Surface must be accessible to the probe
• Skill and training required is more extensive than other techniques
• Surface finish and and roughness may interfere
• Reference standards needed for setup
• Depth of penetration is limited
• Flaws such as delaminations that lie parallel to the probe coil winding and
probe scan direction are undetectable

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
44 | P age



ABC Testing Inc. employs the latest in Leak Testing Technology to protect
your vessel. We use Vacuum Box Testing to locate the leaks at the bottom of tanks or
other vessels. The practice of Vacuum Box Testing is commonly used during Ship
Hull Inspections to detect leaks.
If leaks were to go untreated, they could cause millions of dollars worth of
damages. What Hydrostatic Testing allows us to do is apply liquid pressure within
the structure.



Fig. 4.20 Vacuum Box




During their service lives many industrial components need Non-Destructive
Testing for welding defects to detect damage that could cause a structure to break or
a pipeline to rupture.

ABC Testing Inc. has the capability and expertise to qualify welding
procedures to most commercial and military codes. Our certified inspectors conduct
Welding Inspections for steel, aluminum, specialized metals like Inconel, Monel,
NiAlBrz, and many other alloys.

All welding procedures must comply with safety and quality codes. Only
certified and experienced inspectors can run tests to detect defects.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
45 | P age

By using a x-ray florescence technique a wide variety of ferrous and non-
ferrous materials can be identified. Most alloy elements can be seen with
concentrations of each element found.. Steel, stainless steel, aluminum, nickel based,
copper based and titanium materials can be identified. Equipment is sensitive
enough to reliably sort whether the alloy is 316 or 321 stainless steel. Positive
Material Identification is an NDT method which enables accurate determination of
chemical properties of various ferrous and non ferrous materials. It does not have
the ability to determine Carbon and Sulfur content of ferrous materials.



Fig. 4.21 PMI Instrument

“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
46 | P age



Hydrostatic testing is used to check for leaks, proof pressure, and burst
pressure. Equipment in house is capable of producing 42,000 PSI. Hydrostatic
Testing and Pressure Testing helps locate leaks in pressure vessels.




Fig. 4.22 Hydro Pump and digital pressure gauge






Trained ground penetrating radar operators provide high resolution images
of sub-surface objects without harmful radiation or worksite interruptions.
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method
of collecting high resolution sub-surface data. With ABC Testing Inc. you can rest
easy knowing that your worksite operations are uninterrupted as setup and take
down are fairly quick. In addition, there is no harmful radiation that will affect your
personnel or the environment.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
47 | P age

Cutting and coring experts, construction and maintenance professionals
require a reliable, non-destructive means to locate metal work within concrete
structures before drilling, cutting or coring. Drilling into a metal pipe or rebar can
lead to significant structural damage. GPR of concrete is an accurate rebar locator
that can help you avoid these expensive mistakes.



Fig. 4.23 Ground penetrating radar (GPR)






Radiography is used when volumetric inspections are necessary to insure part
reliability. We have added Digital Imaging capabilities to enhance inspection
needs. The "x-ray" is now captured on a plate which is scanned and digitized by
computer. This enables us to instantly share files with many individuals by email,
CD, DVD and/ or flash memory.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
48 | P age



Fig. 4.24 Digital Imaging Inspection







Fig. 4.25 Display of Digital Imaging Machine
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
49 | P age




Fig. 4.26 Flashlight
Fig. 4.27 Magnifying Glass
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
50 | P age


Fig. 4.28 Digital Welding Gauge



Fig. 4.29 Weld Undercut Gauge
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
51 | P age

Fig. 4.30 Bridge Cam Gauge
Fig. 4.31 Automatic Weld Size Gauge
Fig. 4.32 Single Weld Gauge
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
52 | P age


Table 1 – Reference Guide to Major Methods for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds
Inspection
Method
Equipment
Required
Enables
Detector of
Advantages Limitations Remarks
Visual Magnifying
glass Weld
sizing gauge
Pocket rule
Straight edge
Workmanship
standards
Surface flaws -
cracks,
porosity,
unfilled
craters, slag
inclusions
Warpage,
underwelding,
overwelding,
poorly formed
beads,
misalignments,
improper fitup
Low cost.
Can be
applied
while work
is in process,
permitting
correction of
faults. Gives
indication of
incorrect
procedures.
Applicable to
surface
defects only.
Provides no
permanent
record.
Should always
be the primary
method of
inspection, no
matter what
other techniques
are required. Is
the only
"productive"
type of
inspection. Is the
necessary
function of
everyone who in
any way
contributes to
the making of
the weld.
Radiographic Commercial
X-ray or
gamma units
made
especially for
inspecting
welds,
castings and
forgings. Film
and
processing
facilities.
Interior
macroscopic
flaws - cracks,
porosity, blow
holes, non-
metallic
inclusions,
incomplete
root
penetration,
undercutting,
icicles, and
When the
indications
are recorded
on film,
gives a
permanent
record.
When
viewed on a
fluoroscopic
screen, a
low-cost
Requires skill
in choosing
angles of
exposure,
operating
equipment,
and
interpreting
indications.
Requires
safety
precautions.
X-ray inspection
is required by
many codes and
specifications.
Useful in
qualification of
welders and
welding
processes.
Because of cost,
its use should be
limited to those
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
53 | P age

Fluoroscopic
viewing
equipment.
burnthrough. method of
internal
inspection
Not generally
suitable for
fillet weld
inspection.
areas where
other methods
will not provide
the assurance
required.
Magnetic
Particle
Special
commercial
equipment.
Magnetic
powders - dry
or wet form;
may be
fluorescent
for viewing
under
ultraviolet
light.
Excellent for
detecting
surface
discontinuities-
especially
surface cracks.
Simpler to
use than
radiographic
inspection.
Permits
controlled
sensitivity.
Relatively
low-cost
method.
Applicable to
ferromagnetic
materials
only.
Requires skill
in
interpretation
of indications
and
recognition of
irrelevant
patterns.
Difficult to
use on rough
surfaces.
Elongated
defects parallel
to the magnetic
field may not
give pattern; for
this reason the
field should be
applied from
two directions at
or near right
angles to each
other.
Liquid
Penetrant
Commercial
kits
containing
fluorescent or
dye
penetrants
and
developers.
Application
equipment for
the developer.
A source of
ultraviolet
light - if
fluorescent
method is
used.
Surface cracks
not readily visi
ble to the
unaided eye.
Excellent for
locating leaks
in weldments.
Applicable
to magnetic
and
nonmagnetic
materials.
Easy to use.
Low cost.
Only surface
defects are
detectable.
Cannot be
used
effectively on
hot
assemblies.
In thin-walled
vessels will
reveal leaks not
ordinarily
located by usual
air tests.
irrelevant
surface
conditions
(smoke, slag)
may give
misleading
indications.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
54 | P age

Ultrasonic Special
commercial
equipment,
either of the
pulse-echo or
transmission
type.
Standard
reference
patterns for
interpretation
of RF or video
patterns.
Surface and
subsurface
flaws
including
those too small
to be detected
by other
methods.
Especially for
detecting
subsurface
lamination-like
defects.
Very
sensitive.
Permits
probing of
joints
inaccessible
to
radiography.
Requires high
degree of
skill in
interpreting
pulse-echo
patterns.
Permanent
record is not
readily
obtained.
Pulse-echo
equipment is
highly
developed for
weld inspection
purposes.
The
transmission-
type equipment
simplifies
pattern
interpretation
where it is
applicable.

A good NDE inspection program must recognize the inherent limitations of
each process. For example, both radiography and ultrasound have distinct
orientation factors that may guide the choice of which process to use for a particular
job. Their strengths and weaknesses tend to complement each other. While
radiography is unable to reliably detect lamination-like defects, ultrasound is much
better at it. On the other hand, ultrasound is poorly suited to detecting scattered
porosity, while radiography is very good.
Whatever inspection techniques are used, paying attention to the "Five P's" of
weld quality will help reduce subsequent inspection to a routine checking activity.
Then, the proper use of NDE methods will serve as a check to keep variables in line
and weld quality within standards.
The Five P's are
1. Process Selection: The process must be right for the job.
2. Preparation: The joint configuration must be right and compatible with the
welding process.
3. Procedures: The procedures must be spelled out in detail and followed
religiously during welding.
4. Pretesting: Full-scale mock-ups or simulated specimens should be used to
prove that the process and procedures give the desired standard of quality.
5. Personnel: Qualified people must be assigned to the job.
“WELDING DEFECT PREDICTION IN STEAM PIPES OF THERMAL POWER PLANT” BBPP
55 | P age



 www.weldtechnology.com/home/
 http://www.ndt.net/index.html
 www.wikipedia.com/ definitions-of-weldind-defect.html
 http://www.abcndt.com/index.html
 http://www.altec-ndt.com/Default.aspx
 http://subhankar4students.blogspot.in/
 Welding Process (Chapter-7) By book of M.I.Vora
 http:/ / rahulmansapatel_project.blogspot.in/
 http://www.ndt.net/article/0698/hayes/hayes.htm#1
 www.weldingprocess.net/defects.html
 www.welding-consultant.com/ wjm-technologies.html










Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful