IUNIE 2013 Contents

Chapter I. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 1 I.1 Industrial Revolution ........................................................................................................................... 2 I.2 Changes That Led to the Revolution .................................................................................................... 3 Chapter II. Expanding Commerce Affects Industry ....................................................................................... 4 II.1 Organizing Production ........................................................................................................................ 5 II.2 From Cottage Industry to Factory ....................................................................................................... 5 Chapter III. Why the Revolution Began in England ....................................................................................... 6 III.1 Inventions in Textile Industry ............................................................................................................. 7 III.2 Watt's Steam Engine .......................................................................................................................... 8 III.3 Coal and Iron ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Chapter IV.Changing Conditions in England ................................................................................................. 9 IV.1 Building Canals and Railways ............................................................................................................. 9 IV.2 The Condition of Labor .................................................................................................................... 10 IV.3 Problems of Capital and Labor......................................................................................................... 11 IV.5 Revolution Spreads to the United States......................................................................................... 12 IV.6 Pioneer Industries and Inventions ................................................................................................... 13 Chapter V. Second Industrial Revolution .................................................................................................... 14 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....17 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….18

Productivity began a spectacular climb. They had to spend long. 1 . The energy. or power. People of ancient and medieval times had no such products. The Industrial Revolution is the name given the movement in which machines changed people's way of life as well as their methods of manufacture. robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. From Britain the Industrial Revolution spread gradually throughout Europe and to the United States. About the time of the American Revolution. they employed in work came almost wholly from their own and animals' muscles. A little later they invented locomotives. By 1850 most Englishmen were laboring in industrial towns and Great Britain had become the workshop of the world. the people of England began to use machines to make cloth and steam engines to run the machines. Introduction I have chosen the subject because it was in this period that modern Political Economy took its rise. tedious hours of hand labor even on simple objects. by people (and sometimes.Chapter I. Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production.

and plate metal cheaply. in the west of the country. buckles. The heavy emphasis on the Protestant work ethic led to Quakers such as John Cadbury (1801–89) and others like Josiah 2 . Other pioneers during the Industrial Revolution in Britain included Thomas Telford. became involved in improving the production of iron.1 Industrial Revolution The term Industrial Revolution has been used to describe the most extensive change the world has ever experienced.I. which generated much more power using far less fuel than before. and with coke iron being used to increase the production of iron and then steel. This led to the building of ironworks. as well as improving its quality. It was coined by English philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806–73) but brought into popular use by English historian Arnold Toynbee (1889–1975). in some parts of England. who invented the miner’s safety lamp in 1815. much of the work that had been done by human hands for centuries was performed by machines. which were faster and more efficient than humans could ever be. and in 1775 James Watt started to develop his first steam engine. The Industrial Revolution is said to have actually started in England during the early 18th century when Abraham Darby at Madeley. there were also many industrialists who exhibited a strong social conscience. The most significant aspect of the Industrial Revolution was that it changed much of the world from a collection of separate agrarian communities into interconnected industrialized cities. and later steelworks. in Shropshire. and others. By 1770 there were over 170 steam engines being used in various industries around Britain. it actually continued into the 20th century in parts of the world and continues to evolve in developing nations into the 21st century. with Richard Arkwright developing water-driven mills (although others have claimed to have invented them). In the process. Although there was extensive use of child labor and exploitation of the poor. with charcoal use being phased out. There were also major developments in the textile industry. who worked with canals and locks. Much of this development took place close to the coalfields in the Midlands and also in the north of England. Artisan riots led to the smashing of machines in the Luddite attacks. While many scholars accept 1760–1850 as the official period in which the Industrial Revolution took place. and Humphrey Davy. with the result that large wool and cotton mills were built in Lancashire. Watt’s design helped manufacturers such as Matthew Boulton produce buttons.

for example. when measured against the centuries people had worked entirely by hand. radios.Wedgwood (1730–95) and William Lever (1851–1925) introducing medical care. Until John Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and James Hargreaves the spinning jenny 31 years later. the Industrial Revolution grew more powerful each year as new inventions and manufacturing processes added to the efficiency of machines and increased productivity. however. It is almost impossible to imagine what the world would be like if the effects of the Industrial Revolution were swept away. and shelter for all. I. and (3) the adoption of the factory system. pensions. (2) the use of steam. and later of other kinds of power. It happened in a short span of time. and profit-sharing for employees. 3 . This relatively sudden change in the way people live deserves to be called a revolution. Telephones. clothing. Instead. did the French Revolution. Indeed. Before machines were invented. Automobiles and airplanes would vanish. The Industrial Revolution came gradually. and television would disappear Most of the abundant stocks on the shelves of department stores would be gone.2 Changes That Led to the Revolution The most important of the changes that brought about the Industrial Revolution were (1) the invention of machines to do the work of hand tools. It differs from a political revolution in its greater effects on the lives of people and in not coming to an end. as. By 1800 a host of new and faster processes were in use in both manufacture and transportation. The children of the poor would have little or no schooling and would work from dawn to dark on the farm or in the home. in place of the muscles of human beings and of animals. who were often provided with company housing. work by children as well as by adults was needed in order to provide enough food. since World War I the mechanization of industry has increased so enormously that another revolution in production is taking place. Electric lights would go out. the making of yarn and the weaving of cloth had been much the same for thousands of years.

By 1750 large quantities of goods were being exchanged among the European nations. America was discovered. Larger ships were built. Money had to be available before machinery and steam engines could come into wide use for they were costly to manufacture and install. and there was a demand for more goods than were being produced. as much of the earlier trade had been. more money was needed.Chapter II. world commerce grew and changed so greatly that writers sometimes use the term "commercial revolution" to describe the economic progress of the next three and a half centuries. 4 . Sometimes one is ahead and sometimes the other. and the manufacture of cloth was its leading industry. and flourishing cities grew up. Beginning in about 1400. New trade routes were opened. Trading firms. With the expansion of trade. England was the leading commercial nation. Banks and credit systems developed. The strong central governments which replaced the feudal system began to protect and help their merchants. but the one behind is always trying to catch up. By the end of the 17th century Europe had a large accumulation of capital. The Crusades opened up the riches of the East to Western Europe. Expanding Commerce Affects Industry Commerce and industry have always been closely related. were chartered by governments. Many factors helped bring about this revolution in trade. such as the British East India Company. and European nations began to acquire rich colonies there and elsewhere. Large-scale commerce could not be carried on by barter. Gold and silver from the New World helped meet this need.

These country weavers could manufacture the cloth more cheaply than city craftsmen could because they got part of their living from their gardens or small farms. The merchants would then collect the cloth and give it out again to finishers and dyers. Another term is cottage industry. were limited and costly. as they had done for centuries. such as the nail. 5 . As early as the 15th century they already had begun to go outside the cities. Thus they controlled clothmaking from start to finish. In country districts families produced most of the food.1 Organizing Production Several systems of making goods had grown up by the time of the Industrial Revolution. for instance. The merchants needed cheaper items. would buy raw wool from the sheep owners. Similar methods of organizing and controlling the process of manufacture came to prevail in other industries. clothing. for their growing trade. and to establish another system of producing goods. and take it to country weavers to be made into textiles. In the cities merchandise was made in shops much like those of the medieval craftsmen. and other articles they used. and manufacturing was strictly regulated by the guilds and by the government. II. Some writers call this the putting-out system. and leather goods. as well as larger quantities. for most of the workers belonged to the class of farm laborers known as cotters and carried on the work in their cottages. Others call it the domestic system because the work was done in the home ("domestic" comes from the Latin word for home). beyond the reach of the hampering regulations. The goods made in these shops. have it spun into yarn by farmers' wives.2 From Cottage Industry to Factory Cloth merchants.II. though of high quality. cutlery.

A cheaper system of production had grown up which was largely free from regulation. Another was the doctrine of laissezfaire. One was the crude. 6 . Earlier in the century. It provided employment for every member of a craft worker's family and gave jobs to skilled workers who had no capital to start businesses for themselves. first set up by Lewis Paul and John Wyatt (1741). though they bear slight resemblance to the factories of today. It also enabled him to order the particular kinds of items that he needed for his markets. Their invention was not commercially practical. The most important of the machines that ushered in the Industrial Revolution were invented in the last third of the 18th century. but it was the first step toward solving the problem of machine spinning. however. The second was John Kay's flying shuttle (1733). A few merchants who had enough capital had gone a step further. This doctrine had been growing in favor throughout the 18th century. Why the Revolution Began in England English merchants were leaders in developing a commerce which increased the demand for more goods. Now many Englishmen had come to believe that it was better to let business be regulated by the free play of supply and demand rather than by laws.This system of industry had several advantages over older systems. The expansion in trade had made it possible to accumulate capital to use in industry. For centuries the craft guilds and the government had controlled commerce and industry down to the smallest detail. which was used to pump water out of mines. It enabled one person to handle a wide loom more rapidly than two persons could operate it before. The third was a frame for spinning cotton thread with rollers. or letting business alone. These establishments were factories. There also were new ideas in England which aided the movement. Chapter III. It was especially popular after the British economist Adam Smith argued powerfully for it in his great work 'The Wealth of Nations' (1776). They brought workers together under one roof and supplied them with spinning wheels and looms or with the implements of other trades. It gave the merchant a large supply of manufactured articles at a low price. slow-moving steam engine built by Thomas Newcomen (1705). One of these was the growing interest in scientific investigation and invention. three inventions had been made which opened the way for the later machines. Thus the English government for the most part kept its hands off and left business free to adopt the new inventions and the methods of production which were best suited to them.

the hand weavers violently opposed its adoption because it threw many of them out of work. Second. It was not well adapted to the making of some woolens. James Hargreaves. Thus they rioted. it became the practice to install them in mills. First. Many other machines contributed to the progress of the textile industry. It produced thread of greater fineness and strength than the jenny or the roller frame. Since the roller frame and the mule were large and heavy. These improvements in spinning machinery called for further improvements in weaving. patented his spinning jenny in 1770. It made successive impressions of a design "join up" and did the work more rapidly and more cheaply. Jacquard. This was a great improvement on block printing. In 1793 the available supply of cotton was increased by Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin.M.1 Inventions in Textile Industry As the flying shuttle sped up weaving. In 1779 Samuel Crompton. The power loom was only coming into wide operation in the cotton industry by 1813. and tried to prevent their use. In 1785 Thomas Bell of Glasgow invented cylinder printing of cotton goods. As late as 1880 many hand looms were still in use for weaving woolen cloth. called a mule. a weaver who was also a carpenter. the demand for cotton yarn increased. Many inventors set to work to improve the spinning wheel. It enabled one worker to run eight spindles instead of one. Those who got jobs in the factories were obliged to take the same pay as unskilled workers. where they could be run by water power.III. a Frenchman. combined Hargreaves' jenny and Arkwright's roller frame into a spinning machine. a spinner. weaving machinery came into use very slowly. In spite of the need for it. many improvements had to be made before the loom was satisfactory. It did not completely replace the hand loom in weaving cotton until 1850. In 1785 Edmund Cartwright patented a power loom. They were tended by women and children. In 1804 J. About the same time Richard Arkwright developed his water frame. perfected a loom on which 7 . smashed the machines. a machine for spinning with rollers operated by water power.

it was possible to locate factories in more convenient places. When the steam engine became efficient. which became available to everyone. after three generations of effort. Finally the Darby family. was asked to repair a model of a Newcomen steam engine. This loom was later adapted to the making of lace. They were destined to be basic industries in the new age of machinery.patterns might be woven in fabrics by mechanical means. Hand in hand with the adoption of the new inventions went the rapid development of the factory system of manufacture. These were necessarily situated on swift-running streams. Wheels turned by running water had been the chief source of power for the early factories. Ironmasters had long been experimenting with coal as a fuel for smelting. progress was being made in other directions. III. succeeded with coal that had been transformed into coke. This created a new demand for coal and laid the foundation for the British coal industry. Puddling produced nearly pure malleable iron. a Scottish mechanic.2 Watt's Steam Engine While textile machinery was developing.3 Coal and Iron The first users of steam engines were the coal and iron industries. In coal mines they pumped out the water which usually flooded the deep shafts. Iron was scarce and costly. 8 . III. In the iron industry they pumped water to create the draft in blast furnaces. In 1763 James Watt. and production was falling off because England's forests could not supply enough charcoal for smelting the ore. The iron industry benefited also from other early inventions of the 18th century. As early as 1720 many steam engines were in operation. He saw how crude and inefficient it was and by a series of improvements made it a practical device for running machinery. The next great steps were taken in the 1780s. when Henry Cort developed the processes of puddling and rolling.

better transportation was needed. IV. A canalboat held much more than a wagon. at times the markets were glutted with more goods than could be sold. In some places. They marked the beginning of modern transportation on 9 . an American invention. where it was impossible to dig canals and where heavy loads of coal had to be hauled. With English factories calling for supplies. carrying small loads. Similar improvements were being made in other lines of industry. The worker at a machine with 100 spindles on it could spin 100 threads of cotton more rapidly than 100 workers could on the old spinning wheels. Early in the 19th century came George Stephenson's locomotive and Robert Fulton's steamboat.Chapter IV. The roads of England were wretchedly poor and often impassable. Here again the need produced the invention. Then mills were closed and workers were thrown out of employment. such as American cotton. Packhorses and wagons crawled along them. with a single horse hitched to the towline. It moved smoothly if slowly over the water. and sending goods to all parts of the world. On the contrary. This machine could do the job of 50 men in cleaning cotton. British merchants no longer found it a problem to obtain enough goods to supply their markets. They connected the main rivers and so furnished a network of waterways for transporting coal and other heavy goods. Such slow and inadequate transportation kept the cost of goods high. Thomas Telford and John MacAdam each developed a method of road construction better than any that had been known since the ancient Romans built their famous roads.1 Building Canals and Railways Many canals were dug.Changing Conditions in England The new methods increased the amount of goods produced and decreased the cost. On these early railroads one horse could haul as much coal as 20 horses could on ordinary roads. Southern planters in the United States were able to meet the increased demand for raw cotton because they were using the cotton gin. mine owners laid down wooden or iron rails.

When they saw themselves being forced into factories to do other men's bidding for the same pay as unskilled workers. The change from domestic industry to the factory system meant a loss of independence to the worker. They had been independent masters. When he became a factory employee. Cities grew rapidly. IV.land and sea. but he had to leave his little farm. Railroads called for the production of more goods. were not so welcome. For one thing. fewer people died in infancy or childhood and the average length of life increased. 10 . Because of progress in medical knowledge and sanitation. and the percentage of farmers in the total population declined.2 The Condition of Labor As conditions in industry changed. often in a crowded slum district. however. Farm laborers and artisans flocked to the manufacturing centers and became industrial workers. for they put factory-made products within reach of many more people at prices they could afford to pay. Some of the other changes. The change was particularly hard on the weavers and the other skilled workers who sank to the position of factory workers. The home laborer could work whenever he pleased. The population of England as a whole began to increase rapidly after the middle of the 18th century. and managers of their own businesses. The vast majority of the jobs were held by them by 1816. he could vary the monotony of his task by digging or planting his garden patch. capitalists in a small way. machines took a great burden of hard work from the muscles of human beings. social and political conditions changed with them. it is no wonder that they rioted and broke up looms. he not only had to work long hours. They had pride in their skill. He lived near the factory. The long hours and the monotonous toil were an especially great hardship for the women and children. Far-reaching changes were gradually brought about in the life of the industrial workers. He was forced to work continuously at the pace set by the machine. Although the need for money often drove him to toil long hours.

and housing conditions. and they could be hired for less pay. currency. railroads. Great numbers of them were worked form 12 to 14 hours a day under terrible conditions. Children could tend most of the machines as well as older persons could. The men who controlled these enterprises formed a powerful new class in England--the industrial capitalists. and steamships and in developing foreign trade. They had many difficulties in organizing their factories to run efficiently. Those who were successful made huge profits with which to buy more machines. Many were apprenticed to the factory owners and housed in miserable dormitories. and credit. accidents. They also had to make a profit on their investments in the face of intense competition. The capitalists had a struggle to obtain a voice in the government.3 Problems of Capital and Labor A person had to have a lot of capital to buy machines and open a factory. Thus capital increased far more rapidly than it ever had before. Much of it was invested in building canals.4 Rise of Labor Unions 11 . They had to find and hold markets for their products. Factory owners could therefore arrange working conditions in whatever way they pleased.IV. The high death rate of these child slaves eventually roused Parliament to pass laws limiting the daily toil for apprentices. Ill-fed and ill-clothed. wages. employment of women and children. Laissez-faire was the rule in England. Grave problems arose for the workers-problems of working hours. and purchase supplies in greater quantities at enormous savings. put up larger buildings. They needed a better system of banking. IV. unemployment. they were sometimes driven under the lash of the overseer. This meant that the government had accepted the doctrine that it should keep hands off business.

These unions often started as "friendly societies" that collected dues from workers and extended aid during illness or unemployment. however. more American investors began to build factories. The struggle by workers to win the right to vote and to extend their political power was one of the major factors in the spread of democracy during the 19th century. English laws forbade export of either the new machinery or plans for making it. however. They fought such legislation as the English laws of 1799 and 1800 forbidding labor organizations. An employee of Arkwright's spinning mills. When peace came France began to follow England. however. 12 . When the Napoleonic wars and the War of 1812 upset commerce and made English products difficult to obtain.. Such capital as existed was largely invested in shipping and commerce. clearing the forests and establishing themselves on the land. Slater came to the United States in 1789. River. or Seekonk. Slater designed the machine from memory and built a mill which started operation in 1790. Labor was scarce because men continued to push westward. and has never devoted itself as exclusively to manufacturing as England has. Farming and trading were its chief interests until the Civil War. they became organizations for winning improvements by collective bargaining and strikes. The United States too was slow in adopting machine methods of manufacture. The new nation had little capital with which to buy the machinery and put up the buildings required. I. The other European countries made little progress until the second half of the 19th century. They campaigned to secure laws which would help them. IV. Industrial workers also sought to benefit themselves by political action. It followed slowly.Workers sought to win improved conditions and wages through labor unions. Belgium was ahead of France in adopting the new methods. A start in manufacturing. He was hired by Moses Brown of Providence.5 Revolution Spreads to the United States Until 1815 France was busy with the Napoleonic wars. It had little opportunity to introduce machinery. to build a mill on the Pawtucket. Soon. was made in New England in 1790 by Samuel Slater. R.

His mechanical reaper. Techniques of factory production were refined in American workshops.6 Pioneer Industries and Inventions New England soon developed an important textile industry." and it was admired by all other industrial nations. tools. Shoemaking was organized into a factory system of production in Massachusetts in the early 19th century. Engineers quickly adopted the new engine and used it to power locomotives and steamboats. Oliver Evans designed a steam engine more powerful than that of James Watt. Eli Whitney led the movement to standardize parts used in manufacture. New England was the first area in the United States to industrialize. It was first applied to the manufacture of firearms and later spread to other industries like clock and lock making. American inventors produced many new machines that could be applied to industry as well as to agriculture. enabling unskilled workers to assemble products from boxes of parts quickly. In Pennsylvania iron for machines. 13 . Mass. The first practical power loom was installed at Waltham. They became interchangeable. Spinning machines driven by steam were operating in New York by 1810. plentiful in this forested land. Cyrus McCormick invented several machines used to mechanize farming. and guns was smelted in stone furnaces.IV. patented in 1834. They burned charcoal. which kept cotton and wool fibers in condition for spinning and weaving. This was called the "American system of manufacturing. by Francis Cabot Lowell in 1814. Elias Howe's sewing machine eased the life of the housewife and made the manufacture of clothing less expensive. making it quicker and easier. American factories used machine tools to make parts.. These machines were arranged in lines for more efficient production. It had swift streams for power and a humid climate. revolutionized harvesting.

These companies were based in Germany and the United States but sold their goods all over the world. The size of factories increased rapidly. chemicals. The steel and chemical industries used new technology that greatly increased production. These new industries were larger and more productive than any industries existing before. They bought out competitors and acquired sources of raw materials and retail outlets. Second Industrial Revolution The machines of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and early 19th centuries were simple. employing more workers and using more machinery. These industries integrated all stages of production under a single corporate structure. Edison introduced a system of electric lighting in New York City. Africa. Corporations such as 14 . and petroleum benefited from new understandings of chemistry. Electric lighting quickly spread across the United States and was soon adopted in Europe. and important advances were made in the system of mass production. New scientific knowledge was applied to industry as scientists and engineers unlocked the secrets of physics and chemistry. Companies like Westinghouse and General Electric helped to electrify cities in Europe. Many new products were devised. breakthroughs in the study of electricity and magnetism provided the basis for a large electrical industry. and by the end of the 19th century they were challenging Great Britain in the world market for industrial goods. Great new industries were founded on this scientific advance: steel. Germany and the United States became the leaders. They were the first multinational companies. The age of electricity began in 1882 when Thomas A. mechanical devices compared with the industrial technology that followed.Chapter V. The electrical industry was dominated by large companies that developed new products and then manufactured and marketed them. Electricity was later applied to driving all kinds of machinery as well as powering locomotives and streetcars. Changes in industry were so great that the period after 1860 has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. and South America.

Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone in 1876. from mining and drilling to delivering it to the customer. The telephone became a useful tool for managers to keep in contact with the widely dispersed parts of their businesses. India. It allowed machine tools to be arranged more efficiently. only a small number of industries in the most industrialized nations of the world had adopted advanced production methods and organization. New methods of management were devised that stressed central control. Advances in communications and transportation helped decision makers to maintain control. Russia. the United States. and Japan were just beginning to industrialize.U. and the Model T took shape as it moved from one work station to the next. Human power was replaced by machine power. It was used in the stock exchanges and on the railway systems. One of the leading advocates of "scientific management" was Frederick Winslow Taylor. and networks of telephone lines were built quickly across the United States.S. In 1913 Henry Ford introduced the assembly line in the manufacture of his Model T Ford. Steel and Standard Oil controlled all stages of manufacturing the product. and efficient production methods. Canada. and Spain did not begin to industrialize until well into the 20th century. Much of the world had not yet begun a first industrial revolution. planning. Germany. Electric power replaced steam power in factories. This gave them great economic power. The larger size of business presented great challenges to managers who administered enormous organizations with many branches and subsidiaries. Most of the world's population still worked in primitive agricultural economies. Italy. and more flexible. By the outbreak of World War I in 1914. and some parts of the Scandinavian countries had successfully completed an industrial revolution. The assembly line greatly increased the speed of manufacture and soon was used in many industries. The electric telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and was used to relay commercial information about prices and markets. The Second Industrial Revolution marked great progress in the methods of mass production. Parts were assembled on a moving conveyor belt. More and more industries used interchangeable parts and machine tools. France. Only Great Britain. it was cheaper. 15 . China. and the United States government took measures to limit their monopolies in steel and petroleum. faster.

16 . ground breaking inventions.Conclusion The Industrial revolution was a time of great change for the world. manufacturing times were greatly lowered. The Industrial Revolution changed the world as we know it. When the Industrial Revolution is reflected upon. The Industrial Revolution changed the way the world was looked at altogether. we have the world we live in today. assembly line and many other. Eventually child labor laws were created to put restrictions on child labor exploiters. not every change can be thought of in a blissful manner. meaning the product could be given to the public faster and in larger quantities. Factories needed workers. by creating new methods of production. It was a period of time from around 1750 to 1914 where machines began to be manufactured. we would still be stuck in our old ways. due to it. things that no one ever could’ve dreamed of. and took some. these children obviously didn’t have the motor skills to be working in factories. and often time children were resorted to as cheap employees. and our primary source of transportation would still be a horse and buggy. If the industrial Revolution never took place. at the time. Many things that still exist today were made during the industrial revolution such as the car. Factories would not exist. The Industrial Revolution was when the world finally began to move into the future. it changed lives. some as young as four years old. perfected by James Watt. We can only give credit to the great inventors of that time that made the world we live in today a reality. the lives of children lost were not lost in vein. Many children were killed during the Industrial Revolution. Another thing that was created as a result of the Industrial Revolution was the assembly line. The steam engine made things like trains and other heavy machinery used in factories possible. One of the earliest and most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine. new things were possible.

Sidney. Phyllis.Bibliography        Bagwell. The Industrial Revolution and the Atlantic Economy: Selected Essays. 2nd ed. Peter. 1988 17 . 1969 Wrigley. David. 1974 Brinley Thomas. Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe 17601970 1981 Landes. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Continuity. Chance and Change: The Character of the Industrial Revolution in Britain. A. 1967 Stearns. 1993 Deane. E. 1998 Pollard. The First Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution in World History. The Transport Revolution from 1770. Philip S.

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