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EndocrineandMetabolismTest

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Please encircle the letter corresponding to the only ONE best answer in all of the following questions
1. Which of the following hormones does not dissolve in the blood and thus requires plasma proteins or specialized carrier proteins? a) steroid hormones b) thyroid hormones c) small peptides. d) catecholamines e) a and b 2. Which of the following is NOT true of the intracellular hormone receptor system? a) usually localized in the cell nucleus b) is used by steroid and thyroid hormones (hydrophobic) c) receptors contain complexes with three binding sites d) binding causes allosteric receptor transformation that binds chromosomal DNA and activates or inhibits RNA polymerase activity e) receptors influence gene expression but require second messengers 3. What portion of the pituitary gland (hypophysis) is most anterior? a) pars distalis b) pars intermedia c) pars tuberalis d) pars nervosa e) infundibulum 4. A patient is found to have a PTH tumor. Which of the following complications may occur? a) difficulty urinating b) goiter c) soft tissue pain d) bone fracture e) carotid bruit 5. Which of the following is an action of somatostatin? a) inhibits insulin b) inhibits glucagon c) inhibits GI motility and secretions d) inhibits glucose and triglyceride absorption e) all of the above

6. Hypothalamic nerve stimulation to the posterior pituitary would lead to all of the following EXCEPT: a) water retention b) decreased blood osmolality c) uterine contraction d) thyroid stimulation e) breast milk ejection 7. If the connection between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary were severed cut, which of the following would increase? a) TSH b) PRL c) ACTH d) LH and FSH e) GH 8. Which of the following actions of thyroid hormone acts synergistically with GH? a) increased basal O2 consumption and heat production. b) increased respiratory rate and minute ventilation. c) increased cardiac output (HR and SV). d) increased linear bone growth. e) increased glucose absorption. 9. A patient develops antibodies that bind TSH-R and cause hyperstimulation (Graves disease). Which of the following is most likely? a) increased T4, increased TSH, increased TRH b) increased T4, increased TSH, decreased TRH c) increased T4, decreased TSH, decreased TRH d) increased T4, decreased TSH, increased TRH e) decreased T4, increased TSH, decreased TRH 10. Which of the following actions is decreased by epinephrine and norepinephrine? a) heart rate b) renin secretion c) skin blood flow d) systolic pressure e) cardiac contractility 11. a) b) c) d) e) Where does 1alpha-hydroxylase act? liver blood kidney proximal tubule kidney distal tubule bone and teeth 1

EndocrineandMetabolismTest
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12. What portion of the hypophysis contains neurosecretory axons forming the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tracts? a) pars distalis b) pars intermedia c) pars tuberalis d) pars nervosa e) infundibulum 13. Which of the following hypothalamic regulating hormones inhibits secretion of PRL by lactotropes? a) growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) b) dopamine c) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) d) somatostatin e) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) 14. Most protein hormones and catecholamines use which of the following second messenger systems for initiating the hormone-receptor interaction? a) adenylate cyclase/cAMP system b) tyrosine kinase system c) phosphatidylinositol system d) activation of ion channels e) none of the above (intracellular receptors) 15. Posterior pituitary hormones (Oxytocin, ADH) are released from neurons that arise from what area? a) preoptic nucleus b) supraoptic nucleus c) paraventricular nucleus d) cingulate gyrus e) solitary nucleus 16. Nerves entering the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland have vasomotor function and arise from: a) supraoptic nucleus b) paraventricular nucleus c) hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract d) autonomic postganglionic fibers e) autonomic preganglionic fibers 17. Which of the following is NOT true of the pineal gland? a) located on the posterior wall of the third ventricle b) shaped like a flattened pinecone c) develops from oropharynx ectoderm d) pinealocytes have a large deeply infolded nucleus with one or more nuclei e) functions in regulation of daily body rhythm (circadian) 18. Which of the following occurs at week 14 of development with regard to the thyroid gland? a) colloid is produced and the gland starts working b) thyroid hormone is lost leading to cretinism c) follicles develop from endodermal cells d) thyroglossal duct descends from endoderm pharynx e) thyroglossal duct divides into two lobes at the trachea 19. A man presents to his physician complaining of muscle cramping, irritability and tingling in the fingers and toes. Laboratory tests indicate that he is hypocalcemic and hyperphosphatemic. All other measures are unremarkable. Further laboratory tests would indicate: a) elevated calcitonin levels b) hyperparathyroidism c) hypoparathyroidism d) vitamin D deficiency e) vitamin D excess 20. A patient with hyperaldosteronism would likely have: a) low ANP levels b) low 18-OH-DOC levels c) hypercalcemia d) hypomagnesemia e) hypokalemia 21. Which of the following is NOT an effect of glucocorticoids? a) decrease in muscle mass and strength b) decreased bone formation and increased resorption c) thinning of skin and capillary walls d) decreases glomerular filtration rate e) decreased memory 22. Which of the following is NOT true of parathyroid hormone? a) produced by chief cells of the parathyroid gland b) decreases ionized plasma Ca++ levels c) increases plasma phosphate levels d) inhibited by 1,25-OH2-D via negative feedback e) decreased vitamin D production and bone resorption 2

EndocrineandMetabolismTest
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23. Which of the following would lead to an increase in growth hormone (GH)? a) caloric restriction b) increased amino acids c) increased glucose or free fatty acids d) exercise or stress e) ghrelin 24. Which of the following would occur in Cushing syndrome caused by small cell cancer of the lung? a) increased serum ACTH and cortisol b) decreased serum ACTH and cortisol c) increased ACTH and decreased cortisol d) decreased ACTH and increased cortisol e) no change in serum ACTH or corisol 25. Insulin causes a decrease in which of the following within the liver? a) glycogenolysis b) glycolysis c) glycogenesis d) protein synthesis e) lipogenesis 26. a) b) c) d) e) Which of the following inhibits insulin? eating glucagon intestinal hormones glucose leptin 28. Which of the following is NOT characteristic of Type-1 diabetes mellitus? a) ketoacidosis b) polyuria c) polydipsia d) polyphagia e) obesity 29. Which of the following is a sign of hypothyroidism? a) lateral eyebrow hair loss b) patient always feels hot (hyperpyrexia) c) excessive perspiration d) palpitations, tachycardia e) high systolic pressure with normal diastolic pressure (high pulse pressure) 30. Which of the following would NOT cause adrenocortical insufficiency? a) acute hemorrhagic necrosis (WaterhouseFriderichsen syndrome) b) congenital adrenal hyperplasia c) adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD gene on Xq28) d) autoimmune poly-endocrinopathy syndrome e) AIDS, infection, fungi, tuberculosis

27. A post-partum woman is having continual uterine bleeding. Which of the following could be given to help reduce hemorrhage? a) oxytocin b) dopamine agonist c) ADH (vasopressin) d) prolactin (PRL) e) luteinizing hormone (LH)

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