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1889: Article IX of the Washington State Constitution states, “It is the paramount duty of the state to make ample provision for the education of all children residing within its borders…” 1975: The Seattle School District suffers a double levy failure in an attempt to raise money to pay for its state-mandated education program. The school district sues the state for failing to provide ample funding under the state constitution. 1970 1978: The State Supreme Court upholds Judge Robert Doran's decision, ruling that funding basic education with levy dollars violates the state's constitution, but that schools may rely on levies to fund programs that serve as an "enrichment" to public education. 1982: A group of school districts ﬁle a lawsuit following up on the Seattle School District suit, challenging the constitutionality of the Basic Education Act and funding provided to schools in the 1981-1983 biennium. 1980 1991: Gov. Booth Gardner signs an executive order creating the Governor's Council on Education Reform and Funding. The council was asked to design a new system of education that would meet the requirements of the state constitution and the funding to put the system into place. 1992: The Legislature creates the Commission on Student Learning to continue the work of the governor's council. Gardner 1990 1997: Commission on Student Learning develops the WASL. 2001: Voters pass Initiative 728, providing school districts additional money to reduce class sizes, and Initiative 732, providing cost-ofliving increases to all school district employees. Gregiore 2000 2005: The Legislature commissions a comprehensive study of the entire state education system, called Washington Learns, and speciﬁes that a central piece would be a comprehensive K-12 ﬁnance study. The study concludes that the 30-year-old formula set out in the Basic Education Act needed to be updated. The report also said that signiﬁcantly increased funding was required to support the needs of the education system. 2009: King County Superior Court Judge John P. Erlick hears the case, McCleary v. State of Washington. 2010: Erlick ﬁnds in favor of the plaintiffs, saying the state is out of compliance with its constitutional duty. The state ﬁles notice of appeal. 2010
1977: Judge Robert Doran of the Thurston County Superior Court agrees with the Seattle School District and declared the state's funding system unconstitutional. The state appeals. 1977: The Legislature enacts the Washington Basic Education Act of1977, which outlined the goal of the school system, the instructional program to achieve the goal, and the funding formula to implement the program. 1977: The Legislature passes the Levy Lid Act of 1977, capping levy funding at 10 percent of the school district's annual budget. Act is amended in 2009 to raise the levy lid to 24 percent of a district's levy base, and in 2010 to 28 percent. Doran
1983: Judge Doran again rules that the state is not meeting its obligation to fully fund education and that it is the state’s responsibility to also pay for special education, bilingual education, remedial assistance and transportation. State does not appeal the decision.
1993: The Legislature passes the Education Reform Act, which created performancebased standards for basic education. The act required high school students to pass a test to graduate proving they met new standards. Education advocates say the act failed to restructure state funding system to pay the increased cost of providing education necessary to meet those standards. 1993: The Legislature creates a joint legislative ﬁscal committee to study school funding and make recommendations for a new funding model. The Basic Education Act is amended to incorporate new learning standards and education improvement programs.
1995: The committee submits its report, concluding that while a high percentage of overall funding came from the state, there was too much reliance on levies. No major funding reforms occurred.
2001-03 Biennium State Total General Fund Expenditures: $24,482,077,000
2007: In response to Washington Learns, the Legislature implemented funding for voluntary all-day kindergarten, beginning with schools with the highest level of poverty. 2007: The Legislature commissions the Basic Education Task Force to pick up where Washington Learns left off. Task force report recommends deﬁning "basic education" as the opportunity for all students to meet more rigorous high school graduation requirements. 2007: The Network for Excellence in Washington Schools and two families ﬁle a lawsuit alleging that the state is violating the state constitution by failing to adequately fund education.
Jan. 5, 2012: The state Supreme Court upholds the trial court's decision, saying "the state's reliance on local dollars to support the basic education program fails to provide the 'ample funding'" the state constitution requires. The court in its ruling commits to monitoring the Legislature’s progress in providing ample funding by 2018.
2011-13 Biennium State Total General Fund Expenditures: $31,024,211,000
State K-12 Expenditures: $10,242,272,000
State K-12 Expenditures: $13,647,198,000
tate lawmakers will undertake the task this session of complying with the state Supreme Court's order in
McCleary v. State of Washington to provide ample funding for basic education. For a full understanding of the history of school funding leading up to the decision in McClearly, follow the timeline above. Below, see the guidelines for ramping up funding to the four areas targeted for enhanced funding and proposals by Democrats and Republicans for meeting those targets. To the right, you will ﬁnd the costs associated with running each school district and the amount the state contributes. You can see the average amount households in each school districts pay for local levies and the percent of the median income. Finally, on the right, see the breakdown of funding that comes per pupil in each of the local districts.
The basics of
Finance − per pupil general fund revenue and percent of total general fund revenue by source.
LOCAL FEDERAL STATE OTHER
Bainbridge Island School District
McCLEARY REFORMS SPANNING THE DEMOCRATIC AND REPUBLICAN PLANS
McCleary requires the state to phase in funding increases in four areas through 2018. Full-day kindergarten Must be fully funded statewide by 2017-18 K-3 class size reduction Must be fully funded statewide by 2017-18 Maintenance, supplies, operation costs Must be fully funded by 2015-16 $ per student basis Basic transportation Must be fully funded by 2014-15 % of formula funded basis 2010-11 219 schools 2011-12 More funding can begin More funding can begin More funding can begin More funding can begin 2012-13 More funding must begin More funding must begin More funding must begin More funding must begin 2013-14 Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up 2014-15 Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Fully funded 2015-16 Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Funded at new level Fully funded 2016-17 Continues to ramp up Continues to ramp up Funded at new level Fully funded 2017-18 Fully funded Fully funded Funded at new level Fully funded
Figures in millions State funding to school district* Actual school district cost* Bainbridge Island (Enrollment: 3,657) Percentage of local funding Bremerton School District 23.6%
Bremerton (Enrollment: 4,828)
Central Kitsap (Enrollment: 10,853)
■ Prioritizes enhanced funding of
■ GOP "fund education ﬁrst" plan
transportation and operating costs (materials, supplies and operating costs or MSOC). Yearly increased costs of materials, fuel and utilities have contributed heavily to districts' reliance on local levy funding to balance budgets, school ofﬁcials say. sizes and full-day kindergarten are phased in over six years.
■ Includes "add ons" not required by
■ Enhancements for reduced class
education reform legislation or McCleary but determined by those who drafted the plan to be important. These include increased instructional hours (Career and College Readiness), classiﬁed and administrative salary increases, and funding to help the state better track districts' accountability and student evaluation. ■ Tax revenue proposals include
maintaining some taxes set to expire, eliminating some tax exemptions and adding an excise tax on capital gains. ■ Proposes transfer of all or part of school transportation costs to the state's transportation budget. ■ Proposes revisions to property tax formulas, including a "swap" that would use state's school levy to replace a portion of local levy funds. ■ Taps state's "rainy day fund." 2015-17 Biennium $225.1 1,410.9 662.8 227.4 327.6 450.2 44.5 3,348.5 2017-19 Biennium $232.8 1,554.7 1,150.6 318.7 473.4 681.5 42.0 4,483.7
Dollars in millions
moves basic education to a "stand alone" budget within the state's general fund. Under the plan, the Legislature would draft the education budget ﬁrst and separate from other state services. Any discussion of cuts or tax increases would apply to the remainder of the state's budget, hence the GOP claim that McCleary can be fully funded without tax hikes.
■ Prioritizes full-day kindergarten
(with "enhancements" called for under McCleary funded at 100 percent in 2013-15 biennium) and reduction in class sizes (50 percent funded in ﬁrst biennium). ■ State spending on education increases $3.5 billion per biennium by 2018, McCleary deadline. K-12 increases from 44 percent to 51 percent of state GF budget*. 2013-2015
■ No tax hikes proposed for 2013-15
biennium (applies to entire state budget). ■ Assumes economic recovery secure some time in 2015-17 biennium.
*Under hypothetical modeling that assumes all else stays static, factors in projected case loads and adjusts for projected inﬂation.
North Kitsap (Enrollment: 6,085)
Central Kitsap School District 9.9% .1%
North Mason (Enrollment: 2,017) 2017-2019
North Kitsap School District
DEMOCRATS SPENDING PLAN
Fully fund revised tranportation formula Materials, supplies & operating costs Reduce K-3 class sizes to 17 pupils/teacher Implement full-day kindergarten statewide Implement career & college ready plan Classiﬁed & administrative salary allocations Accountability, evaluation & common core TOTAL
2013-15 Biennium $141.6 $597.1 219.2 89.3 140.4 169.8 66.5 1,423.9
REPUBLICANS SPENDING PLAN
2015-2017 $349 million $1.15 billion $777 million
South Kitsap (Enrollment: 9,328)
Full day kindergarten Decreased class sizes Materials, supplies, operating costs Transportation Increased instructional hours Total:
$349 million $575 million
$349 million $1.15 billion $1.56 billion $232 million $211 million $3.50 billion
Note: Amounts may vary depending on the phase-in of the components
COST PER HOUSEHOLD
Average education local levy burden per household for each school district. (Percentage of median household income/local levies). 21.3%
BAINBRIDGE ISLAND SCHOOL DISTRICT Special M&O Levy Four years $8,705,221 $1.68 2014 Maintenance and operations Capital Bond 20 years $7,100,000 $1.37 2029 Replace Wilkes Elementary, rooﬁng and other repairs at other schools. Technology Levy Four years $1,525,000 $0.29 2014 Computer and technology replacements. BREMERTON SCHOOL DISTRICT Special M&O Levy Four years $10,789,179 $3.60 2014 Maintenance and operations. Capital project Bond* 20 years $3,850,000 $1.29 2026 Construction bond for major work at Mountain View Middle School and Bremerton High. Facilities Capital Projects Levy Four years 1,900,000 $0.63 2016 New kitchen, school expansion, roof repair.
*(2005, May 17)
Duration: Total amount 2013: Rate: Final year: Purpose: Duration: Total amount 2013: Rate: Final year: Purpose:
NORTH KITSAP SCHOOL DISTRICT M&O Levy Four years $14,326,167 $2.51 2014 Maintenance and operations. Capital Improvement Bond 20 $8,533,000 $1.49 2022 Renovations at three elementary schools, Poulslbo Jr. High, North Kitsap High, the pool and a new high school in Kingston.
CENTRAL KITSAP SCHOOL DISTRICT Special Supplemental M&O Levy Two years $22,342,836 $3.71 2014 Maintenance and operations. Capital Facilities Project Levy Five years $11,278,500 $1.87 2016 School repairs, Silverdale Elementary remodel and Jackson Park Elementary replacement.
NORTH MASON SCHOOL DISTRICT M&O Levy Four years $3,908,213 $1.95 2016 Maintenance and operations. Capital Projects Levy Four years $889,382 $0.44 2013 Replace boilers and ﬁx leaky walls throughout district schools.
SOUTH KITSAP SCHOOL DISTRICT M&O Levy Four years $19,009,922 $2.91 2013 Maintenance and operations.
North Mason School District
$1,230.73 $968.34 $772.07
(1.78%) (1.53%) (1.84%)
Duration: Total amount 2013: Rate: Final year: Purpose:
South Kitsap School District
Sources: Joint Task Force on Education Funding Final Report; State Rep. Gary Alexander; Bremerton School District; Kitsap County Assessor’s Ofﬁce; Kitsap, Mason school districts; U.S. Census, Kitsap County Assessor’s Ofﬁce; Ofﬁce of the Superintendent of Public Instruction; McCleary v. State of Washington