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The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals

Sixth edition
O.C. Zienkiewicz, CBE, FRS
UNESCO Professor of Numerical Methods in Engineering International Centre for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Barcelona Previously Director of the Institute for Numerical Methods in Engineering University of Wales, Swansea

R.L. Taylor
Professor in the Graduate School Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, California

J.Z. Zhu
Senior Scientist ESI US R & D Inc. 5850 Waterloo Road, Suite 140 Columbia, Maryland

AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 30 Corporate Drive, Burlington, MA 01803 First published in 1967 by McGraw-Hill Fifth edition published by Butterworth-Heinemann 2000 Reprinted 2002 Sixth edition 2005 Copyright c 2000, 2005. O.C. Zienkiewicz, R.L. Taylor and J.Z. Zhu. All rights reserved The rights of O.C. Zienkiewicz, R.L. Taylor and J.Z. Zhu to be identied as the authors of this work have been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90, Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holders written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions @ elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage (http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting Customer Support and then Obtaining Permissions

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress ISBN 0 7506 6320 0 Published with the cooperation of CIMNE, the International Centre for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Barcelona, Spain (www.cimne.upc.es) For information on all Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann publications visit our website at http://books.elsevier.com Typeset by Kolam Information Services P Ltd, Pondicherry, India

Dedication

This book is dedicated to our wives Helen, Mary Lou and Song and our families for their support and patience during the preparation of this book, and also to all of our students and colleagues who over the years have contributed to our knowledge of the nite element method. In particular we would like to mention Professor Eugenio Onate and his group at CIMNE for their help, encouragement and support during the preparation process.