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THE ROAD SURFACE TREATMENTS ASSOCIATION

Surface Dressing & Micro-Surfacing
Dr Howard Robinson
Chief Executive

www.rsta-uk.org

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Surface Dressing
Long History of Use

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Surface Dressing
Performs 2 functions which relate directly to the essential requirements in the European CPD Safety – Skid Resistance Increases macro & micro texture with minimum usage of scare high quality aggregate Durability – Preventative Maintenance Seals underlying surface from ingress of water and air

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Surface Dressing
techniques
Single Dressing Racked-In Double Dressing Sandwich Dressing

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org 5 .Surface Dressing Applications • Carriageways Footways Cycleways Car parks • • • www.rsta-uk.

Finite Resource Consumption Treatment composition kg/m2 Material Single Dressing 1.rsta-uk.0 Double Dressing 1.0 Binder Aggregate www.5 21.0 12.0 40mm Asphalt Surfacing 6.org 6 .0 93.

50 3.org . urban roads Mainly Urban locations Mainly Urban locations High stress areas Anywhere  exposed  aggregates Anywhere Urban.20 1. trunk roads £ / m2 +/‐10% Expected Life  years 7 – 10 7 – 10 7 – 10  n/a 7 – 12 7 – 12 5 – 10  3 ‐ 5 3 ‐ 5 Increases life by  factor of 4 1. higher  stress.rsta-uk.00  3.8 ‐ 1 5 ‐ 8 www.00 – 1.50 – 4. quieter Busy urban roads.50 1. gradient.80 2. bend Rural.Comparative Costs and Life Type 6mm Single Surface Dressing 10&6mm Racked In Dressing 14&6mm Double Surface  Dressing  (relatively new) Pre‐patching additional cost  Micro‐Asphalt  14mm Micro‐asphalt + regulating +  ironworks raised High Friction Surfacing  Re‐texturing – bush hammer Gilsonite Preservative Asphalt Reinforcement – Geo‐composites/Geo‐textiles Application Estate roads.00 9 ‐ 12 2 ‐ 3 0. rural areas Urban roads.

Surface Dressing
Extending time to structural maintenance
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Carbon Footprint
Work ongoing at University of Nottingham to develop process maps and capture energy data for a range of surface treatments that can then be fed into asPECT Asphalt Pavement Embodied Carbon Tool

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Quality Control

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Chipping Spread Rate Test

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rsta-uk.Binder Spread Rate Test www.org .

rsta-uk.Carpet Tile Spray Bar Test www.org .

org .Specification SHW Clause 922 BSEN 12271 PD6689 www.rsta-uk.

Cl 919 of SHW Method 1 defines a product and therefore the Construction Product Regulation applies and BSEN12271 www.Procurement Method 1 Method 2 Specified by end product performance .org .Cl 922 of SHW Specified by recipe .rsta-uk.

org .Clause 922 • The contractor must.rsta-uk..  macro‐texture and also a design life • Install a dressing that meets requirements of NHSS 13a • Provide a quality plan • Be compliant with BSEN 12271 • Provide a 2 yr guarantee • Provide evidence his spray tanker and chipping machine can  achieve the desired rate and accuracy of spread • Produce a self‐certified TAIT www.. • Produce a design to achieve a level of performance e.g.

rsta-uk.org .BSEN 12271 • Effective in UK from January 2011 • PD6689 provides UK guidance  • Specifies a range of properties and categories to  enable  appropriate limiting values to be set for a  wide range of uses  • CE Marking currently not mandatory in UK www.

PD 6689 Constituent Materials www.org .rsta-uk.

rsta-uk.Binders • Unmodified binders must conform to BS EN 13808  emulsions • PMB’s are proprietary materials and Clauses 919 and  922 require these to have BBA HAPAS certificates • BSEN 12271 includes a measure of binder cohesion  (Vialit Test) www.org .

7J/cm2 *threshold level for guidance only www.Modified Binders Vialit Pendulum Cohesion Vialit Cohesion BS EN 13588 HA SHW Clause 939 Grades (minimum Peak Cohesion): Super premium binder 1.org .2J/cm2 1.4J/cm2 Premium binder Intermediate Unmodified* 1.0J/cm2 0.rsta-uk.

 not more than 1% passing  0.063 mm sieve) www.org .e. for surface dressing.rsta-uk.PD 6689 Aggregates • HD 36 advises what PSV and AAV to be used on a site‐by‐site  basis. the  fines content should be f1 (i. The PSV is required to ensure the durability of  skidding resistance • Aggregates used in surface dressing should conform to BS EN  13043 • Recommendations for grading’s of chippings are in PD 6682‐ 2:2009. Table 4 • BS EN 13043 also recommends that.

org .rsta-uk. Table 2 • These recommendations relate the HAUC road types together  with the design classifications from RN 39 www.PD 6689 Performance Criteria • Performance categories in PD 6689 have been chosen from   BS EN 12271:2006.

Table 2 .EN 12271:2006(E) .

rsta-uk.Type Approval Installation Trial (TAIT) • TAITs are the means by which a producer  demonstrates the ability to design and install a group  or family of surface treatments meeting the required  performance characteristics • TAITs can also be used as the basis for CE marking  www.org .

rsta-uk.org .Type Approval Installation Trial Recommended Portfolio TAITs are the responsibility of the producer and must be verified by a notified body www.

 the relevant controls  and tests are carried out at minimum frequency and records are kept • All producers accredited to NHSS13a must have a QA system which  meets FPC requirements and are accredited by notified bodies • The Sector Scheme is a requirement of the SHW and requires producers  to demonstrate the competence of their workforce • There is a schedule of suppliers accredited to NHSS 13a maintained by  Lantra • The attestation of conformity is 2+ www.rsta-uk.org .Factory Production Control (FPC) • BSEN 12271 specifies a FPC system ‐ a route to CE marking • FPC ensures the design procedure is documented.

Surface Dressing Design Guide .

Design Input Data •Surface Temperature Category •Road Hardness  •Traffic •Geometry •Chipping properties     www.rsta-uk.org .

Surface Temperature Category Table 7.rsta-uk.org .Approximate Surface Temperature Categories www.1 .2.

org .rsta-uk.Road Hardness Category www.

2.Road Hardness Category 22 20 Probe penetration (mm) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 10 15 20 25 very hard hard normal soft very soft 30 35 40 Road surface temperature (°C) Category B Figure 7.2 – Hardness categories from depth of penetration and road surface temperature for Different Surface Temperature Categories .

Table 7.Traffic Categories converted from msa to cv/l/d assuming a growth rate of 2% over the design life.2.3 – Traffic Categories www.org .rsta-uk.

org .rsta-uk.Geometrics Gradients Bends Junction and Crossings = STRESS www.

Chipping Properties PSV refer to HD36/06 or Figure 7.3. AAV Not greater than 14 www.org .1.rsta-uk.

org .rsta-uk.Other Data Required • General Surface Condition • Season • Shade • Local Traffic • Noise www.

2 – Surface Dressing Season .Season Figure 7.3.

org .Tree Shade www.rsta-uk.

org .Noise 14mm Increasing noise (dBA) 14/6mm 10mm 10/6mm 6mm Increasing texture depth www.rsta-uk.

Designing the Dressing • Site Suitability • Sections within the Site • Choosing the Dressing type and Binders • Using the Design Proforma • Selecting the Rate of Spread www.org .rsta-uk.

1 .Effect of Existing Road Surface Characteristics on Achievable Performance Levels .Site Suitability Figure 8.

Choosing The Right Dressing Figure 8.3a Selection of Type of Surface Dressing for Lightly-Trafficked Sites .

Table 9.2 Racked In Dressing .Binder Rate of Spread .2.

rsta-uk.org .Surface Dressing Benefits Relatively low cost and high productivity Extends road life and delays major maintenance spend Reduced traffic management costs and road user costs Efficient use of aggregates/binder and minimal waste Up to 10 year life if properly designed and executed A strategic option for de-carbonising roads Can help to prevent potholing www.

rsta-uk.org .Surface Dressing Innovation • • • • • • • • Better. tougher binders = better chip retention Low temperature emulsions ( under trial ) Better emulsion break control Better mobile plant – improved spraying/spreading accuracy Closer attention to achieving good compaction Closer liaison with highway authorities Improved after care Better trained operatives with CSCS cards ( Sector Scheme 13 a ) www.

org .rsta-uk.Micro-Surfacing www.

org .Micro-Surfacing • A polymer‐modified cold paved asphalt • Thickness 6 to 15 mm • Uses – rut‐filling/ levelling course – sealing – filling potholes – corrects ravelling/bleeding – improves skid resistance (higher volume roads) www.rsta-uk.

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Micro-Asphalt Description • Slurry surfacing introduced in the late 1950’s • Primarily used as a preservative treatment for airfield  runways typical aggregate size for slurry surfacing 0‐3mm • Slurry surfacing now more widely known as micro‐asphalts or  micro‐surfacing with typically 0‐6mm aggregates • Micro‐asphalt is a mixture of: – – – – – – Aggregates (coarse and fine) PMB emulsion Water Cement or hydrated lime Possibly fibres Chemical ‘breaking’ agent • The blend of materials is batched in‐situ and laid by a purpose  built self propelled micro‐asphalt paver www.org .rsta-uk.

Slurry Seal and Micro-Asphalt • Footway slurry seal is mechanically mixed and hand applied  using a brush to provide surface texture. Laid mechanically and is suitable for urban  areas and airfield taxiways • Micro‐asphalts – first layer regulates and re profiles the existing pavement – second layer provides a dense surface with good texture depth and  wet skidding resistance.rsta-uk.org .  www. Non polymer  modified bitumen emulsion and aggregate sizes of 0‐3mm • Thin carriageway and airfield slurry seal is usually laid up to  5mm thick using a 0‐3mm aggregate and non polymer  bitumen emulsion.

SLURRY / MICROSURFACING .

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Composition • Aggregates • Mineral filler • Water • Bitumen emulsion • Field control additive www.rsta-uk.org .

Aggregate selection • Strong.org .rsta-uk. durable • 100% crushed particles • Type of rock • Reactivity of fines – critical! www.

org .0 100 2.rsta-uk.36 95-100 1.075 5-15 ← → Microsurfacing 100 70-90 75-100 45-70 55-90 28-50 35-70 19-34 20-45 12-25 5-15 5-15 www.300 30-50 .18 70-95 .Aggregate Gradation Sieve size Slurry mm 5.600 55-75 .

rsta-uk.Mineral Fillers • Portland cement • Hydrated lime • Modify flow & setting characteristics www.org .

org .Bitumen Emulsion Selection www.rsta-uk.

Polymer • Purposes – reduces temperature susceptibility – improves stiffness • Types – latex (liquid) – solids www.rsta-uk.org .

rsta-uk.1%) www.org .Field Control Additive • Affects break time – temperature & aggregate reactivity • Type and amount – amines (0.

org .Surface Curing • Mix time – time remaining fluid (30‐180 s) • Set time – expulsion of clear water & initial development  of cohesion • Traffic time – sufficient cohesion for traffic (20 min to 4 hrs) www.rsta-uk.

org .Mix Design Criteria • Mixing tests • Cohesion test • Tests for binder content • Performance‐related tests www.rsta-uk.

  Clear water exuded ‐ set time – Part stirred until stiff ‐ mix time • Cohesion test – Rolled into ball & dropped on floor www.org .Mixing & Cohesion Tests • Mix time & set time – Hand‐mixed for 30s – Part poured out.rsta-uk.

Tests For Binder Content • Wet track abrasion (WTAT) ‐ BS 434 aggregate test (max 500g/m²) • Loaded wheel test www.org .rsta-uk.

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rsta-uk.org .Site Selection – Client Side • Highway clients look to micro‐surfacing to improve: – – – – Appearance – covering surface defects Profiling – regulation of the surface Skid Resistance – replaces contact surface Subsurface Protection – sealing the road against water  ingress www.

rsta-uk.org .A Potential Micro-Surfacing Site www.

rsta-uk.Micro-Asphalt Paver www.org .

AGGREGATE BITUMEN WATER SPREADER BOX .

Computer Controlled Batching www.rsta-uk.org .

org .Applied through the Spreader Laying box www.rsta-uk.

Compaction using a Pneumatic Tyre Roller (PTR) www.rsta-uk.org .

rsta-uk.org .After Care • • • • • Ready for traffic after 20 minutes Sweep after 24 hours Raise Ironwork next day Apply road safety markings after 72 hours Remove traffic management signs www.

rsta-uk.org 73 .Slurry-Micro Surfacing Applications • • • • • • • Carriageways Footways Cycleways Car parks Playgrounds Airfield runways Reservations and Islands www.

 with minimum disruption  to traffic flows • Environmentally advantageous with little or  no toxic emissions and no heat energy  required • Financial cost benefits www.org .rsta-uk.Benefits • Restoration of instantaneous skidding  resistance and texture depth levels • Quick installation.

org . FPC.918 – contractors must be compliant with Sector Scheme 13b www.rsta-uk.BSEN 12273 Micro-Surfacing • UK guidance contained in PD 6689 • BSEN 12273 will be implemented in UK in January 2011 • By that time all contractors must have in place: BSEN ISO 9001 QA systems. TAIT’s • UK specification controlled by SHW Cl.

org .rsta-uk.Specification Requirements • Aggregates to BS EN 13043 • Binders to BS EN 13808 Cationic Bitumen Emulsions • Mix design declared by producer • 1 year after installation: – visual assessment of defects – surface macro-texture www.

6.org . 3. Visual assessment www. 5.BS EN 12274 Test Methods 1.rsta-uk. 7. 4. 2. Sampling Residual binder content Consistency – mix design Cohesion of mix – mix design Wearing (wet track abrasion) – mix design Rate of application  Shaking abrasion (binder/aggregate affinity) – mix design 8.

Clause 918 • • • • • Contractor design Registration to Sector Scheme 13B TAIT to BS EN 12273 Aggregate min.rsta-uk. PSV & max. 1 & 2 years) – Normally 1 year for non‐trunk roads • Specifies how to execute the works • BBA HAPAS certification for modified binder no longer  required • Bond coat specified www. AAV (FI20 omitted) Performance requirements  – Assessment of defects & macrotexture – 2 year guarantee (macrotexture initially.org .

4) www.org . 1) to dual carriageways (Cat.Notes for Guidance on Clause 918 • Clause 942 thin surfacing applicable to micro-surfacing for roads carrying > 250 cv/l/d or allowing speeds > 60 mph • Categories given for visual assessment of defects – from lightly trafficked roads (Cat.rsta-uk.

5 ≥ 0.2 ≤2 ≤2 ≥ 0. etc. aggregate loss.Performance Requirements Requirement P1 – bleeding. P2 – delamination. etc.6 Declared maximum Declared class/category Constituents Binder cohesion J/cm² Aggregate PSV Aggregate micro-Deval Slurry type (AAV in UK) Defined by maximum aggregate size & binder type . Macrotexture Noise (macrotexture) Unit 0 % % mm mm NPD NPD NPD Category 1 2 ≤8 ≤8 ≥ 0.5 ≤ 0.4 3 ≤ 0.

Surface Dressing Recipe Clause 922 .Guidance Design Manual for Roads and Bridges Volume 7 Section 5 Part 2 HD37/99 SHW Series 900 Clause 918 .rsta-uk.Micro-surfacing EN 12271 – Surface Dressing (FPC + test methods) EN 12273 – Slurry-Micro Surfacing (FPC + test methods) PD6689: 2009 Surface Treatments NHSS 13a Surface Dressing and 13b Slurry-Micro Surfacing Road Note 39 and RSDA Code of Practice www.Surface Dressing Performance Clause 927 .org 81 .Slurry Surfacing Clause 919 .

THANKS FOR LISTENING! Visit www.rsta‐uk.org for our  calendar of training courses www.rsta-uk.org .