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Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds
I. Fossil Fuels
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas are fossil fuels. They are so called because they were formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived millions of year ago. All fossil fuels have one thing in common – hydrocarbons (CxHy) A. Origin of Fossil fuels a. Coal
Pressure (from overlying layers) heat bacterial action millions of year
b. Petroleum and Natural Gas
Plants and Marine animals
Pressure (from overlying layers) heat bacterial action millions of year
氣然天 氣然天 氣然天 氣然天
Natural Gas and Petroleum
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.2
Petroleum (also called crude oil found.
However, compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen combined with carbon and hydrogen are also
Natural gas is also a mixture mainly of hydrocarbons. It consists mainly of methane CH4 of ethane C2H6 , propane C3H8 and butane C4H10
B. Changing Petroleum into Useful Substances a. Refining of Petroleum 1. Petroleum (crude oil) is a mixture of hundreds of hydrocarbons. It is not suitable for direct use as a fuel and as raw material in chemical manufacture. In oil refining, the complex mixture of hydrocarbons is separated into less complex mixtures which are more useful. 2. Fractional distillation
can be used because the hydrocarbons have different boiling points. In general,
a hydrocarbon with larger molecules has a higher boiling point.
烷甲 烷甲 烷甲 烷甲
油原 油原 油原 油原
or just oil) is a complex mixture consisting mainly of hydrocarbons.
, small amount
煉精的油石 煉精的油石 煉精的油石 煉精的油石
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.3
3. Fractional distillation separates crude oil into several groups of hydrocarbons with different boiling point. These groups or simpler mixtures are called fractions. Fraction Number of carbon atoms per molecule of hydrocarbons Refinery gases 1–4 below 40 as gaseous fuel; raw materials for manufacturing chemicals* as fuel for cars; manufacturing town gas; 5 – 10 40 – 170 raw materials for manufacturing chemicals* 10 – 14 14 – 25 170 – 250 250 – 350 as fuel for aircraft; domestic fuel as fuel for heavy vehicles and factories as fuel for ships and power stations above 25 over 350 as lubricating oil for machines; making candles; surfacing roads and roofs Boiling point range ( C)
Petrol & Naphtha
Gas oil (diesel oil)
Lubricating oil, wax and bitumen
An oil fraction consisting of hydrocarbon molecules with more carbon atoms has a higher boiling point range. * Petroleum fractions are used as raw materials to produce different chemicals in the petrochemical industry. These chemicals can be made into many useful products, such as alcohols, plastics, food additives, cosmetics etc. detergents,
Kerosene ( (
Slightly sooty Orange.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. non-sooty Very pale yellow Yellow Brown Viscosity Flammability Colour and sootiness of flame The above results indicate that: Fraction with a lower boiling point range lighter in colour less viscous easier to evaporate (or more volatile) more flammable burns with a cleaner flame Fraction with a higher boiling point range darker in colour more viscous more difficult to evaporate (or less volatile) less flammable burns with a sootier flame 度滯黏 ( ) Fairly viscous Difficult to burn Yellow / orange. very sooty . Fractional distillation of crude oil in laboratory Fraction Properties Boiling point range Volatility (Ease of evaporation) Colour 1 Room temperature to 100cC Evaporates quickly 2 100 – 150oC 3 150 – 200oC 4 200 – 250oC Evaporates slowly Colourless Non-viscous (flows easily) Very easy to burn Yellow with blue edges.4 b. sooty Orange.
state five other properties in which you would expect products at the different outlets to differ from one another. Use of petroleum Refined petroleum has three main uses: (i) As fuels An energy source for heating. Name a product at each of the outlets A. c. The rest is used to produce chemicals. Petroleum resource is running out Petroleum resource is limited and non-renewable. d. f. b. B. useful about . C and D. Natural gas burns with a clean blue flame. c. (HKCEE 1992) C. Apart from the difference in boiling points. Suggest one use of each of the products stated in (b). Name the process that is used to separate the petroleum into fractions.5 Classwork The diagram below shows a tower used to separate petroleum into fractions. a. (ii) As lubricants (iii) As a source of hydrocarbons to manufacture other useful chemicals. At present. e. electricity and transportation. Using petroleum and natural gas a. most natural gas is burnt directly to produce energy.5% of the world’s energy needs. Uses of Natural gas Unlike petroleum. Most of it would run out within 60 years. Draw a labeled diagram to show how you could obtain similar products in the laboratory on a test-tube scale.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. b. petroleum supplies 37. causing little pollution. Give one reason to account for the differences in properties of products at the different outlets.
1. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) 2. An endothermic reaction is one that takes in heat. 2. Acid-alkali neutralizations. The heat change (∆H) during a reaction is the difference between the total heat content of products ∆ (Hp) and that of reactants (Hr). Displacement reactions e. Precipitation reactions e. Heat change is measured in kilojoules (kJ mol-1). ∆H Notation and Energy Level Diagram (i) The total energy stored in a substance is called the heat content (symbol H) of the substance. Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) 4. (i) Examples of exothermic reactions: 1. An exothermic reaction is one that gives out heat. Burning of fuels There is usually a temperature change when a chemical reaction occurs.6 II. ∆H = Hp . C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) 2. Thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate. Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) → AgCl(s) 3.g. Combustion reactions e. (ii) Examples of endothermic reactions: 1.g. Cracking of oil fractions.Hr .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Consequences of using Fossil Fuels A.g.
with a ∆H value is negative. The system gains energy from the surroundings and the ∆H value is positive. the temperature of products falls below the initial temperature. . Very little soot (unburnt carbon particles) is produced. The flame us thus blue. the only products. Complete and incomplete combustion (i) A hydrocarbon (CxHy). the combustion of hydrocarbons would be incomplete. The flame temperature is thus lower. the temperature of products rises above initial temperature. the (iii) Endothermic reaction In an endothermic reactions. The heat energy produced is lost to the surroundings. CxHy + (x + y/4) O2(g) → xCO2(g) + y/2 H2O(l) (ii) If oxygen supply is poor. forms carbon dioxide and water as high temperature. the flame is yellow or orange and black smoke can be seen.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 3.7 (ii) Exothermic reactions During an exothermic reaction. when burnt completely in plenty of air. Carbon monoxide and carbon are formed at the same time. Since a lot of soot is produced.
8 4.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. (ii) Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) contains mainly propane and butane liquefied under pressure.5%). lungs to other body tissues would thus .5%) and carbon dioxide (19. Carbon monoxide combines readily with haemoglobin in blood to form a stable cherry red compound called carboxyhaemoglobin. carbon monoxide will diffuse into the air. The normal function of haemoglobin to carry oxygen from be hindered. If there is a gas leakage. 2. Carbon monoxide poisoning 1. methane (28. yet colourless and odourless. (iii) Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced if the fossil fuels are burnt incompletely. Effect of carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide is a highly dangerous gas because it is toxic. Dangers associated with use of household fuels a. A small flame or spark may ignite the mixture. causing a fire or even an explosion. b. Fire and explosion A mixture of flammable gases and air can be a source of danger. carbon monoxide (3%). Sources of carbon monoxide (i) Town gas contains a mixture of gases including hydrogen (49%).
2.9 c. carbon monoxide will be produced as a result of incomplete combustion. . Precautions in using household fuels 1. Ensure there is an adequate supply of fresh air for gas-burning appliances. you must turn off the main gas valve extinguish all flames nearby open windows and door wide do not operate any electrical switches or appliances do not use a telephone or mobile phone in your home do not press the doorbell of an adjacent flat inform the gas company or Fire Services Department if necessary 3. Ensuring that gas-burning appliances are installed and regularly checked by a qualified technician. If you smell gas or suspect of a leak.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Otherwise.
it will cause unconsciousness and even death. Carbon monoxide (CO) (i) Carbon monoxide is produced whenever a hydrocarbon fuel is burned incompletely. . (iii) The dark smoke in air also causes the reduction of visibility and solar radiation. Environmental problems associated with fossil fuels 1. It is also related to the formation of photochemical smog. air pollution is mainly caused by motor vehicles and industrial machinery. CO makes a person feel dizzy. Major air pollutants from cars. In high concentration. odourless and very poisonous gas. (iii) Some people died in stopped private cars when enjoying air-conditioning due to inhaling the carbon monoxide formed. incinerators and power stations In a city. b. Both motor vehicles and industrial machinery require the burning of fuel to produce the energy needed. The major problems associated with the burning of fuels are: (i) Incomplete combustion (ii) Presence of impurities a. headache and irritable. Suspended particulates / Dark Smoke (i) (ii) Incomplete burning of hydrocarbon produces dark smoke which contains mainly carbon particles. Carbon monoxide is colourless. Unburnt Hydrocarbons Car exhausts contain a mixture of unconsumed hydrocarbons. 霧煙學化光 霧煙學化光 霧煙學化光 霧煙學化光 . The suspended carbon particles may enter the lung and cause serious lung diseases such as tuberculosis and lung cancer. Hydrocarbons are also one of the main causes of the formation of photochemical smog c. (ii) In low concentration.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.10 B. Some hydrocarbons such as benzene may cause cancer. factories.
much of it being paper containing sulphur compounds. Incinerators burn a lot of rubbish. In high concentration. Nitrogen Oxides NOx (i) Nitrogen oxides are formed during the burning of fuel in car engines and power station furnaces. (ii) (iii) The effects of sulphur dioxide are similar to nitrogen oxides. it may cause cancer and death.11 d. Photochemical smog occurs as a brown haze and causes reduced visibility. High temperature causes the chemical combination of oxygen and nitrogen in air. They irritate and attack the respiratory tracts and the lung. Children are more easily affected. (iii) Lead compound are cumulative poisons. (ii) Nitrogen oxides NOx (e. to the petrol used by motor vehicles. (ii) The TEL may react with oxygen in the air to form lead compounds.g. strokes and hypertension. tetraethyl lead (TEL). 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) → HNO2(aq) nitrous acid + HNO3(aq) nitric acid (iii) Nitrogen oxides together with hydrocarbon and smoke produce photochemical smog. which both contain sulphur. It irritates respiratory tracts and reduces the normal functions of the lung. The smoke may contain sulphur dioxide SO2. SO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq) sulphurous acid . oil companies have added a lead compound. Lead compounds also have neuropsychological effects. nitrogen monoxide NO. They stay and accumulate in the body. They may enter the lung of animals and men and cause serious lung diseases. Lead is also associated with heart attacks. e. nitrogen dioxide NO2) are poisonous. Sulphur Dioxide (i) Factories and power stations burn either coal or low-grade petroleum.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. and the damage to plants and animals. They have harmful effects on red blood cells and brain cells. eye and bronchial irritation. f. Lead Compounds # (i) To increase the efficiency of burning. It is also another cause of acid rain.
2. Metals are also attacked by acid rain. marble. Metal objects corrode faster when rain water is more acidic. sandstone. This gives rise to acid rain. including crops and forests. Fish and water plants cannot survive in acidic water. to a greater or lesser extent. Acid rain has bad effects on common building materials: limestone. SO2(aq) + H2O(l) → H2SO3(aq) 2NO2(g) + H2O(l) → HNO2(aq) + HNO3(aq) b. All these materials contain calcium carbonate. Water in many rivers and lakes has become acidic due to acid rain. Acid rain can damage to plants.12 2. CaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) → Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) Acid rain has caused great damage to many status and monuments.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. It is slightly acidic because carbon dioxide in the air reacts with rainwater to form carbonic acid. What causes acid rain? (i) Normally.6. cement and concrete. . CO2(g) + H2O(l) → H2CO3(aq) (ii) Air pollutants such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen emitted from power plants. Acid Rain a. 3. This results mainly from the inflow of acidic water containing poisonous metal ions. various factories and motor cars react with rainwater to form acids that lower the pH value of rainwater. Environmental problems associated with Acid Rain 1. rainwater's pH value is about 5.
(iii) The Earth's surface re-radiates most of the absorbed energy (mainly as infrared radiation). About half of the solar energy is absorbed. sunlight penetrates through the glass. The Global Greenhouse Effect (i) a. *They are also called as greenhouse gases. The heated plants and things inside the greenhouse give out infrared radiation. The solar energy is either absorbed by the Earth or reflected back into space. Most of this radiation .13 3. chlorofluorocarbons CFCs. Greenhouse and Greenhouse Effect In a greenhouse on a sunny day. *Carbon dioxide. when striking on the glass. water vapour and a few other gases (methane. They act as the glass in a greenhouse. is reflected back into the greenhouse. warming the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. nitrogen oxides and ozone) absorb some of this infrared energy and hold it back. 應效室溫球地 應效室溫球地 應效室溫球地 應效室溫球地 . which is thus kept warm.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. (ii) Energy from the sun falls on the Earth.
Some regions will suffer drought and crops will fail. the natural balance is being disturbed by a rapid increase of carbon dioxide concentration through increased burning of fossil fuels. This results in enhanced greenhouse effect. (ii) However. The increase in temperature due to enhanced greenhouse effect is (iii) The global warming will melt many of ice caps at the North Pole and South Pole. Global Warming (i) The greenhouse effect would be constant if the greenhouse gases remained in their normal concentrations. causing a rise known as global warming.g. in the Earth's surface temperature.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. causing disastrous flooding in low-lying coastal areas. rainfall) will possibly change. 溫增球全 溫增球全 溫增球全 溫增球全 Due to enhanced Greenhouse Effect . Other regions will have more frequent storms and flooding. (iv) The Earth's climate (e. Storms and floods will cause economic loss. Average sea level will rise.14 b.
An education website of global warming http://www. The Hong Kong government has introduced unleaded petrol since 1991. In 1999. What are the consequences if the temperature of the Earth’s surface rises? 4. What measures have been taken to tackle the problem? Reference websites 1. How does carbon dioxide cause the greenhouse effect? 2.htm 2.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.globalwarming. lead emission into the air can be greatly .csiro. Environmental Protection Agency: Global Warming’s Homepage http://www.au/information/greenhouse.gov/gobalwarming 3. Cutting Down Pollutants From Motor Car (i) By using Unleaded Petrol reduced.org/brief/student.15 Internet Search: The greenhouse effect and global warming Search Hint 1.S. 油汽鉛無 油汽鉛無 油汽鉛無 油汽鉛無 in motor cars. Methods of reducing air pollution a. the government banned the sale of leaded petrol. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization http://www.dar. What is global warming? 3.epa.html 4. U.
The catalytic converter is a stainless steel cylinder containing a honeycomb structure coated with a catalyst (usually platinum). 2CO(g) + 2NO(g) → poisonous gases platinum 3. 器化轉化催 器化轉化催 器化轉化催 器化轉化催 on the exhaust pipe of a motor car.16 (ii) Use of Catalytic Converter 1. hydrocarbons and any remaining carbon monoxide are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. This is because the catalyst is easily 'poisoned' (made ineffective) by lead.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2(g) 2C8H18(l) + 25O2(g) → 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(l) platinum platinum 4. 2. In the first half of the catalytic converter. In the second half of the converter. 2CO2(g) + N2(g) harmless gases . The catalytic converter can work efficiently only on unleaded petrol.
. (ii) Use of Scrubbers In the scrubbers. Cutting Down Pollutants From Industry (i) Minimizing sulphur dioxide emission Sulphur dioxide emission can be minimized by burning fuels of low sulphur content.17 b. The limewater dissolves soluble gases (mainly sulphur dioxide) and washes away smoke and dust.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. the waste gases are sprayed by jets of limewater before they reach the chimneys. CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) CaO(s) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) + H2O(l) – a mixture of solids and water. Dry scrubbing: Wet scrubbing: These products are washed away as a slurry 漿淤 器氣滌 器氣滌 器氣滌 器氣滌 to take away the sulphur dioxide from the waste gases after burning of coal.
c. b. Monitoring and Investigation The EDP has set up monitoring stations to monitor concentration of air pollutants throughout Hong Kong. The . Legislation The Environmental Protection Department (EDP) ensures the implementation of air pollution control laws e.g. taxi operators are encouraged to replace diesel taxis with those operated on LPG. The role of the government in controlling air pollution a. Planning The government has to make sure that possible environmental problem are considered during the planning stage of future developments. 器積沉電靜 器積沉電靜 器積沉電靜 器積沉電靜 .18 (iii) Removing particulates Particulates from waste gases can be removed by using Electrostatic Precipitator charged particulates are collected on positively charged plates. gases are passed through a strong electric field where particulates become negatively charged.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. The 5.
b.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. (ii) State one undesirable effect of acid rain. (i) Explain why carbon dioxide can cause the greenhouse effect. Explain why the exhaust contains carbon monoxide (i) Write two chemical equations for the formation of acid rain from nitrogen oxides. For environmental reasons. Carbon dioxide constitutes about 0. the Hong Kong government has launched a plan for taxis to switch from using diesel to using LPG. Suggest one other pollutant that may be found in the exhaust. State one problem that may occur in the initial stage in launching this plan. State one harmful effect of global warming. e. Over millions of years. Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Both LPG and diesel are petroleum products.03% of the atmosphere. (HKCEE 2000) 3. c. a. With reference to their chemical constituents. The illustration below shows the exhaust from a motor car using unleaded petrol: a. explain why LPG is a cleaner fuel than diesel. d. State the origin of petroleum. State one health hazard associated with particulates. Suggest one process by which carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere. b. b. Suggest a device that can be installed in the motor car to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. c. (HKCEE 1999) . a. (ii) State the importance of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to living things on Earth. the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has remained almost constant because of a number of processes.19 Classwork 1. (iii) Increasing the concentration of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere leads to global warming. c. (HKCEE 2001) 2. Suggest one process by which carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is consumed.
geothermal power and power from biomass are never used up. These are renewable energy sources. which turns turbines and thus generates electricity. . These neutrons collide with other uranium nuclei and start a chain reaction. heat energy and more neutrons are released. Renewable and non-renewable energy sources Fossil fuels are examples of non-renewable energy sources. uranium (ii) When a neutron collides with a uranium-235 nucleus. tidal power. 鈾 鈾 鈾 鈾 is used as the 'fuel' and to release energy by nuclear fission. hydroelectric power. Alternative Energy Sources a. wind power. The heat energy is used to heat water and produce steam. On the other hand. C. B. During the splitting. Nuclear Power (i) In a nuclear reaction. Energy crisis Fossil fuels are being used up rapidly. It has been estimated that the known reserves for oil and natural gas will all be used up by the year 2070. Once used. renewable energy sources cause fewer environmental problems. Energy Crisis and Alternative Sources of Energy A.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. solar power. Coal deposits are more plentiful. it causes the nucleus to split into two smaller nuclei. they are gone forever – we cannot wait for hundreds of millions years for them to form again. but they are expected to last for less than 200 years.20 III. In general.
Reaction safety is a concern. 2.21 (iii) Limitations: 1. Nuclear reactors produce lots of radioactive waste. The Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (near Hong Kong) was started to operate in 1993. . accidents still have occurred. Nuclear reactors produce powerful radiation which can kill in large doses. Even though nuclear power plants are designed to contain radiation. There is no perfect way to dispose these wastes since they remain dangerous for thousands of years.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.
. it is not cheap to trap and use solar energy at present. We need to develop efficient ways of storing solar energy until it is needed. (iii) Limitations: 1.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. However. Solar Power (i) (ii) Solar energy is the radiant heat and light energy given out by the Sun.22 b. 2. Solar panels are expensive to build Most of the solar energy is collected during the summer. However. Solar energy is unlimited and costs nothing. energy is needed to a greater extent during winter.
(iii) Limitations: 1. Wildlife habitats and farming areas may also be affected. 3. Building a huge dam is very expensive.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. (ii) Countries with heavy rainfall and mountainous ground are ideal for hydroelectric power. It may mean flooding a pretty. Hydroelectric Power (i) The potential energy from falling water can be changed to kinetic energy and is used to drive turbines which generate electricity. populated valley with water. the cost of electricity can be fairly cheap. Once the hydroelectric station is built. .23 c. 2.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.24
d. Tidal Power (i) A dam is built across a bay where high tide and low tide vary by more than 10 meters. When the gates are open and the tide comes in, seawater fills the reservoir behind the dam. Every time the tide comes in or goes out, the turbines turn and generate electricity.
(ii) Limitations: 1. The dam, turbines and generators are expensive to build. 2. The generator can only generate electricity twice a day. 3. Interfering with the tides may affect the ecology of the area. 4. There are not many bays with such a large tidal range. e. Wind Power (i) Many countries, such as USA, Sweden and Denmark, have large windmills. As the wind pushes the blades around, the generator spins to generate electricity. Wind energy is a clean and renewable energy.
(ii) Limitations: 1. Wind does not always blow. We need alternative supplies for “still” days. 2. If the wind blows too hard, windmills may be severely damaged. 3. Thousands of windmills are needed to provide enough electricity.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.25
f. Geothermal Power (i) (ii) Heat energy which comes from deep within the Earth is called geothermal energy. Geothermal power stations are found in some countries like New Zealand, USA and Japan. In many building and even swimming pools are heated with geothermal energy. Iceland,
(iii) Limitations: 1. 2. 3. Geothermal energy must be found near the Earth’s surface. Drilling deep wells is expensive and causes pollution. Geothermal wells release hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide gases, which are poisonous. The water may contain toxic substances. A geothermal power plant has to plan for safe disposal of cooled wastewater. g. Power from Biomass (i) Biomass means the organic matter (plant and animal materials) and waste substances that come from them., which can be changed by biotechnology into more useful and valuable fuels. For example, alcohol can be produced from fermentation of sugar obtained from sugar cane. Many plants produce vegetable oils. Alcohol and vegetable oils are fuels. (ii) Plants give out biogas (about 65% methane) when they rot in the absence of air. The methane can be collected-it is a good fuel.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.26
(iii) Limitations: It reduces the amount of manure and crop residues which can be used as fertilizers.
Classwork “Fossil fuels” such as petroleum and coal constitute the world’s major source of energy. However, many countries have been developing alternative energy sources. a. Why are petroleum and coal called “fossil fuels”? b. Give two reasons why it is necessary to develop alternative energy sources. c. Nuclear power is used as an alternative to fossil fuels in many countries. Suggest one advantage and one disadvantage of using nuclear power. d. Suggest one energy source, other than nuclear power, that can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. (HKCEE)
oxygen. plastics.g. 3. chlorine. carbohydrates and lipids present in our bodies. the fuels we burn and many things we use (e. Then. organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. and even metals. In fact. detergents) are all organic compounds. The protein. Carbon can form so many compounds because: 1. Carbon atoms can join with other carbon atoms to form chains and rings. Carbon atoms can form multiple bonds (double bond and triple bond). organic compounds are carbon compounds. Carbon atoms can combine with many other elements such as hydrogen. . nitrogen. Introducing Organic Chemistry The hydrocarbons in fossil fuels are examples of organic compounds. sulphur.27 IV. This is far more than the number of compounds of all other elements put together (less than 100 000). Carbon forms a very large number of compounds (over 4 000 000).Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 2.
A structural formula is only a two-dimensional representation of an actually three-dimensional molecule.g. Structural Formula 1. A molecular formula does not show the structure of a molecule very well but structural formula can show how the atoms are joined to one another in the molecule. e. It does not show the actual molecular shape.28 A.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 2. butane C4H10 Ball and stick model Space filling model .
We may also write the structural formula of a compound in a condensed form. .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. carbon-carbon multiple bonds (that is C=C or C≡C) must be written.29 3. single bonds are omitted (except those joining anything other than hydrogen atoms to the main carbon chain). In this form. However.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.30 Classwork Write condensed structural formulae for the following compounds: .
unit. . 2.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. A hydrocarbon that has one or more double (C=C) or triple bonds (C≡C) between the carbon atoms is called an unsaturated hydrocarbon. Their molecular formulae can all be summarized by the same general formula CnH2n+2 (“n” represents the number of carbon atoms). Saturated Hydrocarbons and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon in which all the carbon atoms are connected to each other by single bonds is called a saturated hydrocarbon.group.31 B. Each one of them differs from the next be a –CH2. We can see that the four hydrocarbons present in natural gas are in fact related. Homologous Series CH3CH=CHCH3 an unsaturated hydrocarbon 1. We say that these hydrocarbons belong to the same homologous series. CH3CH2CH2CH3 a saturated hydrocarbon C. A homologous series is a family of compounds all having the same general formula and with members differing from the next by a –CH2.
The hydroxyl group is an example of a functional group.32 D. Functional Group 1. The hydroxyl group (-OH) in ethanol modifies the properties of the ethane skeleton. Ethane (CH3CH3) and ethanol (CH3CH2OH) have similar molecular structures except one hydrogen atom in ethane is replaced by a hydroxyl group (–O–H) in ethanol. 3. However. they have very different properties. which determines most of the properties of an organic compound. A Function Group is an atom. Some common functional groups: (i) C=C double in Alkene (ii) hydroxyl group (-OH) in Alkanol (iii) carboxyl group (-COOH) in Alkanoic acid 基能官 基能官 基能官 基能官 H H C H H C O H H ethanol Property Ethane Gas No reaction Ethanol Liquid Reacts to give hydrogen gas .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. H H C H H C H H ethane State at room temperature and pressure Reaction with sodium 2. 4. or a group of atoms.
Write the condensed structural formulae for the following alkyl groups: (i) pentyl (ii) heptyl . Naming of Straight-chain Alkanes (i) To name straight-chain alkanes.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.33 E. Number of carbon atoms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (ii) Alkyl groups Alkyl groups are derived from alkanes by removal of a hydrogen atom. Name the following alkyl groups: (i) CH3CH2CH2CH2(ii) CH3(CH2)4CH2Alkyl group CnH2n+1− (or R−) CH3− methyl CH3CH2− ethyl CH3CH2CH2− propyl Condensed structural formula of alkane CH4 CH3CH3 CH3CH2CH3 CH3(CH2)2CH3 CH3(CH2)3CH3 CH3(CH2)4CH3 CH3(CH2)5CH3 CH3(CH2)6CH3 CH3(CH2)7CH3 CH3(CH2)8CH3 methethpropbutpenthexheptoctnondecmethane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane nonane decane Prefix of alkane Name of alkane b. Naming of Alkanes by IUPAC System 1. Naming of Organic Compounds Organic compounds are usually named systematically by IUPAC system of naming. They are named by replacing the suffix –ane of the parent alkanes by –yl. (IUPAC stands for International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) a. Alkane CnH2n+2 CH4 methane CH3CH3 ethane CH3CH2CH3 propane Classwork a. followed by the suffix –ane. use a prefix to show how many carbon atoms are in the straight chain. They are often represented by the symbol R-.
In the example here. b. . (i) the prefixes which indicate the alkyl group substituents (ii) the “root”. In the example here. 3 onwards) in the chosen main chain.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. whereas in direction (ii). which indicates the parent hydrocarbons The IUPAC rules of naming are illustrated below: a. Hence direction (ii) is chosen.34 2. Thus the IUPAC name for a branched-chain alkane consists of two parts. The root is therefore “hexane”. Naming of Branched-chain alkanes Branched-chain alkanes are named by considering them as straight-chain alkanes with hydrogen atoms replaced by other atoms or groups (substituents). The substituents here are alkyl groups. the longest chain has six carbon atoms. In direction (i). starting from the end such that the smallest value is given to the lowest numbered substituent. the lowest numbered substituent is attached to C-3. it is C-2. 2. Step 1: Find the longest continuous carbon chain in the compound The name of this main carbon chain is the “root” of the name. Step 2: Recognize the substituents Number the carbon atoms (1.
they are named as 2-methyl. . d. In the example. followed by a hyphen. separated by hyphens. they should be grouped together and named with a multiplying prefix. In the example. Number of substituents 2 3 4 5 Multiplying prefix ditritetrapenta- All the numbers of the attaching carbon atoms have to be written down.2.4-trimethyl. Step 4: Arranged the substituents The substituents should be arranged in alphabetical order.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. The number is placed in front of the name. Step 3: Name each substituent and state the number of the carbon atom to which the substituent is attached. Note: The multiplying prefix does not count in the alphabetical order.35 c. separated by commas. Then join them as prefixes to the root. 2-methyl. three methyl groups are grouped together and named as 2. 3-ethyl and 4-methyl If several substituents are the same.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. bromo (Br -) and iodo (I-) are also named as prefixes. 2.36 Classwork 1. Classwork 1. 2.1-trichloroethane b. b. Write the structural formulae of the following compounds: a.3-diethyl-2-methylhexane 3. The substituents fluoro (F-). Write the structural formulae of the following compounds: a.3-trimethylpentane b. 2.2. Naming of halogen-substituted alkanes The IUPAC rules for naming alkanes described above can be applied to halogeno-substituted alkanes. Give the IUPAC names of the following compounds: a. 3. 2. 1. b. Name the following compounds by IUPAC system: a.1. chloro (Cl-).3-dibromo-1-florobutane .
They are named using the same general rules as those described for alkanes. a number is included in the name to indicate position of the double bond. Thus ethene and propene are the names of the first two members in alkenes series. e.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.g. . Alkene ethene propene but-1-ene pent-1-ene hex-1-ene Molecular formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 Condensed structural formula CH2=CH2 CH3CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH2CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 For an alkene having four or more carbon atoms in the basic chain. Naming of Alkenes Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n. but using the suffix –ene instead of –ane. The name for the compound is given below.37 b.
3-dichlorobut-1-ene . Name the following compounds by IUPAC system: a.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Write the structural formulae of the following compounds: a. 2-methylbut-2-ene b. 2.38 Classwork 1. b. 2.
Naming of Alkanols Alkanols have the general formula CnH2n+1OH. e. e.39 c. propan-2-ol. methanol. Alkanol methanol ethanol propan-1-ol butan-1-ol Condensed structural formula CH3OH CH3CH2OH CH3CH2CH2OH CH3CH2CH2CH2OH Corresponding alkane methane CH4 ethane CH3CH3 propane CH3CH2CH3 butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 For alkanols of three or more carbon atoms. the longest continuous carbon chain containing the hydroxyl group –OH is chosen. 2. 3. 4 etc In naming an alkanol.g propan-1-ol. where n = 1. The final "-e” of the corresponding alkane name is changed to “–ol”.g.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. butan-1-ol etc Names of some alkanols are given below: Classwork Name the following compounds by IUPAC system: . ethanol etc. a number has to be added before the suffix “-ol” to indicate the position of the –OH group.
In naming an alkanoic acid.2-dichlorobutanoic acid . Naming of Alkanoic Acids Alkanoic acids have the general formula RCOOH. 2. 2-methylpropan-1-ol b. Alkanoic acid methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid Condensed structural formula HCOOH CH3COOH CH3CH2COOH CH3CH2CH2COOH Corresponding alkane methane CH4 ethane CH3CH3 propane CH3CH2CH3 butane CH3CH2CH2CH3 Names of some alkanoic acids are given below: Classwork 1.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. the longest continuous carbon chain containing the carboxyl group –COOH is chosen.40 d.is an alkyl group or hydrogen. where R. Write the structural formula for a. The final “-e” of the corresponding alkane name is changed to “-oic acid”. Name the following compound by IUPAC system: 2.
Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. C4H9Cl 體構異分同構結 體構異分同構結 體構異分同構結 體構異分同構結 構異分同構結 構異分同構結 構異分同構結 構異分同構結 . The different compounds are Structural Isomers isomeric with each other. which are said to be . butane and 2-methylpropane are different compounds having the same molecular formula C4H10 Classwork Give the structural formulae and names for all the structural isomers of a. C3H7OH b. Structural Isomerism 1. For example.41 E. Structural Isomerism is the existence of two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures. 2.
3. alkanes are soluble in many non-aqueous solvents such as methylbenzene and tetrachloromethane. boiling point density and viscosity greater van der Waals' forces).42 V.5 36 69 292 308 320 solid liquid gas 1. most of which are alkanes. All liquid alkanes have density less than 1 g cm-3 and thus float on water. The melting point. 2. Alkanes are insoluble in water. On the other hand. Physical Properties of Alkanes Name Molecular Formula Melting Point (oC) Boiling Point (oC) State at room temperature and pressure Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptadecane Octadecane Nondecane CH4 C2H4 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 -182 -183 -190 -138 -130 -95 22 28 32 -162 -89 -42 -0.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. A. 度黏 烴烷 烴烷 烴烷 烴烷 increase with increasing molecular size (due to . while higher members are waxy solids. There is a gradual change of physical properties in the series. The first four members of the series are colourless gases at room conditions. Alkanes Petroleum and natural gas contain hydrocarbons. The C5 to C17 alkanes are colourless oily liquids. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2.
(iii) Under ordinary conditions. as shown by the disappearance of the red-orange colour of bromine. No reaction when in dark. the reaction takes place very rapidly or may cause explosion. oxidizing agents (e. b. dehydrating agents (H2SO4). higher alkanes burn less completely with more sooty flame. Carbon monoxide and unburnt carbon particles (as soot) would also be produced. Reaction With Halogens (i) Alkanes react with bromine (in 1. Note: 1. carbon and water are produced. The general equation for the complete combustion of alkanes (or other hydrocarbons) is: water. Carbon monoxide.g. .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 2. alkanes undergo complete combustion to give carbon dioxide and and give out much heat. incomplete combustion occurs. they do not react with acids. In direct sunlight. Combustion (i) In a good supply of oxygen. Consequently. Na. In general. They show little reaction towards common chemical reagents.1-trichloroethane) in diffuse sunlight. SO2). KMnO4) or reducing agents (e. the alkanes burn with a yellow flame and produce soot. complete combustion seldom takes place. a. alkalis. For example. y y Cx H y + ( x + ) O2 → xCO2 + H2 O 4 2 (ii) If the oxygen supply is limited.1. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons. Chemical Properties of Alkanes All alkanes have similar chemical properties because of their similar structures.43 B.g.
(iv) In general.44 (ii) Methane also reacts with bromine in the presence of light. (iii) The above reactions are called substitution reaction A SUBSTITUTION REACTION is a reaction in which an atom (or group of atoms) of an organic molecule is replaced by another atom (or group of atoms). substitution reactions of alkanes consist of three steps.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. including (1) initiation (2) propagation (3) termination 應反代取 .
The Cl-Cl bond is broken by UV radiation (from diffuse sunlight) to give two chlorine radicals and start the chain reaction. called free radicals* (or radicals) are produced in the reaction process. xx Cl x Cl xx x x Cl xx + + x Cl xx x x Cl Cl Cl chlorine radical Cl chlorine radical Step 2: Propagation (a) Each chlorine radical combines with a hydrogen atom to form a hydrogen chloride molecule and a methyl radical.45 (v) Example: monosubstitution of methane with chlorine Step 1: Initiation In this step.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. H x H x C x H x H H x + Cl H x C x H + H x Cl H H H H C H + Cl H C H + H Cl methyl radical . * A free radical (or radical) is an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron. a type of very reactive species. They are highly reactive and exist only momentarily.
H xx x x x H x C x H Cl xx H x H x C x H + Cl x Cl xx + x Cl xx x x H H H C H + Cl Cl H C H Cl + Cl Step 3: Termination Some methyl radicals combine directly with chlorine radicals to form chloromethane.46 (b) Some methyl radicals then combine with chlorine atoms from another chlorine molecule to form chloromethane and other chlorine radicals. .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. H x H x C x H H x + Cl H x C x H Cl H H H C H + Cl H C H Cl Classwork Name the products when methane reacts with excess chlorine in diffuse sunlight.
Cracking of Petroleum a. (iv) Cracking is the breaking down of larger hydrocarbon molecules with heat and/or a catalyst to produce smaller hydrocarbon molecules. large alkane molecules are broken down into smaller alkane molecules. Greater Demand Than Supply For Some Distilled Oil Fractions Fractions Refinery gases petrol naphtha kerosene diesel oil fuel oil and lubricating oil Supply 5% 10% 5% 20% 15% 45% Demand 5% 25% 5% 25% 35% 5% (i) Petroleum (or Crude Oil) is refined by fractional distillation into different fractions. cracking of the heavy fractions are necessary. (ii) To produce more petrol. 用作解裂 用作解裂 用作解裂 用作解裂 . kerosene and gas oil cannot meet the greater demand. But the supply for petrol. (iii) Fractions with high boiling point ranges may be cracked.47 C. In the process. together with alkene molecules.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.
Cracking of medicinal paraffin Broken pieces of unglazed porcelain being collected over water. on the hot catalytic surface of porcelain. c. the gaseous portions * Broken pieces porous pot catalyst. . the heavy fractions are heated in the absence of air (otherwise they will burn) aluminium oxide mixed with silicon(IV) oxide as catalyst. Catalytic Cracking During the cracking process. pumice stone 石浮 石浮 石浮 石浮 片瓷素 油蠟石用藥 油蠟石用藥 油蠟石用藥 油蠟石用藥 片瓷孔多 片瓷孔多 片瓷孔多 片瓷孔多 用作解裂化催 用作解裂化催 用作解裂化催 用作解裂化催 in laboratory are heated strongly.48 b. The vapour of medicinal paraffin is cracked or aluminium oxide may also be used as the . The products are lower alkanes and alkenes.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.
Importance of cracking 1. 2.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.49 d.g. (Alkenes are good starting points for preparing a great variety of organic chemicals. To produce extra petrol. e. As a source of alkenes. alkanols and plastics) .
Alkenes therefore burn with a luminous. Physical Properties of Alkenes Name Structural Formula Melting Point ( C) Ethene Propene But-1-ene Pent-1-ene Hex-1-ene CH2=CH2 CH3CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH2CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH=CH2 -169 -185 -185 -138 -140 o Molecular formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 Condensed structural formula CH2=CH2 CH3CH=CH2 CH3CH2CH=CH2 CH3CH=CHCH3 CH3CH2CH2CH=CH2 Boiling Point ( C) -104 -47 -6 30 63 o State at room temperature and pressure Gas Liquid There is also a gradual change of physical properties of alkenes as the length of the carbon chain in the molecules increases. . having the general formula CnH2n. 2CH3CH=CH2(g) + 9O2(g) → 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) In ordinary air. they are much more reactive than alkanes. smoky flame due to unburnt carbon particles being formed. a.50 VI.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Chemical Properties of Alkenes Alkenes are unsaturated. Alkene ethene propene but-1-ene but-2-ene pent-1-ene A. the oxygen present is insufficient for complete combustion. Combustion Alkenes burn in excess oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. B. Alkenes 稀烴 Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Compare and contrast the two reactions.1.51 b. Addition Reactions (i) Reaction with halogens When an alkene reacts with bromine in 1. An ADDITION REACTION is a reaction in which two or more molecules react to give a single molecule. During the reaction. a bromine atom is added to each of the doubly-bonded carbon atoms. 應反成加 應反成加 應反成加 應反成加 .1-trichloroethane.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. The red-orange colour of bromine is discharged in both cases. the red-orange colour of bromine disappears rapidly. Classwork Bromine (in tetrachloromethane) is added separately to hex-1-ene and hexane.
2.is reduced to almost colourless manganese(II) ion Mn2+. 醇二 醇二 醇二 醇二 .52 (ii) Reaction with potassium permanganate solution Alkenes rapidly decolourize an acidified solution of potassium permanganate. .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. two -OH groups being added across the double bond. Test for Alkenes 1. This is an addition reaction. The purple permanganate ion MnO4. The alkene is oxidized to a diol c. The orange solution of bromine dissolved in an organic solvent becomes colourless quickly when shaken with an alkene. The purple solution of acidified potassium permanganate becomes colourless quickly when shaken with an alkene.
c. (HKCEE 2000) . Give one use of fraction X in cars. State the conditions required for the cracking process. c. (i) Explain why the global demand for petrol is greater than that for kerosene. Exercises 1. (ii) Cracking kerosene can produce petrol. Describe the principle underlying the fractional distillation of crude oil. b.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. large hydrocarbon molecules in petroleum fractions are broken down into smaller molecules.53 Classwork In the cracking process. One example is illustrated by the following equation: C10H22 → A + B where A is a saturated hydrocarbon containing 8 carbon atoms and B is an unsaturated hydrocarbon. b. Crude oil is a mixture consisting mainly of alkanes. Fractional distillation of crude oil gives different petroleum fractions. Fraction Petrol / Naphtha Kerosene Diesel X Length of carbon chain C5 – C10 C11 – C18 C18 – C25 C20 – C34 a. State the expected observation. Suggest a chemical test to distinguish B from A. The table below lists the length of carbon chain of the alkanes in some of the fractions. Write the molecular formula of A. a. Draw the structural formula of B.
. Which one of them. Is the gaseous product soluble or insoluble in water? Explain your answer. should the student remove the delivery tube from the water first or should he remove the heating first? Explain your answer. What is the purpose of the broken porous pot? c.54 2.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. the medicinal paraffin or gas G. has a smaller relative molecular mass? Explain your answer. Why is the wool soaked with medicinal paraffin NOT heated directly? d. f. At the end of the experiment. a. What is cracking? b. g. The following experimental set-up is used to crack medicinal paraffin. Why should the first tube of gas collected be discarded? e.
Where Do Plastics Come From? Petroleum is the most important raw material used in the production of plastics. which are obtained by cracking oil fractions like naphtha and gas oil. Different Kinds of Plastics There are many different kinds of plastics. made by joining many small molecules (monomers) together. nylon. Addition Polymers A. under special conditions. What Plastic are? Plastics are polymers. For example. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). polystyrene. ethene molecules can join together to form polythene: . About 4% of petroleum is eventually turned into plastics.55 VII. c.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Plastics are made mainly from ethene and other alkenes. urea-methanal and phenol-methanal b. Some common ones are: polythene. Introduction a. perspex. Polymers consist of very large molecules.
Even in the same polymer sample. acids.56 d.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Why Plastics are so Useful? Plastics have the following properties: Plastics are usually strong but light. POLYMERIZATION is the process of joining together many small molecules repeatedly to form very large molecules. Polymers and Polymerization A POLYMER is a compound consisting of very large molecules formed by many small molecules joined together repeatedly. B. They are good insulators of heat and electricity. They usually have no reactions with air. They are usually transparent and clear. water. the macromolecules present do not have the same size. They can be dyed. In polymerization. alkalis and most other chemicals. They can be moulded easily into any shape. For example. They can be flexible. polythene may be represented as [ CH2-CH2 ] n . the compounds whose molecules join together repeatedly are called monomers. . where n ranges from about 1000 to 30000.
. Structure of an addition polymer can be expressed in terms of its repeating unit. A REPEATING UNIT is the smallest part of a polymer molecule. by repetition of which the whole polymer structure can be derived In our case here. Addition Polymerization a. without elimination of small molecules. What is Addition Polymerization? ADDITION POLYMERIZATION is a reaction in which monomer molecules join together to form polymer molecules. The monomer molecules involved must contain carbon-carbon double bonds.57 C. the repeating unit is: which is derived for one monomer molecule. They undergo repeated addition reactions among themselves to form an addition polymer.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.
Polystyrene Equation: n n . Polythene Equation: n n Example: Write an equation to show the polymerization of propene. Name the polymer formed. Addition Polymers 1.58 b.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 2.
Perspex Write an equation to show the polymerization of methyl 2-methylpropenoate .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. 3.59 Laboratory preparation Equal volumes of styrene and kerosene are heated for about one hour. Kerosene acts as a solvent and catalyst.
. a. A polymer is represented by the following structure: Give the structural formula and IUPAC name of the monomer for this polymer. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Write an equation to show the polymerization of chloroethene.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. Name the two main processes involved in the production of unsaturated compound A from heavy oil in stage II. c. Write the chemical equation for the formation of PVC from its monomers. Name the process for obtaining heavy oil from petroleum in stage I. 2. The flow diagram below shows the key stages involved in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes from petroleum. Classwork 1.60 4. b.
wrapping plastic bags. packaging material of delicate articles and electrical appliances Pipes and bottles “see-through” containers. buckets. raincoats. contact lenses. aircraft windows disposable cups. shower curtains glass substitute. toys . milk bottles Thick plastic bottles. coverings of electrical wires. toys Properties Low density polythene LDPE Uses of polymer films for packaging.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. food boxes.61 Uses and properties of some common addition polymers Name light flexible Polythene PE low-melting High density polythene HDPE tougher higher melting more transparent than LDPE Polystyrene transparent brittle Polystyrene PS hard Expanded Polystyrene white extremely light solid foam PVC Polyvinyl chloride PVC stiff brittle PVC with plasticizer more flexible strong rigid Perspex highly transparent floor tiles. squeeze bottles.
The intermolecular forces are weakened. polythene. These chains are tangled.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P.g. and the chains can slide over each other easily.62 D. the long chains have less energy. the process being repeatable any number of times. the plastic object melts again. perspex. When heated. Relating the Structures of Plastics to Their Thermal Properties a. The plastic thus hardens. When cooled. They become closer and attract each other more. holding each other in place by weak intermolecular forces. A thermoplastic consists of separate. the chains vibrate more vigorously. long flexible polymer chains. PVC b. . A Thermoplastic is a plastic which can be softened by heating and hardened by cooling. e. polystyrene. becoming further apart. When reheated. The plastics thus softens and melts.
the plastics in the waste are separated.63 E. (iii) Plastic waste in the sea poses direct danger to marine lives Small fishes die when digestive tracts are clogged by fragments of plastic bags they ingest. e. paper bags instead to plastic bags (iii)Recycling of plastic waste 3. (ii) Burning plastics gives off poisonous gases Burning plastics will produce toxic carbon monoxide. The regenerated plastics usually have deteriorated properties due to repeated processing. Sea animals are suffocated to death by plastic bags. Recycling of Plastics Recycling of plastics is a possible solution to the plastic waste disposal problem. Environmental issues related to the use of plastics 1. ground to powder and remoulded into new plastic items. cleaned. Often plastic wastes are buried in landfill sites. Burning PVC will produce hydrogen chloride gas. glass and other materials can be used instead of plastics. Solutions to plastic waste disposal problems (i) Making biodegradable plastics (ii) Use of alternative materials Paper. They remain there for a long time. 2. The recycling includes the following forms: a.g. Plastic waste disposal problems (i) Most plastics are non-biodegradable Plastics cannot be decomposed by bacteria. b. Direct recycling This applies only to thermoplastics.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. the success of this method depends on the collection of clean and uncontaminated plastic waste. . Recycling of energy The energy obtained from burning plastic wastes in incinerators can be used for heating or generating electricity. which is the most difficult step.
The following is a schematic diagram for the process. the process is still at an experimental stage and has to prove its economic viability. The process is called pyrolysis. ethene. At present. the molecules would break down to form smaller molecules. Some plastics may produce choking gas when heated in air. A mixture of common plastics such as polythene. Pyrolysis is employed for recycling of plastics because the process does not require the separation of the various types of plastics. These hydrocarbons could be separated out by distillation and used as the starting materials for other chemicals including plastics. if plastics are heated in the absence of air to about 700oC. propene and benzene. However. they burn to form mainly carbon dioxide and water (from hydrocarbons). Recycling of chemicals If plastics are heated in air.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. . would give hydrocarbons such as methane.64 c. polypropene and polystyrene when pyrolysed.
c.Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. it protects the environment by reducing the amount of plastic waste. it conserves raw materials since many plastics are made from non-renewable petroleum. it is difficult to separate plastics from other waste. c. it is difficult to separate different plastics. e. it might save money when petroleum becomes more expensive. b. Problems with recycling a.65 4. Recycling of plastics is important: a. recycled plastics lose their original properties. it is difficult to remove additives in plastics. the process is uneconomical . d. 5. b.
Plastics: Good or Bad? .Part V Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds/P. International plastic coding system for recycling 7.66 6.
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