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The purpose of this lab is to get familiar with the software LoggerPro. In future labs, you will be using the software together with the hardware LabPro and various sensors to collect data. You will then be asked to analyze the data using the software and your knowledge of calculus. Today, you will use data that has already been collected. In this lab session, you will • Learn to perform simple data analysis with LoggerPro • Graph data sets • Fit linear and exponential regression models to data sets • Perform an approximate integration based on data • Print your results
Power Macintosh or Windows PC Vernier computer interface You should also have a separate “Lab Report” sheet. The results of your work will be recorded there and handed in. Your lab report is due on the same weekday as your lab, one week later, by 4:30 p.m. in the Mathematics Office (Cupples I, room 100). These instructions will guide you through the first lab. There is a lot of detail since the software is new to you. As you become more familiar with LoggerPro, less “hand-holding” should be needed.
Use the icon on the Desktop to start LoggerPro. At the end of your session, you will be asked whether to “Save Changes to ...”. For this lab, answer “No”
1) Linear Regression
Opening a file that contains some previously collected data. • Select Open from the File menu. In the window that pops up, open the folder Lab1TuTh or Lab1MW (depending on your lab day) and select the file Lab1 Problem1. You should see a Graph Window with five points and a Table Window listing the x- and y-coordinates of the points.
enter m*“x”+b. Print” from the pulldown menus. If at some later time you want to print only a graph or only a table. We’ll name the column of new ycoordinates “Guess 1”. If it is dark blue. • Select New Column. or select Examine from the Analyze menu). • • • On the graph you printed. the coordinates of the point highlighted by the black line should appear in the small box. With the Graph Window active. then it is active. Problem 1A) (The printer icon on the toolbar will print the whole window. they will not all be identical—you need to be able to identify which is yours. To stop using this tool. we need a column of new ycoordinates to use with the old x-coordinates. Insert the team members’ names on the graph! This is important because many graphs will be going to the same printer and. estimate the coordinates of two points on your line (See Lab Report. Now move the cursor around in the graph window. click on the 'x' in the upper right-hand corner of the small box. Problem 1a) From the graph. click on the Examine button (the one with “:x=?” on it). To do this. This means that the selections in the menus will be applied to this window. Write the equation of your line in the form y=mx+b. A floating box containing a point and "y:" will appear in the upper left-hand corner of the graph window. compute the slope m and y-intercept b for your line. (See Lab Report. You can tell which window is active by the bar on the top of the window. Problem 1b) Using those points.Look at the bars on the tops of the windows. This window is now the active one. (See Lab Report. The New Column window will appear. type “Guess 1” for Long Name. in the Labels section. “g1” for Short Name and “(#)” for Units.. • Click on the Graph Window. mention the Lab Number and Problem Number. As you move along the graph. Formula from the Data menu. Under the Options tab. Problem 1c) Graph your line using LoggerPro. you can click to make the graph (table) the active window and then use “File. You are going to try to find the line that “best fits” these five points. sketch in a line that you think might fit best. In the Comment box. Click the Definition tab. In the equation box. • Print the table and the graph containing the data points (See Lab Report. in the future. using • • 2 .
) Calculate each of the squared deviations by creating a new column using the formula (“y”-“Guess 1”)^2. Problem 1d ) • • • See how well your line “fits” the data points by calculating the sum of the squared deviations (SSD) using LoggerPro. or type it directly—but don’t forget the “ ” marks.) If not. check your calculation of the slope and y-intercept. If the line looks like the one you drew. select Data Table Options from the View menu). To display all columns in the Table Window • • • • Double-click on a blank cell in the table (or. with the Table window active.your values for m and b. Click on the Axis Options tab in the Graph Options window that appears. Formula from the Data menu. click OK. Click in the circle before “All Columns All Runs”. Ask for help if necessary. Click on the Table Layout tab in the Table Options window that appears. The x-values are not shown anymore. When you look at the Graph Window.) • Click Try New Column. Click Apply and then OK. check that you entered the equation correctly. The New Column window will appear. Click OK. (You may need to click on the small left/right arrows under the graph to move left/right. (You can insert “x” from the Variables scrolling list. • Select New Column. Look at the Table Window. Print the graph showing the data points and your line (See Lab Report. There should also be a checkmark in the box in front of Guess 1. Advantages of using the scrolling list of variables are i) that you can see the names of the variables that are defined and available. Select ‘y’ from the list of variables to graph on the y-axis by clicking in the box in front of it so that there is a checkmark in the box. (See the handout from class for the meaning of “sum of the squared deviations”. you will notice that the original data points are not shown anymore. To make them visible • Double-click on an empty spot in the Graph Window (or select Graph Options from the View menu. If these look correct. making sure the Graph Window is active). and ii) the “ ” marks are automatically inserted. 3 .
• Under the Options tab. • The last entry in the SSD column is the sum of all of the squared deviations for your line. “SD Guess1” for Short Name and “(#)” for Units. (See Lab Report. enter sum("Sq. The drop down menu informs your that you should use “Guess 1” rather than the short name “g1” in the formula. • Click the Definition tab. then OK.• Under the Options tab. in the Labels section. OK. Select “mx+b Linear” from the list of functions. Dev Guess 1" from the Variables list. i. (You can type this in directly—don’t omit the “ ” marks—or use the drop down menu for Variables. (See Lab Report. Guess 1” for Long Name. • Click on New Column. In the Equation box.) • • The click New Column. • In the Equation box. Click Try Fit and then OK.e. (If “y latest” doesn’t appear on the list. enter (“y”-“Guess 1”)^2. On the graph you printed. in the Labels section. you need to double click on the graph and Use Graph Options. Dev. Dev Guess 1") as follows: select “sum()” from the Functions list and then select "Sq.) In the window that appears. Dev. say. click on the Curve Fit tab. type “Sq. Then click the Definition tab. • • • 4 . Formula from the Data menu.) Check the Create Column box. “SSDg1” for Short Name and “(#)” for Units. Record the equation of the regression line on the homework sheet. you can add up the values of the “SD Guess 1” column by hand or using LoggerPro as follows • Select New Column. Axis Options again: be sure the “y” box is checked on the list of variable to be graphed on the y-axis. • • Select “y latest” as the variable to Perform Fit On. The New Column window will appear. Guess 1” for Long Name. Problem 1e ) Find the regression line. the line with the smallest possible SSD. (See the handout distributed in class about the meaning of “regression line.”) • Click the Automatic Curve Fit button (the next-to-last button on the right on the toolbar. type “Sum Sq. A new column should appear in the Table Window. Problem 1d ) To calculate the sum of the squared deviations. the middle one of the 5 data points. indicate by hand the meaning of the deviation “y”-“Guess 1” using.
In the Equation box. • • Select New Column. Problem 1h ) 5 . Then click the Definition tab. Under the Options tab. is your line or the regression line a “better fit” for the data? Record the equation of the regression line on the homework sheet. Problem 1g ) • • • In terms of “least squares”. Dev. (You can type in the formula directly—remember the “ ” signs—or use the Functions list and the Variables list. (See Lab Report. Click Try New Column and then click OK. enter sum( (“y”-“CurveFit”)^2 ) . The New Column window will appear. LinReg” for Long Name. in the Labels section. Formula from the Data menu. “SSD LinReg” for Short Name and “(#)” for Units. type “Sum Sq. this time in a simpler series of steps. The last entry in the SSD column is the sum of all of the squared deviations for the regression line. (See Lab Report. Problem 1f ) Compute SSD for the regression line.(See Lab Report.
Temp Diff.2) Exponential Curve Fit and Numerical Integration Close the graph window and table window containing the data for Problem 1. enter 0 in the box for “B Value”.C in our exponential model (See Lab Report. Look at the shape of the data. Click the Try Fit button to perform the fit. Problem 2a ) • • Does the data appear to be linear? Is it increasing or decreasing? There is reason to believe that the data can be modeled by an exponential curve. (See Lab Report.C*x) Use LoggerPro to fit an exponential curve to the data. i.B. Time and Temperature. • • Expand the table to include all three columns (Time. Problem 2b ) The real data is “sampled” from the “real” temperature function T(t) (unknown to us). The printout should include LoggerPro’s box indicating the values of A. The probe was heated to around 50 degrees Celsius and then the temperature of the cooling probe was recorded every 15 seconds for five minutes. This data was collected with a temperature probe. one of the form y=A*e^( . Over a time interval t=a to t=b. You should see a graph window with the label Temperature vs. Select the variable to Perform Fit On. Then open the folder Lab1TuTh or Lab1MW (depending on your lab day) and select the file Lab1Problem 2. The “Temp Diff” data that you see is the difference of the recorded temperature and the average room temperature during the experiment. • • Click on the Automatic Curve Fit button (next to last button at right of toolbar) Choose “ A*exp( -C*x) + B Natural Exponential function” from the scrolling list under the “y=” box. and Curve Fit) Print out the graph and table of data. LoggerPro can i) use an approximate integration method to estimate the integral of T(t) (as 6 . Time and a Table Window with two columns.e. followed by OK. and check to box to create a new column of data. Temp Diff Latest.
0. LoggerPro will automatically integrate the exponential curve fit and also T(t) (using Temp Diff data). Problem 2c ) • Finally (See Lab Report.) Use LoggerPro to (approximately) integrate T(t) and your exponential curve over the time interval t=0 to t=2. one would hope that i) and ii) produce similar values. drag the cursor to the right until Time=2. Be sure that the boxes “Temp Diff” and “Curve Fit” on the drop down menu are checked). Are they what you expected? (See Lab Report.) Record the values of the integrals. Problem 2d ) and complete the work required there.0 minutes. since the exponential function was created as an approximation to the temperature function T(t).0. 7 . Two floating boxes will appear with LoggerPro’s estimates of the integrals (area under the curves) as displayed on the graph. right. ii) approximate the integral of the exponential function which we fitted to the (Of course. (One of the boxes may be on top of the other. While holding the mouse button down. The highlighted data in the table should include Time=0 to Time=2. (Notice the units on the integration results. or select Integral from the Analyze menu. • • Click on the left side of the graph (on the line Time=0). you may need to slide the top one one off. and midpoint approximations given in a table). data. Now click the Integral button.we have done in class with left.
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