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1. Populists – a member of a political party claiming to represent the common people. a
United States political party formed in 1891 primarily to represent agrarian interests and to advocate the free coinage of silver and government control of monopolies.
2. William Jennings Bryan – gave the famous “Cross of Gold” speech, in support of using a silver coinage standard instead of the gold standard in use at the time. Became the Democrat’s nomination (with the populist support) for the president against McKinley, and lost. 3. Comstock Lode – A HUGE deposit of silver in Virginia City, Nevada (named & founded after the rush of people). Discovered by Evan and Hosea Grosh in 1857, but both died before claims could be made so Henry Comstock tried to find gold their, and sold the land because he was unsuccessful. Some people discovered the silver deposits and the town flourished (railroads, population spike, etc.). Nevada territory created in 1861. However, the work was extremely dangerous (cave-ins, underground fires, scalding water/ floods). 4. Long Drive – the long travel of cowboys and their steers from 5. Homestead Act – passed in 1862, gave immigrants 160 acres of land for about $1.25 an acre, having to live on the land for 5 years minimum, and making a few improvements. Gave 400,000 + families immediate land and direct ownership. Only about two-thirds of those that tried to homestead made any profit. In the Plains, rain was scarce and the 160 acres of land proved to be insufficient for many. 6. Sooner State – Oklahoma. Once an Indian reservation, the land was opened up to settlers in 1889, upon which some of the settlers left earlier than when the lands became open to get their claims. Hence “sooners”. 7. Safety-valve Theory – correlation between steam pressure (build up of immigrants on the east coast) and a safety-valve (opportunities in the west to draw more immigrants there). Led to the Homestead Act. 8. Frederick Jackson Turner- A historian who wrote the speech "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" and delivered it at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. His speech emphasized the importance of the West in shaping America as we know it. 9. Granger laws- A series of laws passed after the Civil War to regulate railroad freight rates and other railroad abuses against farmers. When they were declared unconstitutional, the federal Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 was passed to secure the same reforms; Started by the Farmers Alliances in response to the Grance movement. 10. Buffalo Soldiers- The nickname for the 10th Calvary Regiment, the first peacetime all-black regiment of the regular US army. 11. Sitting Bull- Along with Crazy Horse, one of the two leaders of the Sioux Indian tribe. Killed General George Custer and his men at the Battle of Little Big Horn, famously known as 'Custer's Last Stand'. Sitting Bull was killed by army officials when he resisted arrest. 12. George A. Custer- US Army General that led the American army during the Indian Wars, and famously led his men through the Battle of Little Big Horn, where he was killed by the Sioux Indians.
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13. Chief Joseph Geronimo- Leader of the Apaches, who ended the Apache War when he was captured in 1886. 14. Helen Hunt Jackson- A Massachusetts-born novelist and poet whose classic book, A Century of Dishonor, recorded the country's record of broken treaty obligations, and stimulated public concern over the condition of Indians. 15. Sioux Wars- was a series of wars between the US and the Sioux people. The violence began in 1862 when
the Santee Sioux people were confined to a small territory. They surrendered in Sept of the same year. The fighting spread to Colorado in 1864 when the discovery of gold brought many people to the area. On Nov 29, 1864 a group of volunteers slaughtered about 150 Cheyenne. More violence broke out in areas such as Utah. In 1866, the Teton Sioux tried to stop the construction of the Bozeman Trail by attacking Capt. William Fetterman and 79 soldiers. These outbursts of violence (the Fetterman and Sand Creek massacres) led to a Peace Commission that recommended that Indians be moved to small reservations (1887). Perhaps the most famous episode of Indian resistance took place at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in which Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull killed General George Custer. Nez Perce- Are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the Pacific Northwest region. They were in Oregon’s Wallowa Valley. One of their greatest leaders was Chief Joseph, every time he fought the US, he either won or forced the Americans to a stand still. In 1877 General Oliver Howard forced the Nez Perce to move to a reservation in Idaho. The significance of these people is that the end of their fight with the US governments marked the era in which all western Indians had been forced to live on reservations. Apache- It is a name for a collective group of Native Americans that are linked culturally. They ranged from Arizona, New Mexico, to part of East Texas and the Great Plains. They were among those who agreed to move to the reservations and their battle with the US ended in 1886 with the capture of Geronimo. There was uneasy peace between the Apache and the US until the 1850s when an influx of settlers due to the gold rush entered the Santa Rita Mountains. This time period is often referred to as the Apache Wars. Ghost Dance- Starting in the 1870s, Ghost Dance was a religious revival among the Indians of the Great Basin that spread to those of the Great Plains. It started among the Paiute Indians of Nevada. It promised to restore their lives to the ways of their ancestors. The Ghost Dance appealed to the Sioux people. Wovoka, a holy man had a revelation about a flood that would eradicate the white people if they performed sacred dances at religious sites. The Great Spirit would also return to raise the dead and restore the buffalo. They would wear white Ghost Dance shirts decorated with red symbols and spin around until in a trance like state. Wounded Knee- (Dec. 29, 1890) Army officials were afraid that the Ghost Dance would lead to a Sioux uprising and they ordered Indian police to arrest Sitting Bull (Sioux Leader). He was killed because he resisted, and his followers fled the Sioux reservation. Federal troops took them to a cavalry camp on Wounded Knee Creek. As the soldiers disarmed the Sioux, a gun was fired and the soldiers began to use machine guns to kill more than 200 Sioux. It marked the end of warfare between the Indians and the whites. Dawes Severalty Act- (1887) It was supposed to encourage Native Americans to become farmers. Under the act, land was given to individual Indians in units of 40 to 160 acres. These lots were unsuitable for farming and were too small to raise livestock. Little Big Horn- (June 25, 1876) Custer saw what he thought was a small Indian village along the Little Big Horn River in modern day Montana. However, the village was much larger than he thought. It contained more than 3000 warriors and was led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. Custer divided his 645 men into three columns. Custer and his men tried an open attack on the Indians’ flank, but his men were ill prepared for combat. Within an hour, every man in Custer’s command had died. Despite the fact that it was “Custer’s Last Stand” it also marked the decline in the Plains Indians. His defeat led to a feeling of revenge amongst Americans, and the Plains Indians suffered many defeats following the battle. Within a year, nearly all the Plains Indians had been put on reservations. Alfred Thayer Mahan-a naval strategist and the author of The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, argued that national prosperity and power depended on control of the world's sea-lanes and which influenced for expansion of American naval power to bases around the world, especially in the Pacific. "Whoever rules the waves rules the world," Mahan wrote. To become a major naval power, the United States began to replace its wooden sailing ships with steel vessels powered by coal or oil in 1883. But control of the seas would also require the acquisition of naval bases and coaling stations. Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm had copies of Mahan's books placed on every ship in the German High Seas Fleet and the Japanese government put translations in its imperial bureaus.
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23. Valeriano Weyler- He was a Spanish Captain-General of Philippines. For his command of troops in the
Philippines in 1895, displaying a cold and brutal facet which would surface prominently in Cuba, where he invented 'hamleting' and gained the sobriquet "The Butcher”. It is also said that he was nicknamed "Butcher" Weyler by yellow journalists like William Randolph Hearst (Publisher of New York Journal).
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24. de Lome letter- a private letter by Spain’s ambassador Enrique Duby de Lome to the United States was
published in New York Journal in which President McKinley is characterized as feebleminded, “weak” and a “petty politician”, provoking a wave of fury. New York Journal publicized the de Lome letter under screaming headline:”WORST INSULT TO THE UNITED STATES IN ITS HISTORY.”
25. Theodore Roosevelt- a cattle rancher, New York State legislator, civil service commissioner, New York City
police commissioner, Navy secretary, soldier, governor of New York and then one of the Progressivism presidents. He once told his friend “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one.” Resigning his post as assistant secretary of the navy and chief instigator of war within the President McKinley administration, Teddy took commission as lieutenant colonel of the “Rough Riders.(see no. 32)”
26. Emilio Aguinaldo- a Filipino General who declared the independence in the Philippines establishing the E R I C
first republic within Asia. Originally seeking that the United States protect the newly born nation, he was highly against McKinley’s proposal to annex his nation. However after continued pressure resulting from domestic conflict he was forced to change his stance for his party to stay in power.
27. Jingoism- a period of extreme nationalism usually categorized by a use belligerent foreign policy, was
originally used in the United States during the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt to follow the incident regarding the sinking of the USS Maine that led to the Spanish American War.
28. Imperialism- The process within in a time period prior to WWI that the United States that a hands high want 29. 30.
for overseas territorial expansion as well a spread a spread of the white man’s influence and superiority. USS Maine- Was one of the first United States battleships to be constructed. It was sent to Havana Cuba in 1889 and was destroyed a month later, February, which was a catalyst for the war between the U.S and Cuba. Teller Amendment- 1898 of April Senator Henry M. Teller proposed the amendment to the U.S for the declaration of war against Spain. Which had stated that the People of the island of Cuba are free and independent U.S demanded that the government of Spain relinquish its authority and government and withdraw its land and water forces from Cuba. U.S president is allowed to call upon the land and naval forces of the U.S to carry forth these resolutions into affect. U.S declares that the island and the people of Cuba are independent when the U.S finish getting rid of Spain out of Cuban territory. Platt Amendment- Eight conditions that the Cuban government had to agree to before the U.S withdrew their forces from Cuba. Prohibited Cuban government from entering any international treaties that would compromise Cuban independence or allow foreign powers to use the island as a naval base. Cuban government had to implement plans to improve sanitation Relinquish claims on the Isle of Pines agree to sell or lease territory for coaling and naval stations to the United States and to finally make the Cuban Government to conclude a treaty with the U.S to that would make the Platt Amendment legally binding. Rough Riders- The very first United States Volunteer Calvary was formed from men from the Western Frontier who had fought in Cuba. Treaty of Paris 1898- Commissioners from Spain and the U.S met in Paris to produce a treaty to end a six month long war on August 14, 1898. Thus made Spain promise to remove all soldiers off of Cuba and recognize American’s occupation of the area, Spain must cede Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S, and that the U.S compensate Spain of a loss of 20 million dollars. Anti-Imperialist League- was formed on June 15, 1898 which had formed to fight the U.S annexation of the Philippines. Made up of people that were concerned about the colonial policy that the US government may choose to adopt in the wake of the war gathered to speak out against the transformation of the United
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40. 41. 42.
States into an imperial power. Most famous people that made up this group were Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie and George S. Boutwell. Foraker Act- April 12, 1900 President McKinley signed a civil law that established a civilian government in Puerto Rico. An American-appointed governor was to be the executive officer of the island and he was to be advised by a two-house legislature. The lower house was to be popularly elected, but the upper chamber was to be selected in the United States. Insular Cases- A series of cases that created the consensus of the Supreme Court that constitutional rights don't automatically cover areas controlled by America. This overall consensus came as a result of new territories obtained by America, and the question of the state of the legal system in the territories/ how to govern them. Philippine Insurrection- (1899-1902) - After the US purchased the Philippines from Spain, On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo stated that the Philippines were independent. After a few months of political debate, fighting erupted between American and Filipino soldiers. The Filipinos employed guerilla tactics, and the US resorted to burning villages and torturing suspected insurgents. The war officially ended in 1920 with the capture of Aguinaldo, but the fighting continued afterward. This war discouraged the US from meddling with oversea territories. John Hay- Secretary of State under President McKinley and Roosevelt. He wrote the Open Door Notes, which encouraged the creation of the US's open door policy. Spheres of Influence- Places where the US held influence outside its borders. This included Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines, Panama, and Chinese ports. The Monroe Doctrine stated that no European nation could meddle with South America, and the Roosevelt Corollary said that the US could use military force to police the area. These acts put most of South/ Latin America under American influences. Open Door policy-(1899) - The US feared that its trading interests in China were threatened by other nations. John Hay sent out a letter to the major nations of the time asking them not to meddle with China, and not to close any ports within the US's sphere of influence. Big Stick Diplomacy- The foreign policy of Roosevelt, based on the proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick." It advocated using force to achieve US goals, especially when dealing with Latin America and the Monroe Doctrine. Panama Canal- After the US helped Panama break from Colombia, it was allowed jurisdiction over land that they would turn into the Panama Canal. The project was very expensive in terms of cost and human lives, but after it was completed, the canal was very helpful. It linked the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, and saved an enormous amount of shipping time. America would spend a great deal of effort making sure the canal was kept safe after it was built.
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43. Portsmouth Conference- The conference at which the Treaty of Portsmouth was signed. This treaty formally ended the Russo-Japanese War. The conference was orchestrated and saved by Teddy Roosevelt, who intervened when Russia threatened to step away from the peace talks. The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed September 5, 1905. 44. Gentlemen's Agreement- Under the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907-1908, the Japanese government agreed to limit passports issued to Japanese in order to permit wives to enter the United States; and in 1917, the United States barred all Asian immigrants except for Filipinos, who were U.S. nationals. It was nullified in 1924 to the disgust of Japan in the Immigration Act of 1924, which legally banned all Asians from migrating to America and nullified the Gentlemen's Agreement. 45. Great White Fleet- A United States naval fleet sent around the world by Teddy Roosevelt in order to demonstrate America’s rise to world power. 46. Dollar Diplomacy- Foreign policy followed by President Taft that the goal of diplomacy was to create stability and order abroad that would best promote American commercial interests. Dollar diplomacy" was evident in extensive U.S. interventions in the Caribbean and Central America, especially in measures undertaken to safeguard American financial interests in the region. In China, Knox secured the entry of an American banking conglomerate, headed by J.P. Morgan, into a European-financed consortium financing the construction of a railway from Huguang to Canton. In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and China.
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47. Moral Diplomacy- Woodrow Wilson encouraged Americans to look beyond their economic interests and to define and set foreign policy in terms of ideals, morality, and the spread of democracy abroad. The United States continued its efforts to become an active player on the international scene and engaged in action both in its traditional "sphere of influence" in the Western Hemisphere and in Europe during the First World War. 48. Central Powers/Triple Alliance- Negotiated and signed in May 1881, the Triple Alliance brought Italy into the alliance previously agreed between Germany and Austria-Hungary (in 1879) as a counterweight to France and Russia. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and AustriaHungary promised to assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. 49. Allied Powers/Triple Entente- the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The main allies were the Russian Empire, France, the British Empire, Italy, the Empire of Japan, and the US. France, Russia, and the United Kingdom (including its empire), entered WWI in 1914, as a result of their Triple Entente alliance. The US declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated American neutrality by attacking international shipping. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Britain, because it had not declared war on the Ottoman Empire like those two countries. Although Turkey severed relations with the US, it did not declare war. The U.S. was not at war with some of the other Central Powers, such as the Kingdom of Bulgaria. Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during WWI. The Triple Entente was the name given to the loose alignment of the United Kingdom, France, and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907. The alignment of the three powers, supplemented by various agreements with Japan, the United States, and Spain, constituted a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance of Imperial Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, the third having concluded an additional secret agreement with France effectively nullifying her Alliance commitments. 50. Lusitania/Arabic/Sussex51. George Creel- (1876-1953) was an investigative journalist, a politician, and, most famously, the head of the United States Committee on Public Information, a propaganda organization created by President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. He published his memoirs of the experience, How We Advertised America, in 1920, and would write 14 other books during his lifetime. He described American propaganda by saying "Our effort was educational and informative throughout, for we had such confidence in our case as to feel that no other argument was needed than the simple, straightforward presentation of facts." 52. Herbert Hoover- was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). Besides his political career, Hoover was a professional mining engineer and author. As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge, he promoted government intervention under the rubric "economic modernization". In the presidential election of 1928 Hoover easily won the Republican nomination despite having no previous elective office experience. To date, Hoover was the last cabinet secretary to be directly elected President of the United States. The nation was prosperous and optimistic at the time, leading to a landslide for Hoover over Democrat Al Smith, whom many voters distrusted because of his Roman Catholicism. Hoover deeply believed in the Efficiency Movement (a major component of the Progressive Era), arguing that a technical solution existed for every social and economic problem. That position was challenged by the Stock market crash of 1929 that took place less than 8 months after Hoover's taking office, and the Great Depression that followed it which gained momentum in 1930. Hoover tried to combat the Depression with volunteer efforts and government action, none of which produced economic recovery during his term. The consensus among historians is that Hoover's defeat in the 1932 election was caused primarily by failure to end the downward spiral into deep Depression, compounded by popular opposition to prohibition. Other electoral liabilities
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were Hoover's lack of charisma in relating to voters, and his poor skills in working with politicians. 53. Henry Cabot Lodge- (1850-1924) was an American statesman, a Republican politician, and a noted historian. Lodge was early on associated with the conservative faction of the Republican Party. He was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the populists and the silverites, who were led by the left-wing Democrat William Jennings Bryan. Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States to do so: Following American victory in the Spanish-American War, Lodge came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. Lodge maintained that the United States needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs. He was a staunch advocate of entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers, attacking President Woodrow Wilson's perceived lack of military preparedness and accusing pacifists of undermining American patriotism. After the United States entered the war, Lodge continued to attack Wilson as hopelessly idealistic, assailing Wilson's Fourteen Points as unrealistic and weak. He contended that Germany needed to be militarily and economically crushed and saddled with harsh penalties so that it could never again be a threat to the stability of Europe. 54. self-determination- efined as free choice of one’s own acts without external compulsion, and especially as the freedom of the people of a given territory to determine their own political status or independence from their current state. In other words, it is the right of the people of a certain nation to decide how they want to be governed without the influence of any other country. The latter is a complex concept with conflicting definitions and legal criteria for determining which groups may legitimately claim the right to self-determination. Woodrow Wilson revived the American commitment to self-determination, at least for European states, during World War I. When the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia in November 1917, they called for Russia’s immediate withdrawal as a member of the Allies of World War I. They also supported the right of all nations, including colonies, to self-determination. (As early as 1914 Lenin wrote: “[It] would be wrong to interpret the right to self-determination as meaning anything but the right to existence as a separate state.”) The 1918 Constitution of the Soviet Union acknowledged the right of secession for its constituent republics. 55. collective security- according to Inis Claude's article "Collective Security as an Approach to Peace", is seen as a compromise between the concept of world government and a nation-state based balance of power system, where the latter is seen as destructive or not a good enough safeguard for peace, and the first is deemed unaccomplishable at the present time. And while collective security is possible, several prerequisites have to be met for it to work. In the First World War, countries in the collective defense arrangement known as the Triple Entente (France, Britain, Russia) got pulled into war quickly when Russia started full mobilization against Austria-Hungary, whose ally Germany subsequently declared war on Russia.
56. Alice Paul- An advocate for womans suffrage, in 1917 was jailed and went on a hunger strike for several weeks being sent to solitary confinement and eventually a psychiatric ward, after being force fed for several weeks the government finally released her and all imprisoned suffragists after a series of intense beatings in a jail house carried out by guards and workers on November 15. 57. Zimmerman Note- A telegram from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman to Mexico in March 1917, promising to help Mexico recover the territory it had lost in the 1840's including Texas, New Mexico, California, and Arizona. Along with unrestricted submarine warfare this telegram helped bring the United States into the war against the axis. 58. Fourteen Points- A famous speech delivered by Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of congress on January 8 1918, setting forth fourteen points by which to reduce the potential for another war of proportions as great as World War I 59. League of Nations- A plan proposed by Woodrow Wilson, the League of Nations would help discourage war and conflict, much like the United Nations, however it was ineffective due largely to the fact that Congress voted (in concurrence with the public opinion) to remain isolated and uninvolved in foreign affairs, thus one
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of the key nations to make it work did not join the league of nations. This has been cited by some as one of the reasons for the League's failure to curtail German and Japanese territorial gains in the late thirties and early forties. 60. Committee on Public Information- Headed by George Creel, printed 75 million pamphlets supporting American involvement in the war. Also, a massive campaign to muster funds through war bonds was launched and 75,000 speakers were sent to help rally the American people (and convince them to purchase war bonds), the CPI also encouraged movies such as 'To Hell With the Kaiser' and 'The Kaiser: The Beast of Berlin' that portrayed the Germans as callous and cruel. This was the first time the Federal Government demonstrated propaganda in this fashion and was the first propaganda campaign to use advances in psychology to help increase its effectiveness. 61. Espionage and Sedition Acts- June 1917, Congress passed the Espionage Act, which posed individuals convicted of obstructing the draft with up to $10,000 fines and a 20 year jail sentence. In 1918 Congress passed the Sedition Act which made it a federal offense to speak badly of the Constitution, the government or the flag. Under these act over 2100 people were prosecuted during the war. 62. Schenck v. U.S.- An important court case in which it was determined that if 'Clear and Present Danger' could be established the first amendment rights were not applicable. 63. War Industries Board- Initially led by Frank A. Scott, the War Industries Board was a government agency established on the brink of World War I in charge coordinating the purchase and standardization of war materials. Although it raised industrial efficiency by over twenty percent, the War Industries Board was decommissioned by an executive order on January 1, 1919. 64. Eighteenth Amendment- ratified on January 29, 1919, the eighteenth established prohibition. Although it did not actually ban the consumption of alcohol, it made it very difficult to obtain legally. This amendment lead to the rise of organized crime and was eventually repealed by the twenty-first amendment. 65. Nineteenth Amendment- ratified on August 18, 1920, the nineteenth amendment gave women the right to vote. It was publically supported by Woodrow Wilson. The amendment has many stylistic similarities to the “Declaration of Sentiments” from the Seneca Falls Convention. 66. Big Four- also known as the Council of Four, the Big Four consisted of members Woodrow Wilson from the United States, David Lloyd George of Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Georges Clemenceau of France. This formal group of diplomats met to decided the terms of the Treaty of Versailles 67. Irreconcilables- This was a group of 16 Republicans in the United States Legislature that refused to support any type of League of Nations. They eventually got what they wanted, as the United States did not join the League of Nations that was created. 68. Treaty of Versailles- signed on June 28, 1919, ended World War I. The Allies victory allowed them to lay down the law with the Central Powers. The ramifications of this treaty would eventually lead to economic downfall in Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany had to take the blame for the war and pay for most damages, which in total equated to slightly more than $32 billion, and return the rich Alsace-Lorraine region to France. Germany was also very limited on rearmament. Hungary, once part of a huge empire, lost 2/3 of its lands, as the independent states of Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland were created (or in Poland’s case, re-created). Ottoman lands were split between the winners. Britain took Palestine, Jordan, and northern Iraq. France won Lebanon and Syria. German possessions in Africa were divided similarly. The last major thing in the Treaty of Versailles was the creation of the League of Nations, which the United States refused to join. Although, ineffective, the League of Nations would eventually lead to the United Nations.
DKMAH pg. 255-264, 283-296, 302-318
Was the westward migration of Americans after 1865 brought about primarily by developments in transportation, economics, or government policy? To what extent did the policies of the U.S. government after 1865 lead to the mistreatment of native Americans?
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To what extent did American economic and ideological interests benefit from the territorial expansion and imperialism of the late 1800s and early 1900s? To what extent did the United States enter World War I to protect its economic and ideological interests? To what extent did the United States successfully meet its objective in World War I?
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