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“VLSI Implementation of Convolution and DSP Algorithm using Vedic Mathematics”
Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Department of Electronics Engineering
Supervisor: Dr. R. S. Meena,
Associate Professor, ECE Deptt
Enrolment No.: 11/1011
Department of Electronics Engineering University College of Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota December- 2012
In any processor the major units are Control Unit, ALU and Memory read write. Among these units the performance of any processor majorly depends on the time taken by the ALU to perform the specified operation. Multiplication is an important fundamental function in arithmetic operations. Multiplicationbased operations such as Multiply and Accumulate (MAC) and inner product are among some of the frequently used Computation Intensive Arithmetic Functions (CIAF) currently implemented in many Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications such as convolution, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), filtering etc. Since multiplication dominates the execution time of most DSP algorithms, so there is a need of high speed multiplier. Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of mathematics, or to be precise, a unique technique of calculations based on simple rules and principles with which any mathematical problem can be solved – be it arithmetic, algebra, geometry or trigonometry. The system is based on 16 Vedic sutras or aphorisms, which are actually word formulae describing natural ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. The task in this progress report is to show the novel multiplier design developed in the Tanner tool software of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI). Performance of this multiplier is much faster and consumes less power than the recently developed multiplier architectures.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to my supervisor, Dr. R.S. Meena, Asso. Proff., Department of Electronics Engineering, University College of Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. Dr. R.S. Meena provided me with necessary support, advice, facilities and enthusiasm required to successfully complete this phase of progress report of the PhD. His efforts in helping me in the development of the project, through technical difficulties and in search for relevant literature are much appreciated. I would also like to thank Dr. Rajeev Gupta, Professor & Head, Department of Electronics Engineering, Dr. Mithilesh Kumar, Dr. Ranjan Maheshwari for their valuable support and providing me necessary guidance. I am much obliged to the people that provided appreciated feedback on drafts of this Progress Report.
(Rajesh Bathija) iii
2 Research Hypothesis 5. Vedic Mathematics 4. Publication 7.TABLE OF CONTENTS Description Abstract 1. Research Plan 5. Historical Development of Multiplication Algorithms 3. ii 01 04 08 12 14 14 14 14 15 15 17 29 32 iv .4 Research method 5.5 Research strategy 6. Future Planning 8. Objective of PhD Work 5.1 Research Problem 5. Introduction 2. References Page No.3 Research assumptions 5.
out of these algorithms Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is the most important and significant algorithm. development of a fast and low power multiplier has been a subject of interest over decades. To operate these digital signals we use the Digital Signal Processors (DSP). In DSP to perform different types of operations we use various algorithms.CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION All of us are familiar with the digital circuitry. therefore. Convolution in DSP is the basic operations to find out the output of an LTI system. including linear filtering. Speed of both of these FFT algorithms mainly rely on the multiplier used in it. makes use of Vedic Mathematics and goes step by step. Multiplier based on Vedic Mathematics is one of the fast and low power multiplier. correlation and spectrum analysis. Basically the FFT algorithm is used as an efficient means to compute the DFT and IDFT. The core computing process is always a multiplication routine in DSP. The FFT algorithm is used in variety of areas. which are DIT and DIF whose acronyms are Decimation In Time and Decimation In Frequency respectively. it’s necessary for a multiplier to be fast and power efficient and so. The work presented here. Now days the digital circuitry has replaced most of the analog circuitry in various places because technically digital domain is much better than the analog domain. then a Multiply Accumulate Unit. Higher throughput arithmetic operations are important to achieve the desired performance in many real-time signal and image processing application. because of its capability to perform efficient computation in comparison to the DFT. through which FFT algorithm can be performed. There are mainly two ways. So performance of FFT processor can enhanced with the use of highly speed efficient multiplier  Digital signal processing (DSP) is the technology that is omnipresent in almost every engineering discipline. then an Arithmetic module which uses this . different multiplier architectures are present. by first designing a Vedic Multiplier. In this Phd Progress Report-I.
DCT.multiplier and MAC unit. and finally convolution and other algorithms of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) like FFT. etc. .
1 for simplicity purpose the LSB bit of multiplier (n) and nlsb are shown in bold. In Fig. in the immediate next cycle. If pair of bits is: 00 or 11. consider they be X and A respectively. of bits in the multiplier.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF MULTIPLICATION ALGORITHMS 2. The process continues until the no. multiplicand is added to the MSB of P and then circular right shift is performed on P. . Initially. Also duplication of MSB i. these are the pair of bits of multiplier which are analyzed and a respective operation of shift and add is performed on P depending on the following four conditions. 01. m and n using Booth’s Algorithm.e. equal to one more than the number of bits of multiplier to the MSB of multiplicand. sign bit of multiplier n and multiplicand m is done along with which 0s are appended to the LSB of multiplier and multiplicand so as to make length of multiplicand and multiplier equal to P.2. Initially a new number ‘P’ is formed by appending 0s. 10. Fig. Booth’s algorithm works on the principle of shift and adds. a copy of lsb bit of multiplier is made in nlsb column and circular right shift operation is performed on multiplier. circular right shift is performed on P. nlsb bit is considered 0.1 illustrates multiplication of two 4 bit nos. Let S be 2’s compliment of X for subtraction purpose. subtract Multiplicand from the MSB of P and then circular right shift is performed on P. of cycles is equal to the no. The result so obtained in P at the end of the last cycle is the final result of multiplication.CHAPTER.1 Booth Algorithm: An algorithm for multiplication of two signed bit numbers was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950.
This intermediate result is column-wise added with the immediate next partial product term P4 which is shifted left by 1 more bit as shown in Fig.2(a) first three partial products are selected where P3 is right shifted left by 2 bits and P2 by 1 bit and finally is column-wise added with P1 to give an intermediate result as shown in Fig.2(c).1.2 illustrates the working of Wallace Algorithm for multiplication of two 4 bit nos. At first.2 Wallace Algorithm Another algorithm for multiplication of two numbers was implemented by Chris Wallace in 1964 .P2. As demonstrated in Fig.2(b).Figure 2.2. Illustration of Booth’s Algorithm 2. the partial products P1. P4 are computed. 2. . 2.2. Fig. The process continues until all the partial product terms are added to give the final result. P3.
2.n1.3 Karatsuba Algorithm Another algorithm was proposed by Anatolii Alexeevitch Karatsuba in 1960  the flow graph of which is shown in Fig.2.m1 and n0.2 Illustration of Wallace Algorithm (b) Addition of first three Partial Product Terms Figure 2.3. Initially both the multiplicand and the multiplier say m and n are divided into two equal parts m0.Fig2. Algorithm proposes evaluation of three . Illustration of Wallace Algorithm (c) Result 2.2 Illustration of Wallace Algorithm (a) Computation of Partial Products Fig2.
2.m1. u1 and u2.m2 and n0.n2. As seen in Fig. The final result is obtained following the equation mentioned in the last layer of the flow chart.m2 and n0. where numbers are divided into two parts m0. The product of m and n could be obtained from the intermediate terms.2.3.e. The base mentioned in the equation depends on the number system in which the two numbers are. They are computed as shown in Fig 2.m1 and n0.n1 similarly.n1 . which are obtained from the smaller terms m0.m1. divided in 3 equal parts m0.4 Toom-Cook Algorithm It was first described by Andrei Toom in 1963 and was implemented by Stephen Cook in 1966 in his PhD thesis. say 3. The algorithm is similar to that Karatsuba Algorithm with only one modification which is dividing the given number into multiple equal parts. i.3.n1. 2 for binary and the shift mention in the equation is half the length.n2.intermediate terms u0. numbers could be divided into multiple equal parts. . Consider two numbers m and n.
Figure 2.P2.2. As shown in Fig 2.5 Vedic Algorithm Vedic Algorithm.The working of the algorithm is similar to that of Vedic.P7.….3.C . Fig. this result is ORed with another intermediate result similar to what is pictorial representation in Fig.4 each and every bit of multiplicand and multiplier are ANDed with each other producing an intermediate result. .C. 2. specifically Urdhva Tiryagbhyam (vertical and crosswise multiplication) is one of the 16 sutras found in ancient hindu text dated back to 500B.5 illustrates evaluation of partial products as per the algorithm.P3. Final Result thus is obtained by adding each of the partial product terms by sequentially left shifting each term.6 Chinese Algorithm It finds its origin in the mathematical text Zhou Bi Suan Jing which goes back to 300B. a table is drawn whose rows and columns are .4 to produce partial products P1. Initially. Flowchart illustrating working of Karatsuba Algorithm 2.
Figure 2. these individual bits of multiplier and multiplicand are multiplied with each other to produce a result.P8 thus will be obtained by adding elements as shown in the Fig 2. Diagonal divides the cell into upper and lower triangle. The bits of multiplier and multiplicand are arranged across the table as shown in the Fig. quote the carry of result in the upper triangle and sum in the lower triangle of the corresponding cell.…. 2.5.5. The partial products P1. Illustration of Vedic Algorithm equal to the length of multiplier and multiplicand resp. Similar to Vedic algorithm these partial product terms are added to produce final result . 4. and diagonals are drawn for each cell as shown in the Fig.P2.5.2.
Array Multiplier gives more power consumption as well as optimum number of components required. it is a fast multiplier but hardware complexity is high  .5. Also. It also requires larger number of gates because of which area is also increased.Thus.Figure 2. but delay for this multiplier is smaller. n x n multiplier requires n(n-2) full adders. of m and n bits (3). n half-adders and n2 AND gates. consider two binary numbers A and B. There are mn summands that are produced in parallel by a set of mn AND gates. In array multiplier.7 Array multiplier It is an efficient layout of a combinational multiplier. due to this array multiplier is less economical  . in array multiplier worst case delay would be (2n+1) td. Multiplication of two binary number can be obtained with one micro-operation by using a combinational circuit that forms the product bit all at once thus making it a fast way of multiplying two numbers since only delay is the time for the signals to propagate through the gates that forms the multiplication array. Evaluation of Partial Products using Chinese Algorithm 2.
2.Fig.6 Array Multiplier .
their Meaning and Applications. He studied these ancient texts for years and. The need for faster processing speed is continuously driving major improvements in processor technologies. The Vedic mathematics approach is totally different and considered very close to the way a human mind works. this was collated into a book entitled Introductory Lectures on Vedic Mathematics . . history and philosophy . Bharati Krishna Tirthaji. Conventional mathematics is an integral part of engineering education since most engineering system designs are based on various mathematical approaches. after careful investigation.3 VEDIC MATHEMATICS Vedic mathematics was rediscovered from the ancient Indian scriptures between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji (1884-1960). In table 3. India. Vedic Mathematics (1965). was able to reconstruct a series of mathematical formulae called sutras. as well as the search for new algorithms. mathematics. and delivered lectures on it in London. They extended the introductory material of Bharati Krishna’s book.CHAPTER. delved into the ancient Vedic texts and established the techniques of this system in his pioneering work. A few successive trips to India by Andrew Nicholas between 1981 and 1987 renewed interest in Vedic mathematics. A great deal of research is also being carried out on how to develop more powerful and easy applications of the Vedic sutras in geometry. In 1981. The sutras of Vedic Mathematics are the software for the cosmic computer that runs this universe. took interest in this new system. According to Mahesh Yogi. including Kenneth Williams. Some British mathematicians. calculus and computing. All the leading manufacturers of microprocessors have developed their architectures to be suitable for conventional binary arithmetic methods. who was also the former Shankaracharya (major religious leader) of Puri. Andrew Nicholas and Jeremy Pickles. and scholars and teachers in India started taking it seriously. which is considered the starting point for all work on Vedic mathematics. Vedic mathematics was immediately hailed as a new alternative system of mathematics when a copy of the book reached London in the late 1960s.1 Vedic Sutra. a scholar of Sanskrit.
10. division 6. 7. partial fraction. polynomial division Cubic and forth degree eq. Transpose and adjust Division. 2. 1. Puranapuranabyham Sankalanavyavakalanabhyam Shesanyankena Charamena Shunyam Saamyasamuccaye Sopaantyadvayamantyam Urdhva-Tiryakbhyam. 5. 13. Factorization Factorization of cubic Multiplication. All from 9 and last from 10 Application Factorization Differential Calculas Integration. 16.F Recurring decimal division calculus Factor & simple eq. division Multiplication Successive differentiations. Vyashtisamanstih Yaavadunam By the completion or noncompletion By addition and by subtraction The remainders by the last digit When the sum is the same that sum is zero The ultimate and twice the penultimate Vertically and crosswise Part and Whole. 15. 3. 11. Whatever the extent of its deficiency. The product of the sum is equal to the sum of the product. their Meaning and Applications S. factorization.1 Vedic Sutra.C. 4. Sutra (Anurupye) Shunyamanyat ChalanaKalanabyham Ekadhikina Purvena Ekanyunena Purvena Gunakasamuchyah Meaning If one is in ratio. Gunitasamuchyah Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah Paraavartya Yojayet 8.Table 3. argument division Biquadratic equations Cubing 9. solution Factorization Multiplication. . the other is zero Differences and Similarities By one more than the previous One By one less than the previous one The factors of the sum are equal to the sum of the factors. H. 14. No. 12.
e.4 OBJECTIVES OF PhD WORK Objectives of my Ph. research work can be divided into five broad sections: Understanding of Vedic Approach: Ancient Indian mathematics is called as Vedic Mathematics . Shifter and Multiplier blocks will be used. Delay (27.D. A novel design is developed which is designed on Tanner EDA tool in 16nm Technology using CMOS logic family. Implementation of Convolution using Vedic Approach: Next task is to develop the very basic functional operation of an LTI system i.CHAPTER.14865 ns) is lesser than Booth and recently developed Multiplier using Vedic approach. Vedic mathematics reduces the complexity in calculations that exist in conventional mathematics. So for all these three Vedic Algorithms will be used to develop. Implementation of Vedic Multiplier: Among 16 Sutra of Vedic Mathematics only two sutras are applicable for multiplication operation. They are Urdhva Triyakbhyam sutra (literally means vertically and cross wise) and Nikhilam Sutra (literally means All from 9 and last from 10). Convolution using Vedic approach. We will try to develop finite length circular convolution for discrete time signals. . Developing the 16 X 16 Bit Vedic Multiplier using UT sutra is designed & verified. In this Adder. Power dissipation (0.1. Vedic mathematics from Vedas was first proposed by Sri Bharati Krisna Tirthaji. Applications of these Sutra are given in Table 3. after his survey on Vedas. Generally there are sixteen sutras available in Vedic mathematics.1692638 mW) is also much lesser than these multiplier.
here the primary focus will be the followings: (1) Stateof-the-art review of Vedic algorithms. So.D. This will surely be the fastest and less power consumed processor. DSP processor design using Vedic Algorithms After designing the ALU we can design FFT algorithms using Vedic Approach.ALU Design using Vedic Algorithms Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU) Design will be the next task. (2) Comparison of performance of existing Non-Vedic and Vedic Algorithm for Multipliers. We can also design a complete Digital Signal Processor on the Vedic Apprach. All logical operation can be performed using Vedic Algorithm. the preliminary parts of my research which have been covered till now are presented here. (3) Development of a Novel Design of the 16X16 bit Multiplier using Vedic Algorithm 13 . So we can design all building blocks of ALU using Vedic approach. research is at an early stage. Since my Ph.
5. RH4: For DIT FFT and DIF FFT algorithm implementation we can use matrix multiplication approaches of Vedic Mathematics. how we can implement the convolution using Vedic Algorithm? Third.1 Research Problem The following problems are of interest in the development of DSP Processor using Vedic Algorithm: First. 5. Adder using Vedic Algorithms? Second.2 Four research hypotheses: RH1: To obtain a distinctively high speed and power efficient Multiplier and Adder using Vedic Algorithm. After developing this design now we can go to design the other algorithms of DSP. how we can design an ALU using Vedic Algorithms? Fourth. RH3: To design an ALU we use remaining sutra of the Vedic Mathematics. how we can design FFT using Vedic Algorithm? Fifth. RH2: To implement convolution we have to take circular convolution because of finite length sequence it will handled. we have to design new circuits. How we can design a DSP processor using Vedic Algorithm? The division of the research problem into the five problems above defines the following 5.3 Research assumptions The general research assumption is that the Vedic algorithms provide a good performance circuitry to DSP related problems.CHAPTER -5 RESEARCH PLAN The Main challenge was to develop a new design of a Multiplier using Vedic Algorithm which can be fastest among the available Multiplier algorithms. what will be the circuitry to design a Multiplier. .
Work Plan: The work plan (activity schedule) and the time by which these are to be achieved are indicated in the form of horizontal bar chart.2. work plan (bar chart) will be as shown in figure 4. the research method involves the following: Phase 1: This phase will comprise of Literature survey. Phase 2: a) Analysis of the different Vedic algorithms for the Multiplication.4RESEARCH STRATEGY For the achievement of the above objective. . Phase 6: Results will be concluded with the help of the data.5. Selected algorithms are simulated using Tanner Tool Phase 3: Convolution using Vedic Algorithm is to be designed in this phase. Phase 4: ALU design using Vedic Algorithm is to be take place in this phase. Its performance should be optimized in this phase. b) Selection of appropriate algorithms that could improves the performance of system. Its optimizations issue should be proper handled. which may be obtained throughout these Phases of research work and will be compiled in thesis. Phase 5: FFT and Filter Design using Vedic Algorithm as well as Digital Signal Processor Design will take place in this Phase. There are six phases in the methodology.
1 -Work plan .Fig 5.
com ABSTRACT High-speed parallel multipliers are one of the keys in RISCs (Reduced Instruction Set Computers). Array multiplier. The propagation delay time of the proposed architecture is 27.6 PUBLICATION JOURNAL NAME: International Journal of Computer Application. Propagation Delay. Bathija. or wordformulas .K. According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras.17 mW. In the Vedic system difficult problems or huge sums can often be solved immediately by the Vedic method. USA. The designed 16x16 bit multiplier dissipates a power of 0. Booth Multiplier and Wallace Tree multipliers are some of the standard approaches used in implementation of binary multiplier which are suitable for VLSI implementation.com S.S. An algorithm is proposed and implemented on 16nm CMOS technology. Keywords Vedic Multiplier. CMOS Technology. A simple digital multiplier (henceforth referred to as Vedic Multiplier in short VM) architecture based on the Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and Cross wise) Sutra of Vedic Mathematics is presented. These striking and beautiful methods are just a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more . between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krisna Tirthaji (1884-1960) from the Atharva Vedas. UCE. 2012.15ns. Power Dissipation. INTRODUCTION The ancient system of Vedic Mathematics was rediscovered from the Indian Sanskrit texts known as the Vedas. Low Power high speed 16x16 bit multiplier using Vedic Mathematics R. Urdhva Tiryakbhyam. Meena. These results are many improvements over power dissipations and delays reported in literature for Vedic and Booth Multiplier. Udaipur. Kolkatta firstname.lastname@example.org R. GITS. Sarkar Jadhavpur University. and graphics accelerators and so on.rajesh@gmail. suharsh. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. RTU. An improved technique for low power and high speed multiplier of two binary numbers (16 bit each) is developed.KOTA rssmeena@gmail. PUBLICATION YEAR: December18.CHAPTER. DSPs (Digital Signal Processors). 1.
be it arithmetic. geometry trigonometry. It’s a unique technique of calculations based on simple principles and rules . steps of multiplication. algebra. or even calculus can be solved mentally. These results are improvements over power dissipations and delays reported in literature for Vedic and Booth Multiplier. In section 3 design of the 16x16 bit multiplier with the basic building blocks like 2x2 bit Multiplication. 4x4 bit multiplication. Two binary numbers (16-bit each) are multiplied with this Sutra. with which any mathematical problem . Vedic Mathematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary.17 mW.systematic than the modern system. & propagation delay of the proposed architecture is 27. with the description of the Sutra. Table (1): Comparison of Different Conventional Multipliers Parameter Array Multiplier Operation Speed Time Delay Area Less More Maximum area because it uses large number of Complexity Power Consumption FPGA implementation Adders Less complex Most Less efficient a Wallace Tree Multiplier High Medium Medium area because Wallace Tree used to reduce Operands More complex More Not efficient Booth’s Multipli Highest Less Minimum because adder/sub is small/ Most com Less Most effi In the section 2 introduction of the method will be discuss. direct and easy. In this paper a simple 16 bit digital multiplier is proposed which is based on Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically Crosswise) Sutra of the Vedic Maths. Array multiplier. 8x8 bit multiplication. In section 5 we conclude. In section 4 we state the comparison of different multiplier. Booth Multiplier and Wallace Tree multipliers are some of the standard approaches used in implementation of binary multiplier which are suitable for VLSI implementation. . The potential of this method is that the power dissipation of this circuit is 0.15ns.
1 suitable design for the requirement. 2. Latency is a measure of how long the inputs to a device are stable until the final result available on outputs.2. which is the method of multiplication followed.3 Description of Sutra This is the general formula applicable to all cases of multiplication . Throughput is the measure of how many multiplications can be performed in a given period of time. area. and design complexity are the important factors to choose a 2. Introduction to Proposed Technique Design Factors of Multiplication: Latency. Urdhva Tiryakbhyam means “Vertically and Crosswise”. throughput. Illustration: Figure (1): Multiplication of two decimal numbers by Urdhava Tiryakbhyam Sutra  . The Sutra which we employ in this project is Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Multiplication) 2.2 Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra The basic Sutras and Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra in the Vedic Mathematics helps to do almost all the numeric computations in easy and fast manner .
. 3.51 nsec. Power dissipation of this multiplier is 23.1 In the design of the proposed Vedic multiplier a 2×2 block is a fundamental block (Basic block) is shown in fig 3.Figure (2): Line diagram for multiplication of two 4 – bit numbers . We know that in binary multiplication basically we AND each two bits in 2-input AND gate.2 µW and propagation delay is 1. First off all vertical bits (LSBs) are ANDed this will result in the LSB of the result. Also symbol of this fundamental block is shown to be used in 4 x 4 bit Multiplier. 62 transistors are used in this design. The waveforms of input and output of 2-bit multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra  of Vedic mathematics is shown in figure 4. Than we and crosswise bits and then result is added using a half adder. The sum output of the half adder is the next bit of the result right to the LSB. The carry of this adder is the MSB of the result. The carry output is also added in half adder with the AND output of the MSBs. Design of the 16x16 Multiplier The Fundamental Block (2×2 block) 3.
The first step in the design of 4×4 block will be grouping the 2 bit of each 4 bit input. The partial products represent the Urdhva vertical and cross product terms. Each input bit-pair is handled by a separate 2×2 Vedic the schematic of a 4×4 block designed using 2×2 blocks.Figure (3): 2-Bit multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra & its symbol Figure (4): Input Output waveforms of 2x2 Bit multiplier 3. Then using or and half adder assembly to find the final product. Power dissipation of this multiplier is 0.18 mW and propagation delay is 1.71 nsec. 618 transistors are used in this design . These pair terms will form vertical and crosswise product terms.2 Design of 4×4 block The design of 4×4 block shown in fig (5) is a simple arrangement of 2×2 blocks in an optimized manner.
The partial products represent the Urdhva vertical and cross product terms. Each input bitquadruple is handled by a separate 4×4 Vedic multiplier to produce eight partial product rows. These partial products rows are then added in an 8-bit carry look ahead adder optimally to generate final product bits. These quadruple terms will form vertical and crosswise product terms.3 Design of 8×8 block The design of 8×8 block is a similar arrangement of 4×4 blocks in an optimized manner as in figure 3. .72 nsec. Power dissipation of this multiplier is 0. The first step in the design of 8×8 block will be grouping the 4 bit (nibble) of each 8 bit input.Figure (5): 4-Bit multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra & its symbol 3. Then using or and half adder assembly to find the final product.035mW and propagation delay is 1. The figure (6) shows the schematic of an 8×8 block designed using 4×4 blocks. 3222 transistors are used in this design.
4 Design of a 16×16 Multiplier The design of 16×16 block is a similar arrangement of 8×8 blocks in an optimized manner as in figure (7). The first step in the design of 16×16 block will be grouping the 8 bit (byte) of each 16 .Figure (6): 8-Bit multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra & its symbol Figure (7): 16-Bit multiplier using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam Sutra & its symbol 3.
The Comparison between proposed multiplier and Booth radix-4 multiplier and the multiplier in  is shown in table (2). Each input byte is handled by a separate 8×8 Vedic multiplier to produce sixteen partial product rows. Table (2): Table of design comparison of Multipliers S. CONCLUSION The proposed Vedic multiplier (discussed in section 3) is simulated using Tanner Tool v14. The figure 5 shows the schematic of a 16×16 block designed using 8×8 blocks. These lower and upper bytes pairs of two inputs will form vertical and crosswise product terms.740 151. As from the table this multiplier helps in future to make fast processors. Then using or and half adder assembly to find the final product. The partial products represent the Urdhva vertical  and cross product terms. Power dissipation  of this multiplier is 0. of Transistors used of Paper design  Booth algorithm 46.1692638 14382 37. 618 transistors are used in this design.71 nsec.18 mW and propagation delay is 1.34 4299 .1.bit input.14865 0. 1 2 3 Parameters Comparison Delay ( n sec) Power Dissipation (m Watts) No. Schematic from S Edit is shown in figure (8). These partial products rows are then added in a 16-bit carry look ahead adder optimally to generate final product bits.34 7296 Proposed design 27. 4.668 29.No.
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4. 2. Nature of Work No.CHAPETR. 1. 5.7 FUTURE PLANNING The development of different circuitry design will take place in following order: S. 3. Duration Multiplier using (UT Sutra) Multiplier using (Nikhilam Sutra) Convolution ALU design DSP design 4 Month 2 Month 2Month 3 Month 4 Month Completed (C)/ Under Process (UP) / To be developed (TD) C UP TD TD TD .
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